Protection functions

List of functions

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The main protection functions are listed with a brief definition in the table below. They are listed in numerical order by ANSI C37.2 code. ANSI code 12 14 21 21B 24 25 26 27 27D 27R 27TN 32P 32Q 37 37P 37Q 38 40 46 47 48 - 51LR 49 49T 50 50BF 50N or 50G 50V 50/27 51 51N or 51G 51V 59 59N 63 64REF 64G 66 67 67N/67NC 78 78PS 79 81H 81L 81R 87B 87G 87L 87M 87T Name of function
Overspeed Underspeed Distance protection Underimpedance Flux control Synchro-check Thermostat Undervoltage Positive sequence undervoltage Remanent undervoltage Third harmonic undervoltage Directional active overpower Directional reactive overpower Phase undercurrent Directional active underpower Directional reactive underpower Bearing temperature monitoring Field loss Negative sequence / unbalance Negative sequence overvoltage Excessive starting time and locked rotor Thermal overload RTDs Instantaneous phase overcurrent Breaker failure Instantaneous earth fault

Definition
Detection of rotating machine overspeed Detection of rotating machine underspeed Impedance measurement detection Back-up phase-to-phase short-circuit protection for generators Overfluxing check Check before paralleling two parts of the power system Protection against overloads Protection for control of voltage sags Protection of motors against operation with insufficient voltage Check on the disappearance of voltage sustained by rotating machines after the power supply is disconnected Detection of stator winding insulation earth faults (impedant neutral) Protection against active overpower transfer Protection against reactive overpower transfer 3-phase protection against undercurrent Protection against active underpower transfer Protection against reactive underpower transfer Protection against overheating of rotating machine bearings Protection of synchronous machines against faults or field loss Protection against unbalanced phase current Negative sequence voltage protection and detection of reverse rotation of rotating machines Protection of motors against starting with overloads or reduced voltage, and for loads that can block Protection against overloads Protection against overheating of machine windings 3-phase protection against short-circuits Checking and protection if the circuit breaker fails to trip after a tripping order Protection against earth faults: 50N: residual current calculated or measured by 3 CTs 50G: residual current measured directly by a single sensor (CT or core balance CT) 3-phase protection against short-circuits with voltage-dependent threshold Detection of inadvertent generator energization 3-phase protection against overloads and short-circuits Protection against earth faults: 51N: residual current calculated or measured by 3 CTs 51G: residual current measured directly by a single sensor (CT or core balance CT) 3-phase protection against short-circuits with voltage-dependent threshold Protection against excessive voltage or sufficient voltage detection Insulation fault protection Detection of transformer internal faults (gas, pressure) Earth fault protection for star-connected 3-phase windings with earthed neutral Detection of stator winding insulation earth faults (impedant neutral power systems) Protection function that monitors the number of motor starts 3-phase short-circuit protection according to current flow direction Earth fault protection depending on current flow direction (NC: Neutral compensated) Vector shift disconnection protection Detection of loss of synchronization of synchronous machines Automated device that recloses the circuit breaker after transient line fault tripping Protection against abnormally high frequency Protection against abnormally low frequency Protection for fast disconnection of two parts of the power system 3-phase protection against busbar internal faults 3-phase protection against internal faults in AC generators 3-phase protection against line internal faults 3-phase protection against internal faults in motors 3-phase protection against internal faults in transformers

Instantaneous voltage-restrained phase overcurrent Inadvertent generator energization Delayed phase overcurrent Delayed earth fault

Delayed voltage-restrained phase overcurrent Overvoltage Neutral voltage displacement Pressure Restricted earth fault differential 100% generator stator earth fault Successive starts Directional phase overcurrent Directional earth fault Vector shift Pole slip Recloser Overfrequency Underfrequency Rate of change of frequency (ROCOF) Busbar differential Generator differential Line differential Motor differential Transformer differential

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