Bridging Insula Europae Finland National Research

Bridging Insula Europae 134214-LLP-1-2007-1-IT-COMENIUS-CMP This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This publication reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein

Project Bridging Insula Europae

The task of Euneos was to investigate ODL limitations and barriers. As this was the main step of the project research phase and for this reason, we formed a focus group of nine teachers to be held both on-line and in person. Seven teachers were chosen from Vihti upper secondary, and two from other schools. The selection included teachers of different subjects and with different ICT skills levels. Those two teachers who were not from Vihti school represented teachers with more experience of ODL. The main aim of the focus group was to single out barriers, limitations and negative aspects of ODL systems. The Vihti upper secondary school was chosen as the main target school of interviews, because the school represented a mainstream upper secondary school in Finland with about 550 students, and because it was possible to contact teachers also face-to-face over there. Fastwrite interviews in August 2008 The interviews were carried using fastwrite questionnaires especially designed for this purpose. They were put into practice in late August 2008, after the Finnish teachers came back to schools from their 10 weeks summer holidays to start the new school-year 2008-09. The online interviews were complemented with face-to-face and phone contacts. Various subjects Eight female teachers and one male teacher were interviewed. The age range of their students was from 16 to 19 years in 8 cases, and from 7 to 12 years in one case. The subjects included English (3), French (1), German (1), Swedish (1), chemistry (1), mathematics (1) and physical education (1). Their experiences with educational ICT were for 0 – 1 year (2), 2 - 3 years (2), 4 – 5 years(1), 6 – 7 years (2) and for 10 or more years (2). General attitude: positive Two teachers said that their attitude to eLearning was very positive, one said that her attitude was neutral and six teachers described their attitudes as positive. Their use of the Internet was from 0 to 1 hour a week in 6 cases, from 2 to 3 hours a week in one case and from 4 – 5 hours a week in one case. One of the interviewed was on her maternity leave, and had currently no lessons. ODL not involved in curriculum The eLearning was involved in the curriculum to a large extent only in the case of primary education (7 – 12 years). The two teachers who had the longest experience of educational ICT

said that eLearning had been integrated into the curriculum of their subject to some extent. Others said it was integrated to a small or to a very small extent. Not much utilization of ODL Two of the teachers said that they adopted eLearning very much or a lot in her teaching. Four teachers adopted it moderately, or a little, and three teachers had adopted eLearning very little. The teachers who adopted eLearning more performed many different kind of activities n the Internet with their students, such as browsing web pages, searching Internet resources, making partner projects, having email correspondence, taking part in forum discussions, using text chat or messaging and participating in live online sessions. Those who only adopted eLearning a little were mostly satisfied with searching web resources. Systematic promotion would motivate The interviewed teachers were asked to choose up to three things that motivated them most in eLearning. The most active teacher found her best motivation in the following: systematic promotion of eLearning at school, enthusiasm of students and internationalization. Development of materials and facilities was also an important motivating factor for the teachers who were more active in eLearning. Instead, teacher-in-service training was often chosen as one of the most motivating things among the teachers who were less active in eLearning. More training needed There was a lot of distribution in opinions of the teachers concerning the equipment, even inside the same school. Some said there were enough computers, while others thought the opposite. The more experienced teachers emphasized the need of teacher-in-service training in their opinions. Rapid or slow growth of ODL? Five teachers thought that the future role of eLearning will increase rapidly, whereas three of them said the development will be slow. One of the teachers thought that eLearning will stay as it is, not to be decreased or increased.

Supplements

There are more detailed in the answers of the interviewed teachers in supplements of this summary of investigation. 1) My personal views on eLearning/ODL, 9 answers of Finnish teachers in English, document in .doc and .rtf 2) Henkilökohtaisia mielipiteitäni e-oppimisesta/verkko-opiskelusta, 9 suomalaisen

opettajan vastaukset suomeksi, asiakirja .doc ja .rtf -muodoissa 3) Summary of the answers of 9 Finnish teachers about their views on eLearning/ODL, .xls file and .ods files

ODL Barriers and limitations in Open Distance Learning (e-learning) Some questions about the availability of hardware • Does the majority of the students have access to a computer with an internet connection at home? • Do students have access to internet sites in some classes at school? Questions about a content management system (ele / electronic learning environment). Does your school make use of a content management system (e.g. Moodle, Pedanet, It’s learning)? In what way do teachers use this system? • They insert instructions and subject related content • They present tests • They present extra exercises

• •

They use e-learning materials made available by the publishing firms as additional material to the textbooks Otherwise

In what way do students make use of it? • Students put completed assignments on the site • Students are able to communicate with each other on the site (forum) and as a peer group they can see each other’s assignments • Students work on a project and put the final products on the site • Students keep a portfolio Communication between student and teacher / feed back by teacher Does the teacher make use of e-mail when communicating with students? Does the teacher use other tools to communicate with students? What are the most important barriers Teachers Insufficient adequate materials are put at their disposal by the publishing firms The teacher has a lack of technical know-how as regards the use of the environment The teacher doesn’t have enough time to attend training sessions The teacher doesn’t have enough time nor the required experience to develop materials himself There isn’t enough time during classes The command of the use of ele is not assessed in exams Only a few teachers make use of the environment The school management does not support it Students The students have no technical training The students prefer face-to-face instructions to e-learning The students don’t see the extra value
My comments in general: - didactical issues first, because they are the real stumbling stone! - technological issues second; e.g. the ICT capacity of Finnish schools is not used to its full potential, possibly 10 % of it has been taken into real use Some comments on details. Please take or leave ;-): - is there a critical mass of teachers in schools to put the reform into effect? - have female teachers got enough time for didactic training, which they need due to their double role in families (work in school, work at home)? - do teachers/schools get active support or guidance in educational ICT from the universities? - do teachers/schools get active support in educational ICT from the maintainer of the school? - are the maintainer of the school competent enough in the matters of educational ICT? - is eLearning integrated in a really functional way into curricula? - do teachers/students consider eLearning an important component of teaching? - is there anyone who motivates teachers to implement eLearning into their teaching? - is there any systematic promotion of eLearning in school? - are teachers able to see eLearning in a larger context of global development?

-putting international dimension into teaching - parents, school and homes - net connections

- vastaajatiedot

ODL Barriers and limitations in Open Distance Learning (e-learning) A. Didactic challenges of teachers concerning your own school 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) the attitudes to educational ICT and to eLearning are positive eLearning is integrated in a really functional way into curricula project-based eLearning is implemented in teaching and learning processes the command of the use of eLearning is assessed and evaluated in exams there is enough time for training in educational ICT and in eLearning female teachers have enough time for changing over to eLearning in spite of their double work load at school and at home 7) teachers get active support and guidance in eLearning from the school management 8) there is systematic promotion and development of educational ICT and eLearning 9) there is a crucial number of teachers in schools to put eLearning into effect 10) international dimension is implemented in schools by means of eLearning 11) there is more interaction between schools and families thanks to educational ICT 12) authorities and school boards know how to stimulate teachers in matters of educational ICT and eLearning 13) teachers know how to use multimedia applications of WWW 14) teachers have enough time and experience to develop materials of their own; adequate materials are put at their disposal by the publishing houses 15) there is enough time for eLearning during classes B. Technological challenges concerning your own school I Technological opportunities : 1) teachers have sufficient technical know-how as regards the use of the Internet 2) teachers make use of learning environments teachers make use of e-mail when communicating with students and homes 3) teachers use other tools (learning environment, SMS, skype etc.) to communicate with students and families 4) teachers have access to a computer with an Internet connection at home 5) students have sufficient knowledge about educational ICT and eLearning II Network of school: 6) teachers have access to computers in their lessons 7) the school network is open to all applications needed in teaching and learning 8) the school network provides sufficient user rights for teachers 9) enough computers are available to teachers 10) enough computers are available to students 11) there are enough computers in class-rooms 12) there are enough video projectors for class-rooms

13) the Internet connections are good enough

III Teachers’ use of learning platforms: 14) teachers can use a learning platform (e.g. Moodle, OPIT, Fronter, Pedanet etc. ) 15) teachers insert instructions and subject related content 16) teachers present tests 17) teachers present extra exercises 18) teachers use eLearning material of publishing houses as additional material to the books 19) teachers use eLearning materials replacing books IV Students’ use of learning platforms: 20) students put completed assignments on the site 21) students are able to communicate with each other on the site (forum) and as a peer group they can see each other’s assignments 22) students work on a project and put the final products on the site 23) students keep a portfolio

Henkilökohtaisia mielipiteitä verkko-oppimisesta (eLearning) My personal views on eLearning 01 Name: 02 Gender: 03 School: 04 Email: Pirjo Saarinen (my name must not be mentioned when publishing results) female Vihti upper secondary school pirjo.saarinen@vihti.fi

05 Subject(s) I teach: chemistry 06 Age range of my main student groups: 16 – 19 yrs Personally, I have used the Internet for 2- 3 years. My attitude to eLearning is positive. eLearning has been integrated into the curriculum of my subject only a little. I have adopted opportunities of educational ICT very little in my own teaching. I work in the Internet for about 0-1 hour a week with my students. The Internet activity I have included in my teaching is searching Internet resources. The matters that give me the best motivation for my own eLearning are teacher-in-service training, support and encouragement of the school management and development of materials and facilities. There is really little of ICT training, or no money for training.

This is what I can say about learning technology made available to me in my school: There are enough computers with Internet access in my school. The school network allows me to do all I want to do on the Internet, and the equipment of my school favors introducing eLearning. I think the future role of eLearning will stay as it is today when the entire learning processes are concerned.

Henkilökohtaisesti olen käyttänyt verkkoa 2-3 vuotta. Oma suhtautumiseni verkko-oppimiseen on myönteinen. Verkko-oppiminen on otettu vähäisessä määrin huomioon ensisijaisesti opettamani aineen opetussuunnitelmassa. Omassa opetuksessani käytän verkko-oppimisen mahdollisuuksia erittäin vähän. Työskentelen oppilaideni kanssa viikottain keskimäärin 0-1 oppitunnilla verkossa. Aktiviteetteja, joita teemme verkossa, ovat tiedonhaku internetistä. Eniten minua kannustavat verkko-oppimiseen seuraavat tekijät: opettajien täydennyskoulutus, koulun johdon tuki ja kannustus, materiaalien ja välineistön kehitys. Koulutusta on todella heikosti tai siihen ei ole varaa. Kouluni varustelusta verkko-oppimista ajatellen voin todeta seuraavia asioita: Koulussani on riittävästi verkkoyhteyksin varustettuja tietokoneita. Kouluni verkko mahdollistaa kaiken, minkä haluan tehdä verkossa. Kouluni varustelu suosii verkko-oppimista. Uskoakseni verkko-oppimisen osuus koko oppimisessa pysyy nykyisellään. Nimeäni ei saa mainita haastattelujen tuloksia julkaistaessa. 01 Name: 02 Gender: 03 School: 04 Email: Tuula Jantunen (my name must not be mentioned when publishing results) female Vihti upper secondary school tuula.jantunen@vihti.fi

05 Subject(s) I teach: English 06 Age range of my main student groups: 16 – 19 yrs Personally, I have used the Internet for 10 years or more. My attitude to eLearning is positive. eLearning has been integrated into the curriculum of my subject to some extent. I have adopted opportunities of educational ICT in my own teaching a little. I work in the Internet for about 0-1 hour a week with my students. The activities I have included in my teaching is making grammar and other online exercises. The matters that give me the best motivation for my own eLearning are, as follows: eLearning is assessed and evaluated in exams, teacher-in-service training and more time for adopting eLearning. There is not enough time to do everything. This is what I can say about learning technology made available to me in my school: The school

network allows me to do all I want to do on the Internet, but there are not enough computers so as to take them easily into use. There are enough computers with Internet access in my school. I think the future role of eLearning will increase slowly. . Olen naisopettaja ja kouluni on Vihdin lukio. Ensisijainen opetusaineeni on englanti. Oppilaani ovat iältään 16-19. Henkilökohtaisesti olen käyttänyt verkkoa 10 vuotta tai enemmän. Oma suhtautumiseni verkko-oppimiseen on myönteinen. Verkko-oppiminen on otettu jossakin määrin huomioon ensisijaisesti opettamani aineen opetussuunnitelmassa. Omassa opetuksessani käytän verkko-oppimisen mahdollisuuksia vähän. Työskentelen oppilaideni kanssa viikottain keskimäärin 0-1 oppitunnilla verkossa. Aktiviteetteja, joita teemme verkossa, ovat kielioppi- ym harjoituksia verkossa. Eniten minua kannustavat verkko-oppimiseen seuraavat tekijät: verkko-oppimista arvioidaan kokeissa ja siitä annetaan numero, opettajien täydennyskoulutus, enemmän aikaa verkko-oppimiselle. Aika ei riitä kaikkeen. Kouluni varustelusta verkko-oppimista ajatellen voin todeta seuraavia asioita: Kouluni verkko mahdollistaa kaiken, minkä haluan tehdä verkossa. Tietokoneita ei ole tarpeeksi, jotta niiden käyttöönotto olisi vaivatonta. Uskoakseni verkko-oppimisen osuus koko oppimisessa kasvaa hitaasti. Nimeäni ei saa mainita haastattelujen tuloksia julkaistaessa 01 Name: 02 Gender: 03 School: 04 Email: Iina Levàn (my name can be mentioned when publishing results) female Vihti upper secondary school iina.levan@vihti.fi

05 Subject(s) I teach: French 06 Age range of my main student groups: 16 – 19 yrs Personally, I have used the Internet for 10 years or more. My attitude to eLearning is positive. eLearning has been integrated into the curriculum of my subject to some extent. I have adopted opportunities of educational ICT moderately in my own teaching. I work in the Internet for about 01 hour a week with my students. The Internet activities I have included in my teaching are browsing web pages, searching Internet resources and email correspondence. The matters that give me the best motivation for my own eLearning are teacher-in-service training, systematic promotion of eLearning at school and putting the international dimension into learning processes. I think the future role of eLearning will increase rapidly. Nimeni on Iina Leván. Olen naisopettaja ja kouluni on Vihdin lukio. Ensisijainen

opetusaineeni on ranska. Oppilaani ovat iältään 16-19. Henkilökohtaisesti olen käyttänyt verkkoa 10 vuotta tai enemmän. Oma suhtautumiseni verkko-oppimiseen on myönteinen. Verkko-oppiminen on otettu jossakin määrin huomioon ensisijaisesti opettamani aineen opetussuunnitelmassa. Omassa opetuksessani käytän verkko-oppimisen mahdollisuuksia jonkin verran. Työskentelen oppilaideni kanssa viikottain keskimäärin 0-1 oppitunnilla verkossa. Aktiviteetteja, joita teemme verkossa, ovat verkkosivujen selaaminen, tiedonhaku internetistä, sähköpostikirjeenvaihto. Eniten minua kannustavat verkko-oppimiseen seuraavat tekijät: opettajien täydennyskoulutus, koulussa edistetään verkko-oppimista systemaattisesti, kansainvälistyminen. Uskoakseni verkko-oppimisen osuus koko oppimisessa kasvaa nopeasti. Nimeni saa mainita haastattelujen tuloksia julkaistaessa. Nimeni on Marjo Yliluoma. 01 Name: 02 Gender: 03 School: 04 Email: Marjo Yliluoma (my name can be mentioned when publishing results) female Kantin koulu (Kant school) marjo.yliluoma@karvia.fi

05 Subject(s) I teach: English 06 Age range of my main student groups: 7 - 12 yrs Personally, I have used the Internet for 6 - 7 years. My attitude to eLearning is very positive. eLearning has been integrated into the curriculum of my subject to a large extent. I have adopted opportunities of educational ICT in my own teaching a lot. I work in the Internet for about 4 - 5 hours a week with my students. The activities I have included in my teaching browsing web pages, searching Internet resources, partner projects, email correspondence, forum discussions, text chat or messaging and live online sessions. The matters that give me the best motivation for my own eLearning are, as follows: systematic promotion of eLearning at school, enthusiasm of students and internationalization. eLearning is not interpreted as a method of learning by the school management of the municipality. This is what I can say about learning technology made available to me in my school: There is sufficient technical know-how and support. The equipment of my school favors introducing eLearning, and there are enough computers with Internet access available. I think eLearning will have a rapidly increasing role in school in future. Olen naisopettaja ja kouluni on Kantin koulu. Ensisijainen opetusaineeni on [ei tietoa]. Oppilaani ovat iältään 7-12. Henkilökohtaisesti olen käyttänyt verkkoa 6-7 vuotta. Oma suhtautumiseni verkko-oppimiseen on erittäin myönteinen.

Verkko-oppiminen on otettu suuressa määrin huomioon ensisijaisesti opettamani aineen opetussuunnitelmassa. Omassa opetuksessani käytän verkko-oppimisen mahdollisuuksia paljon. Työskentelen oppilaideni kanssa viikottain keskimäärin 4-5 oppitunnilla verkossa. Aktiviteetteja, joita teemme verkossa, ovat verkkosivujen selaaminen, tiedonhaku internetistä, verkkokumppanuushankkeet, sähköpostikirjeenvaihto, keskustelu foorumeilla, tekstichatti tai pikaviestintä, ajantasaisistunnot. Eniten minua kannustavat verkko-oppimiseen seuraavat tekijät: koulussa edistetään verkko-oppimista systemaattisesti, innostuneet oppilaat, kansainvälistyminen. Verkko-oppimista ei ymmärretä kouutoimen johdossa oppimismenetelmäksi Kouluni varustelusta verkko-oppimista ajatellen voin todeta seuraavia asioita: Teknistä osaamista ja tukea on tarpeeksi. Koulussani on riittävästi verkkoyhteyksin varustettuja tietokoneita. Kouluni varustelu suosii verkko-oppimista. Uskoakseni verkko-oppimisen osuus koko oppimisessa kasvaa nopeasti. Nimeni saa mainita haastattelujen tuloksia julkaistaessa.

Henkilökohtaisia mielipiteitä verkko-oppimisesta (eLearning) Nimeni on Laura Pihkala-Posti. 01 Name: 02 Gender: 03 School: 04 Email: Laura Pihkala-Posti(my name can be mentioned when publishing results) female Hervanta upper seconday school Tampere Finland laura.pihkala-posti@koulut.tampere.fi

05 Subject(s) I teach: German 06 Age range of my main student groups: 16-19 yrs Personally, I have used the Internet for 6 - 7 years. My attitude to eLearning is very positive. eLearning has been integrated into the curriculum of my subject only to a small extent. I have adopted opportunities of educational ICT in my own teaching very much. I work in the Internet for about 0 - 1 hour a week with my students. Activities I have included in my teaching browsing web pages, searching Internet resources, partner projects, email correspondence, forum discussions and tutoring courses. The matters that give me the best motivation for my own eLearning are development of materials and facilities and internationalization. My own interest has also been crucial. Unfortunately, there is not sufficiently teacher-in-service training with good quality. More time and technical support is needed for eLearning. This is what I can say about learning technology made available to me in my school: My students

have a learning platform at their disposal. Technical support does not work properly. There is need for even more computers. I think eLearning will have a rapidly increasing role in school in future. Olen naisopettaja ja kouluni on Hervannan lukio. Ensisijainen opetusaineeni on saksa. Oppilaani ovat iältään 16-19. Henkilökohtaisesti olen käyttänyt verkkoa 6-7 vuotta. Oma suhtautumiseni verkko-oppimiseen on erittäin myönteinen. Verkko-oppiminen on otettu vähäisessä määrin huomioon ensisijaisesti opettamani aineen opetussuunnitelmassa. Omassa opetuksessani käytän verkko-oppimisen mahdollisuuksia erittäin paljon. Työskentelen oppilaideni kanssa viikottain keskimäärin 0-1 oppitunnilla verkossa. Aktiviteetteja, joita teemme verkossa, ovat verkkosivujen selaaminen, tiedonhaku internetistä, verkkokumppanuushankkeet, sähköpostikirjeenvaihto, keskustelu foorumeilla, kurssien ohjaaminen. Eniten minua kannustavat verkko-oppimiseen seuraavat tekijät: materiaalien ja välineistön kehitys, kansainvälistyminen. Lisään vielä seuraavaa: oma kiinnostusTasokasta opettajien täydennyskoulutusta ei ole riittävästi saatavilla. Verkko-oppimimiselle tarvittaisiin myös enemmän aikaa ja teknistä tukea. Kouluni varustelusta verkko-oppimista ajatellen voin todeta seuraavia asioita: Oppilaillani on käytössään oppimisalusta. Tekninen tuki takkuaa. Koneita saisi olla vieläkin enemmän. Uskoakseni verkko-oppimisen osuus koko oppimisessa kasvaa nopeasti. Nimeni saa mainita haastattelujen tuloksia julkaistaessa. 01 Name: 02 Gender: 03 School: 04 Email: Ossi Mauno (my name can be mentioned when publishing results) male Vihti upper secondary school ossi.mauno@vihti.fi

05 Subject(s) I teach: mathematics 06 Age range of my main student groups: 16 – 19 yrs Personally, I have used the Internet for 2 - 3 years. My attitude to eLearning is positive. eLearning has been integrated into the curriculum of my subject to a small extent. I have adopted opportunities of educational ICT in my own teaching moderately. I work in the Internet for about 0-1 hour a week with my students. The Internet activities I have included in my teaching are browsing web pages, searching Internet resources, publishing online products and guiding courses of students. I think it is more reasonable to do some matters online, especially when teaching ICT. I think the future role of eLearning will increase rapidly. Olen miesopettaja ja kouluni on Vihdin lukio. Ensisijainen opetusaineeni on matematiikka. Oppilaani ovat iältään 16-19.

Henkilökohtaisesti olen käyttänyt verkkoa 2-3 vuotta. Oma suhtautumiseni verkko-oppimiseen on myönteinen. Verkko-oppiminen on otettu vähäisessä määrin huomioon ensisijaisesti opettamani aineen opetussuunnitelmassa. Omassa opetuksessani käytän verkko-oppimisen mahdollisuuksia vähän. Työskentelen oppilaideni kanssa viikottain keskimäärin 0-1 oppitunnilla verkossa. Aktiviteetteja, joita teemme verkossa, ovat verkkosivujen selaaminen, tiedonhaku internetistä, verkkotuotoksien julkaiseminen, kurssien ohjaaminen. Eniten minua kannustavat verkko-oppimiseen seuraavat tekijät: . Lisään vielä seuraavaa: Jotkin asiat on järkevämpää tehdä verkossa, näin etenkin tietotekniikan opetuksessa.Uskoakseni verkko-oppimisen osuus koko oppimisessa kasvaa nopeasti. Nimeni saa mainita haastattelujen tuloksia julkaistaessa. Nimeni on Minna Vainionpää. 01 Name: Minna Vainionpää. (my name must not be mentioned when publishing results) 02 Gender: 03 School: 04 Email: female Vihti upper secondary school minna.vainionpaa@vihti.fi

05 Subject(s) I teach: Swedish 06 Age range of my main student groups: 16 – 19 yrs Personally, I have used the Internet for 0 – 1 years. My attitude to eLearning is positive. eLearning has been integrated into the curriculum of my subject to a minor extent. I have adopted opportunities of educational ICT in my own teaching very little. I work in the Internet for about 0-1 hour a week with my students. The activity I have included in my teaching is searching Internet resources. The matters that give me the best motivation for my own eLearning are, as follows: systematic promotion of eLearning at school, enthusiasm of students and development of materials and facilities. There seems to be not enough time to learn new things, even if I had interest in it. Computers should function without friction, as I have no skills myself to mend broken devices. This is what I can say about learning technology made available to me in my school: The school network allows me to do all I want to do on the Internet, but computers are out of order, from time to time. I know about this topic so little that my answers are deplorably scarce. Maybe I will some day know more if my hectic life as the mother of two small children allows me that. I think the future role of eLearning will increase slowly. . Olen naisopettaja ja kouluni on Vihdin lukio. Ensisijainen opetusaineeni on ruotsi. Oppilaani ovat iältään 16-19.

Henkilökohtaisesti olen käyttänyt verkkoa 0-1 vuotta. Oma suhtautumiseni verkko-oppimiseen on myönteinen. Verkko-oppiminen on otettu vähäisessä määrin huomioon ensisijaisesti opettamani aineen opetussuunnitelmassa. Omassa opetuksessani käytän verkko-oppimisen mahdollisuuksia erittäin vähän. Työskentelen oppilaideni kanssa viikottain keskimäärin 0-1 oppitunnilla verkossa. Aktiviteetteja, joita teemme verkossa, ovat tiedonhaku internetistä. Eniten minua kannustavat verkko-oppimiseen seuraavat tekijät: koulussa edistetään verkko-oppimista systemaattisesti, innostuneet oppilaat, materiaalien ja välineistön kehitys. Aika ei tunnu riittävän uuden opetteluun, vaikka kiinnostusta olisi. Koneiden pitäisi myös toimia aukottomasti kun itsellä ei ole taitoa selvittää jumiutuvia laitteita. Kouluni varustelusta verkko-oppimista ajatellen voin todeta seuraavia asioita: Kouluni verkko mahdollistaa kaiken, minkä haluan tehdä verkossa. Tietokoneet jumiutuvat joskus pahasti. Uskoakseni verkko-oppimisen osuus koko oppimisessa kasvaa hitaasti.
Tiedän aiheesta niin vähän, että vastaukset ovat valitetttavan laihoja, en tiedä hyödytkö niistä mitään ;-). Ehkä jonain päivänä olen asiasta paremmin perillä jos kahden viipottajan äidillä kiire ikinä hellittää...

Nimeäni ei saa mainita haastattelujen tuloksia julkaistaessa. Nimeni on Pirjo Orkovaara. 01 Name: Pirjo Orkovaara (my name must not be mentioned when publishing results) 02 Gender: 03 School: 04 Email: female Vihti upper secondary school pirjo.orkovaara@vihti.fi

05 Subject(s) I teach: physical education 06 Age range of my main student groups: 16 – 19 yrs Personally, I have used the Internet for 4 - 5 years. My attitude to eLearning is positive. eLearning has been integrated into the curriculum of my subject to a small extent. I have adopted opportunities of educational ICT moderately in my own teaching. I work in the Internet for about 2 - 3 hours a week with my students. Activities I have included in my teaching are browsing web pages, searching Internet resources and forum discussions. The matters that give me the best motivation for my own eLearning is the development of materials and facilities. There will be online courses for students in future. Teacher-in-service and systematic promotion of eLearning is lacking. There is no real support for users. There is some know how in school, but the municipality that maintains the school sets too many bids and restrictions, which slow down and disturb development. The increase of the work load of teachers is not taken into account in salaries. I think there will be a rapid growth in the role of eLearning as a whole.

I think the future role of eLearning will increase rapidly. Olen naisopettaja ja kouluni on Vihdin lukio. Ensisijainen opetusaineeni on terveystieto ja liikunta. Oppilaani ovat iältään 16-19. Henkilökohtaisesti olen käyttänyt verkkoa 4-5 vuotta. Oma suhtautumiseni verkko-oppimiseen on myönteinen. Verkko-oppiminen on otettu vähäisessä määrin huomioon ensisijaisesti opettamani aineen opetussuunnitelmassa. Omassa opetuksessani käytän verkko-oppimisen mahdollisuuksia jonkin verran. Työskentelen oppilaideni kanssa viikottain keskimäärin 2-3 oppitunnilla verkossa. Aktiviteetteja, joita teemme verkossa, ovat verkkosivujen selaaminen, tiedonhaku internetistä, keskustelu foorumeilla. Eniten minua kannustavat verkko-oppimiseen seuraavat tekijät: materiaalien ja välineistön kehitys. Lisään vielä seuraavaa: opiskelijoiden tulevaisuuttaverkko-kurssit , täydennyskoulutus , koulussa ei edistetä systemaattisesti verkkooppimista Käyttäjien tuki puuttuu. Koulussa osaamista, mutta kunnan kiellot ja rajoitukset hidastavat jahaittaavat. Opettajien työmäärän kasvua ei ole huomioitu palkkauksessa. Koneita edelleen liian vähän. Uskoakseni verkko-oppimisen osuus koko oppimisessa kasvaa nopeasti. Nimeäni ei saa mainita haastattelujen tuloksia julkaistaessa. Nimeni on Saarinen, Tuija. Olen naisopettaja ja kouluni on Vihdin lukio. Ensisijainen opetusaineeni on englanti. Oppilaani ovat iältään 16-19. Henkilökohtaisesti olen käyttänyt verkkoa 0-1 vuotta. Oma suhtautumiseni verkko-oppimiseen on neutraali. Verkko-oppiminen on otettu erittäin vähäisessä määrin huomioon ensisijaisesti opettamani aineen opetussuunnitelmassa. Omassa opetuksessani käytän verkko-oppimisen mahdollisuuksia erittäin vähän. Työskentelen oppilaideni kanssa viikottain keskimäärin 0-1 oppitunnilla verkossa. Aktiviteetteja, joita teemme verkossa, ovat tiedonhaku internetistä, katsomme uutisia . Eniten minua kannustavat verkko-oppimiseen seuraavat tekijät: innostuneet oppilaat. Koulutukseen ei ole määrärahoja (omalla vapaa-ajalla ei itsellä tarpeeksi intoa opetella kaikkea, mitä voisi), verkko-oppimiseen suhtaudutaan melko kielteisesti työyhteisössäni, itseni mukaanlukien :-( Kouluni varustelusta verkko-oppimista ajatellen voin todeta seuraavia asioita: Koulussani on riittävästi verkkoyhteyksin varustettuja tietokoneita. Uskoakseni verkko-oppimisen osuus koko oppimisessa kasvaa hitaasti. Nimeäni ei saa mainita haastattelujen tuloksia julkaistaessa.

Videoconferencing Several research projects were set up to study the use of videoconferencing in education Research project: Learning intercultural competency in the workplace Level of education: Adult education, other than certificate-oriented This project aimed at creating circumstances for successful intercultural learning processes in daily work and at investigating the attainment of intercultural competences by follow-up studies. The research also entailed the training of the people involved in collaboration with work communities, two Equal projects, institutes for higher education, the Finnish Work Environment Fund, the Finnish Ministry of Labour, employers’ and employees’ organizations, as well as regional councils and

Employment and Economic Development Centres in Eastern Finland. In order to clarify in what ways intercultural competences can be fostered in everyday work, the empirical studies will focus on (1) human resources management issues; (2) intercultural professional training issues; and (3) intercultural interaction and communication issues. Both qualitative and quantitative research methods will be used to gather data on selected samples of private enterprises and those in the public sector. Examinations are taken by both immigrant employees and their co-workers and supervisors belonging to the ethnic majority. On the basis of the project results personnel training materials and an intercultural learning model will be developed and eLearning materials on issues of diversity will be produced on CD-Rom.

Research Project: Collaborative distance learning in post secondary adult education Researcher: Marko SusimetsäResearch Unit:University of Tampere PL 229, 13101 HÄMEENLINNA, tel.+358 3 355 111, fax.+358 3 3551 3611 Research date: 01.01.2001 - 17.08.2006Level of Education:Universities Field of Science:Adult education Keyword(s):adult education collaborative learning web-based learning distance study learning environment Abstract:The aim of the study is to study the factors explaining the efficiency of collaborative learning in a virtual learning environment and to build a model of this learning from the learners' point of view. The material for the research is gathered from students taking part in the basic studies of education at the University of Tampere's Research Centre for Vocational Education. A group of adult students who work in the field of adult education take part in this study program during 2003. The studies are arranged according to the principles of collaborative learning and most of the study assignments

are carried out in a virtual learning environment. The methodology of the research is mainly qualitative and concentrates on the study journals that the students write about their learning experiences. The research material consists mainly of the study journals that the students have written over the course of their studies, as well as a quantitative questionnaire. The research is carried out at the University of Tampere's Research Centre for Vocational Education. Publications: • Susimetsä, Marko 2006 Motivated and Self-Regulated Learning of Adult Learners in a Collective Online Environment Acta Universitatis Tamperensis 1160 Tampereen yliopisto ISBN 951-44-6666-7 ISSN 1455-1616 Research Project:Domestic interactive telematic education & learning Researcher:Kari Mikkelä (kari.mikkelä@hut.fi) Research Unit:Helsinki University of Technology / Center for Educational Technologies PL 8000 02015 TKK tel.+358 9 4511 Research date:01.01.1996 - 31.12.1998Level of Education:Field of Science:Engineering, industry and transport Educational science Keyword(s):learning environment distance study educational technology interactive learning cable TV Abstract:HUT Dipoli is a sponsoring partner in the project and acts also through HUT's Centre for Educational Technologies (HUT CET) and Dipoli's unit TechNet Finland. DOMITEL aims to develop and to demonstrate a supporting telematic learning environment for home learners, using interactive cable television (ICATV), The demonstrator that will be developed will use two-way cable television as the basic infrastructure in conjunction with other technologies and infrastructures offering range of interactivity from one-way video with interactive teletext through fully two-way video allowing for multimedia applications and videophony. The main results of the project will be a) the realisation on the application sites os home distance learning via ICATV that will be continued and extended after the project's duration, and that can be disseminated to other places, and b) a 'blue-print', in the form of aspecifications manual, for planning and implementing home learning via ICATV. HUT CET has a specific responsibility of work package WP08 'DOMITEL Implementation' including an exploitation plan.Publications: Research Project:LIVE - Learning in Virtual School Environments Researcher:Seppo Tella (seppo.tella@helsinki.fi) Research Unit:University of Helsinki PL 9 00014 HELSINGIN YLIOPISTO tel.+358 9 1911 fax.+358 9 191 29611 Research date:01.09.1996 - 12.01.2000Level of Education:Comprehensive schools Field of Science:Educational science

Keyword(s):open learning environment distance education teacher education Abstract:LIVE was a three-year colaboprative action research project. The key objectives were to investigate and develop: a) educational networking models in virtual school environments for teacher education nad b) working methods and practices for cooperative learning in open learning environments supported by modern information and commuication technologies. The principles and results of the project are reported in Media Education Publications 6 & 8. Cf. http://www.helsinki.fi/~tella/mepo6.html http://www.helsinki.fi/~tella/mepo8.html. Research Project: Development of adult learning skills in the open university Researcher: Matti Lappalainen (matti.lappalainen@utu.fi) Research Unit: University of Helsinki / Lahti Research and Training Centre Kirkkokatu 16, 15140 LAHTI, tel.+358 3 892265, fax.+358 3 892219 Research date:01.01.1992 - 31.12.1995Level of Education: Universities Field of Science: Adult education Keyword(s): higher education learning strategy distance study self-directed learning adult education open university Abstract: Publications: • Kaukiainen, A., Lappalainen, M. & Lindberg, J. 1995 Kasvokkain. Palautteen antaminen oppijalle Turun yliopisto. Täydennyskoulutuskeskus. Sarja A:34 Turku: Painosalama Oy ISBN 95129-0415-2 • Lappalainen, M. & Olkinuora, E. 1995 Challenges for learning skills now and in the future. In M. Ukkola (toim.) Access to open learning. Developing open university studies in Finland University of Helsinki. Lahti Research and Training Centre Helsinki Hakapaino 29-37 • Lindberg, J. & Kaukiainen, A. 1995 Toward self-direction in learning - but how? In M. Ukkola (toim.) Access to open learning. Developing open university studies in Finland University of Helsinki. Lahti Research and Training Centre Helsinki Hakapaino 38-46 Search word: ? Research Project: Researcher: Evaluation of online use of INION databases at the Tampere University Library Maria Forsman University of Tampere Kalevantie 4 33014 TAMPEREEN YLIOPISTO tel.+358 3 215 6111 fax.+358 3 213 4473 01.01.1989 - 31.12.1990

Research Unit:

Research date: Level of Education: Field of

Computer sciences and computer technology

Science: evaluation humanities library Keyword(s): USSR data base social sciences Abstract: • Forsman Maria 1987 Olisiko INIONin tietokannoilla käyttöä Suomessa Korkeakoulutieto 14 5 37-38 • Forsman Maria 1990 Yhteiskuntatieteilijät ja humanistit löysivät INIONin tietokannat Signum 23 5 160-161 • Forsman Maria 1991 Online use of INION databases at the Tampere Publications: University Library Tampereen yliopiston kirjaston julkaisuja. Sarja A, 2 • Forsman Maria. D.I. Raitt 1990 Evaluation of online use of INION databases at the Tampere University Library. Teoksessa Online Information 90. 14th international Online Information Meeting Psoceedings. London

Research Finnish Air Force cadets in network - experience in use of online learning Project: environment in basic studies of mathematics Researcher: Mika Nieminen University of Jyväskylä Research PL 35 Unit: 40014 JYVÄSKYLÄN YLIOPISTO Research 01.01.2003 - 31.12.2007 date: Level of Universities Education: Field of Mathematics and statistics Science: Natural sciences online teaching mathematics Keyword(s): distance teaching air force cadets Abstract: In recent years a large number of studies dealing with teaching of natural science and mathematics, like this one, have been made in Finland and abroad. Many of them are based on pragmatism enabling to evolve various approaches (development research, design research, educational reconstruction). In the Finnish Defence Forces an increasing need for online teaching resulted in the creation of the AVOT programme, and as a part of the programme this research focused on the possibilities to use online teaching in the Air Force. The present study was conducted during the years 2003 to 2007 with the aim to examine the effect of online teaching model, developed in the context of the design research for the use in the basic studies of Mathematics for Air

Force cadets, on the results of the Cadet Courses 90, 91 and 92. One of the objectives of the study was also to survey the usability of the Defence Forces' online training portal in teaching mathematics for Air Force cadets. This is a design research on the basis of which online courses were evolved cyclically. The most important parts subject to development were online discussions and tutor diaries the substance of which was analysed. The usability of the training portal was surveyed by using the applied SUS question series. A comparison of course results was made by covariance analysis: the scores of the final tests were scaled to correspond to one another by means of the item response theory. It appears from this research that the results of the Cadet Course 92 that studied using online courses are not statistically very different compared to the results of the Cadet Course 90 that was given conventional lecture based teaching. The training portal proved to be unsuitable for study of mathematics but, on the other hand, the results achieved by online learning were comparable with the results achieved by lecture based teaching. As this study shows the use of online teaching can be increased justifiably in aircraft maintenance training ensuring more flexible and diversified teaching. • Nieminen, Mika 2008 Ilmavoimien kadetit verkossa - kokemuksia verkkopohjaisen oppimisympäristön käytöstä matematiikan perusopetuksessa. Finnish Air Force Cadets in network - experience in use of online learning environment in basic studies of Mathematics Department of physics Publications: university of Jyväskylä, Research report No. 3/2008 Jyväskylän yliopisto 192 s. ISBN 978-951-39-3117-9 ISSN 0075-465 x

Research Interaction in Online Learning Environments: How to Support Collaborative Project: Activities in Higher Education Settings Researcher: Kati Mäkitalo (kati.makitalo@ktl.jyu.fi) University of Jyväskylä PL 35 Research 40014 Unit: JYVÄSKYLÄN YLIOPISTO tel.+358 14 260 3200 fax.+358 14 260 3201 Research 01.02.2001 - 10.02.2006 date: Level of Universities Education: Field of Educational science Science: collaborative activity computer-supported learning Keyword(s): interaction higher education uncertainty Abstract: This study explored interaction and learning in computer-supported collaborative learning environments. It involved three different research

projects based in higher education settings. The aim was to study, in particular, learner interaction and the way in which learners built and maintained common ground so as to enable themselves to collaborate and learn together. Another aim was to explore the effects of scripting interaction in online learning environments with a view to finding out how scripting can enhance or hamper collaborative interaction. The five substudies were carried out as parts of three projects involving higher education courses. The main data collected and analysed in all five substudies consisted of the record of the students' online discussions. The different documents produced by the individuals or groups and data on their learning outcomes were also exploited in analysing the materials. Substudies I, II and V were based on a combination of quantitative and qualitative methods. Substudies III and IV explored the activities of the small groups by using a qualitative approach. All the five substudies indicated that interaction and collaboration in online learning environments are complex phenomena. In order to work together and interact successfully participants must engage in teamwork, making an equal personal contribution to the team's collaborative activities and freely sharing their prior knowledge, beliefs, assumptions and feelings. Here the mechanisms of the grounding process are basic elements which can enhance learners' ability to work as a team and reach shared understanding in knowledge building activities or whose absence can, on the other hand, hamper teamwork and the construction of knowledge (Substudies I-IV). The grounding process enabled the learners to face up, as they went about building and maintaining common ground, to a dual-problem space consisting of a content space and a relational space. Learners must focus on the content space in order to understand what their fellow learners are saying and, at the same time, give thought to what they should themselves say to the other learners and how they should say it so as to ensure that their learning partners grasp what they are themselves saying. On the other hand, they must understand the relational space of group work, representing what their fellow learners are willing and able do and what they all can do as a group together and how their work will go forward efficiently. Besides this, individuals must attend to whether their fellow learners are willing and able to make contact, recognise the ideas and suggestions that are important, and willing to listen, react and respond. Further, participants must also know how to be present in the online learning environment and how to signal their presence in a suitable way. The research results indicate that both individual learners and learner teams must put more effort into building and maintaining common ground. In online learning courses where participants do not know each other, uncertainty among learners can influence collaboration in a number of ways. Learners' collaborative learning activities can be specified and sequenced by using scripts. The findings of Substudy V support the idea that epistemic (content-related) scripts reduce uncertainty. However, the results on student learning outcomes revealed that the learners in the unscripted condition had gained better learning outcomes than those in the epistemic script condition. It is possible that uncertainty promotes beneficial interaction patterns, including information-seeking processes. On the other hand, the members of the successful group might have excelled because they were willing to put in

more effort to build and maintain common ground as they went about their collaborative activities. Learning to collaborate is already being consciously promoted in higher education through the design of various tools or scripts supposed to help learners to interact and work together. However, learners may not be able to put such tools to appropriate and successful uses or do this without guidance if they are unclear about the basic rules of collaborative activities. As a result, even well-designed tools might fail to reach the goals set by their designers and by the educators who have taken them up. Further, the nature of collaborative learning suggests that its assessment should be based also on the interactive learning process itself (Chan & Van Aalst, 2004). In other words, assessment should focus not only on the individual group members and their final product but also on the group processes. Moreover, account should be taken of both individual and group learning because different groups and different individuals inside one and the same group learn different things. To obtain a more detailed presentation of the different (cognitive, socioemotional, contextual) features of common ground and the processes of shared understanding, we could apply and modify the model of the Johari Window (Luft 1984; Chapman 1995-2005). The Johari Window captures behaviour, empathy, cooperation, inter-group development and interpersonal development more precisely than other descriptions. It would make possible an integration of the theories of common ground and uncertainty reduction with the outcomes of the substudies, producing a more comprehensive picture of the significant areas of the grounding process as it operates in computersupported collaborative learning environments. The four perspectives are the area of common ground, the blind area, the hidden and avoided area and the unknown area (or, as it could also be termed, the area of no common ground). This model of areas of the grounding process could help not only educators to support learners but also designers to create environments and scripts that enable learners to move to the area of common ground. It can help also researchers to explore interaction and learning in online learning environments; in particular, it can help them to focus on the hidden areas of grounding processes, research of a kind that is lacking in the field of computer-supported collaborative learning. • Mäkitalo, Kati 2006 Interaction in Online Learning Environments: How to Support Collaborative Activities in Higher Education Settings Vuorovaikutus verkko-oppimisympäristöissä: Yhteisöllisen toiminnan tukeminen korkeakoulukonteksteissa Jyväskylän yliopiston Koulutuksen Publications: tutkimuslaitoksen Tutkimuksia - sarja, numero 18 Jyväskylä Jyväskylän yliopisto 97 ISBN 951-39-2416-5 ISSN 1455-447X

Research Project: Researcher: Research Unit:

LIVE - Learning in Virtual School Environments Seppo Tella (seppo.tella@helsinki.fi) University of Helsinki PL 9 00014

HELSINGIN YLIOPISTO tel.+358 9 1911 fax.+358 9 191 29611 Research date: Level of Education: Field of Science: 01.09.1996 - 12.01.2000 Comprehensive schools Educational science

open learning environment Keyword(s): distance education teacher education LIVE was a three-year colaboprative action research project. The key objectives were to investigate and develop: a) educational networking models in virtual school environments for teacher education nad b) working methods and practices for cooperative learning in open learning Abstract: environments supported by modern information and commuication technologies. The principles and results of the project are reported in Media Education Publications 6 & 8. Cf. http://www.helsinki.fi/~tella/mepo6.html http://www.helsinki.fi/~tella/mepo8.html. Publications:

Research Mukava-project: integrated school day Project: Researcher: Lea Pulkkinen University of Jyväskylä Agora Research 40014 Unit: JYVÄSKYLÄN YLIOPISTO tel.+358 14 260 1211 Research 01.09.2002 - 13.01.2003 date: Level of Preprimary education Education: Comprehensive schools Field of Psychology, educational psychology Science: Educational science interpersonal relations social success affective development Keyword(s): school-community relationship parent-school relation information society Abstract: This technology assessment focuses, on the one hand, on considering how to gain greater benefit and pleasure from the information and communication technologies (ICT), and how to eliminate a number of specific risks, on the other. The emphasis is placed on the children's and young people's initial social capital that has an essential role to play with respect to people's

subsequent welfare and the future of our society. It is also important that Finland, as a pioneer of ICT development, could gain credence as a vanguardist of socially and ethically sustainable technological development in accordance with people's needs. What this presupposes is increased resource provision for research, content production, consumer education, as well as ICT and media education. Day care and school have vital roles to play as providers of ICT education and support to the individuals' initial social capital. Day care, school, and the family may also function as co-educators promoting the socialisation process in an information society. With regard to the promotion of initial social capital, it is vital to diminish the digital divide and increase social equality in other respects. Here we shall focus on the means and methods of supporting children and their parents through school and other societal functions, in order to alleviate the current regional, economic, and socio-economic differences in the availability and accessibility of ICT. ICT has changed families' daily lives and children's educational environment to an essential degree. Considerably more time is spent on ICT-related activities while families spend less time together. The possibility of parental control over children's media use is decreasing, with the family members being increasingly exposed to other impulses and external influence. This means that the accumulation of initial social capital has been partly overtaken by other socialisers, increasingly by the media and young people's peer groups. Most methods that expand the social dimension in the use of ICT also increase the initial social capital and decrease the risks. In particular, social interaction is required to achieve morals, overall trust and confidence. The installation of equipment in joint facilities, provided with software allowing teamwork and games, are practical means of expanding the social dimension. It would be extremely important to restore to parents their supervising role, even regarding the use of ICT and the media. Being encouraged in the informative use of ICT will increase the individual's social capital, to an even greater extent than its social uses. Interaction, online availability, and the strength of multimedia experiences help make ICT applications extremely attractive. This means that they offer almost unlimited opportunities to learning at school, leisure-time information retrieval, other practical uses, and networking. ICT can be used effectively to promote communal and discovery learning, creative problem solving, and learning motivation. Challenges will be seen in individual media skills and knowledge interpretation skills, which enable a young person to distinguish the required material in the information deluge and to critically assess whether the netbased information in question is reliable. Most ICT development risks pertain to the areas of social and emotional development. Net-based communication will not provide the social skills that are required by real-life human contacts and relations. Since ICT is attractive and interactive (rewarding social contacts), it is applied by certain media, which can lead to addiction situations that are entirely different from those caused by conventional media. The black and white nature of values and

norms, strong emotional experiences, and attractiveness, make ICT applications especially challenging with respect to emotional life. Numbed emotions, withering compassion, and increasing aggressiveness are particular risks prevailing among large-scale consumers of ICT-based entertainment. Failure and disappointment in social relations are the most prominent indicators that predict problematic development in an individual's use of ICT. The young with social problems are prone to using computers to escape reality, with virtual interaction becoming increasingly more rewarding than real-life contacts and relations. Net-based, anonymous interaction can, not only replace friendship, but tends to generate distrust, or selective trust, exclusively in the direction of a particular in-group. This will generate a vicious circle of influence that tests people's interdependency, values, norms, mutual support networks, and compassion. In addition to those battered in human relations, another risk group is constituted by aggressive children and young people who get an additional boost to their own aggressiveness from the violent world of computer games and the media - or those who fail to learn aggression control. The third risk group consists of young people with a low self-esteem or identity, who are more gullible than others to take for granted the media's messages on success, happiness, slim appearance, or sexuality. If a person's life situation is difficult in other respects, this may lead to self-esteem problems, depression, or eating disorders. What is required to exploit the opportunities of ICT, and to avoid the risks, is to provide parents and consumers with more effective education. The Internet can be used to produce versatile parental support forms, based on support provided by peers or experts. Applicable solutions include chat sites and bulletin boards used for networking by parents, day-care workers and teachers. One possibility to control children's use of the media, computer games, and the Internet, can be provided by various classification systems, which are becoming a standard requirement for several conventional image processing programs. A functional classification system would also inform the parents with regard to the quality of the services and programs in question. The best means and methods to ensure children's well being in a developing ICT environment are those obtained through education and media-related instruction. These will generate the media skills that not only increase the pleasure and satisfaction obtained from the media but also "vaccinate" people against the ICT-induced emotional, social and behavioural risks. This education is geared towards teaching the child to use the media actively (implemental skill) and selectively, and to critically assess the experiences gained (media reading skills), even when an adult is not present. From the ICT and media perspective, important arenas include homes, day-care centres, schools, religious communities, and leisure-time groups. One of the challenges encountered in ICT development is the preservation of the balance between the genders, in relation to users, technology providers, and content providers. In order to make computers attractive to girls, we must analyse and comprehend the elements that could make girls as interested in

computers as are boys. And, more importantly, we must produce contents that girls find interesting and attractive. This, in turn, will fail without girls' and women's participation in ICT production. Publications: • Pulkkinen, L. 2002 Mukavaa yhdessä - sosiaalinen alkupääoma ja lapsen sosiaalinen kehitys Jyväskylä PS-Kustannus 312 ISBN 952-451-059-6 • Pekonen, O. & Pulkkinen, L. 2002 Sosiaalinen pääoma ja tieto-ja viestintätekniikan kehitys (esiselvitys) Tulevaisuusvaliokunta, teknologian arviointeja II. Eduskunnan kanslian julkaisu 5/2002 Helsinki Edita OYJ 139 ISBN 951-53-2425-4 ISSN 1239-1638 • Mustonen, A. & Pulkkinen, L. 2003 Sosiaalinen alkupääoma ja tietotekniikka (loppuraportti). Tulevaisuuusvaliokunta, teknologian arviointeja 14. Eduskunnan kanslian julkaisu 1/2003 Helsinki Edita Prima Oy 134 ISBN 951-53-2486-6 ISSN 1239-1638 • Launonen, Leevi Pulkkinen, Lea (toim.) 2004 Koulu kasvuyhteisönä. Kohti uutta toimintakulttuuria 220 ISBN 052-451-093-6

Research Project: Quality of Web-based teaching and learning in higher education Researcher: Anne Nevgi (anne.nevgi@helsinki.fi) Research Unit: University of Helsinki / University of Helsinki, Department of Education/ Centre PL 9 00014 HELSINGIN YLIOPISTO tel.+ 358 9 1912 0623 Research date: 01.01.2004 - 31.12.2006 Level of Education: Universities Field of Science: Educational science Adult education Keyword(s): web-based teaching distance learning web-based course quality quality management higher education Abstract: Quality of Web-based teaching and learning project focused on developing and assessing quality management in web-based teaching. Its objectives were to increase the quality awareness of teachers and other staff involved in web-based teaching at the University of Helsinki, to identify and analyse first-rate practices in online teaching using research methods, as well as to produce material based on research results to support teachers. The project had steering group chaired by Kauko Hämäläinen (up to 31 August 2006) and Anne Nevgi (as of 1 September 2006). The project was jointly carried out by the Centre for Research and Development of Higher Education (Department of Education), the Department of Psychology, and with the Educational Centre for ICT at the University of Helsinki. The first project publications include a collection of articles dealing with quality in university web-based teaching. The collection (in Finnish) is available online: http://www.helsinki.fi/ktl/julkaisut/laadukkaastiverkossa.pdf (Nevgi, Löfström & Evälä 2005). During 2005 the data from web-based courses were collected, analysed

and the results presented as paper presentations in the conferences and as articles in scientific journals (see publications). The final publication of the project is the Quality Teaching in Web-based Environments ¿ Handbook for University Teachers (Löfström, Kanerva, Tuuttila, Lehtinen, Nevgi 2006), also available online in Finnish (http://www.helsinki.fi/julkaisut/aineisto/hallinnon_julkaisuja_33_2006.pdf), in Swedish (http://www.helsinki.fi/julkaisut/aineisto/hallinnon_julkaisuja_35_2007.pdf), and in English (http://www.helsinki.fi/julkaisut/aineisto/hallinnon_julkaisuja_34_2006.pdf). The content of the handbook is based on the research data reported in the article collection, research in web-based teaching and learning, the authors¿ experiences of web-based teaching and the Programme for the Development of Teaching and Studies 2007-2007. The objects of the project were fulfilled. Publications:
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Löfström, E. & Nevgi, A. 2007 University teaching staff as learners of the pedagogical use of ICT. Interactive Learning Environments Löfström, E. & Nevgi, A. 2007 University Teachers: Pedagogical Awareness in Web-based teaching Seminar.net - International journal of media, technology and lifelong learning 3 1 ISSN 1504-4831 Löfström, E. & Nevgi, A. 2007 From strategic planning to meaningful learning: Diverse perspectives on the development of Web-based teaching and learning in Higher Education British Journal of Educational Technology 38 2 312-324 Löfström, E., Kanerva, K., Tuuttila, L., Lehtinen, A., & Nevgi, A. 2006 Laadukkaasti verkossa: Verkko-opetuksen käsikirja yliopistoopettajalle Helsingin yliopiston hallinnon julkaisuja 33, Raportit ja selvitykset Helsingin yliopisto ISBN 952-10-3571-4 ISSN 1795-5416 Löfström, E., Kanerva, K., Tuuttila, L., Lehtinen, A., & Nevgi, A. 2006 Quality Teaching in Web-based Environments: Handbook for University Teachers University of Helsinki, Administrative publications 34, Reports ISBN 952-10-3624-9 ISSN 1795-5416 Löfström, E., Kanerva, K., Tuuttila, L., Lehtinen, A., & Nevgi, A. 2006 Med Hög Kvalitet på nätet: Handbok i nätbaserad undervisining för universitetslärare Helsingfors Universitetsförvaltnings publikationer, Rapporter och utredningar 35 ISBN 978-952-10-3628-6 ISSN 1795-5416 Nevgi, A., & Löfström, E. 2007 Opettaja verkko-oppimisympäristössä ¿ mielekkään oppimisen mahdollistaja. (Teacher in Web-based learning environment ¿ facilitator of meaningful learning. Published in Finnish.) Teoksessa Heljä Haapamäki-Niemi ja Sari Noponen (toim.) Elämään bittien kanssa ¿ opiskelu verkossa ja Internetin mahdollisuudet Äidinkielen opettajain liiton vuosikirja Helsinki Äidinkielen opettajainliitto 15-33 Kanerva, K., Kivikangas, M., Kalakoski, V. ja Puttonen S. 2006 Kognitiivinen kuormitus ja affektit verkko-oppimisessa Psykologia, 4 252-259 Kanerva, K. 2006 Verkko-opetuksen tutkimuspohjainen suunnittelu ihmisen tiedonkäsittelyn näkökulmasta Peda-Forum, 1 18-20 Nevgi, A. & Löfström, E. & Evälä, A. 2005 Laadukkaasti verkossa Yliopistollisen verkko-opetuksen ulottuvuudet. (Quality Online ¿ Dimensions

of Virtual Learning in Higher Education ¿ English Summary by Erika Löfström and Anne Nevgi) Helsinki: Yliopistopaino

Research Role of the media in the lives of Finnish, British and German children Project: Researcher: Raisa Koivusalo-Kuusivaara University of Helsinki PL 54 Research 00014 Unit: HELSINGIN YLIOPISTO tel.+358 9 1911 Research 01.01.2003 - 18.05.2007 date: Level of Preprimary education Education: Field of Communication and information sciences Science: media child Keyword(s): international comparison communication Abstract: Characteristic of today's media environment is intensity and constant presence. The media also play a significant role in the lives of small children since they, on average, start regular following of media at the age of three. The contents, tools and social relations linked to the media do form an environment for the children by means of which they form their concepts of culture, society, social relations and build their identities. The research explains the interpretation of audiovisual media and the role of the media in the lives of Finnish, British and German children between four to six years of age. The aim of the research is to deepen the scientific knowledge on what kind of significance socially and culturally the media have in the lives of small children and how they interpret the media contents. In the study, the relationship between children and the media has been observed as a tool, as a social, symbolic and cultural interpretation environment. Additionally, the possibilities what the Theory of Symbolic Interactionism which is rarely used in communication research can offer in the observance of children's media relationship. Based on the international material collected in Finland, UK and Germany, also the cultural differences connected to the media between the comparison groups are examined. In spite of the relatively similar media environments between the countries compared, the study suggests cultural differences in the media interpretations. The media enable the development of a child's various skills and can thus create social, symbolic and cultural resources which have a significance in a

child's development. The relation between a child and media is a two-way interrelationship and in the interpretation of media information, the earlier intellectual and social experiences are included. In his or her active media relationship, a child develops his or her vocabulary, perceptions, thinking and emotional life. Using the media as a social event, the social readiness of a child is, for its part, developed. Thus, for example, the rules and regulations concerning media uses guide how the family functions and define the position of a child within the family. The contents of the media and different supplementary products form, for their part, a child's cultural codes and categorizations. The study also demonstrates that the Theory of Symbolic Interactionism offers a rather interdisciplinary research reference setting for the study of children and the media and facilitates the studying and understanding of children's media relation as a proportion of different factors. • Koivusalo-Kuusivaara, Raisa 2007 Lapset, media ja symbolinen vuorovaikutus : Suomalaisten, englantilaisten ja saksalaisten lasten mediasuhteen tarkastelua Helsingin yliopisto. Valtiotieteellinen tiedekunta. Publications: Viestinnän laitos

Research Sence of communality in virtual environments Project: Researcher: Ulla Heinonen University of Turku Research PL 124 Unit: 28101 PORI Research 01.01.2003 date: Level of Adult education, other than certificate-oriented Education: Field of Educational science Science: Cultural studies online communities technological change Keyword(s): communality virtual teams Abstract: This research project is part of the large research program 'Life as learning' (LEARN), which is coordinated by the Finnish Academy. It belongs to the project ' Models and methods for future knowledge construction: Interdisciplinary implementations with mobile technologies (MOMENTS project). The aim of the MOMENTS consortium is to model the future education needs and methods, with a special emphasis on network-based education (NBE), and mobile technologies. During the research project the model will also be applied and evaluated in selected case studies with company partners,

aiming at novel applications in the field. The consortium represents several fields of science and education, providing a wide knowledge base for the research task of the consortium. The research foci of the partners include the use of mobile technologies (Tampere University of Technology), learning in the light of the historico-cultural perspective and digital culture (University of Turku), pedagogical applications and models of network-based education, and designing and assessing technologically-mediated environments (Universities of Helsinki and Lapland). The research will be carried out through jointly conducted work packages, in which each partner has responsibility areas of their own. The research methods consist of both quantitative and qualitative data gathering techniques, including questionnaires, interviews, content analysis as well as theoretical and computer-assisted modeling. The case studies geared towards mobile technologies (especially PCAs) and mobile communication will be conducted in different learning institutions and work places. The ultimate objective is a new integrated learning model that can be utilized in designing the future curricula and implementing formal and informal training, both in schools and in work places. The international UK-based partners are expected to give additional value to the project, particularly on knowledge construction processes, knowledge codification and management, the impact of ICT on education, and collaborative and communal learning. In addition, the international partners will run high-quality workshops for the researchers and strengthen the impact of the project, facilitating the continuous exchange of ideas, learning experiences and outcomes. • Heinonen, U. 2004 Sähköistyvä yhteisöllisyys - kotia kodittomille vai kodin jatke. Teoksessa Granö, Päivi, Suominen, Jaakko & Tuomi-Nikula, Outi (toim.): Koti - kaiho, paikka, muutos Kulttuurituotannon ja maisematutkimuksen laitoksen julkaisuja 4 Pori Turun yliopisto • Koskimaa, Raine & Heinonen, Ulla 2005 Teknologiavälitteinen vuorovaikutus verkko-opetuksessa. Teoreettisen mallin tarkastelua tapaustutkimusten valossa. Teoksessa Tella, Seppo, Ruokamo, Heli, Multisilta, Jari & Smeds, Riitta (toim.): Opetus, opiskelu, oppiminen. Tietoja viestintätekniikka tiederajat ylittävissä konteksteissa Lapin yliopiston Publications: kasvatustieteellisiä julkaisuja 12 Rovaniemi Lapin yliopisto • Koskimaa, R., Lehtonen, M., Heinonen, U., Ruokamo, H., Tella, S., Tissari, V. & Vahtivuori-Hänninen, S. 2005 Cultural discourses and network-based mobile education Journal of Educational Research: Culture and Learning • Heinonen, Ulla 2005 Tässä ja nyt - mutta tuhansien mailien päässä. Työskentely ja opiskelu hajautetussa organisaatiossa. Teoksessa Levonen, J., Järvinen, T. & Kaupinmäki, S. (toim.): TUOVI 2: ITK'04 tutkijatapaamisen artikkelit Tampereen yliopiston hypermedialaboratorion verkkojulkaisuja 8

Research

Work-based leaming from the viewpoint of quality, self-evaluation and

development in the field of social and health care vocational upper secondary education Researcher: Kirsti Hulkari (kirsti.hulkari@kopteri.net) University of Tampere PL 229 Research 13101 Unit: HÄMEENLINNA tel.+358 3 355 111 fax.+358 3 3551 3611 Research 01.01.2001 - 29.08.2006 date: Level of Vocational institutions Education: Field of Educational science Science: Social and health care work-based learning quality Keyword(s): evaluation vocational education In this research, work-based leaming is studied from the viewpoint of quality. The study is a qualitative, participatory evaluation research and the purpose is to analyse the concept of work-based leaming quality and evaluate various methods used in developing the quality of work-based leaming together with other actors of the work-based leaming network. Project: The research approach is pragmatic. It has been carried out as an action research process and the material has been gathered in the Karkku College for Home Economics and Social Services in 2001-2005 in three projects funded by the European Social Fund. A 12-part quality concepts used in the evaluation of work-based leaming quality has been constituted based on material gathered with a roleplaying method from students, workplace instructors and teachers. Abstract: The chosen methodological approach to quality follows the general principles of material-based grounded theory. The evaluation of quality has been implemented with the indicators that the research participants, especially students, themselves regarded important. Quality concepts have been specified through student focus group interviews and analysis of online discussion materials. The research results are based on workbased leaming quality evaluation data gathered from students and workplace instructors through 360-degree assessment and WWW-based questionnaire, as well as evalution reports of the various evaluation methods written by the actors. The focus of the quality work is on self-assessment and using networks to develop the quality ofwork-based leaming. The concept of work-based leaming quality in the field of social and health care emphasises communalism and interactionin compliance with the nature of the work on the field and the predominant leaming theory. Quality

concepts vary between the various actors in the network.The students connected quality strongly to the process of leaming a professional skill and possibility to leam in a workplace.The teachers emphasised structures and creating the settings for leaming. On the other hand, workplace instructors emphasised results and vocational proficiency shown by the students. AlI the methods tested in the research have their limitations and strengths that must be understood when choosing one of them. Commitment to one method limits the usability of the results. Jn the evaluation of the suitabilityof a method it is essential to consider the purpose of use; what kind of data gathering is useful for the developmentof quality. The suitability of 360-degree assessment for evaluating work-based leaming quality is supported especially by the included pedagogical dimension. A 360-degree assessment is a way to introduce and familiarise the contents of quality concepts to the various parties. A common discussion about the evaluation results is important for the awareness of different expectations, viewpoints and quality concepts. The use of the method is limited by the difficulty of the follow-up of the development results. Online discussion makes the work-based learning process visible and gives teachers the chance to follow the quality of the process in real time. Situations can be interfered when problems are still acute.The problem with web discussion regarding quality work is the lack of a systematic approach.That is why online discussion is a supplementary method in quality work. The problem with focus group interview in quality work is its detachment from the leaming process, pedagogy and development. In spite of the participatory and empowering nature of the method, it is difficultto evaluate the extent or frequency of a problem or receive suitable follow-up information through focus groups. A WWW-based questionnaire makes available the many advantages generally connected with information technology. Evaluation is fast, accurate, flexible, economical, independent of time and place and almost real time. The method is suitable for temporal follow-up and comparison. Human communication, which is important in quality development, is lost in evaluation done in information networks. This cannot be replaced with numeric summaries. The results of the analysis of the materials gathered with the various methods strengthen the conception of high-quality work-based leaming environments in the social and health care educational institutes that participated in the research. Both the students' and workplace instructors' subjective evaluations of the work-based leaming quality were positive. • Hulkari, Kirsti 2006 Työssäoppimisen laadun käsite, itsearviointi ja kehittäminen sosiaali- ja terveysalan ammatillisessa peruskoulutuksessa Acta Universitatis Tamperensis 1163 Tampere: Tampere University Press ISBN Publications: 951-44-6683-7

Research Project: Researcher: Research Unit: Research date: Level of Education: Field of Science:

DEDICATE - Distance Education Information Courses with Access through Networks Irma Pasanen-Tuomainen (irma.pasanen@hut.fi) Helsinki University of Technology / Library PL 7000 (Otaniementie 9) 02015 TKK 15.05.1998 - 31.12.1999 Adult education Communication and information sciences

library Keyword(s): distance education training of trainers The aim of the DEDICATE project is to develop distance education courses in information literacy. The distance education courses which train the trainers initially in libraries will be demonstrated and tested at four library sites in Technological Universities in Estonia, Hungary, Latvia and Lithuania Abstract: and at the Nicholas Copernikus University in Poland. The support required in distance education is surveyed from both the learners as well as from the instructors point of view. Support in the form of document delivery is also examined. Publications:

Research Distant education at school and in teacher education Project: Researcher: Eila Jeronen University of Oulu PL 2000 Research 90014 Unit: Oulun yliopisto tel.+358 8 553 3702 fax.+358 8 553 3744 Research 01.01.2004 date: Level of Upper secondary schools Education: Field of Educational science Science: multiform teaching Keyword(s): network based education geography Abstract: During the last decade, there have been large changes in the society and the school system in Finland. This article briefly describes the curriculum for upper secondary school geography, to be introduced by the 1st of August 2005. In the new curriculum, communication, media skills and technology

are listed as important teaching methods. The article also offers a specific set of pedagogical and assessment strategies found to be successful in distance education in Geography. Distance education offers students an opportunity to have upper secondary level education also in small rural village schools, which do not have teachers in all the required subjects. • Jeronen, E. & Anttila-Muilu, S. 2005 Effective Practices in Distance Education in Upper Secondary Level Geography in Finland. In K. Donert & P. Charzynski (Eds.): Changing Horizons in Geography Education. 2.Geography in European higher education. Nicolaus Copernicus University, Torun, Poland 146-150 • Jeronen, E. & Anttila-Muilu, S. 2005 Effective Practices in Distance Publications: Education in Upper Secondary Level Geography in Finland. In K. Donert & P. Charzynski (eds.) Changing Horizons in Geography Education. 2 Geography in European higher education. Nicolaus Copernicus University, Torun, Poland 146-150

Search word : Etäopetus (distant learning) Research Indicators of the learning process for the intervention in the virtual Project: programming courses Researcher: Sirpa Torvinen (sirpa.torvinen@joensuu.fi) University of Joensuu PL 111 Research 80101 Unit: JOENSUU tel.+358 13 251 7928 fax.+358 13 251 7955 Research 01.01.2001 date: Level of Upper secondary schools Education: Universities Field of Computer sciences and computer technology Science: distance study web-based learning Keyword(s): programming dropout learning difficulty Abstract: Problems in learning programming among regular Computer Science students are very common. University of Joensuu, Department of Computer Science, started in fall 2000 to offer first year's university level studies to the high school students in surrounding rural area of Joensuu. In fall 2001 we expanded to the neighboring province, South-Savolax as well. Almost half of the content in this distant curriculum, called Virtual Approbatur, consist programming. Our interest towards problems within learning programming break out when we noticed that main part of students who drop out, leave off the study process during the first programming course or right after it during the second programming course. Any way main part of dropouts is possible to avoid based on the information by interviews or questionnaires, if the students could get help immediately when they encounter problems in their study process. The threshold to dropout in virtual courses are clearly lower than in contact lessons so the need for intervention in virtual programming courses is obvious. In this study we are going to find out the indicators in the virtual programming courses that will tell both to the supervisors and to the students when there is need for some extra material or additional guidance in order to help the study process. We have improved our materials in very quick tempo based on the analysis of questionnaires, interviews and feedback given by students.

Aim of this study is not only the improvements to the course materials and arrangements but more about finding the solutions to the dropout phenomenon. Our goal is that after this study we know what kind of indicators will tell us when student is going to be dropped out, and based on these signals we could develop an adaptive learning environment that could help students over the troubles in distant learning process. This system will intervene to the distant study process already before the problems are coming too hard to overcome for students. In Virtual Approbatur program students study independently over the Web so the needs for supervising and supports for learning are even more challenging than in traditional learning. When there is need for intervention in Web-based courses? How we can intervene in Web-based courses? Publications:

Research Project: Researcher:

Modern learning environments, continuity of higher education Sirpa Kantola-Pakkanen University of Oulu / Economics and Business Administration PL 4600 90014 Oulun yliopisto tel.+358 8 553 2905 fax.+358 8 553 2906 15.11.2001 Vocational institutions Universities Polytechnics (AMK) institutions Adult education Business administration, economic geography

Research Unit:

Research date: Level of Education: Field of Science:

higher education distance education Keyword(s): learning environment economics of education Abstract: Modern Learning Environments -research area is a part of research and development co-operation program between Naturpolis Kuusamo Education and Development Service unit (owned by Kuusamo Town) and University of Oulu. The co-operation program (2001-2003) is financed by EU, Regional Council of Northern Ostrobothnia and Kuusamo Town. The head subject of the year 2002 "The Continuity of Higher Education" in the Modern Learning Environments - research area is approached by the customer's point of view and the organiser's point of view. Modern Learning Environment -research area is carried out by Faculty of Economics and Business Administartion. 1) The Customer Satisfaction and Development Needs of the Distance and Multiform Education / Mr. Juha Väisänen 2) The Support Services of Distance and Multiform Education / Ms. Maria

Murtoniemi 3) The Costs and Cost Structure of the Distance and Multiform Education / Mr. Henry Kilpivaara 4) Investments and Cost Allocation in the Area of Distance and Multiform Education / Ms. Tea Kauhanen The case organisation of the research is the Education and Development Service unit and the distance and multiform education realised by the unit. This research examine the carrying out of higher education by using distance and multiform education methods in the area without own University or Polytechnic. Distance and multiform education was initiated in Kuusamo in 1990 and since then higher education has been transferred and carried out in the area. At the moment there are ca. 220-260 higher education students using distance and multiform education methods. The results of this research will be utilised in order to strengthen the continuity of higher education in the area. The research of distance and multiform education is quite rare and new in the area of economics and business administration in Finland. The earlier research has been carried out mainly in USA, England and Australia. Publications:

Research MustLearnIT: Using ICT for special subject distance learning in multigrade Project: schools Researcher: Ilkka Luoto (ilkka.luoto@chydenius.fi) University of Jyväskylä Pitkänsillankatu 1-3 Research 67701 Unit: KOKKOLA tel.+358 6 8294111 fax.+358 6 8294202 Research 01.10.2005 date: Level of Comprehensive schools Education: Field of Educational science Science: multigrade education distance education information technology Keyword(s): small school comprehensive education evaluation Abstract: The MuStLearnIT project targets primary schools in different European countries operating under special conditions such as multigrade and remote schools, where a few teachers (or even a single teacher) are responsible for teaching a small number of pupils of different ages and grades a variety of lessons and where often there are no 'subject specific expert' teachers for a

number of lessons, as opposed to larger 'standard' primary schools where several teachers of various specialisations cater for classes, each of which consists of pupils of the same age and abilities. The Research Department of the Chydenius Institute will contribute their experience and interest in evaluating the interim and final results of the project. Publications:

Research Paired student work in distance education based on network and video Project: conferencing connections Researcher: Kaarina Laine (kaarina.laine@utu.fi) University of Turku Assistentinkatu 5 Research 20014 Unit: TURUN YLIOPISTO tel.+358 2 33351 Research 01.01.1998 - 31.01.1999 date: Level of Universities Education: Field of Educational science Science: Communication and information sciences distance education Keyword(s): didactic use of computer computer network The intention based on this small-scale test was to discover if it was possible to develop interaction between the distance education groups using video conferencing and network by making use of paired student work and alternately placing the teacher in both locations. The experiment was carried out in the Departments of Teacher Training of Rauma and Turku of the University of Turku. The subjects were six students training to be kindergarten and class teachers, who were paired off. All were women. The teaching environments in both locations were multimedia laboratories in which distance education assistants took care of the video conferencing connections. The teacher alternated between locations. In the location that was without teacher, the assistant functioned as a tutor. The students were asked, with the aid of the network, both open and structured questions on their opinions on how they felt about the teaching. The answers to the open questions were interpretated qualitatively by the content analysis to form answer categories. All the answers and answer categories were examined through frequential distribution. In this experiment the pair work was a successful solution and through its use students also feel that the interaction between distant groups is good. Also, the alternate presence of the teacher in each location seems to have been a good practice.

Abstract:

Publications:

Research Project:

Pilot experiment on the use by novices of networking and videonet meeting study methods in university teaching

Researcher: Kaarina Laine (kaarina.laine@utu.fi) University of Turku Assistentinkatu 5 Research 20014 Unit: TURUN YLIOPISTO tel.+358 2 33351 Research 01.09.1997 - 30.11.1998 date: Level of Universities Education: Field of Educational science Science: Communication and information sciences didactic use of computer Keyword(s): distance education university studies In this experiment our aim was to discover the reactions of a teacher and two groups of students to multimethod teaching where, in a distance learning context, they were making use, for the first time, of networking and netmeeting teaching technology in their studies. The purpose of the teaching was to support and further the students' skills in information processing, reflection, discussion and networking. The subjects in the research were two groups of education students. One group was working in the Department of Education in Turku (n=3); the other was in the Department of Teacher Education in Rauma (n=7). Of the ten participants six were women anf five were men. The teacher was in Turku. There was a tutor in Rauma who dirested networking studies in particular. In both places lessons took place in multimedia classrooms where distance learninig assistants looked after the video connections. The students were presented, via the net, with both open and structured questions on their opinions as to how the teaching had succeeded. The teacher wrote feedback papers evaluating the success based on her observations and on the video tapes recorded. The answers to the open questions were interpretated qualitatively by the content analysis to form answer categories. All the answers and answer categories were examined through frequential distribution. In spite of the fact that this was a pilot experiment, it can be seen to indicate that even teachers and students who are unused to technology in their teaching and studying can benefit positively from it, when it is used appropriately. It would seem that a technological learning environment can be planned in such a way that it offers students facilities for self-directed study, while at the same time developing the skills necessary for deep learning, and for communication and computer skills. In this experiment the biggest problem was achieving natural interaction between the distance groups. Publications:

Abstract:

Research

Sokrates Fetiche project. The University of Helsinki experiment

Project: Researcher:

Research Unit:

Seppo Tella (seppo.tella@helsinki.fi) University of Helsinki / Vantaa Institute for Continuing Education Lummetie 2 A 01300 VANTAA tel.+358 9 19129003 fax.+358 9 19129000 01.03.1996 - 31.08.1997 Adult education

Research date: Level of Education: Field of Science:

Teacher education Communication and information sciences teacher education in-service training continuing education Keyword(s): information information technology communication The focus of the Fetiche project will be communications between the various partners engaged in teacher education and the effect technology has upon these communications. The focus of the first Finnish Experiment was Abstract: to define user needs in field of Information and Communication Technologies and Education. The second Experiment focuses are communicational features. Publications:

Research Project: Researcher:

Upper secondary distance learning project Petra Wager University of Helsinki / Department of Teacher Education PL 9 (Siltavuorenpenger 20) 00014 HELSINGIN YLIOPISTO tel.+358 9 1911 fax.+358 9 19129611 01.01.1998 - 31.12.1999 Upper secondary schools

Research Unit:

Research date: Level of Education: Field of Science: Keyword(s): Abstract: Publications:

distance education upper secondary

Ollikainen Raila 1999 Opiskelun ohjaus etälukiossa Helsingin yliopisto. Kasvatustieteen laitos

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Nurminen Outi 1999 Itseohjautuva toiminta avoimessa opiskeluympäristössä. Tapaustutkimus etälukiosta Helsingin yliopisto. Kasvatustieteen laitos Aalto Markus 1999 Aikuisen etälukiolaisen opiskelu rankkaa, mutta motivoivaa työtä julkaisussa Kokemuksia, tuntemuksia & ajatuksia etäopiskelusta Etäuutiset 1/1999 Kynäslahti H., Wager P. 1999 New Roles of the Teacher. ComNEd'99 -seminar 13.-18.6.1999, Aulanko, Hämeenlinna Kynäslahti H., Wager P. 1999 Changing Roles of the Teacher in Interinstitutional Networks of Schools. Husita-seminar 29.8.-1-9-1999, Budapest, Hungary Wager P., Aalto M. 1998 Impact. Opetus- ja opiskeluprosessit avoimissa etäopiskeluympäristöissä. Opetushallituksen etäopetusprojektin tutkimuksen väliraportti 13.10.1998 Wager P., Kynäslahti H. 1999 Roles of the Teacher in an Open and Distance Teaching Environment. The 19th ICDE Conference on Open Learning and Distance Education: The New Educational Frontier: Teaching and Learning in a Networked World 20.-24.6.1999, Vienna, Austria Wager P., Vahtivuori S., Passi A. 1999 "Opettaja, opettaja, teletiimi Tellus kutsuu..." Yhteisölliseen Opiskeluun Tähtäävän Virtuaalikoulumaisen Opiskeluympäristön Edellytyksiä Kasvatus 30 (3) Wager Petra, Aalto Markus 2000 Etälukiolla eteenpäin. Opetuksen ja opiskelun uudet etätuulet. IMPACT-tutkimuksen loppuraportti. ESR/Kehittyvä koulutus 1/2000 Helsinki Opetushallitus ISBN 952-13-0830-3 ISSN 1238-1462

Avoin oppimisympäristö 1 Research Adult eLearner. Orientations and learning experiences in network learning Project: environment Researcher: Vesa Korhonen (kaveko@uta.fi) University of Tampere Ratapihankatu 55 Research 33014 Unit: TAMPEREEN YLIOPISTO tel.+358 3 215 6550 fax.+358 3 215 7502 Research 01.10.1999 - 24.03.2003 date: Level of Universities Education: Field of Educational science Science: Computer sciences and computer technology learning learning environment learning experience Keyword(s): didactic use of computer learning goals learning strategies Abstract: The purpose of the study was to explore patterns of learning among adult students in a web-based learning environment over the study period of approximately one year. The main research population comprised 23 adult students who had completed the web-based study programme in nursing science in the Open University. The learning environment varied from traditional face-to-face small group sessions to web-based sessions. The learning environment was goal-oriented in nature and focused on selfassessment of learning. Data were collected during the web-based programme in the form of qualitative textual material (essays, learning diaries). In addition, quantitative survey data were collected to make comparisons between different learning environments. The comparison groups consisted of Open University students completing the last web-based module (N=32) and academic degree students (N=49) who were majoring in nursing science and followed traditional learning methods. Learning has been researched from the perspectives of general approach to learning and learning experiences. As for the general approach to learning, the examination focused both on more general orientation factors underlying the studies and on strategies related to the regulation of action and performance of learning tasks, which had a more concrete effect in the learning environment. The general approach to learning was analyzed through the perspectives of learning goals, general study orientation and contextual orientation. Metacognitive regulation strategies of learning, learning strategies, and epistemological beliefs were the focus of attention especially in the quantitative part of the research. Learning experiences were examined in

relation to the question of how reflective self-assessment of learning occurred and what kinds of contexts were connected with the experiences in the learning environment. The qualitative part of the research was based on a modification of the grounded theory analysis. The qualitative analysis demonstrated two contextual orientations in the web-based learning environment: meaningful and accommodative learning. In the orientation pattern of meaningful learning, the learning intentions are constructed around understanding or application of knowledge. The general study orientation to learning varies between content or applicationfocused orientation. Learning is mainly an active and self-regulatory effort in the learning environment. Similarly, metacognitive capabilities develop as a result of active reflection. Learners are active subjects in the learning environment and seek to construct meanings either on their own or together with other learners, and are capable of identifying and assessing their own perceptions and learning processes in a versatile manner. In the orientation pattern of accommodative learning, the learner's action and performance, that is, carrying out and completing the tasks, and action in learning situations, emerge as the main features. The predominant general approach to learning can primarily be referred to as an action orientation. The personal search for the meaning of learning and reflection on one's own learning receive less attention. Learners either perceived the learning environment to be challenging, or their life circumstances presented a number of rival demands which made them adjust to the environment and cope with its requirements. In the quantitative data, there also emerged the orientation pattern of appreciation of practical knowledge, which was found to be the predominant pattern in the comparison groups of academic degree students. This indicates that the learning interests were constructed through the usability and applicability of knowledge. The study showed that the web-based learning environment with its ways of organization was more supportive of meaningful learning than was the traditional learning environment at university. As concluded from the learning experiences of adult students, one of the most important features in the web-based learning environment was the collaborative context, constructed jointly by students, which opened up a dialogical space in the learning environment where learners felt they were connected to a wider knowledge transfer context in addition to the substance of learning. The learning environment cannot thus be described exhaustively as one of the contexts underlying learning, but is composed in the interaction between different contexts of knowledge construction. Publications:

Research Project: Researcher: Research Unit:

Advantages and disadvantages of web-based learning Kirsi Tirri (kirsi.tirri@helsinki.fi) University of Helsinki PL 9

00014 HELSINGIN YLIOPISTO tel.+358 9 191 20555 fax.+358 9 191 20561 Research date: Level of Education: Field of Science: 01.08.1999 Adult education

Educational science Computer sciences and computer technology didactic use of computer learning environment Keyword(s): computer network learning The purpose of the study is to investigate the advantages and disadvantages of web-based learning. The view of teachers and students are compared to find out the possible differenees in their perspectives in web-based leaming, Abstract: studying and teaching. The data is gathered by questionnaires and interviews from those students and teachers who have studied and taught in the Open Virtual University of Helsinki (HEVI) and Apaja internet-services during the years 1995-1999. • Tirri, Kirsi 2000 Tendances actuelles de l'édition pédagogique en Finlande L'edition pedagogique en Europe Nice Idées Nouvelles Éditions 104-113 ISBN 2-9-13022-02-2 • Tirri, K. & Tella, S. 2001 Creating a virtual based learning environment for the Finnish school International Journal of Continuing Engineering Education and Life-Long Learning 11 4/5/6 343-355 • Tirri, K. & Nevgi, A. 2001 Students' views on learning in virtual university Resources in Education, ED 448121 Publications: • Tirri, K. & Nevgi, A. 2001 In search of a good virtual teacher Resources in Education, ED 448122 • Nokelainen, P., Silander, T., Tirri, H., Nevgi, A. & Tirri, K. 2001 Modeling Students' Views on the Advantages of Web-Based Learning with Bayesian Networks Proceedings of The 10th International PEG2001 Conference,Tampere, June 2001 202-211

Research Project: Researcher: Research Unit: Research date: Level of Education: Field of Science:

Calibrating eLearning in Schools (CALIBRATE) Teemu Leinonen (teemu.leinonen (at) uiah.fi) University of Art and Design 03.10.2005 -

Communication and information sciences

school Keyword(s): learning environment digital application The CALIBRATE (Calibrating eLearning in Schools) project (October 2005 - March 2008) brings together eight Ministries of Education, (including six Abstract: MoEs from new member states), to carry out a multi-level project designed to support the collaborative use and exchange of learning resources in schools.

Research Project: Researcher:

Collaborative distance learning in post secondary adult education Marko Susimetsä University of Tampere PL 229 13101 HÄMEENLINNA tel.+358 3 355 111 fax.+358 3 3551 3611 01.01.2001 - 17.08.2006 Universities Adult education

Research Unit:

Research date: Level of Education: Field of Science:

adult education collaborative learning Keyword(s): web-based learning distance study learning environment The aim of the study is to study the factors explaining the efficiency of collaborative learning in a virtual learning environment and to build a model of this learning from the learners' point of view. The material for the research is gathered from students taking part in the basic studies of education at the University of Tampere's Research Centre for Vocational Education. A group of adult students who work in the field of adult education take part in this study program during 2003. The studies are arranged according to the principles of collaborative learning and most of the study assignments are carried out in a virtual learning environment. The methodology of the research is mainly qualitative and concentrates on the study journals that the students write about their learning experiences. The research material consists mainly of the study journals that the students have written over the course of their studies, as well as a quantitative questionnaire. The research is carried out at the University of Tampere's Research Centre for Vocational Education. Publications: • Susimetsä, Marko 2006 Motivated and Self-Regulated Learning of Adult

Abstract:

Learners in a Collective Online Environment Acta Universitatis Tamperensis 1160 Tampereen yliopisto ISBN 951-44-6666-7 ISSN 1455-1616

Research Project: Researcher: Research Unit: Research date: Level of Education: Field of Science:

Critical points that effect the process of creating a team learning environment into a polytechnic school Leena Varis Jyväskylä Polytechnic / Jyväskylä University of Applied Sciences 01.01.2004 - 20.11.2007 Polytechnics (AMK) institutions Business administration, economic geography

polytechnic education Keyword(s): team learning environment The aim of this paper is to find out the critical points that are confronted when creating a team learning process according to Team Academy¿s methods into a polytechnic school. Timeline is the first year of the team learning pilot. The subject has been observed in this paper from the point of view of the coordinator of a pilot. This person is also the coach for the first team and he/ she is leading the new process. Team Academy¿s learning methods have been developed since the year 1993, when the first Team Academy was founded in Jyväskylä. After this the learning methods have been expended in several polytechnic schools. The people that have been interviewed for the paper are from these schools. They are the head coach of Team Academy in Jämsänkoski, the founder of Proakatemia in Tampere, the coordinator of Oiva-Akatemia in Kymeenlaakso polytechnic and the founder of Bisens-Akatemia in Lahti.

Abstract:

The interviews were done with main themes, not with strict question papers. Through interviews there were defined four critical points during the first year of team learning process: the collaboration between the coordinator and the school board, the coach¿s skills and motivation, well planned communications and using the learning methods based in the tools that are used in Team Academy. Research results of this paper can be used in programmes of creating team learning processes into polytechnic school. With the help of these results the coordinator can be reminded of the critical points and take them into consideration. The theoretical references of the paper are books about change management, team learning and communications. • Varis, Leena & Veripää, Sari 2007 Kriittiset tekijät tiimioppimisympäristön perustamisessa ammattikorkeakouluun Jyväskylän ammattikorkeakoulu Publications:

Research Developing tutoring in the teaching of Open University. The action research Project: study Researcher: Päivikki Jääskelä (paivikki.jaaskela@avoin.jyu.fi) University of Jyväskylä Pitkänsillankatu 1-3 Research 67701 Unit: KOKKOLA tel.+358 6 8294111 fax.+358 6 8294202 Research 01.01.2000 - 16.04.2005 date: Level of Universities Education: Field of Educational science Science: university studies open university Keyword(s): guidance tutor Abstract: This study focuses on the nature and the role of tutoring with the aim of developing tutoring through two action research-based interventions among the multiform (classroom teaching, distance education and self-study) teaching methods used in Open University in Jyväskylä. The first intervention was to develop basic studies and tutoring in Education in the Chydenius Institute Open University. In the project a five credit study unit, which was offered as an alternative to more traditional study tasks, was planned and put into practice. This alternative study method was characterised by exploratory and problem-based learning, by the construction of knowledge in the tutoring group, and by the students reflecting on their activities and thinking as well as by a clearer role for tutors as supervisors and evaluators. The theoretical framework of the project was formed from considerations regarding the nature of educational knowledge and thinking as well as a focus on the constructivist-pragmatist approach to learning and student guidance. The second intervention was a project to develop tutor training in Jyväskylä Open University. A curriculum for piloting tutor training was developed in the project. The aim was, on the basic of the knowledge thus gained, to plan training which would give the professional university tutoring skills for work as a tutor in the university and which would enable wider testing of the results obtained in the first intervention. Following the action research approach, the research task was modified during the research process: The first task was the development of tutoring and the description and evaluation of this process. As the research progressed the task changed into one of investigating the nature and the role of tutoring in the Open University and the development of curriculum for a new tutor training.

The methodological approaches used in the study were interpretivity, qualitative evaluation of the developed activity and the formation of constructivist knowledge. The data consisted of documents written by students, a study diary kept by the researcher, discussions at meetings of tutors, evaluation discussions after working in tutoring groups, and documents describing the development project, such as working papers and meeting memos. The nature and role of tutoring are defined by the Open University¿s own working culture and by the academic nature of university studies as well as by the various starting points and prerequisites for study of the students. Working in these contexts places the tutors in the middle of conflicting expectations. The results show that the implementation of multiform teaching needs to be evaluated more critically than hitherto. The position of tutors in the Open University and as a part of the university¿s dialogic learning community should be strengthened by developing means of cooperation and tutor training. • Jääskelä, Päiviki 2005 Tuutorointi avoimen yliopiston opetuksessa. Tuutoroinnin kehittämistä koskeva toimintatutkimus Chydenius-instituutin Publications: tutkimuksia nro 1/2005 Kokkola ISBN 951-39-2102-6. ISSN 0789-0710

Research Project: Researcher:

Cognitive tools for computer-supported collaborative learning and design work Esko Kuittinen (esko.kuittinen@helsinki.fi) University of Helsinki / ICT Learning Centre Lummetie 2 A Research Unit: 01300 VANTAA Research date: 02.01.2001 - 31.12.2003 Level of Polytechnics (AMK) institutions Education: Social psychology Field of Psychology, educational psychology Science: Educational science Adult education learning environment learning process Keyword(s): didactic use of computer creation of teaching aids educational technology The study is related to the R&D project Verkkosalkku, which aims at developing a web based environment for collaborative learning and working. The study focuses on: Abstract: - evaluating the afforded cognitive tools for collaborative learning, learning material planning, and industrial design work - analyzing the progress of teachers' pedagogical thinking during the project Publications:

Research Project: Researcher: Research Unit: Research date: Level of Education: Field of Science:

Employees¿ experiences with e-learning in Loisto in Säästöpankki Optia Marja-Leena Jauhiainen

01.01.2006 - 25.05.2007 Adult education, other than certificate-oriented Adult education

eLearning Keyword(s): learning environment working life E-learning has become an important part of employees' learning and training. With the help of elearning methods employees can be familiarized and trained extensively regardless of time and place. The employer of this research, Savings Bank Optia, has used e-learning as a part of employees' training since 2005. Earlier researches on this topic have not been made. The aim of the research was to find out how employees experience usability and suitability with elearning in Loisto in Savings Bank Optia. Another aim of this research was to find out what employees find important in using elearning. A further aim was to search for suggestions to develop the usage of e-learning.The research methods were quantitative survey examination and qualitative theme interview. The survey examination was carried out with a control inquiry. The data was collected with a structured questionnaire which was delivered to 39 people. 20 employees responded to the questionnaire. The response rate reached 51,3 percent. Six employees were interviewed for this research. According to the research results, employees are generally satisfied with elearning in Loisto. Employees are satisfied with the good functioning of elearning, material suitability for e-learning purposes, independency of time, fluency in operating the e-learning package as well as with individual progress. Employees' suggestions to develop the usage of e-learning include training for using elearning platform, to have more study material and clarify the use. On the basis of the results Savings Bank Optia can improve the clarity and diversity of the e-learning process Loisto. Publications:

Abstract:

Research Project: Researcher: Research Unit:

Evaluation and development project of www-based learning environments Jyri Manninen (jyri.manninen@helsinki.fi) University of Helsinki / Lahti Research and Training Centre PL 12 (Vuorikatu 20) 00014 HELSINGIN YLIOPISTO

tel.+358 9 191 23609 fax.+358 9 191 23602 Research date: Level of Education: Field of Science: 01.01.1998 - 31.12.2000 Adult education

Communication and information sciences Adult education adult education learning environment Keyword(s): Internet action research Abstract: • Pesonen, Senja 1998 Www-pohjaisten oppimisympäristöjen didaktisia periaatteita - toimintatutkimusprojektin teoreettisen pohjan rakentaminen Helsingin yliopisto. Kasvatustieteen laitos. Pro gradu -tutkielma • Matikainen, Janne & Manninen, Jyri (toim.) 2000 Aikuiskoulutus verkossa: Publications: verkkopohjaisten oppimisympäristöjen teoriaa ja käytäntöä Helsingin yliopiston Lahden tutkimus- ja koulutuskeskus.Oppimateriaaleja 93 ISBN 951-45-8764-2

Research From open studies to know-how. Everyday experiences of students at the Project: experimental Provincial University in the Kemi-Tornio area Researcher: Marja-Liisa Vaara (marja-liisa.vaara@ulapland) University of Lapland PL 122 Research 96101 Unit: ROVANIEMI tel.+358 16 341 2430 fax.+358 16 341 2401 Research 01.01.2001 - 07.10.2005 date: Level of Universities Education: Field of Adult education Science: open education Keyword(s): educational equality adult education Abstract: The aim of the study was to examine the experimental Provincial University in the Kemi-Tornio area from the perspective of mature students. The study focused on the everyday experiences of students taking part in the experimental Provincial University and the significance they gave to their studies. The target group in this study were mature students (N=319) who took part in the experimental Provincial University in the Kemi-Tornio area. Under the

working name of Masters from the Province, the implementation of the experimental Provincial University as part of a national pilot project comes under the provincial University of Lapland. This is one example of the operational model at the Provincial University. The research material comprised interviews and questionnaires which were conducted from 2001-2004. My research was shaped by the following questions: the way in which the experimental Provincial University was implemented in the Kemi-Tornio area, the experiences mature students had of the University as a promoter of educational equality in the area, the factors that restricted studies and that appeared in the students¿ discourses at the Provincial University. The study was set in the fields of adult education, family and education¬al sociology and university policy. The study took a fundamental ethnomethodological approach. Founded by Garfinkel in the 1950s, ethnomethodology describes the everyday lives of ordinary people and the methods and flows of thought by which ordinary members of society make sense of their living conditions, function within them and influence them. In other words, it describes the way in which people handle their daily work, their studies and day-to-day life at home. In different contexts, the subject may perform in different positions. Ethnomethodological research also emphasizes that the researcher¿s role need not be eliminated; rather, personal opinions about matters reveal familiar and unfamiliar areas of social reality. The empiric material for the study comprised experiences from the subjects¿ day-to-day lives and the significance they gave to their actions. Discourse analysis was used as the method of approach for this material. Constructions of events form the core of discourse analysis. Speech is seen as broader linguistic practices that bring about social reality. Social texts, which are the focus of discourse analysis, include both spoken and written material. The results drew attention to the need for decentralized university education. Guidance systems showed a dear need for development and the students¿ experiences underlined the necessity for coordinating the courses arranged in the area. From the perspective of the research area, the network-like Provincial University is unclear and shaky. The results indicated inadequate cooperation at the practical level between educational organizations as well as with economic life. Several regional strategies and plans have been drawn up in recent years, the concrete implementation of which is still at the early stage. • Vaara, Marja-Liisa 2005 Avoimista opinnoista osaamiseksi Maakuntakorkeakoulukokeilun arkea opiskelijoiden kokemana Kemi-Tornion seutukunnassa Acta Universitatis Lapponiensis 90 Rovaniemi Lapin Publications: yliopisto 166 s. ISBN 951-634-993-5 ISSN 0788-7604

Research Project: Researcher: Research

How to support productive collaboration? - Developing Resources for Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning (STRUCTURE) Päivi Häkkinen (paivi.hakkinen@ktl.jyu.fi) University of Jyväskylä

Unit:

PL 35 40014 JYVÄSKYLÄN YLIOPISTO tel.+358 14 260 3200 fax.+358 14 260 3201 01.01.2008 Universities Educational science

Research date: Level of Education: Field of Science:

collaboration computer-supported learning Keyword(s): collaborative learning open university Abstract: When learners are left on their own, they rarely engage in knowledgegenerative activities such as explaining and justifying their opinions or articulating their reasoning (Kobbe et al., 2007). Therefore, collaboration scripts as instructional support have been presented as a promising method to trigger these activities and to provide structure for learning environments (Dillenbourg, 2002). Although different research groups have designed learning environments for single studies with specific scripts (Dillenbourg & Jermann, 2006; Hämäläinen, 2006; Stegmann et al., 2005), there is no systematic empirical research on the effects scripts in authentic large-scale settings. What is needed is a profound understanding of the process of productive collaboration and its relation to learning outcomes in scripted learning environments. The aims of this project are twofold. First, we focus on theoretical elaboration on the concept of productive collaboration (Research task 1). Second, we will design instructional support for productive collaboration based on flexible scripts and study the effects of these scripts (Research task 2). In this study, we lean on design-based research approach, which integrates traditional instructional design and research on learning processes in a way in which different types of expertise enable reciprocal development of theory, implementation of the virtual environments and practice in the education field (Brown, 1992; Wang & Hannafin, 2005). The subjects (N = 300) of the study are higher education students. The empirical part of this research project consists of two phases. In the first phase, we design and explore instructional support based on flexible collaboration scripts. In the second phase, we study the effects of these scripts in terms of both learning processes and outcomes. The intervention conditions will vary between different groups. The aim is to design scripts that allow teachers and students to modify the script (e.g. modifications on task or available resources). Scripts are designed for supporting collaboration among learners who are at some points working at distance and at some points face-to-face, and whose interaction is (at least partially) mediated by a computer (Dillenbourg & Jermann, 2006). In this research project, we aim to take these demands into account by

conducting long-term follow-up studies with the same groups of students. The data from multiple sources will be utilized to enable a mixed method approach (cf. Hmelo-Silver, 2003; Winne & Perry, 2000). With the aid of multi-method approach, we aim to understand what constitutes productive collaboration in terms of both processes and outcomes of learning. The results of this research will advance our theoretical understanding on the processes and outcomes of productive collaboration as well as help in designing scripts aimed at increasing the effectiveness of learning environments, with and without technology will be developed. Publications:

Research Impact of LEGO/Logo learning environment on children's problem solving Project: skills Researcher: Jyrki Suomala (jyrki.suomala@utu.fi) University of Turku PL 175 Research 26101 Unit: RAUMA tel.+358 2 837801 fax.+358 2 83780447 Research 01.01.1992 - 21.05.1999 date: Level of Comprehensive schools, lower stage Education: Educational science Field of Psychology, educational psychology Science: Computer sciences and computer technology primary school problem solving teaching method Keyword(s): didactic use of computer learning environment educational psychology Abstract: The study examines fifth-grade Finnish students' problem-solving in the LEGO/Logo learning environment. LEGO/Logo integrates Lego building blocks with the Logo programming language. The study analyses Seymour Papert's theoretical ideas underlying Logo and relates these ideas to current discussion of problem solving. The subjects were students attending three primary schools (N=198). The study consists of two parts. Part One studies the influence of LEGO/Logo learning on students' performance in tests that was built on Piagetian schemata, i.e., conserving of displaced volume, propositional reasoning, probabilistic reasoning, and mastering of permutation. The test arranged was a classroom test (Enkenberg 1989). Two research groups underwent different instructional procedures. The LEGO/Logo group (n = 103) participated in a 20-hour teaching phase, whereas the ordinary group (n = 95) participated in conventional teaching without the use of computers. Pre- to post test changes in testscores were compared for the LEGO/Logo group and the ordinary

group. In this way it was possible to assess the influence of LEGO/Logo on the students' general, context-independent problem-solving skills. Part Two studies the LEGO/Logo group's problem-solving processes. The LEGO/Logo group was divided into two learning groups. The mediated group (n = 48) received teaching according to the mediated model, whereas the discovery group (n = 56) was taught according to the discovery model. The 20-hour-long teaching programme consisted of the merry-go-round - and the robot projects. After the teaching period a section of the students in the mediated LEGO/Logo group (n = 42) and in the discovery LEGO/Logo group (n = 46) participated in the experiment phase, which consisted of an open LEGO/Logo problem-solving task. The task involved programming the Lego robot to follow a certain route. The students' problem-solving processes were videotaped and the subsequent analysis was based on measures developed by Clements and Nastasi (1988). This analysis focuses on the occurrence of cognitive conflict solving, cooperation with teacher and explicit planning. In addition, the relationship of problem solving to prior experiences of Logo and to the students' school achievement and gender was studied. The study also reports on the analyses of the Logo programs developed by the students during the experimental phase and their relationship to the students' problem solving. The development of Piagetian thinking was independent of the instructional model, gender and school achievement. However, the results of the study indicated that learning model, gender, and thinking level, as well as interaction between the learning model and prior experience, accounted for group differences in LEGO/Logo problem solving among students. Overall the results were interpreted as supporting the validity of the discovery learning model, when students are solving problems in a progressive learning environment. The student's role as an active learner during progressive problem solving should be respected by the teacher but, at the same time, the teacher should provide appropriate support in those situations where students encounter insuperable problems during problem solving. Publications: • Suomala, Jyrki 1996 Eight-year-old pupils' problem solving process within a LOGO learning environment Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research 40 4 209-309 • Suomala, Jyrki 1997 Kognitiiviset ristiriidat ongelmanratkaisun aikana LEGO/Logo oppimisympäristössä. Teoksessa Teknologiakasvatuksen tulevaisuuden näköaloja. J. Kajanoja, J. Kari & M. Parikka (toim.) Jyväskylän yliopiston opettajankoulutuslaitos. Opetuksen perusteita ja käytänteitä 30 5359 • Suomala, Jyrki 1995 Spontaani oppiminen LEGO/Logo -oppimisympäristöissä. Teoksessa Rajanylityksiä: monipuolistuva kasvatustutkimus tieteiden kentässä. J. Jussila & R. Rajala (toim.) XVI Kasvatustieteen päivät Rovaniemellä 24. - 26.11.1994. Lapin yliopiston kasvatustieteellisiä Julkaisuja C. Katsauksia ja puheenvuoroja 10 409-423 • Suomala, Jyrki 1996 Effect of Teaching Method on Children's conflicts in a LEGO/Logo Learning Environment. Proceedings. Fifth European Logo Conference, Birmingham, England, 21-23 July 1995. Aston university, Birmingham 45-49

Suomala, Jyrki 1993 Natural learning in a Lego-Logo learning environment. In Proceedings the fourth European logo conference University of Athens, Department of Informatics 28-31 August 1993. Athens, Greece: Douras School 69-74 Suomala, Jyrki 1999 Students' problem solving in the LEGO/Logo learning environment Jyväskylä studies in education, psychology and social research 152 ISBN 951-39-0384-2 ISSN 0075-4625

Research Learning at work as an interplay between individual's point of departure and Project: learning environments Researcher: Kirsi Heikkilä (ankihe@uta.fi) University of Tampere Ratapihankatu 55 Research 33014 Unit: TAMPEREEN YLIOPISTO tel.+358 3 215 6550 fax.+358 3 215 7502 Research 01.01.1999 - 18.02.2006 date: Level of Adult education Education: Field of Adult education Science: on-the-job learning Keyword(s): learning environment ethnography Abstract: The object of this research is learning at work occurring at the workplace and in connection with work. The point of departure was to examine learning at work from various perspectives: how the workers themselves feel about learning, what the individual's points of departure are for learning at work and what the learning environment is like with regard to the technicalorganisational and socio-cultural learning environment. The research began in the form of case studies in a metal company, a department store, a new media enterprise, a hospice and progressed to the theatre. The research makes use of learning theories and especially of views of the relationship between the individual and the environment. The individual is contemplated from the perspective of motivation and identity through four workers (a metalworker, a salesperson, a copywriter and a nurse), the technical-organisational learning environment is contemplated through an examination of the nature of the work, likewise in four workplaces (in metal company, the department store, the new media enterprise and the hospice) and the socio-cultural learning environment is contemplated from the perspective of social theory of learning and creation of knowledge in theatre work. The research problems are: How do people feel about learning in the various workplaces, in work environments which are organised in different ways? What kind of learning environment is the workplace? How does learning at work appear as a part of the wider sphere of the individual's life? What is the

nature of the views people hold of their workplaces and developing there? What are the workers' point of departure with regard to learning? How does learning ocuur in group work, and of what kind? What kind of a learning environment is a project group engaged on creative work? The research was accomplished using qualitative research methods in the case research in the first stage data were gathered mostly by interviewing and observing workers. Workers' background information was elicited by questionnaire and background information on the workplaces was gathered from documents pertaining to them. In thesecond stage the research on the work of the theatre workgroup was accomplished ethnographically, the research data being unstructured interviews, individual interviews, group discussion, monitoring the work process, observation and work diaries. The research findings reveal how workers from different points of departure accomplish their work and learn at work. The nature of the work and the way in which it is organised have a significant effect on the opportunities arising for learning at work. The Tayloristic way of organising work continues to dominate many workplaces; this was seen in the metal company and the department store. The metal company was low in stimuli as a learning environment, likewise to some extent the department store. However, the employer did endeavour, among other things through varying tasks, to expand the scope for learning and the preconditions for feeling good at work. In the department store the workers did not themselves perceive opportunities for learning, although there would indeed appear to be some. The new media enterprise on the other hand represents a work organisation with a flat hierarchy based on project work and responsibility for the individual. There were ample opportunities for learning. Regarding this workplace the essential question, however, concerns the nature of learning. In the hectic pace of work there were no opportunities for gaining a command ofthe entity. In the hospice the work appeared to be compelling in its pace and relatively simple basic nursing. However, such work demands a profound understanding of the care of the patient. Each of the workplaces differed from the others withcregard to the nature of the work and the way in which it was organised. The ways of learning also differed significantly. For learning the point of departure is generally experience, but in some workplaces learning was based on trial and error, on others on independent information acquisition, combining theory and experience and solving problems together. Examination of the points of departure of individuals revealed the significance of age and gender in accomplishing work and orientatingto learning new things. The metal worker was interested in broadening his job description and in learning new things. A female metalworker wished to achieve an autonomous position as a worker in a male-dominatedfield in which women do simple repetitive tasks. In the female-dominated retail organisation, as career prospects dimished with increasing age, interest in lifelong learning likewise diminished. Life was felt to be somewhere outside of work. The new media worker perceived her career path to be horizontal. What mattered was to take constant care of one's own professional skill and development. The great desire of the nurse to learn emerged from coping with heavy work and the need to pull through. Through continuous study and learning the nurse can take distance from her work and take on board new

conceptual tools to mange her work better than before. All four workers felt that their positions in their respective jobs were in a constant state of change. Motivation to accomplish the work ranged from earning money and making a living to the fulfilment of values important to the individual concerned. Commitment to the work varied in relation to this. The activities of the theatre group provided an opportunity to see what the prerequisities for creative group work are, and on the other hand what barriers occur in project-type group work. What emerged especially through the theatre work was the significance of physical space and the possibilities as a means of promoting learning and the creation of something new. Work in the theatre requires continuous learning and creating something new, which occurs through various experiments and cooperation in the group. With regard to the requirements of the social theory of learning and the creation of something new the thetre group was virtually "exemplary". At atmosphere was deliberately engendered that was conducive to learning and the creation of something new. Through ethnographic research, however, questions emerged in the activity of the group the solution of which in working life will be a great future challenge of the mode of working based on a project-type organisation is applied more widely. Such challenges are pressures on activities of an economic nature and also pertaining to the rest of the members' lives. The very prominent role played by emotions in the theatre workers' descriptions of work was significant. Emotions are part and parcel of theatrical work;the people concerned are very aware of them and operate with them consciously. in theactivities of the group the significance of emotions is important in maintaining the working atmosphere. contructive resolution of conflicts was one major part of processing emotions in the group. Another main theme was sustaining a positive atmosphere in the group. Confidence in the members, respect for yhem as professionals and artists were essential components in the creation of the working atmosphere. The research started out from learning environment thinking pertaining to theories of learning. In the course of the work this changed to become a view of the condition of learning with various questions pertaining to the individual on motivation and the creation of identity; the workplace as a physical environment, the encounter of the nature of work and the social activity of the organisation. In the best case learning promoting the actions of both the individual and the organisation becomes possible. But this is not always the case. The research shows the importance of different perspectives in the conception of the opportunities for learning. • Heikkilä, Kirsi 2006 Työssä oppiminen yksilön lähtökohtien ja oppimisympäristöjen välisenä vuorovaikutuksena Tampere: Tampere Publications: University Press Tampereen yliopisto ISBN 951-44-6548-2

Research Project: Researcher: Research Unit:

Learning new, experimenting and considering. Individual and social learning paths in the cooperation of pre-primary and primary education Pirjo Forss-Pennanen (pirjo.forss-pennanen@cou.fi) University of Jyväskylä Pitkänsillankatu 1-3

67701 KOKKOLA tel.+358 6 8294111 fax.+358 6 8294202 Research date: Level of Education: Field of Science: 01.01.1993 - 08.09.2006 Preprimary education Educational science

primary education learning environment Keyword(s): professional growth cooperation This study is based on a local development project for pre-primary and primary education. Its purpose is to describe the development that has taken place along with the project in the working culture of schools and day-care centres and in the educators' interaction, as well as how the educators see their own path of professional growth and how important the development project has been to their path of professional growth. The theoretical approach to the study is ecological. In the ecological model, the development and learning environments are regarded as participating factors in the child's entire development. As the child matures, the immediate interaction relationships expand and become more complicated. This movement within the environmental space is called ecological transition. In the ecological transition process, the coming into existence of reciprocal communication between different environments is essential, because this communication affects a child's development. The day-care centres and schools are complex social communities within a cultural context and, thus, a part of contextual change. Typical for the postmodern age, the study concentrates on the culture of organization and on studying the interaction between its parts, as well as making visible the paths to professional growth of the educators through their narratives. The study uses an interpretative qualitative approach and its aim is to approach real context by means of a hermeneutic circle. In this study, this means studying the working culture of educational organizations, interaction between educators and the professional growth of educators. The study material consists of the information collected from the Kokkola development project of local pre-primary and primary education in 1993-2003. In the light of the development project, it would be seen that changes in the working culture of pre-primary and primary education and in the interaction between educators are possible. Learning takes place on many levels. Building cooperation and interaction in practical everyday work takes time but, on the other hand, there seems to be no time for this in this fast-changing world. Time is, however, the prerequisite for innovations, because a work community's path of change proceeds step by step from meetings to common events, and further to cooperation which develops through planning together. Time is also needed

Abstract:

for realizing the educators - in this study, kindergarten teachers' and class teachers' - individual paths of change; getting to know each other as people, getting to know the other person's work, planning together and learning to share collegial responsibility. Through these paths of change, a functioning cooperation and interaction is built in pre-primary and primary education. Its aim is to guarantee an individual learner's path of a good quality from pre-primary to primary education, so that a child has the possibility to advance individually on her/his path. A network of educators that provides versatile knowledge ensures this continuance of development and learning in a transition phase. The paths of the educators' professional growth manifest as wave-formed paths of change, along which the educators have experienced that they have obtained support from collegial discussions about the contents of work, education and development. The development project has enabled a social and individual growth process, which is related to the educators' professional growth. As a method the path descriptions of professional growth is practicable especially for professionals who already have work experience, for reflecting experiences related to their work. At its best, the method creates new perspectives when observing personal work history and at the same time the method advances the unlearning of bad practice and is relieving as the individual goes through experiences related to her/his career, draws and interprets points of change and key events. • Forss-Pennanen, Pirjo 2006 Uuden oppimista, kokeilua ja pohtimista. Yksilöllisiä ja yhteisöllisiä oppimispolkuja esi- ja alkuopetuksen yhteistyössä Publications:

Avoin oppimisympäristö 2 Research Meaningful and significant learning in Eastern Finland Virtual University Project: Researcher: Raimo Silkelä (raimo.silkela@joensuu.fi) University of Joensuu PL 86 Research 57101 Unit: SAVONLINNA tel.+358 15 51170 fax.+358 15 531060 Research 01.01.2002 - 31.12.2003 date: Level of Universities Education: Field of Educational science Science: web-based learning Keyword(s): learning environment learning Abstract: The purpose of the study is to investigate 1. how meaningful and significant the students participating in the internet courses of Eastern Finland Virtual University find their studies, and 2. what kind of were the learning styles during these courses. Among the criteria of meaningful learning are the following student attributes: 1. Commitment. The students commit themselves to their studies. 2. Reflectivity. The students are able and willing to understand and evaluate their learning processes and their results, and to supervise and modify these processes. 3. Constructiveness of learning. The students are able and willing to fit new information in the existing structures of knowledge. 4. Communality. The learner constructs new knowledge in a learning community. 5. Intentionality. Learning is goal-oriented and "makes sense" to the student; the learners aim actively and eagerly at accomplishing something. 6. Interactivity. Learning is a social and dialogical process. 7. Contextuality. Learning tasks are based on a meaningful real-life situation or a real problem. 8. Transferability. The learners can transfer what they have learned to another situation or use their knowledge in new situations. Meaningful learning has a quality of personal involvement - to make sense logically learning must involve man's whole personality in both its affective and cognitive aspects. Meaningful learning is self-initiated. Even when the impetus or stimulus comes from the outside, the sense of discovery, of reaching out, of grasping and comprehending comes from within.

Meaningful learning is pervasive. It makes a difference in the behaviour, the attitudes, perhaps even in the personality of the learner. It is constantly evaluated by the learner himself. Its essence is meaning. When such learning takes place, the element of meaning to the learner is built into the whole experience. Personally significant learning experiences are such positive or negative, personal and unique experiences which mould a person's identity, personality and self, and influence his/her world-view, values and growth. Significant experiences have more than temporary value: they mould a person's cognitive schema and so become part of his/her personality structure. For learning to be meaningful, significant and profound presupposes that learners be conscious of their beliefs and ideas about learning. Reflection of these spontaneous ideas makes it possible to revise and restructure them. The theoretical framework of the study comprises constructivism, situational learning and the theory of experiential learning. By investigating students' experiences, attitudes and ideas, it aims at improving network-based learning and developing better learning environments. The data for the study will be collected from the students of Eastern Finland Virtual University through questionnaires and half-structured thematic interviews in March and April 2002. The questionnaire data will be analysed using the SPSS 10 program and the interview data will be submitted to a phenomenographical analysis during summer and autumn 2003. Publications:

Research Project: Researcher:

Research Unit:

Models and methods for future knowledge construction: Interdisciplinary implementations with mobile technologies (MOMENTS) Seppo Tella (seppo.tella@helsinki.fi) University of Helsinki PL 9 00014 HELSINGIN YLIOPISTO tel.+358 9 1911 fax.+358 9 191 29611 01.10.2002 - 31.12.2005 Comprehensive schools Educational science

Research date: Level of Education: Field of Science:

network based education Keyword(s): technology learning environment Abstract: The main aims of the consortium are - to draw from an interdisciplinary perspective (e.g., technological, educational, and societal) and research traditions in order to gain thorough comprehension regarding future

challenges of learning and knowledge construction; - to design and assess a new integrated model that is based on an analysis of existing methods and models as well as future learning needs. This model is planned to combine a number of teaching and learning theories, understanding of the culture, society, and modern technologies in a novel way. Special focus will be paid to the cultural changes vis-à-vis the use of mobile technologies and mobile communication - to find and test technological solutions, which lead to a new integrated model based on future teaching, studying and learning needs. Implementing the model is directly related to experimenting certain mobile technologies in the framework of lifelong learning. Publications:

Research Multilingual learning environments and the needs of working life Project: Researcher: Aini-Kristiina Jäppinen (jappinen@ktl.jyu.fi) University of Jyväskylä PL 35 Research 40014 Unit: JYVÄSKYLÄN YLIOPISTO tel.+358 14 260 3200 fax.+358 14 260 3201 Research 01.08.2004 date: Vocational institutions Level of Universities Education: Polytechnics (AMK) institutions Field of Educational science Science: learning environment multiculturalism Keyword(s): multilingualism lifelong learning working life Abstract: The firts part of the study (2003-2004) focused on foreign language, plurilingual, and multicultural learning environments in higher and vocational education and in working life. The aim was to study how these kinds of learning environments met the requirements of the working life of the future as to the depth of understanding, knowledge creation and enabling, and life long learning. In higher education, three multicultural Master Programs in the University of Jyväskylä were included that were realized in English, not in the mother tongue of the learners. Teaching through English in the Finnish Kuopio vocational school represented the vocational sector. The part of the working life was studied in Metso Paper, a big Finnish international enterprise of paper machines. The planning of the second part of the study has started. It will concern the devevopment of expertise in

Metso Paper as an international and multilingual working environment in terms of informal and formal learning. Publications:

Research Project: Researcher: Research Unit: Research date: Level of Education: Field of Science:

Path of Open University - the road to university Anna-Liisa Hyvärinen University of Joensuu PL 111 80101 JOENSUU tel.+358 13 251111 01.01.2003 - 31.12.2006 Universities Sociology, educational sociology

open university university Keyword(s): higher education recruitment The road to university takes increasingly varied educational paths. The path through open university is the most popular choice, and it has an effect in part on the expansion of university studies to a larger group of students. The study examines the path of open university and the possibility of transition from open university to university from the point of view of those who have made the transition. Abstract: The study concentrates on examining the choice of university from the path of open university. The study examines the age, educational base, sex and social position of those choosing this path. The study takes a look at the formation of student¿s educational selection of university from open university and the consequences of this transition.

The study material has been collected with a questionnaire, and the method used is quantitative. The subject group is formed by students of open university who have been admitted to universities of East Finland. • Hyvärinen, Anna-Liisa 2006 Avoimen yliopiston väylä - koulutuspolku yliopistoon Lisensiaatintutkimus. Joensuun yliopisto. Yhteiskuntatieteiden Publications: tiedekunta. Sosiologian laitos

Real-life-oriented pedagogical action process as a method of work to intervene in exclusion from education from the viewpoints of the teacher, pupils and various interest groups Researcher: Tuomo Vilppola Research Project:

Research Unit:

University of Oulu PL 2000 90014 Oulun yliopisto tel.+358 8 553 3702 fax.+358 8 553 3744 01.01.1991 - 15.06.2007 Comprehensive schools, lower stage Comprehensive schools, upper stage Vocational institutions Educational science

Research date: Level of Education: Field of Science:

primary school lower secondary dropout Keyword(s): school failure special education learning environment Abstract: The study describes and analyses the implementation and development of the real-life-oriented pedagogical action process as a method of work to intervene in exclusion from education from the viewpoints of the teacher, pupils and various interest groups. The actual group of subjects consisted of 74 Oulu pupils in the Tuomontupa class in the years 1992-1998. The pupils aged 15 to 17 had dropped out or were about to do so and had been moved to a special class for education for the maladjusted. 23 of the students were girls and 51 were boys. The number of boys was more than double that of girls. The research site was the Tuomontupa class that functioned in a learning environment that was not school-like in the town's work training centre. The actual purpose of the study was to describe the RLO pedagogical action process implemented in special class teaching among young people aged 1517 who were threatened by exclusion from education. In addition to this, the realization and development of real-life-oriented pedagogical action in the case of young people near exclusion was also studied. From the theoretical and educational philosophical points of view, the research analysed the connections of the real-life-oriented pedagogical action process to social pedagogical thinking and tradition of action and to reform pedagogy. The study was carried out as a social pedagogical action study in which the data was gathered using various research methods. The methods included ethnographic observation and interpretation as well as social pedagogical participatory action research. Field data consisted of interview data, pupil transfer documents and other documents, participatory observation, pupils' essays, meeting memoranda and comparative statistical data on the pupils' school performance. Triangulation was used in an attempt to observe the research object in a comprehensive manner. The research results show that a real-life-oriented pedagogical action process

can have an impact on young people's exclusion from education. The reallife-oriented process helped to produce educational and pedagogical experiences that were felt to be positive by the young people, reinforcing the subjects' ability to think and act in the same way in similar situations in the future. The pupils' absences were reduced remarkably, and their grade averages improved. 63 pupils out of 74 in the research sample managed to complete the targets set for lower secondary education in one year, while 11 needed a longer time to complete school. Out of the 63 pupils who completed lower secondary education, 46 or 73% were subsequently selected to a senior secondary program. The research data also reveals the three critical phases when to intervene in exclusion from education. The first critical phase was attachment to education, while the second phase was the corrective phase and the third phase was constituted by the linking phase. It was also possible to fail in any of these phases of intervention. The research showed that it is possible to intervene in exclusion from education, and it does not require an enormous amount of special resources, provided that the various administrative units are called together to cooperate in a tangible way. Pupils in need of special support need flexible, comprehensive and individual opportunities to meet the school's requirements. Diversified and developing special class teaching still has a well-justified position in this work as one of the ways in which the school works. The study shows that a comprehensive real-life-oriented pedagogical action process is connected with social pedagogical working practices as a form of interventive action against exclusion from education. • Vilppola, Tuomo 2007 Reaalipedagoginen toimintaprosessi¿sosiaalipedagogisen työn sovellus koulutuksesta syrjäytymässä olevien nuorten kokonaisvaltaisessa Publications: tukemisessa Kasvatustieteiden tiedekunta, Oulun yliopisto ISBN 9789514284670 ISSN 1796-2242

Research Research team on ICT in learning and working environments Project: Researcher: Päivi Häkkinen (paivi.hakkinen@ktl.jyu.fi) University of Jyväskylä PL 35 Research 40014 Unit: JYVÄSKYLÄN YLIOPISTO tel.+358 14 260 3200 fax.+358 14 260 3201 Research 01.01.1999 - 31.12.2003 date: Level of Comprehensive schools, upper stage Education: Universities Field of Communication and information sciences Science: Educational science Keyword(s): learning environment computer network

Abstract:

didactic use of computer university learning through work enterprise The task of the research team is to exploit the potential of ICT in developing and evaluating learning environments with a view to developing teaching and learning. Attention will be paid particularly to the construction of meaningful knowledge from the perspective of individuals, groups and the learning community as a whole. In this context, the team will focus especially on analyzing cognitive and social processes, as well as contextual features related to learning in virtual environments. The theoretical background is anchored into socio-constructivist (Palincsar, 1998) and socio-cultural theories of learning (Säljö, 2000).

Particular focus is on various theories and recent research on collaborative learning (Baker, 2002; Crook, 2000; Dillenbourg, 1999; Stahl, 2003), Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning (CSCL; Koschmann, 1996), Computer-Supported Co-operative Work; (CSCW; Dourish, 1998) as well as on the questions of knowledge management (Nonaka & Takeuchi, 1995). The contexts of the research conducted in this group and in collaboration with the relevant bodies vary from childhood education and school learning to universities and various work organizations. • Häkkinen, P. 2002 Challenges for design of computer-based learning environments British Journal of Educational Technology 33 4 465-474 • Häkkinen, P. 2001 Collaborative learning in technology-supported environments two cases of project-enhanced science learning International Journal of Continuing Engineering Education and Life-Long Learning 11 4/5/6 375-390 • Häkkinen, P., Arvaja, M. & Mäkitalo, K. 2002 Mechanisms of grounding in co-constructing knowledge. In K. Littleton, D. Faulkner, R. Joiner, D. Miell, & P. Häkkinen (Eds.) Learning to collaborate and collaborating to learn • Häkkinen, P., Järvelä, S. & Byman A. 2001 Sharing and making perspectives in web-based conferencing. In P. Dillenbourg, A. Eurelings & K. Hakkarainen (Eds.) Proceedings of European Perspectives on Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning Maastricht Universiteit Maastricht 285-300 • Häkkinen, P. & Arvaja, M. 1999 Kollaboratiivinen oppiminen teknologiaympäristöissä (Collaborative learning in technology-supported Publications: environments). In A. Eteläpelto & P. Tynjälä (Eds.), Asiantuntijaksi oppiminen (Learning of expertise) • Järvelä, S. & Häkkinen, P. 2002 Web-based Cases in Teaching and Learning the Quality of Discussions and a Stage of Perspective Taking in Asynchronous Communication Interactive Learning Environments 10 1 1-22 • Järvelä, S., Häkkinen, P., Arvaja, M. & Leinonen, P. 2002 Instructional support in CSCL. In P. Kirschner, R. Martens & J.-W. Strijbos (Eds.) What we know about CSCL in higher education • Arvaja, M., Häkkinen, P., Rasku-Puttonen, H. & Eteläpelto, A. 2002 Social processes and knowledge building during small group interaction in a school science project Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research 46 2 161-179 • Mäkitalo, K., Häkkinen, P., Järvelä, S. & Leinonen, P. 2002 The mechanisms of common ground in the web-based interaction The Internet and Higher Education 5 3 247-265

Research Sharing and constructing perspectives in virtual interaction (SHAPE) Project: Researcher: Piritta Salo (piritta.leinonen@oulu.fi) University of Oulu PL 2000 Research 90014 Unit: Oulun yliopisto tel.+358 8 553 3702 fax.+358 8 553 3744 Research 01.01.2000 date: Level of Universities Education: Adult education Field of Educational science Science: Linguistics interaction Keyword(s): didactic use of computer learning environment The SHAPE project, funded by the Academy of Finland, is a joint project by the Universities of Jyväskylä and Oulu. The cross-disciplinary project investigates the nature and quality of virtual interaction in higher education and work place contexts, building on the theories of the role of social Abstract: interaction in learning as well as on the dynamics of discourse. The threeyear project provides theoretically grounded principles and guidelines for increasing and evaluating the quality of virtual interaction thus facilitating the design of more purposeful web-based learning models in formal and informal education. Publications: • Häkkinen, P., Järvelä, S. & Dillenbourg, P. 2000 REFLEX- Group Reflection tools for developing virtual distributed expert community Proceedings of International conference on Learning Sciences, June 2000, Michigan, USA • Järvelä, S. & Häkkinen, P. 2000 Levels of Web-Based Discussion: Theory of Perspective Taking as a Tool for Analysing Interaction. In B. Fishman & S. O'Connor-Divelbiss (Eds.), Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference of the Learning Sciences Erlbaum Mahwah, NJ 22-26 • Järvelä, S. & Häkkinen, P. 2000 Web-based cases in teaching and learning the quality of discussions and a stage of perspective taking in asynchronous communication Interactive Learning Environments • Järvelä, S. & Häkkinen, P. 2000 Levels of Web-based communication. In H. van Oostendorp (Ed.). Cognition in a digital world • Järvelä, S., Kuure, L., Saarenkunnas, M., Taalas, P. & Salovaara, H. 1999 Vierekkäin verkossa: pedagogisia malleja verkkotyöskentelyyn. Teoksessa Horila, M. (toim.) ITK, Täällä tietoyhteiskunnan alla. Interaktiivinen teknologia koulutuksessa Hämeen kesäyliopiston julkaisuja, sarja B 49-51 • Kuure, L., Saarenkunnas, M. & Taalas, P. 2001 Negotiating a New Culture of Doing Learning? A Study of Interaction in a Web Learning Environment with Special Focus on Teacher Approaches • Kuure, L., Saarenkunnas, M. & Taalas, P. 2000 Verkkovälitteisen

tapauskeskustelun mahdollisuuksia kielenopetuksessa ja opettajankoulutuksessa. Teoksessa Kaikkonen, P. & V. Kohonen (eds) Minne menet kielikasvatus? Näkökulmia kielipedagogiikkaan Jyväskylän yliopisto Kuure, L., Saarenkunnas, M., & Taalas, P. 1999 Teacher roles and interaction in web-based learning environments. A article for the Trails (Training of Facilitators by Open Learning Systems) -project Available at http://wwwdeis.cit.ie/trails Saarenkunnas, M., Järvelä, S., Häkkinen, P., Kuure, L., Taalas, P. & Kunelius, E. 2000 NINTER - Networked interaction: theory-based cases in teaching and learning Learning Environments Research Saarenkunnas, M., Kuure, L. & Taalas, P. 2000 Towards Equal Discourse in Web-based Interaction Material for the ICT4LT (Interaction and Communication Technology for the Language Teacher) -project

Research Stakeholders' conceptions of learning in learning management systems Project: development Researcher: Ari Wahlstedt (ari.wahlstedt@jyu.fi) University of Jyväskylä Research PL 35 Unit: 40014 JYVÄSKYLÄN YLIOPISTO Research 01.01.2003 - 19.11.2007 date: Level of Education: Field of Communication and information sciences Science: learning environment Keyword(s): learning conception of learning Abstract: We receive and send information via communication channels such as writing. However, our thoughts and conceptions are noticed only at a certain detailed level when expressed in simpler forms, for example, with words. The conceptions of learning (CoL), a person's associations, memory content, ideas and beliefs related to learning, are used to understand learning management systems development (LMSD). The learning management systems, considered as information systems, help teachers to manage their courses and provide possibilities for collaboration in learning. From a humanistic perspective, LMSD involves continual social and physical construction of an artifact. LMSD is a change process taken on object systems in a set of environments by a development group to achieve or to uphold some objectives. In that participation, LMSD stakeholders as designers and content producers interactions include CoL. This research goes beyond the requirement analysis stage in system development, concentrating on the conceptions which guide people in their actions. As CoL should be noticed, the research aim was to find out what are

those CoL in the LMSD. For the background, related issues in computer, educational and cognitive science were studied. With a case study, interviews and a web-survey with stakeholders, this research gathered their CoL. Research results were revised categories of CoL, issues related to these conceptions, a method for gathering conceptions and an agent-technology based approach to LMSD to support dynamical CoL. • Wahlstedt, Ari 2007 Stakeholders' conceptions of learning in learning management systems development Jyväskylä Studies in Computing nr 7 130 Publications: s. ISBN 978 951 39 2965 7 ISSN 1456 5390

Research Project: Researcher: Research Unit: Research date: Level of Education: Field of Science:

Students¿ perception of highly interactive, reflective and process oriented eLearning courses Matti Haverila Tampere Polytechnic / Tampere Polytechnic - University of Applies Sciences 01.01.2006 - 31.05.2007 Universities Polytechnics (AMK) institutions Teacher education

eLearning learning environment Keyword(s): teacher education virtual instruction student The purpose of this research thesis was to research the perceptions of students and requirements for a highly interactive and process oriented virtual learning environment. The participants came from two courses: Software business course at Tampere Polytechnic, in Tampere Finland and eLearning Professional course at Open University in United Kingdom. A Abstract: qualitative research approach was used. On the basis of the research it is quite obvious, that the pedagogical setting of the before mentioned courses sets very specific requirements for the implementation of the courses. Specific recommendations were also made for the practitioner as well as suggestions for further research. • Haverila, Matti 2007 Students¿ perception of highly interactive, reflective and process oriented eLearning courses Tampereen ammattikorkeakoulun julkaisuja. Sarja A. Tutkimuksia 11. Tampere ISBN 978-952-5264-61-6 ISSN Publications: 1456-0011

Research Project: Researcher: Research Unit:

Study of the impact of information and communication technology on the role of learners Seppo Tella (seppo.tella@helsinki.fi) University of Helsinki PL 9

00014 HELSINGIN YLIOPISTO tel.+358 9 1911 fax.+358 9 191 29611 Research 01.01.1998 - 30.10.1998 date: Level of Education: Field of Science: information technology Keyword(s) communication technology : learning environment open environment The focal objective of the study is the identification and analysis of current experiments, research and studies that have investigated the impact of imformation and communication technology (ICT) on the role of the learner. In order to achieve this objective: 1) an analytic framework has been developed whicj identifies a profile od roles for the learner; 2) a review of the use of ICT to support and/or create these learner roles for the learner; 3) weaknessess and omissions in this profile typically found in 'conventional' Abstract: teaching and learning environments are identified; 4) recommendations are given as to how the use of ICT can strengthen or create learner roles. The framework developed to support this study consists of two complementary components: i) the adoption of a socio-constructivist view of knowledge and understanding as a basis for the identification of learning aims; ii) the adoption of the Kolb Learning Cycle as a theory of learning to provide a description of how learning occurs. Research Project: Researcher: Research Unit: Research date: Level of Education: Field of Science: StuNet- Business possibilities and education : Student Enterprise Network Pekka Arponen (pekka.arponen@helsinki.fi) University of Helsinki / University of Helsinki/ Ruralia institute Lönnrotinkatu 7 50100 MIKKELI 01.11.2006 Vocational institutions Polytechnics (AMK) institutions

student entrepreneurship Keyword(s): entrepreneurship education learning environment co-operative Abstract: The objective of the project is to improve entrepreneurial attitudes and skills

of students who graduate from schools providing vocational and professional education in South-Savo, Finland. For this purpose we will establish new student enterprises at schools and these enterprises are also to be integrated to the teaching. We will also create a student enterprise network for to get different kind of synergetic benefits. Publications:

Research Project: Researcher: Research Unit: Research date: Level of Education: Field of Science:

Teacher's role in promoting successful collaboration in technology-based learning environments Helena Rasku-Puttonen (hrasku@edu.jyu.fi) University of Jyväskylä PL 35 40014 JYVÄSKYLÄN YLIOPISTO tel.+358 14 260 1211 01.08.1999 Comprehensive schools, upper stage

Educational science Psychology, educational psychology Teacher education learning environment educational technology Keyword(s): guidance learning The aim of the study is to examine teacher's instructional scaffolding in an information and communication technology-based learning environment. Abstract: Further aim is to find out how the instructional scaffolding interact with students' learning activities and what this implies for the development of the ICT as a teacher's tool for monitoring students' learning processes. Publications: • Rasku-Puttonen, H., Eteläpelto, A., Lehtonen, O., Nummila, L. & Häkkinen, P. 2004 Developing teacher's professional expertise through collaboration in an innovative ICT-based learning environment • Rasku-Puttonen, H., Eteläpelto, A., Häkkinen, P. & Arvaja, M. 2000 Opettaja korkeatasoisen oppimisen edistäjänä tieto- ja viestintätekniikkaa hyödyntävässä oppimisympäristössä Esitelmä Kasvatustieteen päivillä 25.11.2000, Turku • Rasku-Puttonen, H., Aravaja, M., Eteläpelto, A. & Häkkinen, P. 2000 Opettajan ja oppilaiden toiminnan yhteensovittaminen projektioppimisessa Esitelmä FACEIn seminaarissa 8.12.2000, Jyväskylä • Rasku-Puttonen, H., Arvaja, M., Eteläpelto, A. & Häkkinen, P. 2002 Teacher's role in supporting project-based learning in technology-supported environments. In J. Bopry & A. Eteläpelto (eds.) Collaboration and learning in virtual environments http://selene.lib.jyu.fi:8080/julpu/9513914208.pdf 126-133 • Eteläpelto, A. & Rasku-Puttonen, H. 1999 Projektioppimisen haasteet ja mahdollisuudet. Teoksessa A. Eteläpelto & Tynjälä, P. (toim.) Oppiminen ja asiantuntijuus Porvoo WSOY 181-205

Rasku-Puttonen, H., Eteläpelto, A., Arvaja, M. & Häkkinen, P. 2002 Teacher's instructional scaffolding in an innovative information and communication technology-based history learning environment Teacher Development 6 / 2. 6 2 269-287 Rasku-Puttonen, H., Eteläpelto, A., Arvaja, M. & Häkkinen, P. 2003 Is successful scaffolding an illusion? - Shifting patterns of responsibility and control in teacher-student interaction during a long-term learning project Instructional Science 31 377-393 Rasku-Puttonen, H., Eteläpelto, A., Arvaja, M. & Häkkinen, P. 2003 Opettajan ja oppilaiden vuorovaikutus korkeatasoisen oppimisen edistäjänä innovatiivisessa oppimisympäristössä Kasvatus 34/1 34 1 43-55

Research The Internet in guidance or guidance in the Internet? Perceptions of guidance Project: practitioners on the use of the Internet as a tool in guidance Researcher: Raimo Vuorinen (raimo.vuorinen@ktl.jyu.fi) University of Jyväskylä PL 35 Research 40014 Unit: JYVÄSKYLÄN YLIOPISTO tel.+358 14 260 3200 fax.+358 14 260 3201 Research 31.12.2000 - 06.10.2006 date: Upper secondary schools Vocational institutions Level of Universities Education: Polytechnics (AMK) institutions Adult education, certificate-oriented Field of Educational science Science: information network internet guidance Keyword(s): working life learning environment work environment Abstract: International and national educational and labour market policies are increasingly emphasising quality assurance and more diverse service delivery in guidance services targeted for adolescents and adults. Rather than focusing on one single educational or work transition, current policy statements emphasise that career guidance goals and services need to be offered from lifelong guidance perspective. Guidance has been widely viewed in these statements as a key contributor to economic development and competitiveness. However, access to guidance can be a major barrier in making lifelong guidance a reality. The use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) has the potential to greatly expand access to career guidance. Beginning with provision of traditional occupational and career information, ICT in career

guidance has evolved to include a wide variety of information and assessment resources, as well as facilitating interaction among clients and guidance professionals. Generic counselling processes have been developed to help clients make effective use of ICT in career guidance. A consensus has emerged that both the counsellor and ICT have an important role to play in the delivery of enhanced career guidance services. Counsellors vary considerably in their experience in both the use of ICT in general and the use of the ICT in guidance in particular. The goal of this study was to understand the perceptions of guidance practitioners regarding their role and the role of the Internet in meeting guidance goals and delivering career guidance services. Career guidance services are described as a multi-layered open system; a combination of structures, mechanisms and contexts. This study focused on the work of the guidance practitioner, ICT applications, institutional web-site design and public policies of career guidance. This study examined career guidance practise using a phenomenographic approach. The data was collected in focus groups in 2001-2002 among 46 guidance practitioners representing comprehensive, secondary and higher education, as well as public employment services. These practitioners identified themselves either as novice or experienced Internet users. The analysis was based on a `Combined methods¿ approach with the aim of analysing how practitioners who were novice and expert in their use of ICT perceived the role of the practitioner and the role of technology in the use of Internetbased career services and career information delivery systems? The analysis also focused on whether or not there were differences in the perceptions between these groups. The practitioners in all focus groups identified that information had a crucial role in promoting opportunity awareness and decision learning. The Internet had added value especially in obtaining educational and labour market information. Practitioners used resources an the Internet similarly to the way they used previous printed resource materials. The Internet was not widely used in screening client needs or supporting the implementation of individual action plans. Screening was based mainly on client interviews. Rather than developing coherent strategies for the use of ICT, the practitioners were using technical applications in order to solve fragmented problems. The results also revealed that the emphasis was on delivering career information rather than promoting career management skills from a lifelong guidance perspective. Novice and experienced users of the Internet had similar perceptions of their role in the use of the Internet in different guidance activities. The practitioners believed that it takes more work to use the Internet; on the other hand the Internet could be used in routine tasks. There is still a need for personal support for clients in their use of the Internet. Guidance expertise is also needed in the design and evaluation of technical applications in guidance. There are several implications that from this research. Internet-based services should be developed in co-operation between ministries responsible for career service delivery. Educational institutions should provide more flexible access points for guidance services.

In order to use the Internet in a coherent way, a practitioner must be able to identify the targets for guidance and the theoretical framework used in service design. Educational institutions should provide practitioners with opportunities for sustainable in-service training in the use of the Internet in guidance. A the very beginning of counsellor training as practitioners, students should have opportunity to integrate key Internet-based career services and resources within individual guidance processes and group settings from the very beginning of their training. Finally, more research is needed to better understand how practitioners can make cost-effective use of ICT in guidance. • Vuorinen, Raimo 2006 Internet ohjauksessa vai ohjaus internetissä? Ohjaajien käsityksiä internetin merkityksestä työvälineenä Jyväskylän yliopisto. Koulutuksen tutkimuslaitos. Tutkimuksia 19 ISBN 951-39-2607-9 ISSN Publications: 1455-447X

Research Thinking and content learning in teaching through a foreign language. CLIL Project: or content and language integrated learning Researcher: Aini-Kristiina Jäppinen (jappinen@ktl.jyu.fi) University of Jyväskylä PL 35 Research 40014 Unit: JYVÄSKYLÄN YLIOPISTO tel.+358 14 260 3520 fax.+358 14 260 3521 Research 01.08.2001 - 31.12.2003 date: Level of Comprehensive schools Education: Field of Educational science Science: Linguistics learning teaching in a foreign language Keyword(s): cognition learning environment Abstract: Teaching through a foreign language, that is Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL), refers to all situations, including immersion and bilingual education, where a foreign language is a medium of instruction of different subjects. These approaches are increasing in Europe because of the rapid social change. They benefit foreign language learning in providing wider choice of languages learned and opportunities for intercultural communication. CLIL learners create analogical reasoning systems for content learning. This process forms the basis for representational thinking and causes cognitional development of concepts and meaning schemes. This was concretized in terms of 18 cognitions as combinations of Piagetian mental operations and Bruner's critical areas of discovery learning.

The study of mathematics and science uncovered development of cognition of 669 Finnish mainstream learners of 7-15 years of age in the public comprehensive school in terms of magnitude, ratio, proportion, denomination, estimation, and climate. The longitudinal study (2001-2003) was based on a representative sample from 12 schools in three major cities of Finland. The experimental group of 335 CLIL learners was taught through English, French, or Swedish and the control group of 334 learners through Finnish, the mother tongue of all learners in the control group. The selected topics of mathematics and science were taught in four periods of 3-5 weeks. After the teaching periods, the learners' cognitional level was tested. The development of cognition was observed in terms of changes of five taxonomical levels, grounded from the basis of Biggs' SOLO Taxonomy. The analyses of cognitional development were done by using categorical modeling procedures by SPSS in terms of Chi-tests, standardized residuals, and T-test. The results showed statistically significant differences between the experimental and the control group. • Jäppinen, Aini-Kristiina 2003 Ajattelu ja sisältöjen oppiminen vieraskielisessä opetuksessa Tutkimusraportti 2/3. Jyväskylän yliopisto, Soveltavan kielentutkimuksen keskus Jyväskylä 45 ISBN 951-39-1592-1 • Jäppinen, Aini-Kristiina 2005 Ajattelu ja sisältöjen oppiminen vieraskielisessä opetuksessa Tutkimusraportti 3/3. Jyväskylän yliopisto, Soveltavan kielentutkimuksen keskus Jyväskylä 45 ISBN 951-39-2072-0 • Jäppinen, Aini-Kristiina 2005 Thinking and Content Learning of Mathematics Publications: and Science as Cognitional Development in Content and Language Inegrated Learning (CLIL): Teaching Through a Foreign Language in Finland Language and Education, 19:2 148-169 • Jäppinen, Aini-Kristiina 2002 Ajattelu ja sisältöjen oppiminen vieraskielisessä opetuksessa Tutkimusraportti 1/3. Jyväskylän yliopisto, Soveltavan kielentutkimuksen keskus Jyväskylä 147 ISBN 951-39-1382-1

Research Towards primary school physics teaching and learning: Design research Project: approach Researcher: Kalle Juuti University of Helsinki PL 9 Research 00014 Unit: HELSINGIN YLIOPISTO tel.+358 9 1911 fax.+358 9 191 29611 Research 01.09.2002 - 11.02.2005 date: Level of Comprehensive schools, lower stage Education: Field of Educational science Science: Physics and chemistry Keyword(s): physics teaching primary school

learning environment This thesis describes a project to design a primary school physics learning environment which takes into account teachers' needs, design procedures, properties of the learnig environment, and pupil learning outcomes. The project's design team has wide experience in research and development work in relation to science education, the use of ICT in education, the way students think about physics, curriculum and teaching method development, and the design of instructional materials. This knowledge base was the starting point for design. The project engaged in design research. Design research is here considered to be a form of educational research, and offers opportunities to study unique educational phenomena. It produces artefacts to be applied directly in an educational setting, and thereby engages the researcher in the direct improvement of educational practice. Design research can even offer a strategy for the development and refinement of educational theory. The first main research result was a design procedure. The procedure contained four phases: 1) needs assessment; 2) definition of the objectives for a design solution; 3) design and production of the material; and 4) evaluation of the material. The phases apply research literature and empirical research. Phases three and four are iterative and include three stages: limited use of the prototype, a pilot test and a field test. The second main result was a designed learning environment as an example of a learning environment. The research showed that an environment should be: 1) concrete and illustrative, offering examples for the classroom; 2) mentally stimulating, for both study and practical work; 3) physically and pedagogically meaningful 4) usable; 5) offer peer and expert support for teachers. In addition, the research uncovered many contextual features that are important concerning the usability of the learning environment. The third main result was that qualitative level models delivered by way of stories offer much potential for learning primary school physics. From the Finnish perspective, the designed learning environment offers a novel phenomenon to investigate primary physics teaching and learning in a new situation where, from the point of view of this research, rather ambitious new National Framework Curriculum for physics education has been introduced. • Juuti, Kalle 2005 Towards Primary School Physics Teaching and Learning: Design Research Approach University of Helsinki. Department of applied sciences of education. Research report 256 Helsinki: Yliopistopaino ISBN Publications: 952-10-1992-1 ISSN 1795-2158

Abstract:

ch Project: Two information retrieval learning environments. Their design and evaluation Researcher: Kai Halttunen (kai.halttunen@uta.fi) University of Tampere Research 33014 Unit: TAMPEREEN YLIOPISTO tel.+358 3 2156111

Research date: Level of Education: Field of Science:

01.01.1999 - 12.05.2004 Universities Communication and information sciences

learning environment Keyword(s): information retrieval information skills Abstract: In this thesis, the design and evaluation of two information retrieval (IR) learning environments are presented. The design and evaluation took place in a basic course of IR (6 ECTS credits) at the Department of Information Studies at the University of Tampere. The course consisted of lectures, web exercises and tutored search exercises. Tutored exercises were carried out in two learning environments, in a traditional and in an experimental one. The participants in the study (n=57), were undergraduate students of information studies at the university. The pedagogical design of the experimental learning environment was based on the ideas from anchored instruction and intentional scaffolding. Anchoring related the search exercises to a simulated journalistic work-task situation. Scaffolding, ie. various ways of supporting learners in proceeding with their task was provided by an instructional tool, the IR Game, or by a teacher. The IR Game provides query performance feedback to the learner, based on predefined topics and a recall-base of known relevant documents for the topics. The pedagogical design of the traditional learning environment consisted of search exercises on several operational IR systems with unintentional scaffolding. The effect of the learning environments on the students' learning experiences, performance and learning outcomes was evaluated. The evaluation was based on seven different datasets gathered in the basic course on IR. The datasets consist of two essays, answers to a questionnaire, results of a learning style inventory, log-files from two search sessions, stories describing learning experiences and answers to a course feedback questionnaire. The data were analyzed by qualitative and quantitative methods. The results indicate that anchoring and scaffolding are promising strategies in IR instruction. Participants studying in the experimental learning environment took the view that anchored instruction increased meaningfulness of learning tasks. The overall effectiveness of queries in the search exercises was slightly better in the experimental environment and the students made far fewer semantic knowledge errors than the students in the traditional learning environment. Students from both environments made quite the same number of syntactic knowledge errors. The change in students' conceptual IR know-how was also larger in the experimental learning environment. The results of the study, in terms of the benefits of anchoring and scaffolding, are not categorical because of the range of intervening variables and the difficulty of setting up a field experiment which tried to be naturalistic but at the same time tried to focus on a specific aspect - the differences between the IR learning

environments.

Publications:

• •

Halttunen, Kai & Sormunen, Eero 2000 Learning information retrieval through an educational game : is gaming sufficient for learning Education for Information 18 4 Halttunen, Kai 2000 Tiedonhaun peruskurssin opiskelijoiden kokemuksia IR Game -tiedonhakupelistä osana oppimisympäristöä Aikuiskasvatus 20 3 201214 Halttunen, Kai 2004 Kahden tiedonhaun oppimisympäristön suunnittelu ja arviointi. Two Information Retrieval Learning Environments, Their Design and evaluation Acta Universitatis Tamperensis 1020 Tampereen Yliopistopaino Oy - Juvenes Print 95Tampereen yliopisto 95 ISBN 951-446008-1 ISSN 1455-1616 Halttunen, Kai & Järvelin, Kalervo 2003 Assessing learning outcomes in two information retrieval learning environments: a design experiment Halttunen, Kai 2003 Scaffolding performance in IR instruction: exploring learning experiences and performance in two learning environments Journal of Information Science Halttunen, Kai 2003 Students' conceptions of information retrieval: implications for design of learning environments Library and Information Science Research Sormunen, Eero ; Halttunen, Kai ; Keskustalo, Heikki 2002 Query Performance Analyser - a tool for bridging information retrieval research and instruction University of Tampere. Department of Information Studies. Research Notes RN 1/2002

Research Web portfolio 2. Learning environment Project: Researcher: Olli Hatakka (olli.hatakka@joensuu.fi) University of Joensuu / The Resesarch and Development Center PL 111 Research 80101 Unit: JOENSUU tel.+358 13 251111 Research 01.01.2001 date: Level of Polytechnics (AMK) institutions Education: Field of Educational science Science: Teacher education web-based learning Keyword(s): learning environment Abstract: The research project aims at producing a working model of using the environment as basis for virtual polytechnic teaching and learning. To achieve this the research has several subtopics, which are: The teachers' learning conceptions and their effects on the use of the web based learning environment Web portfolio (in planning, designing and utilising the environment) and how this effects the way teachers work. Secondly we want to find out the factors that enhance so called dedicated interaction among

students and teachers while using the Web portfolio as learning platform. Thirdly we want to know how the planned courses can be stored and recycled easily as models for the other courses. In additon to these three above mentioned tasks, we want to find the "best practices" concerning the use of the tools provided in the Web portfolio. All and all the idea is to combine this collected information to a handbook like model for polyctechnic and other higher educational institutions that are virtualising their teaching and learning practices. (Olli Hatakka ja Teemu Valtonen, 2002) Publications:

Research Project: Researcher:

Virtual Environments for the Shared Construction of Teacher Expertise Päivi Häkkinen (paivi.hakkinen@ktl.jyu.fi) University of Jyväskylä PL 35 40014 JYVÄSKYLÄN YLIOPISTO tel.+358 14 260 3200 fax.+358 14 260 3201 01.01.2000 - 31.12.2001

Research Unit:

Research date: Level of Education:

Preprimary education Comprehensive schools Universities Psychology, educational psychology Field of Educational science Science: Pre-school education Teacher education teacher education Keyword(s): learning learning environment The focus of the NINTER (Networked Interaction: Theory-Based Cases in Teaching and Learning) and Pro Child (Constructing Professional Expertise in Childhood Education by Networked Discussions) projects is an exploration of the potentials and constraints of shared virtual environments in supporting learning and interaction in teacher education. Abstract: NINTER is a collaborative research and development project launched by four universities to develop pedagogical models serving the needs of teacher education that make use of the potential of shared virtual environments. The Pro Child project seeks to reinforce links between student teachers and teachers in schools. The aim is to promote the development of the professional expertise of students and teachers taking part in networked discussion. Publications: • Häkkinen, P., Järvela, S., & Dillenbourg, P. 2000 Group Reflection Tools for Virtual Expert Community - REFLEX Project. In B. Fishman & S. O'ConnorDivelbiss (Eds.) Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference of the

Learning Sciences Mahwah, NJ Erlbaum 203-204 Häkkinen, P., Järvelä, S. & Byman, A. 2001 Sharing and making perspectives in web-based conferencing. In P. Dillenbourg, A. Eurelings & K. Hakkarainen (Eds.), Proceedings of European Perspectives on ComputerSupported Collaborative Learning Maastricht Universiteit Maastricht 285300 Häkkinen, P. 1999 Oppimisen ja vuorovaikutuksen laatu virtuaalisissa oppimisympäristöissä - pedagogisia malleja verkkotyöskentelyyn. In E. Pantzar (Ed.), Tiedosta tutkittua Suomen Akatemian Tiedon tutkimusohjelman raportteja, 3 Tampere Tietoyhteiskunnan tutkimuskeskus 139-144 Järvelä, S. & Häkkinen, P. 2001 Web-based cases in teaching and learning the Quality of Discussions and a Stage of Perspective Taking in Asynchronous Communication Interactive Learning Environments Järvelä, S. & Häkkinen, P. 2001 Levels of Web-Based Communication: Analysing Quality of Interaction and Perspective Taking. In H van Oostendorp (Ed.), Cognition in Digital World Lawrence Erlbaum Järvelä, S. & Häkkinen, P. 2000 Levels of Web-Based Discussion: Theory of Perspective Taking as a Tool for Analysing Interaction. In B. Fishman & S. O'Connor-Divelbiss (Eds.), Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference of the Learning Sciences Mahwah, NJ Erlbaum 22-26 Järvelä, S. & Häkkinen, P. 1999 Creating pedagogical model for networked interaction: theoretical review. In S. Järvelä, S. Laukka, J. Pulkkinen & M. Saarenkunnas (Eds.), Campus Futurus: Education, Learning and Technology in Higher Education Electronic publications of the Faculty of Education, 2, University of Oulu 21-33 Mäkitalo, K. 1999 Yhteisön rakentuminen ja sen ylläpitäminen verkkoympäristössä. In E. Pantzar (Ed.), Informaatio, tieto ja yhteiskunta Suomen Akatemian Tiedon tutkimusohjelman raportteja, 4 Tampere Tietoyhteiskunnan tutkimuskeskus 191-200 Mäkitalo, K., Salo, P., Häkkinen, P. & Järvelä, S. 2001 Analysing the mechanisms of common ground in collaborative web-based interaction. In P. Dillenbourg, A. Eurelings & K. Hakkarainen (Eds.), Proceedings of European Perspectives on Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning Maastricht Universiteit Maastricht 445-453

Research Work and learning in a car tyre factory. Organizational learning and factors Project: influencing it in industrial learning environment Researcher: Pasi Koski (pasi.koski@uta.fi) University of Tampere Työelämän tutkimuskeskus Research 33014 Unit: TAMPEREEN YLIOPISTO tel.+358 3 215 6111 Research 01.01.2003 - 21.04.2007 date: Level of Adult education, other than certificate-oriented Education: Field of Adult education Science:

learning environment Keyword(s): problem based learning working life The study was conducted in the context of a three-year development project implemented in a Finnish car tyre factory. The business-strategy-related aim of the project was to create out of the factory a ¿customer-oriented process organization¿. This development work was done by employing three methodological means: supervisor training, team-specific training concerning the norms that guide action as well as inter-departmental training in problembased learning (PBL) as a special object of empirical analysis. In the research project, PBL was understood as a development method that would exploit the basic ideas of problem-based learning. Methodologically, a case study strategy was chosen for the purposes of the present research. The study focused on learning processes taking place in a certain context or in a certain learning environment. The approach to learning was practicebased, meaning that learning and knowledge are not separate processes or events detached from the learning environment but part of the social practices and related social meanings of it. These practices are fundamentally attached to work and productions processes. The following research questions were developed: 1. What kind of learning environment does an industrial production plant provide and what kind of development trend in organizing work and production can be observed in it? 2. What kinds of processes of organizational learning were created and identified in the course of the development project and which factors in the learning environment affected these processes, either by promoting or hindering them? 3. What kinds of results were gained in the development project and what kinds of experiences did the participants have of its effect on their own work and working environment? The findings of the research and development project under study were promising from the view-point of developing work process knowledge. The study indicated that along with increasing work process knowledge, the personnel understands much better each other¿s tasks and the significance of all phases from the viewpoint of a whole process. Malfunctions and disruptions are reacted to and repair works are done faster because communication channels have improved and knowledge of possible causes is spread wider in the factory floor. Workers can also be better prepared for these situations in advance; because of a better understanding than earlier they are able to make conclusions about sudden changes in the course of a process. At the same time, misunderstandings and suspicions among the personnel of what causes the problems decrease. Blaming the ¿department next door¿ that easily occurs in a negative atmosphere decreases because due to increased work process knowledge the causes of malfunctions and mistakes are not blamed on fellow workers or thought of as having been caused deliberately. This may improve the working atmosphere significantly.

Abstract:

One of the supporting elements of the development method is also the view that change can be best generated by creating a positive attitude towards collective development. A workplace is always a whole that consists of different ¿communities of practice¿, in which the preconditions for development are defined by the political settings within and among these communities and by the nature of the work process. The study raises an important issue of how organizational politics needs to taken into account in development work. The basic starting point can be that the developers need to be informed about the existence of organizational politics and that the role of the politics can very well be that of either promoting learning or hindering it. The developers need to know their target organizations as well as possible and seek to gather information about the political settings between those involved in the developing work. Political processes largely define the extent to which an aim can be reached in a certain organization by means of development work promoted by an outsider. To a certain extent, understanding micro-politics in a certain context always requires understanding the specific nature of the context and the often relatively hidden struggle between different interests. This in turn requires the ability to go beyond the functional and unitarist view on organization. Despite being partly autonomous, organizational politics is not born out of thin air: it is linked with the work and management practices, rewarding and development systems as well as with the techno-logical, financial and social dimension of the workplace. The study also shows that it is not enough to only sketch present development needs if knowledge of the most significant changes occurred in an organization in its recent history is not collected at the same time. Organizational changes can leave behind political tensions which may foil the plans for introducing new courses of action. It is characteristic of the problem-based learning method that it seeks to limit the development needs to small and as concrete as possible problems that can be solved or that can be relatively easily affected. It is nearly inevitable, however, that these small problems close by open up linkages with bigger and more in-depth development needs concerning courses of action, awareness raising, and in the best possible case, also provide tools for working on them. Big and small issues can then be easily considered at the same time. In this way, single-loop learning can pave the way for doubleloop learning. Publications:

Research Learning intercultural competency in the workplace Project: Researcher: Pirkko Pitkänen (pirkko.pitkanen@joensuu.fi) University of Joensuu PL 111 Research 80101 Unit: JOENSUU fax.+358 13 251 3564 Research 01.01.2003 date: Level of Adult education, other than certificate-oriented Education: Field of Adult education Science: Cultural studies immigrant working life Keyword(s): in-plant training intercultural education learning Abstract: The aim of this international and multi-disciplinary research project is to clarify prerequisites for learning successful intercultural collaboration at work in both the private and public sectors, and to develop a transformative learning model for fostering intercultural competency in day-to-day activities. In Finland, the attainment of intercultural competency is becoming ever more necessary due to an increase in ethnic and cultural diversity in workplaces. Despite the increase in immigration, relatively little is known about how to help people with foreign background to cope within the Finnish labour market. In this project, we aim at creating circumstances for successful intercultural learning processes in daily work and investigate the attainment of intercultural competency by follow-up studies. The research carried out within the project will also entail the training of people involved. This will be done in collaboration with work communities, two Equal projects, continuing education institutions, the Finnish Work Environment Fund, the Finnish Ministry of Labour, employers' and employees' organisations, as well as Regional councils and Employment and Economic Development Centres of Eastern Finland. A transformative learning theory and a social theory of learning offer the general theoretical starting points for the empirical studies. In order to clarify how intercultural competency can be fostered in everyday work, the empirical studies will focus on (1) human resource management issues; (2) intercultural professional training issues; and (3) intercultural interaction and communication issues. Both qualitative and quantitative research methods will be used to gather data on selected samples of private and public sector enterprises. By means of educational interventions and by creating circumstances under which transformative intercultural learning can occur, the project researchers

will increase the participants understanding of intercultural collaboration and diversity issues in general. This will be done from the perspective of the entire work communities; the examination includes not only immigrant employees but also their co-workers and supervisors, who belong to the ethnic majority. In these endeavours, we will utilise the wide experience and expertise of our British and Dutch project partners (the University of Manchester and the Anne Frank House). On the basis of the project results, personnel training material and an intercultural learning model will be developed and eLearning material (published on CD-ROM) on diversity issues will be produced. Publications:

Research BIC-Blueprint for interactive classrooms Project: Researcher: Tuomo Rintamäki (tuomo.rintamaki@hut.fi) Helsinki University of Technology / Center for Educational Technologies PL 8000 Research 02015 Unit: TKK tel.+358 9 4511 Research 01.01.1996 - 31.12.1997 date: Level of Education: Field of Science: interaction Keyword(s) classroom : multimedia The Blueprint for Interactive Classrooms project aims to make university education and training more accessible to a wide range of learners through low cost and flexible, user-friendly distance education technology. The project activity consists of the design and building of five interactive telepresence classrooms in five of the partner sites. Each classroom will facilitate the delivery or reception of courses over a variety of telematics networks and will incorporate various interactive mechanisms (TV, ISDN videoconferencing, Abstract: telephone, computer conferencing), each one catering for a different educational scenario. The project will produce a handbook which will be a complete guide to any distance education provider on how to build their own telepresence infrastructure, modelled on the five different scenarios which include sites for teaching remote learners, teaching remote and local learners, group presentation and interaction, a single learner, and a learning centre group.

Research

Teacher education as multi-mode education

Project: Researcher: Leena Krokfors (leena.krokfors@helsinki.fi) University of Helsinki PL 9 Research 00014 Unit: HELSINGIN YLIOPISTO tel.+358 9 1911 fax.+358 9 191 29611 Research 01.01.2003 date: Level of Comprehensive schools Education: Universities Field of Educational science Science: Teacher education teacher teacher education Keyword(s): virtual university multiform teaching The aim of the research project is to investigate how a multimode teacher education program supports the pedagogical idea of research-based teacher education. In the program, the students study and work as teachers simultaneously. This kind of learning at workplace enables the integration of theory and practice. The multimode program is an application of flexible learning. Another pedagogical feature is learning in the workplace which is an increasing trend in higher education. The pedagogical use of information Abstract: and communication is treated as a media educational phenomenon including network-based recorded lectures and the use of videoconferencing in supervision of students when they practice in their own class. The research project continues the research and development work that was established in the 1990s. It is a part of the wider research activities of the Centre for Research on Teaching, located in the Department of Applied Sciences of Education. • Kynäslahti, Heikki, Jyrhämä, Riitta, Maaranen, Katriina, Krokfors, Leena, Toom, Auli & Kansanen, Pertti 2005 Työn ja koulutuksen suhde [Elektroninen aineisto ]: opettajana työskentelyn yhteydestä opettajaksi opiskeluun Aikuiskasvatus 25 2 4 • Krokfors, Leena, Jyrhämä, Riitta, Kynäslahti, Heikki, Toom, Auli, Maaranen, Katriina & Kansanen, Pertti 2006 Working while teaching, learning while working: students teaching in their own class Journal of education for Publications: teaching : Routledge Iso-Britannia 32 1 s. 21-36 • Kynäslahti, Heikki, Kansanen, Pertti, Jyrhämä, Riitta, Krokfors, Leena, Maaranen, Katriina & Toom, Auli 2006 The multimode programme as a variation of research-based teacher education Teaching and teacher education Iso-Britannia 22 2 s. 246-256

Research Interaction of remote classrooms: Distance education project using video Project: conferencing Researcher: Heikki Kynäslahti (heikki.kynaslahti@helsinki.fi)

Research Unit:

University of Helsinki / Department of Teacher Education PL 9 (Siltavuorenpenger 20) 00014 HELSINGIN YLIOPISTO tel.+358 9 1911 fax.+358 9 19129611 01.01.1994 - 31.12.1997

Research date: Level of Education:

Comprehensive schools Universities Adult education, other than certificate-oriented Computer sciences and computer technology Field of Educational science Science: Engineering, industry and transport distance education Keyword(s): interaction didactic use of computer Abstract: The background of the research project was a series of experiments and research on distance education, carried out at our Department. In these the suitability of audiographichs and video conference for distance teaching in primary and secondary schools was explored. In 1994 the parents in the little village of Kilpisjärvi in Finnish Lapland wanted to start a local lower secondary school for their children. Since there is a biological research station of the University of Helsinki in Kilpisjärvi, it was natural that the Teacher Training School of our Department would offer pedagogical support to the beginning school, making use of distance education. The aim of the research and development project is to create and describe a distance learning environment where video conference and audiographics are used simultaneously in two classrooms, one in Helsinki, the other in Kilpisjärvi. This kind of distance education we call classroom focused distance education. The main object of interest is the symbiosis of conventional and distance education, and its impact on the instructional processes. An important area of the research is to study how the networking of the schools makes it possible to share professional knowledge and resources. Our aim is also to study how the this way of organizing school instruction affects educational aquality. Methodologically, we try develop research tools suitable for etnographic study of the problem area. Observation, videotapes of lessons, methods of interaction analysis, interwievs, field notes, documents; meetings of teachers and researchers. The main result is that the Kilpisjärvi project has succeeded in creating satisfactory ways of carrying out, and also theoretically analysing, classroom focused distance education. The Kilpisjärvi pupils have been able to studdy in teir local school, and achieve learning results equal to the results of the pupils in the Helsinki School. The common factor uniting the participant is that they all have learning as their aim. Otherwise this kind of instructional approach does not compensate enough for the segregation of the two groups of pupils. The interaction with the teacher is intensive for both groups, but the interaction between the groups is scanty. As a result the role of the teacher is emphasized, he/she brings together the different classrooms for common

activities. No particular new characteristics in the instructional process have been observed in the participating classrooms when compared to what we know of classroom instruction in general. Use of experts is typical of distance education, and teaching of subject experts is what Kilpisjärvi school gets from the training School. However, the role the local Kilpisjärvi teachers is very important, because more than half of the lessons are taught by them. The distance education project is a supporting element in the work of these teachers, thus having features of inservice education. The present results show that the shared teaching resources in classroom focused distance education make possible flexible instructional and organizational arrangements, such as differentiation of groups of pupils. The sharing of expert knowledge of subject teachers contributes to educational equality, and opens new perspectives for the development of rural schools. Distance education has proved to be great importance to the village community: the children need not leave their homes at an early age to go to school, and adult people have got a new channel of adult education. Publications: • Rönkä A. 1995 Kilpisjärvi-projekti - luokkamuotoista etäopetusta kehittämässä. Teoksessa ITK-95. Interaktiivinen teknologia koulutuksessa Konferenssi Hämeenlinnassa Aulangolla 21.-22.4.95 113-119 • Rönkä A. 1995 Luokkamuotoista etäopetusta kehittämässä: Kilpisjärviprojektin ensimmäisen lukukauden kokemuksia. Teoksessa S. Tella (toim.) Juuret ja arvot. Etnisyys ja eettisyys - aineenopettaminen monikulturaalisessa oppimisympäristössä Ainedidaktiikan symposiumi Helsingissä 3.2.1995. Helsingin yliopisto. Opettajankoulutuslaitos. Tutkimuksia 150 411-423 • Salminen J. 1995 The evaluation of the ISDN-based Video Conferencing in Classroom Focused Distance Education Paper presentation in online Educa Berlin, an International Conference on Distance Education, November 2425.1995, Berlin • Salonen M. 1995 Aspects of Classroom Interaction in Two-Way Videoconferencing Paper presentation in Open Classroom Conference: Distance Learning and New Technologies in School Level Education and Training. Oslo. Norway • Sariola J. 1995 Vuorovaikutteinen video-opetus ala-asteella Esitelmä kasvatustieteen päivillä Jyväskylässä 24.11.1995 • Säntti J. 1996 Itseohjautuvuus ja itseohjattu oppiminen luokkamuotoisessa etäopetuksessa Tutkielma. Heelsingin yliopisto. Opettajankoulutuslaitos • Falck A-K., Husu J., Kronlund T., Kynäslahti H. & Meisalo V. 1995 Luokanopettajaksi opiskelevien etäopetuksesta koulun etäopetukseen. Teoksessa H. Kynäslahti, A. Lauriala & M. Suortamo (toim.) Kokeileva poko: Luokanopettajan poikkeuskoulutus opettajankoulutuksen kehittäjänä Helsingin yliopisto. Opettajankoulutuslaitos. Tutkimuksia 147 209-220 • Husu J., Salminen J., Falck A-K., Kynäslahti H. & Meisalo V. 1994 Luokkamuotoisen etäopetuksen lähtökohtia: Kilpisjärvi-projektin alkuraportti Helsingin yliopisto. Opettajankoulutuslaitos. Tutkimuksia 135 • Husu J. 1995 The Helsinki - Kilpisjärvi Project: A Collaborative Action Research of Distance Education in Classroom Environment. In D. Seawart (ed.) One World, Many Voices: Quality in Open and Distance Learning London: Open University 2 7-8

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• •

Kaskinen A. 1995 Luokkamuotoisen etäopetuksen koulutustaloudellisia näkökulmia: Tapaustutkimus Helsingin II Normaalikoulun ja Kilpisjärven yläasteen välisestä etäopetuskokeilusta Opinnäytetyö, Jyväskylän palvelualojen ammattikorkeakoulu Kronlund T. 1995 New Learning Perspectives For Remote Classrooms Using Videoconferencing Paper presentation in Open Classroom Conference: Distance Learning and New Technologies in School Level Education and Training. Oslo, Norway Kronlund T., Kynäslahti H. & Meisalo V. 1995 Modern Distance Education Technology and the Problem of Small Rural Schools in Finland Life and Education in Finland 4 43-49 Kynäslahti H. & Salminen J. 1995 Integration of Remote Classrooms: Technical and Local Perspectives. In F. Nouwens (Ed.) Distance Education Crossing Frontiers Rockhampton: Central Queensland University 151-154 Nummi T. 1995 Opettajan rooli ala-asteen luokkamuotoisessa etäopetuksessa Tutkielma. Helsingin yliopisto. Opettajankoulutuslaitos Kynäslahti H. & Stevens K. 1996 Mediating Local and Global knowledge: The Emergence of the Virtual Classroom in Finland and New Zealand. In B. Glastonbury (Ed.) Dreams and Realities: Information Technology in the Human Services Helsinki. National Research and Development Centre for Welfare and Health 205-214 Kynäslahti H. 1995 Experiencing virtual classroom as a translocal field A paper presentation at the 8th Conference of Society for Information Technology and teacher Education. April 1-5, 1997, Orlando, Florida, USA Meisalo Veijo (ed.) 1996 The Integration of the Remote Classrooms: A distance Education Project using Video Conferencing University of Helsinki. Department of Teacher Education. Research Report 160 Salonen, M. & Kynäslahti H. 1996 Pupil Experiences of Classroom Focused Distance Education Using Two-Way Video Conferencing Paper presentation in 'The link that brings us together'. the 12 th Canadian Association for Distance Education Conference. May 22-25, 1996, Moncton, Canada Stevens, K., Kynäslahti, H., Salminen J. 1996 Alustavia tuloksia verkottumisesta Suomessa ja uudessa Seelannissa Kasvatus 27 2 196-205 Sariola J. 1995 Kuuleeko Vihti? Kokemuksia etäopetusharjoittelusta. Teoksessa S. Tella (toim.) Juuret ja arvot. Etnisyys ja eettisyys aineenopettaminen monikulturaalisessa oppimisympäristössä Ainedidaktiikan symposiumi Helsingissä 3.2.1995. Helsingin yliopisto. Opettajankoulutuslaitos. Tutkimuksia 150 425-434

Research Learning intercultural competency in the workplace Project: Researcher: Pirkko Pitkänen (pirkko.pitkanen@joensuu.fi) University of Joensuu PL 111 Research 80101 Unit: JOENSUU fax.+358 13 251 3564 Research 01.01.2003 date: Level of Adult education, other than certificate-oriented Education: Field of Adult education Science: Cultural studies immigrant working life Keyword(s): in-plant training intercultural education learning Abstract: The aim of this international and multi-disciplinary research project is to clarify prerequisites for learning successful intercultural collaboration at work in both the private and public sectors, and to develop a transformative learning model for fostering intercultural competency in day-to-day activities. In Finland, the attainment of intercultural competency is becoming ever more necessary due to an increase in ethnic and cultural diversity in workplaces. Despite the increase in immigration, relatively little is known about how to help people with foreign background to cope within the Finnish labour market. In this project, we aim at creating circumstances for successful intercultural learning processes in daily work and investigate the attainment of intercultural competency by follow-up studies. The research carried out within the project will also entail the training of people involved. This will be done in collaboration with work communities, two Equal projects, continuing education institutions, the Finnish Work Environment Fund, the Finnish Ministry of Labour, employers' and employees' organisations, as well as Regional councils and Employment and Economic Development Centres of Eastern Finland. A transformative learning theory and a social theory of learning offer the general theoretical starting points for the empirical studies. In order to clarify how intercultural competency can be fostered in everyday work, the empirical studies will focus on (1) human resource management issues; (2) intercultural professional training issues; and (3) intercultural interaction and communication issues. Both qualitative and quantitative research methods will be used to gather data on selected samples of private and public sector enterprises. By means of educational interventions and by creating circumstances under which transformative intercultural learning can occur, the project researchers

will increase the participants understanding of intercultural collaboration and diversity issues in general. This will be done from the perspective of the entire work communities; the examination includes not only immigrant employees but also their co-workers and supervisors, who belong to the ethnic majority. In these endeavours, we will utilise the wide experience and expertise of our British and Dutch project partners (the University of Manchester and the Anne Frank House). On the basis of the project results, personnel training material and an intercultural learning model will be developed and eLearning material (published on CD-ROM) on diversity issues will be produced. Publications:

Research BIC-Blueprint for interactive classrooms Project: Researcher: Tuomo Rintamäki (tuomo.rintamaki@hut.fi) Helsinki University of Technology / Center for Educational Technologies PL 8000 Research 02015 Unit: TKK tel.+358 9 4511 Research 01.01.1996 - 31.12.1997 date: Level of Education: Field of Science: interaction Keyword(s) classroom : multimedia The Blueprint for Interactive Classrooms project aims to make university education and training more accessible to a wide range of learners through low cost and flexible, user-friendly distance education technology. The project activity consists of the design and building of five interactive telepresence classrooms in five of the partner sites. Each classroom will facilitate the delivery or reception of courses over a variety of telematics networks and will incorporate various interactive mechanisms (TV, ISDN videoconferencing, Abstract: telephone, computer conferencing), each one catering for a different educational scenario. The project will produce a handbook which will be a complete guide to any distance education provider on how to build their own telepresence infrastructure, modelled on the five different scenarios which include sites for teaching remote learners, teaching remote and local learners, group presentation and interaction, a single learner, and a learning centre group.

Research

Teacher education as multi-mode education

Project: Researcher: Leena Krokfors (leena.krokfors@helsinki.fi) University of Helsinki PL 9 Research 00014 Unit: HELSINGIN YLIOPISTO tel.+358 9 1911 fax.+358 9 191 29611 Research 01.01.2003 date: Level of Comprehensive schools Education: Universities Field of Educational science Science: Teacher education teacher teacher education Keyword(s): virtual university multiform teaching The aim of the research project is to investigate how a multimode teacher education program supports the pedagogical idea of research-based teacher education. In the program, the students study and work as teachers simultaneously. This kind of learning at workplace enables the integration of theory and practice. The multimode program is an application of flexible learning. Another pedagogical feature is learning in the workplace which is an increasing trend in higher education. The pedagogical use of information Abstract: and communication is treated as a media educational phenomenon including network-based recorded lectures and the use of videoconferencing in supervision of students when they practice in their own class. The research project continues the research and development work that was established in the 1990s. It is a part of the wider research activities of the Centre for Research on Teaching, located in the Department of Applied Sciences of Education. • Kynäslahti, Heikki, Jyrhämä, Riitta, Maaranen, Katriina, Krokfors, Leena, Toom, Auli & Kansanen, Pertti 2005 Työn ja koulutuksen suhde [Elektroninen aineisto ]: opettajana työskentelyn yhteydestä opettajaksi opiskeluun Aikuiskasvatus 25 2 4 • Krokfors, Leena, Jyrhämä, Riitta, Kynäslahti, Heikki, Toom, Auli, Maaranen, Katriina & Kansanen, Pertti 2006 Working while teaching, learning while working: students teaching in their own class Journal of education for Publications: teaching : Routledge Iso-Britannia 32 1 s. 21-36 • Kynäslahti, Heikki, Kansanen, Pertti, Jyrhämä, Riitta, Krokfors, Leena, Maaranen, Katriina & Toom, Auli 2006 The multimode programme as a variation of research-based teacher education Teaching and teacher education Iso-Britannia 22 2 s. 246-256

Research Interaction of remote classrooms: Distance education project using video Project: conferencing Researcher: Heikki Kynäslahti (heikki.kynaslahti@helsinki.fi)

Research Unit:

University of Helsinki / Department of Teacher Education PL 9 (Siltavuorenpenger 20) 00014 HELSINGIN YLIOPISTO tel.+358 9 1911 fax.+358 9 19129611 01.01.1994 - 31.12.1997

Research date: Level of Education:

Comprehensive schools Universities Adult education, other than certificate-oriented Computer sciences and computer technology Field of Educational science Science: Engineering, industry and transport distance education Keyword(s): interaction didactic use of computer Abstract: The background of the research project was a series of experiments and research on distance education, carried out at our Department. In these the suitability of audiographichs and video conference for distance teaching in primary and secondary schools was explored. In 1994 the parents in the little village of Kilpisjärvi in Finnish Lapland wanted to start a local lower secondary school for their children. Since there is a biological research station of the University of Helsinki in Kilpisjärvi, it was natural that the Teacher Training School of our Department would offer pedagogical support to the beginning school, making use of distance education. The aim of the research and development project is to create and describe a distance learning environment where video conference and audiographics are used simultaneously in two classrooms, one in Helsinki, the other in Kilpisjärvi. This kind of distance education we call classroom focused distance education. The main object of interest is the symbiosis of conventional and distance education, and its impact on the instructional processes. An important area of the research is to study how the networking of the schools makes it possible to share professional knowledge and resources. Our aim is also to study how the this way of organizing school instruction affects educational aquality. Methodologically, we try develop research tools suitable for etnographic study of the problem area. Observation, videotapes of lessons, methods of interaction analysis, interwievs, field notes, documents; meetings of teachers and researchers. The main result is that the Kilpisjärvi project has succeeded in creating satisfactory ways of carrying out, and also theoretically analysing, classroom focused distance education. The Kilpisjärvi pupils have been able to studdy in teir local school, and achieve learning results equal to the results of the pupils in the Helsinki School. The common factor uniting the participant is that they all have learning as their aim. Otherwise this kind of instructional approach does not compensate enough for the segregation of the two groups of pupils. The interaction with the teacher is intensive for both groups, but the interaction between the groups is scanty. As a result the role of the teacher is emphasized, he/she brings together the different classrooms for common

activities. No particular new characteristics in the instructional process have been observed in the participating classrooms when compared to what we know of classroom instruction in general. Use of experts is typical of distance education, and teaching of subject experts is what Kilpisjärvi school gets from the training School. However, the role the local Kilpisjärvi teachers is very important, because more than half of the lessons are taught by them. The distance education project is a supporting element in the work of these teachers, thus having features of inservice education. The present results show that the shared teaching resources in classroom focused distance education make possible flexible instructional and organizational arrangements, such as differentiation of groups of pupils. The sharing of expert knowledge of subject teachers contributes to educational equality, and opens new perspectives for the development of rural schools. Distance education has proved to be great importance to the village community: the children need not leave their homes at an early age to go to school, and adult people have got a new channel of adult education. Publications: • Rönkä A. 1995 Kilpisjärvi-projekti - luokkamuotoista etäopetusta kehittämässä. Teoksessa ITK-95. Interaktiivinen teknologia koulutuksessa Konferenssi Hämeenlinnassa Aulangolla 21.-22.4.95 113-119 • Rönkä A. 1995 Luokkamuotoista etäopetusta kehittämässä: Kilpisjärviprojektin ensimmäisen lukukauden kokemuksia. Teoksessa S. Tella (toim.) Juuret ja arvot. Etnisyys ja eettisyys - aineenopettaminen monikulturaalisessa oppimisympäristössä Ainedidaktiikan symposiumi Helsingissä 3.2.1995. Helsingin yliopisto. Opettajankoulutuslaitos. Tutkimuksia 150 411-423 • Salminen J. 1995 The evaluation of the ISDN-based Video Conferencing in Classroom Focused Distance Education Paper presentation in online Educa Berlin, an International Conference on Distance Education, November 2425.1995, Berlin • Salonen M. 1995 Aspects of Classroom Interaction in Two-Way Videoconferencing Paper presentation in Open Classroom Conference: Distance Learning and New Technologies in School Level Education and Training. Oslo. Norway • Sariola J. 1995 Vuorovaikutteinen video-opetus ala-asteella Esitelmä kasvatustieteen päivillä Jyväskylässä 24.11.1995 • Säntti J. 1996 Itseohjautuvuus ja itseohjattu oppiminen luokkamuotoisessa etäopetuksessa Tutkielma. Heelsingin yliopisto. Opettajankoulutuslaitos • Falck A-K., Husu J., Kronlund T., Kynäslahti H. & Meisalo V. 1995 Luokanopettajaksi opiskelevien etäopetuksesta koulun etäopetukseen. Teoksessa H. Kynäslahti, A. Lauriala & M. Suortamo (toim.) Kokeileva poko: Luokanopettajan poikkeuskoulutus opettajankoulutuksen kehittäjänä Helsingin yliopisto. Opettajankoulutuslaitos. Tutkimuksia 147 209-220 • Husu J., Salminen J., Falck A-K., Kynäslahti H. & Meisalo V. 1994 Luokkamuotoisen etäopetuksen lähtökohtia: Kilpisjärvi-projektin alkuraportti Helsingin yliopisto. Opettajankoulutuslaitos. Tutkimuksia 135 • Husu J. 1995 The Helsinki - Kilpisjärvi Project: A Collaborative Action Research of Distance Education in Classroom Environment. In D. Seawart (ed.) One World, Many Voices: Quality in Open and Distance Learning London: Open University 2 7-8

• •

• •

Kaskinen A. 1995 Luokkamuotoisen etäopetuksen koulutustaloudellisia näkökulmia: Tapaustutkimus Helsingin II Normaalikoulun ja Kilpisjärven yläasteen välisestä etäopetuskokeilusta Opinnäytetyö, Jyväskylän palvelualojen ammattikorkeakoulu Kronlund T. 1995 New Learning Perspectives For Remote Classrooms Using Videoconferencing Paper presentation in Open Classroom Conference: Distance Learning and New Technologies in School Level Education and Training. Oslo, Norway Kronlund T., Kynäslahti H. & Meisalo V. 1995 Modern Distance Education Technology and the Problem of Small Rural Schools in Finland Life and Education in Finland 4 43-49 Kynäslahti H. & Salminen J. 1995 Integration of Remote Classrooms: Technical and Local Perspectives. In F. Nouwens (Ed.) Distance Education Crossing Frontiers Rockhampton: Central Queensland University 151-154 Nummi T. 1995 Opettajan rooli ala-asteen luokkamuotoisessa etäopetuksessa Tutkielma. Helsingin yliopisto. Opettajankoulutuslaitos Kynäslahti H. & Stevens K. 1996 Mediating Local and Global knowledge: The Emergence of the Virtual Classroom in Finland and New Zealand. In B. Glastonbury (Ed.) Dreams and Realities: Information Technology in the Human Services Helsinki. National Research and Development Centre for Welfare and Health 205-214 Kynäslahti H. 1995 Experiencing virtual classroom as a translocal field A paper presentation at the 8th Conference of Society for Information Technology and teacher Education. April 1-5, 1997, Orlando, Florida, USA Meisalo Veijo (ed.) 1996 The Integration of the Remote Classrooms: A distance Education Project using Video Conferencing University of Helsinki. Department of Teacher Education. Research Report 160 Salonen, M. & Kynäslahti H. 1996 Pupil Experiences of Classroom Focused Distance Education Using Two-Way Video Conferencing Paper presentation in 'The link that brings us together'. the 12 th Canadian Association for Distance Education Conference. May 22-25, 1996, Moncton, Canada Stevens, K., Kynäslahti, H., Salminen J. 1996 Alustavia tuloksia verkottumisesta Suomessa ja uudessa Seelannissa Kasvatus 27 2 196-205 Sariola J. 1995 Kuuleeko Vihti? Kokemuksia etäopetusharjoittelusta. Teoksessa S. Tella (toim.) Juuret ja arvot. Etnisyys ja eettisyys aineenopettaminen monikulturaalisessa oppimisympäristössä Ainedidaktiikan symposiumi Helsingissä 3.2.1995. Helsingin yliopisto. Opettajankoulutuslaitos. Tutkimuksia 150 425-434

Search word: Videoconferencing Research Learning intercultural competency in the workplace Project: Researcher: Pirkko Pitkänen (pirkko.pitkanen@joensuu.fi) University of Joensuu PL 111 Research 80101 Unit: JOENSUU fax.+358 13 251 3564 Research 01.01.2003 date: Level of Adult education, other than certificate-oriented Education: Field of Adult education Science: Cultural studies immigrant working life Keyword(s): in-plant training intercultural education learning Abstract: The aim of this international and multi-disciplinary research project is to clarify prerequisites for learning successful intercultural collaboration at work in both the private and public sectors, and to develop a transformative learning model for fostering intercultural competency in day-to-day activities. In Finland, the attainment of intercultural competency is becoming ever more necessary due to an increase in ethnic and cultural diversity in workplaces. Despite the increase in immigration, relatively little is known about how to help people with foreign background to cope within the Finnish labour market. In this project, we aim at creating circumstances for successful intercultural learning processes in daily work and investigate the attainment of intercultural competency by follow-up studies. The research carried out within the project will also entail the training of people involved. This will be done in collaboration with work communities, two Equal projects, continuing education institutions, the Finnish Work Environment Fund, the Finnish Ministry of Labour, employers' and employees' organisations, as well as Regional councils and Employment and Economic Development Centres of Eastern Finland. A transformative learning theory and a social theory of learning offer the general theoretical starting points for the empirical studies. In order to clarify how intercultural competency can be fostered in everyday work, the empirical studies will focus on (1) human resource management issues; (2) intercultural professional training issues; and (3) intercultural interaction and communication issues. Both qualitative and quantitative research methods will be used to gather data on selected samples of private and public sector

enterprises. By means of educational interventions and by creating circumstances under which transformative intercultural learning can occur, the project researchers will increase the participants understanding of intercultural collaboration and diversity issues in general. This will be done from the perspective of the entire work communities; the examination includes not only immigrant employees but also their co-workers and supervisors, who belong to the ethnic majority. In these endeavours, we will utilise the wide experience and expertise of our British and Dutch project partners (the University of Manchester and the Anne Frank House). On the basis of the project results, personnel training material and an intercultural learning model will be developed and eLearning material (published on CD-ROM) on diversity issues will be produced. Publications:

Research BIC-Blueprint for interactive classrooms Project: Researcher: Tuomo Rintamäki (tuomo.rintamaki@hut.fi) Helsinki University of Technology / Center for Educational Technologies PL 8000 Research 02015 Unit: TKK tel.+358 9 4511 Research 01.01.1996 - 31.12.1997 date: Level of Education: Field of Science: interaction Keyword(s) classroom : multimedia Abstract: The Blueprint for Interactive Classrooms project aims to make university education and training more accessible to a wide range of learners through low cost and flexible, user-friendly distance education technology. The project activity consists of the design and building of five interactive telepresence classrooms in five of the partner sites. Each classroom will facilitate the delivery or reception of courses over a variety of telematics networks and will incorporate various interactive mechanisms (TV, ISDN videoconferencing, telephone, computer conferencing), each one catering for a different educational scenario. The project will produce a handbook which will be a complete guide to any distance education provider on how to build their own telepresence infrastructure, modelled on the five different scenarios which include sites for teaching remote learners, teaching remote and local learners, group

presentation and interaction, a single learner, and a learning centre group.

Research Teacher education as multi-mode education Project: Researcher: Leena Krokfors (leena.krokfors@helsinki.fi) University of Helsinki PL 9 Research 00014 Unit: HELSINGIN YLIOPISTO tel.+358 9 1911 fax.+358 9 191 29611 Research 01.01.2003 date: Level of Comprehensive schools Education: Universities Field of Educational science Science: Teacher education teacher teacher education Keyword(s): virtual university multiform teaching The aim of the research project is to investigate how a multimode teacher education program supports the pedagogical idea of research-based teacher education. In the program, the students study and work as teachers simultaneously. This kind of learning at workplace enables the integration of theory and practice. The multimode program is an application of flexible learning. Another pedagogical feature is learning in the workplace which is an increasing trend in higher education. The pedagogical use of information Abstract: and communication is treated as a media educational phenomenon including network-based recorded lectures and the use of videoconferencing in supervision of students when they practice in their own class. The research project continues the research and development work that was established in the 1990s. It is a part of the wider research activities of the Centre for Research on Teaching, located in the Department of Applied Sciences of Education. • Kynäslahti, Heikki, Jyrhämä, Riitta, Maaranen, Katriina, Krokfors, Leena, Toom, Auli & Kansanen, Pertti 2005 Työn ja koulutuksen suhde [Elektroninen aineisto ]: opettajana työskentelyn yhteydestä opettajaksi opiskeluun Aikuiskasvatus 25 2 4 • Krokfors, Leena, Jyrhämä, Riitta, Kynäslahti, Heikki, Toom, Auli, Maaranen, Katriina & Kansanen, Pertti 2006 Working while teaching, learning while working: students teaching in their own class Journal of education for Publications: teaching : Routledge Iso-Britannia 32 1 s. 21-36 • Kynäslahti, Heikki, Kansanen, Pertti, Jyrhämä, Riitta, Krokfors, Leena, Maaranen, Katriina & Toom, Auli 2006 The multimode programme as a variation of research-based teacher education Teaching and teacher education Iso-Britannia 22 2 s. 246-256

Research Interaction of remote classrooms: Distance education project using video Project: conferencing Researcher: Heikki Kynäslahti (heikki.kynaslahti@helsinki.fi) University of Helsinki / Department of Teacher Education PL 9 (Siltavuorenpenger 20) Research 00014 Unit: HELSINGIN YLIOPISTO tel.+358 9 1911 fax.+358 9 19129611 Research 01.01.1994 - 31.12.1997 date: Comprehensive schools Level of Universities Education: Adult education, other than certificate-oriented Computer sciences and computer technology Field of Educational science Science: Engineering, industry and transport distance education Keyword(s): interaction didactic use of computer Abstract: The background of the research project was a series of experiments and research on distance education, carried out at our Department. In these the suitability of audiographichs and video conference for distance teaching in primary and secondary schools was explored. In 1994 the parents in the little village of Kilpisjärvi in Finnish Lapland wanted to start a local lower secondary school for their children. Since there is a biological research station of the University of Helsinki in Kilpisjärvi, it was natural that the Teacher Training School of our Department would offer pedagogical support to the beginning school, making use of distance education. The aim of the research and development project is to create and describe a distance learning environment where video conference and audiographics are used simultaneously in two classrooms, one in Helsinki, the other in Kilpisjärvi. This kind of distance education we call classroom focused distance education. The main object of interest is the symbiosis of conventional and distance education, and its impact on the instructional processes. An important area of the research is to study how the networking of the schools makes it possible to share professional knowledge and resources. Our aim is also to study how the this way of organizing school instruction affects educational aquality. Methodologically, we try develop research tools suitable for etnographic study of the problem area. Observation, videotapes of lessons, methods of interaction analysis, interwievs, field notes, documents; meetings of teachers and researchers. The main result is that the Kilpisjärvi project has succeeded in creating satisfactory ways of carrying out, and also theoretically analysing, classroom focused distance education. The Kilpisjärvi pupils have been able to studdy in teir local school, and achieve learning results equal to the results of the pupils in the Helsinki School. The common factor uniting the participant is

that they all have learning as their aim. Otherwise this kind of instructional approach does not compensate enough for the segregation of the two groups of pupils. The interaction with the teacher is intensive for both groups, but the interaction between the groups is scanty. As a result the role of the teacher is emphasized, he/she brings together the different classrooms for common activities. No particular new characteristics in the instructional process have been observed in the participating classrooms when compared to what we know of classroom instruction in general. Use of experts is typical of distance education, and teaching of subject experts is what Kilpisjärvi school gets from the training School. However, the role the local Kilpisjärvi teachers is very important, because more than half of the lessons are taught by them. The distance education project is a supporting element in the work of these teachers, thus having features of inservice education. The present results show that the shared teaching resources in classroom focused distance education make possible flexible instructional and organizational arrangements, such as differentiation of groups of pupils. The sharing of expert knowledge of subject teachers contributes to educational equality, and opens new perspectives for the development of rural schools. Distance education has proved to be great importance to the village community: the children need not leave their homes at an early age to go to school, and adult people have got a new channel of adult education. • Rönkä A. 1995 Kilpisjärvi-projekti - luokkamuotoista etäopetusta kehittämässä. Teoksessa ITK-95. Interaktiivinen teknologia koulutuksessa Konferenssi Hämeenlinnassa Aulangolla 21.-22.4.95 113-119 • Rönkä A. 1995 Luokkamuotoista etäopetusta kehittämässä: Kilpisjärviprojektin ensimmäisen lukukauden kokemuksia. Teoksessa S. Tella (toim.) Juuret ja arvot. Etnisyys ja eettisyys - aineenopettaminen monikulturaalisessa oppimisympäristössä Ainedidaktiikan symposiumi Helsingissä 3.2.1995. Helsingin yliopisto. Opettajankoulutuslaitos. Tutkimuksia 150 411-423 • Salminen J. 1995 The evaluation of the ISDN-based Video Conferencing in Classroom Focused Distance Education Paper presentation in online Educa Berlin, an International Conference on Distance Education, November 2425.1995, Berlin • Salonen M. 1995 Aspects of Classroom Interaction in Two-Way Videoconferencing Paper presentation in Open Classroom Conference: Publications: Distance Learning and New Technologies in School Level Education and Training. Oslo. Norway • Sariola J. 1995 Vuorovaikutteinen video-opetus ala-asteella Esitelmä kasvatustieteen päivillä Jyväskylässä 24.11.1995 • Säntti J. 1996 Itseohjautuvuus ja itseohjattu oppiminen luokkamuotoisessa etäopetuksessa Tutkielma. Heelsingin yliopisto. Opettajankoulutuslaitos • Falck A-K., Husu J., Kronlund T., Kynäslahti H. & Meisalo V. 1995 Luokanopettajaksi opiskelevien etäopetuksesta koulun etäopetukseen. Teoksessa H. Kynäslahti, A. Lauriala & M. Suortamo (toim.) Kokeileva poko: Luokanopettajan poikkeuskoulutus opettajankoulutuksen kehittäjänä Helsingin yliopisto. Opettajankoulutuslaitos. Tutkimuksia 147 209-220 • Husu J., Salminen J., Falck A-K., Kynäslahti H. & Meisalo V. 1994 Luokkamuotoisen etäopetuksen lähtökohtia: Kilpisjärvi-projektin

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alkuraportti Helsingin yliopisto. Opettajankoulutuslaitos. Tutkimuksia 135 Husu J. 1995 The Helsinki - Kilpisjärvi Project: A Collaborative Action Research of Distance Education in Classroom Environment. In D. Seawart (ed.) One World, Many Voices: Quality in Open and Distance Learning London: Open University 2 7-8 Kaskinen A. 1995 Luokkamuotoisen etäopetuksen koulutustaloudellisia näkökulmia: Tapaustutkimus Helsingin II Normaalikoulun ja Kilpisjärven yläasteen välisestä etäopetuskokeilusta Opinnäytetyö, Jyväskylän palvelualojen ammattikorkeakoulu Kronlund T. 1995 New Learning Perspectives For Remote Classrooms Using Videoconferencing Paper presentation in Open Classroom Conference: Distance Learning and New Technologies in School Level Education and Training. Oslo, Norway Kronlund T., Kynäslahti H. & Meisalo V. 1995 Modern Distance Education Technology and the Problem of Small Rural Schools in Finland Life and Education in Finland 4 43-49 Kynäslahti H. & Salminen J. 1995 Integration of Remote Classrooms: Technical and Local Perspectives. In F. Nouwens (Ed.) Distance Education Crossing Frontiers Rockhampton: Central Queensland University 151-154 Nummi T. 1995 Opettajan rooli ala-asteen luokkamuotoisessa etäopetuksessa Tutkielma. Helsingin yliopisto. Opettajankoulutuslaitos Kynäslahti H. & Stevens K. 1996 Mediating Local and Global knowledge: The Emergence of the Virtual Classroom in Finland and New Zealand. In B. Glastonbury (Ed.) Dreams and Realities: Information Technology in the Human Services Helsinki. National Research and Development Centre for Welfare and Health 205-214 Kynäslahti H. 1995 Experiencing virtual classroom as a translocal field A paper presentation at the 8th Conference of Society for Information Technology and teacher Education. April 1-5, 1997, Orlando, Florida, USA Meisalo Veijo (ed.) 1996 The Integration of the Remote Classrooms: A distance Education Project using Video Conferencing University of Helsinki. Department of Teacher Education. Research Report 160 Salonen, M. & Kynäslahti H. 1996 Pupil Experiences of Classroom Focused Distance Education Using Two-Way Video Conferencing Paper presentation in 'The link that brings us together'. the 12 th Canadian Association for Distance Education Conference. May 22-25, 1996, Moncton, Canada Stevens, K., Kynäslahti, H., Salminen J. 1996 Alustavia tuloksia verkottumisesta Suomessa ja uudessa Seelannissa Kasvatus 27 2 196-205 Sariola J. 1995 Kuuleeko Vihti? Kokemuksia etäopetusharjoittelusta. Teoksessa S. Tella (toim.) Juuret ja arvot. Etnisyys ja eettisyys aineenopettaminen monikulturaalisessa oppimisympäristössä Ainedidaktiikan symposiumi Helsingissä 3.2.1995. Helsingin yliopisto. Opettajankoulutuslaitos. Tutkimuksia 150 425-434

Project Bridging Insula Europae
The task of Euneos was to investigate ODL limitations and barriers. As this was the main step of the project research phase and for this reason, we formed a focus group of nine teachers to be held both on-line and in person. Seven teachers were chosen from Vihti upper secondary, and two from other schools. The selection included teachers of different subjects and with different ICT skills levels. Those two teachers who were not from Vihti school represented teachers with more experience of ODL. The main aim of the focus group was to single out barriers, limitations and negative aspects of ODL systems. The Vihti upper secondary school was chosen as the main target school of interviews, because the school represented a mainstream upper secondary school in Finland with about 550 students, and because it was possible to contact teachers also face-to-face over there. Fastwrite interviews in August 2008 The interviews were carried using fastwrite questionnaires especially designed for this purpose. They were put into practice in late August 2008, after the Finnish teachers came back to schools from their 10 weeks summer holidays to start the new school-year 2008-09. The online interviews were complemented with face-to-face and phone contacts. Various subjects Eight female teachers and one male teacher were interviewed. The age range of their students was from 16 to 19 years in 8 cases, and from 7 to 12 years in one case. The subjects included English (3), French (1), German (1), Swedish (1), chemistry (1), mathematics (1) and physical education (1). Their experiences with educational ICT were for 0 – 1 year (2), 2 - 3 years (2), 4 – 5 years(1), 6 – 7 years (2) and for 10 or more years (2). General attitude: positive Two teachers said that their attitude to eLearning was very positive, one said that her attitude was neutral and six teachers described their attitudes as positive. Their use of the Internet was from 0 to 1 hour a week in 6 cases, from 2 to 3 hours a week in one case and from 4 – 5 hours a week in one case. One of the interviewed was on her maternity leave, and had currently no lessons. ODL not involved in curriculum The eLearning was involved in the curriculum to a large extent only in the case of primary education (7 – 12 years). The two teachers who had the longest experience of educational ICT said that eLearning had been integrated into the curriculum of their subject to some extent. Others said it was integrated to a small or to a very small extent. Not much utilization of ODL Two of the teachers said that they adopted eLearning very much or a lot in her teaching. Four teachers adopted it moderately, or a little, and three teachers had adopted eLearning very little. The teachers who adopted eLearning more performed many different kind of activities n the Internet with their students, such as browsing web pages, searching Internet resources, making partner projects, having email correspondence, taking part in forum discussions, using text chat or messaging and participating in live online sessions. Those who only adopted eLearning a little were mostly satisfied with searching web resources.

Systematic promotion would motivate The interviewed teachers were asked to choose up to three things that motivated them most in eLearning. The most active teacher found her best motivation in the following: systematic promotion of eLearning at school, enthusiasm of students and internationalization. Development of materials and facilities was also an important motivating factor for the teachers who were more active in eLearning. Instead, teacher-in-service training was often chosen as one of the most motivating things among the teachers who were less active in eLearning. More training needed There was a lot of distribution in opinions of the teachers concerning the equipment, even inside the same school. Some said there were enough computers, while others thought the opposite. The more experienced teachers emphasized the need of teacher-in-service training in their opinions. Rapid or slow growth of ODL? Five teachers thought that the future role of eLearning will increase rapidly, whereas three of them said the development will be slow. One of the teachers thought that eLearning will stay as it is, not to be decreased or increased.

Supplements There are more detailed in the answers of the interviewed teachers in supplements of this summary of investigation. 4) My personal views on eLearning/ODL, 9 answers of Finnish teachers in English, document in .doc and .rtf 5) Henkilökohtaisia mielipiteitäni e-oppimisesta/verkko-opiskelusta, 9 suomalaisen opettajan vastaukset suomeksi, asiakirja .doc ja .rtf -muodoissa 6) Summary of the answers of 9 Finnish teachers about their views on eLearning/ODL, .xls file and .ods files

01 02 03 04 05 06

Name: Marjo Yliluoma (my name can be mentioned when publishing results) Gender: female School: Kantin koulu (Kant school) Email: marjo.yliluoma@karvia.fi Subject(s) I teach: English Age range of my main student groups: 7 - 12 yrs

Personally, I have used the Internet for 6 - 7 years. My attitude to eLearning is very positive. eLearning has been integrated into the curriculum of my subject to a large extent. I have adopted opportunities of educational ICT in my own teaching a lot. I work in the Internet for about 4 - 5 hours a week with my students.

The activities I have included in my teaching browsing web pages, searching Internet resources, partner projects, email correspondence, forum discussions, text chat or messaging and live online sessions. The matters that give me the best motivation for my own eLearning are, as follows: systematic promotion of eLearning at school, enthusiasm of students and internationalization. eLearning is not interpreted as a method of learning by the school management of the municipality. This is what I can say about learning technology made available to me in my school: There is sufficient technical know-how and support. The equipment of my school favors introducing eLearning, and there are enough computers with Internet access available. I think eLearning will have a rapidly increasing role in school in future. 01 Name: Laura Pihkala-Posti (my name can be mentioned when publishing results) 02 Gender: female 03 School: Hervanta upper seconday school Tampere Finland 04 Email: laura.pihkala-posti@koulut.tampere.fi 05 Subject(s) I teach: German 06 Age range of my main student groups: 16-19 yrs Personally, I have used the Internet for 6 - 7 years. My attitude to eLearning is very positive. eLearning has been integrated into the curriculum of my subject only to a small extent. I have adopted opportunities of educational ICT in my own teaching very much. I work in the Internet for about 0 - 1 hour a week with my students. Activities I have included in my teaching browsing web pages, searching Internet resources, partner projects, email correspondence, forum discussions and tutoring courses. The matters that give me the best motivation for my own eLearning are development of materials and facilities and internationalization. My own interest has also been crucial. Unfortunately, there is not sufficiently teacher-in-service training with good quality. More time and technical support is needed for eLearning. This is what I can say about learning technology made available to me in my school: My students have a learning platform at their disposal. Technical support does not work properly. There is need for even more computers. I think eLearning will have a rapidly increasing role in school in future. 01 Name: Pirjo Orkovaara (my name must not be mentioned when publishing results) 02 Gender: female 03 School: Vihti upper secondary school 04 Email: pirjo.orkovaara@vihti.fi 05 Subject(s) I teach: physical education 06 Age range of my main student groups: 16 – 19 yrs Personally, I have used the Internet for 4 - 5 years. My attitude to eLearning is positive. eLearning has been integrated into the curriculum of my subject to a small extent. I have adopted opportunities of educational ICT moderately in my own teaching. I work in the Internet for about 2 - 3 hours a week with my students. Activities I have included in my teaching are browsing web pages, searching Internet resources and forum discussions. The matters that give me the best motivation for my own eLearning is the development of materials and facilities. There will be online courses for students in future. Teacher-in-service and systematic promotion of eLearning is lacking. There is no real support for users. There is some know how in school, but the municipality that maintains the school sets too many bids and restrictions, which slow down and disturb development. The increase of the work load of teachers is not taken into account in salaries. I think there will be a rapid growth in the role of eLearning as a whole. I think the future role of eLearning will increase rapidly.

01 02 03 04 05 06

Name: Ossi Mauno (my name can be mentioned when publishing results) Gender: male School: Vihti upper secondary school Email: ossi.mauno@vihti.fi Subject(s) I teach: mathematics Age range of my main student groups: 16 – 19 yrs

Personally, I have used the Internet for 2 - 3 years. My attitude to eLearning is positive. eLearning has been integrated into the curriculum of my subject to a small extent. I have adopted opportunities of educational ICT in my own teaching moderately. I work in the Internet for about 0-1 hour a week with my students. The Internet activities I have included in my teaching are browsing web pages, searching Internet resources, publishing online products and guiding courses of students. I think it is more reasonable to do some matters online, especially when teaching ICT. I think the future role of eLearning will increase rapidly. 01 Name: Pirjo Saarinen (my name must not be mentioned when publishing results) 02 Gender: female 03 School: Vihti upper secondary school 04 Email: pirjo.saarinen@vihti.fi 05 Subject(s) I teach: chemistry 06 Age range of my main student groups: 16 – 19 yrs Personally, I have used the Internet for 2- 3 years. My attitude to eLearning is positive. eLearning has been integrated into the curriculum of my subject only a little. I have adopted opportunities of educational ICT very little in my own teaching. I work in the Internet for about 0-1 hour a week with my students. The Internet activity I have included in my teaching is searching Internet resources. The matters that give me the best motivation for my own eLearning are teacher-in-service training, support and encouragement of the school management and development of materials and facilities. There is really little of ICT training, or no money for training. This is what I can say about learning technology made available to me in my school: There are enough computers with Internet access in my school. The school network allows me to do all I want to do on the Internet, and the equipment of my school favors introducing eLearning. I think the future role of eLearning will stay as it is today when the entire learning processes are concerned. 01 Name: Tuula Jantunen (my name must not be mentioned when publishing results) 02 Gender: female 03 School: Vihti upper secondary school 04 Email: tuula.jantunen@vihti.fi 05 Subject(s) I teach: English 06 Age range of my main student groups: 16 – 19 yrs Personally, I have used the Internet for 10 years or more. My attitude to eLearning is positive. eLearning has been integrated into the curriculum of my subject to some extent. I have adopted opportunities of educational ICT in my own teaching a little. I work in the Internet for about 0-1 hour a week with my students. The activities I have included in my teaching is making grammar and other online exercises. The matters that give me the best motivation for my own eLearning are, as follows: eLearning is assessed and evaluated in exams, teacher-in-service training and more time for adopting eLearning. There is not enough time to do everything. This is what I can say about learning technology made available to me in my school: The school network allows me to do all I want to do on the Internet, but there are not enough computers so as to take them easily into use. I think the future role of eLearning will increase slowly.

01 02 03 04 05 06

Name: Iina Levàn (my name can be mentioned when publishing results) Gender: female School: Vihti upper secondary school Email: iina.levan@vihti.fi Subject(s) I teach: French Age range of my main student groups: 16 – 19 yrs

Personally, I have used the Internet for 10 years or more. My attitude to eLearning is positive. eLearning has been integrated into the curriculum of my subject to some extent. I have adopted opportunities of educational ICT moderately in my own teaching. I work in the Internet for about 0-1 hour a week with my students. The Internet activities I have included in my teaching are browsing web pages, searching Internet resources and email correspondence. The matters that give me the best motivation for my own eLearning are teacher-in-service training, systematic promotion of eLearning at school and putting the international dimension into learning processes. I think the future role of eLearning will increase rapidly. 01 Name: Minna Vainionpää (my name must not be mentioned when publishing results) 02 Gender: female 03 School: Vihti upper secondary school 04 Email: minna.vainionpaa@vihti.fi 05 Subject(s) I teach: Swedish 06 Age range of my main student groups: 16 – 19 yrs Personally, I have used the Internet for 0 – 1 years. My attitude to eLearning is positive. eLearning has been integrated into the curriculum of my subject to a minor extent. I have adopted opportunities of educational ICT in my own teaching very little. I work in the Internet for about 0-1 hour a week with my students. The activity I have included in my teaching is searching Internet resources. The matters that give me the best motivation for my own eLearning are, as follows: systematic promotion of eLearning at school, enthusiasm of students and development of materials and facilities. There seems to be not enough time to learn new things, even if I had interest in it. Computers should function without friction, as I have no skills myself to mend broken devices. This is what I can say about learning technology made available to me in my school: The school network allows me to do all I want to do on the Internet, but computers are out of order, from time to time. I know about this topic so little that my answers are deplorably scarce. Maybe I will some day know more if my hectic life as the mother of two small children allows me that. I think the future role of eLearning will increase slowly. 01 Name: Tuija Saarinen (my name must not be mentioned when publishing results) 02 Gender: female 03 School: Vihti upper seconday school Tampere Finland 04 Email: tuija.saarinen@vihti.fi 05 Subject(s) I teach: English 06 Age range of my main student groups: 16-19 yrs Personally, I have used the Internet for 0 - 1 year. My attitude to eLearning is neutral. eLearning has been integrated into the curriculum of my subject only to a very small extent. I have adopted opportunities of educational ICT in my own teaching very little. I work in the Internet for about 0 - 1 hour a week with my students. Activities I have included in my teaching are searching Internet resources and watching news in English on WWW.

The matter that gives me the best motivation for my own eLearning is the enthusiasm of students. There is no budget for training of educational ICT. I have not enough motivation to learn all that is possible to learn in my own free time. The attitudes to eLearning are fairly negative in my working community, including myself. This is what I can say about learning technology made available to me in my school: My school has enough computers with Internet access. I think eLearning will have a slowly increasing role in school in future.

LIP 6 Live Online
- the course for live cooperation

LIP 6 Live Online was the latest course of teacher-in-service training "Learn Internet Projects by Doing". The three on-site seminars of the course took place in the school-year 2007-2008, and the international partner projects were also carried out in 2007-08. The course was organised in cooperation of OPEKO, the National Center for Professional Development in Education, and the Comenius 3 network COMP@CT. The on-site seminars of LIP 6 Live Online were held at OPEKO in Tampere September 27-28, 2007, November 21, 2007 and January 28-29, 2008. The course was coached by Ilpo Halonen, senior lecturer, M.A. The new aspect of the course was the use of live online sessions as part of the partner projects performed with foreign colleagues and with their student groups. LIP 6 Live Online was the 6th course with an e-journalistic approach to project-based eLearning PBeL. The LIP 1 was organised in 2002-03. There was a live online room for 50 participants integrated into eJournals where LIP 6 LION participants worked. Live sessions proved to be very useful. They were used e.g. in contacts with teachers in St Peter's School in Panchgani India. Visits of Finnish and Dutch teachers to India were prepared in the live online room of eJournals. The LIP 6 Live Online course contributed a lot to the development of Finn-India network, which was initiated by COMP@CT in the autumn 2007. The course LIP 6 Live Online had the ambitious objective to train some teachers as moderators of live online sessions. What, where, when? LIP 6 LION was the first LIP training for teachers consisting not only of asynchronous collaboration but also of live online sessions, live speech and possibly video by web cameras. The content of the course was eJournalism, i.e. creative journalistic activities of children and teenagers on the web. They had opportunities to write, draw, sing, take photos and videos, and publish their products, using eJournals, either on Intranet or in public on the Internet. The children worked under guidance of their teachers. Teams of two or more teachers were free to cooperate in the Internet on their own. Who and how? The Finnish course participants learned to make international projects in LIP 6 Live Online seminars in Tampere Finland, and they helped their colleagues abroad in project making. There were live online sessions of teachers and students in addition to asynchronous collaboration. The course, like other LIP courses, was arranged by the Finnish National Centre of Professional Development in Education OPEKO, and it belonged to projects of the COMP@CT network. The

course was free of charge for both the Finnish participants and their foreign partners. The course included only virtual collaboration on the Internet, and there was no travelling for the foreign partners in the context of LIP projects.

LIP courses 2002 - 2008 Teacher-in-service courses having this same concept of training have been organized between 2002 – 2008 followingly: Learn Internet Projects by Doing LIP 1 for language teachers, 2002-2003 Learn Internet Projects by Doing LIP 2, regional in Savonlinna 2003 Learn Internet Projects by Doing LIP 3, OPEKO Tampere 2004 Learn Internet Projects LIP 4 Enterprise, OPEKO Tampere 2004-05

Learn Internet Projects LIP 5 Primary, OPEKO Tampere 2005 -2006 Learn Internet Projects LIP 6 Live Online, OPEKO Tampere 2007 -2008 The first three LIP courses were targeted mostly at teachers of languages. LIP 4 Enterprise was organized for teachers interested in active citizenship and entrepreneurship in 2004-05, in collaboration with Dr Liisa Remes, an expert of the topic. LIP 5 Primary in 2005-06 was a training course for teachers of basic comprehensive schools, grades 1-9.

Applying Teachers in Finland filled in the application form in the Internet. Foreign partners who liked to attend to the LIP course filled in another form in the Internet, the content of which was submitted to the course leader. Those who liked to be partners in the LIP 6 Live Online course attended to pilot sessions in the school-year 2006-2007 where the use of live online rooms was shown to them in a practical way. The course participants were introduced in the eJournal LIP 6 Live Online, which was the common tool of information and communication between attendants, as well as the gateway to live online rooms. The same eJournal was the central tool of information and communication when the course LIP 6 Live Online started in the autumn 2007. Objectives of the course? The LIP training format was part of eJournalism, a holistic approach to project-based eLearning PbeL. Teachers engaged in methods of networked collaboration and of international partner projects in order to improve their own teaching and to make learning processes more and more communicative. The e-journalistic approach has many advantages. The authenticity of communication adds motivation. One learns a lot beside the foreign language: pupils learn crosscultural understanding, better skills of information and communication technology (ICT) and of distant learning in written and oral environments both synchronously and asynchronously. How did one work in the seminars? In the first f2f seminar the Finnish participants were instructed to use the eJournal, a most adequate tool for partner projects in the Internet. At the same time they started their partner projects. Participants learned to know about project making in the Internet and about working in the net with their pupils. They participated in live online sessions between the seminars. The further seminars, either one or two, included checking how projects were proceeding. More advice was given to the participants how to continue their international project work. Completing the project and its evaluation were new topics treated in the last f2f seminar. The participants discussed the project method and learned more about it. They also evaluated how the LIP course had been run and what it had meant for their own work. Foreign partners were informed and instructed by the Finnish participants, which strengthened their adopting project methods. What did one do in the Internet? Partner projects were carried out mostly in an asynchronous collaboration. The Finnish colleagues

worked in teams in eJournals, and they had one or more foreign partners in each journal. Partners organized their lessons so that there was enough time for pupils to write and publish their articles in the eJournal. In the beginning, participants instructed their students to work in an independent way in the eJournal. Online sessions in the computer lab were needed, at least at the beginning of the project work, for giving pupils and students instructions. After pupils knew how to work in the eJournal they were able to go on working in an asynchronous way, carrying out their assignments. Drafts of texts were also written and corrected on paper. After that pupils turned their texts and images digital off-line. Only some online time was needed for their publishing in the Internet. Knowing how to publish articles pupils were able to work ubiquitously doing their project tasks whenever they had time. Fastwrite questionnaires of eJournals were introduced into project work of pupils and students, and it accelerated the speed of writing texts enormously. Live online sessions were organised for teachers involved in projects, and for groups of students who collaborated in the Internet. Group sessions were arranged either in computer labs, classrooms or at homes respectively, noticing the time zones of different countries. When were the projects made? Partner projects were started in the first seminar, and the projects were carried out during the course and after that. In addition to live online meetings participants used email and the internal messaging tool of the eJournals - both for internal messages and for e-mail - to communicate to each other. The LIP course was tutored by the course leader who was available for the participants and for their partners by email, and also in live online sessions organized on a regular basis. Anna Airikkala, an experienced language teacher from Nurmijärvi Finland, assisted in training moderators for live sessions during the LIP 6 Live Online course. Who were the partners? The Finnish participants of LIP 6 Live Online carried out their own partner project each, together with one or more foreign colleagues. There were groups of pupils or students included in every partner project. The teacher colleagues of the Finns came from many EU countries, Norway and Russia. In addition to that there were 8 partnerships in the context of the Finn-India network. What information did the participants give to the course leader? The course leader got the following information from the potential participants before the course: 1) in which foreign language the project will be made 2) knowledge about the pupils/students engaged in the project - how many persons are there in the participating group - how old are the learners - for how many years have they learned the foreign language in which they make the project - how long should the project last, - has the participant got a partner whom he/she would like to recommend 3) the e-mail address which is used constantly during the project The participants were also aksed about their experience about international project work and about partner projects so far. The wishes and the proposals of participants and of their partners were taken

into consideration. When did the projects start in the practice? Pilot sessions started in August 2007, and there were repetitive sessions throughout the autumn 2007. Participants were chosen by the end of September. International project work started from the first seminar in September 2007 on. .

What should the participants know before the course? Basic use of computers Browsing in the Internet Sending and receiving email Attendance to live online sessions Experience about partner projects before Teachers who had made partner projects before were invited to attend to the LIP 6 Live Online course, because the live online component of the international project work was new to them too. The experienced project-makers were asked to occasionally assist others during the course. The course was useful for the experienced ones who did not yet know the eJournal, the new innovative Internet tool which was used in this course. Foreign colleagues who committed to be project partners were not always experienced in project making, so the Finnish teachers gave tuition and support. What kind of projects in the Internet? Ideally, projects were tailored up to the need of partners. If the learner groups were beginners or not advanced in a foreign language, projects could follow the format of The Image/Das Bild/L`Image , developed by the European Schools Project. This learning concept means that relatively similar learner groups of the same foreign language collaborate in the Internet to advance their language skills, their cultural knowledge and their technological know-how. In case of more advanced learners other project models are adopted in collaboration. A very personal project? Individual Internet projects could be designed, up to the skills level of the participant, in cooperation with the course leader and the project partner. Basically, all projects were unique and differed from each other. Where did the partners come from? Partners came from a project platform of some international virtual community, who organize partner projects on the standing basis, such as European Schoolnet, MyEurope, European Schools Project, IEARN , Kidlink and Dafnord (German language). All these virtual communities also have partner exchange sites where to find more partners for collaboration.

It was the course leader who tried to find out partners for projects, but teachers were able to find partners also on their own. What kind of tasks is the foreign partner responsible for? If partners agreed, they could continue practically for the whole school year to perform the project. Partners were advised to foresee how much working time it would take to carry out the project they has agreed on, so that there would be enough time for project activities, such as informing the own educational institution about the project, discussing the project with the partners, discussing the project in the learner group, making the project materials with the learner group, publishing the articles in the eJournal, commenting on the articles of others, discussing the outcomes in the learner group, asking for help and getting instructions from the course leader etc. Live online sessions also needed a certain amount of time. Participants were asked to calculate in advance how much time and effort they can would be able to put on the LIP 6 Live Online project, and keep their partners informed all time, especially in cases of possible problems. How were the projects present in the Internet? The participants were advised to work in the eJournal, the innovative and user-friendly virtual environment e.g. for partner projects. It enabled live contacts, and it included both making and editing of project results and also publishing them in the Internet. Live online rooms integrated into eJournals enhanced collaboration. Other ways of publishing material on the web were also taken into use according to the needs. What advantage did the foreign partners have from the course? The foreign colleagues were teachers who were interested in project-based eLearning. Cooperation in the framework of this course offered them more than just standard projects. They learned some more about supervising eLearning and about e-moderating networked collaboration. They got all advice and instructions given to the participants. They learned to know how to implement ejournalistic activities into project work. The foreign partners also got instructions about the technique of the eJournal, and they had opportunities even to take part in publishing project results if they had time and motivation to learn it. Live online sessions greatly contributed to their knowledge about project-based eLearning PBeL. How about foreign languages taught less in Finnish schools? There have been teachers of English, German, French, Swedish and Russian participating in LIP training, and they have been able to work in eJournals of respective languages. The organizers tried to find ways to offer LIP training to all teachers, not depending on the language. For example, if teachers of primary schools were involved, young pupils could collaborate more in issues such as illustration, photographing, singing or videoing in order to compensate the lack of sufficient skills in foreign languages. What kind of results were expected? The evaluation of the course was based on the fact that participants should be encouraged to be

networked and organized with their domestic and foreign colleagues, so as to collaborate with them. Completing the course, all participants should have more competent in their Internet skills than before. And they should have been better motivated to carry out partner projects in the Internet also in future. These objectives were reached according to the evaluations of the participants. A certificate about participation? OPEKO, the National Centre of Professional Development in Education, gave out a certificate also to online partners of LIP 6 Live Online, if such a certificate was requested, where the new standards of their competence in educational ICT were stated. The certificate proved that they have performed the collaborative project together with their Finnish partners in the Internet.

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