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Web based learning in Spain

Confederacion Española de Centros de Enseñanza


Bridging Insula Europae

Enhancing Pupils Motivation by Developing European Dimension of Learning and the Use of ICT
Grant Agreement 2007-3435/001-001
This project has been funded with support from the European Commission.
This publication reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for
any use which may be made of the information contained therein.

Table of contents

What is WBL: WEB-BASED LEARNING?.......................................................................4

............................................................................................................... .................5

This model is a good example of best practices using Webquest for teaching using
internet at school....................................................................................................7

Advantages and disadvantages.............................................................................. .7

WBL in Spain.............................................................................................................9

Use of ICT as learning tools in secondary schools ................................................14

With ICT, the teacher tends to become more of an advisor, critical dialogue
partner and leader for specific subject domains...................................................18

“XXII Semana Monográfica de la Educación” entitled “Las Tecnologías de la

Información y la Comunicación (TIC) en la Educación: retos y posibilidades”.
Fundación Santillana, 2008 ...............19

Barriers and obstacles for effective ICT use in schools.............................................21

1.-Teacher level barriers........................................................................................24

2.-School – level barriers.......................................................................................26

3.-System-level barriers........................................................................................28

............................................................................................................. .................30

Good practices and experiences in Spain.................................................................32

Conclusions .............................................................................. ..............................37

SWOT ................................................................................................................... ....40

Recommendations ...................................................................................... .............42

ICT use in Education Report (Informe Tecnología CECE) ................44

Informe eEspaña 2007, de la Fundación Orange ...........44


E-learning, Web-based learning, online learning, and distance learning are widely used as
interchangeable terms.

A clear understanding of these concepts and their fundamental differences is important for
both the educational and training communities.

Web based learning is often called online learning or e-learning because it includes online
course content. Discussion forums via email, videoconferencing, and live lectures (video
streaming) are all possible through the web. Web based courses may also provide static
pages such as printed course materials. In Spain we associate the idea of WBL with ICT,
especially when we talk about schools.

One of the values of using the web to access course materials is that web pages may
contain hyperlinks to other parts of the web, thus enabling access to a vast amount of web
based information.

E-learning is mostly associated with activities involving computers and interactive
networks simultaneously. The computer does not need to be the central element of the
activity or provide learning content. However, the computer and the network must hold a
significant involvement in the learning activity.

Web-based learning is associated with learning materials delivered in a Web browser,

including when the materials are packaged on CD-ROM or other media.

Online learning is associated with content readily accessible on a computer. The content
may be on the Web or the Internet, or simply installed on a CD-ROM or the computer hard

Distance learning involves interaction at a distance between instructor and learners, and
enables timely instructor reaction to learners. Simply posting or broadcasting learning
materials to learners is not distance learning. Instructors must be involved in receiving
feedback from learners.

Features of a typical web based course

• Course information, notice board, timetable
• Curriculum map
• Teaching materials such as slides, handouts, articles
• Communication via email and discussion boards
• Formative and summative assessments
• Student management tools (records, statistics, student tracking)

• Links to useful internal and external websites - for example, library, online
databases, and journals

A "virtual" learning environment (VLE) or managed learning environment (MLE) is

an all in one teaching and learning software package. A VLE typically combines functions
such as discussion boards, chat rooms, online assessment, tracking of students' use of the
web, and course administration. VLEs act as any other learning environment in that they
distribute information to learners. VLEs can, for example, enable learners to collaborate on
projects and share information. However, the focus of web based courses must always be on
the learner technology is not the issue, nor necessarily the answer.

A VLE need to be design using a didactical approach

Models of web based learning

Several approaches can be used to develop and deliver web based learning. These can be
viewed as a continuum. At one end is "pure" distance learning (in which course material,

assessment, and support is all delivered online, with no face to face contact between
students and teachers). At the other end is an organisational intranet, which replicates
printed course materials online to support what is essentially a traditional face to face
course. However, websites that are just repositories of knowledge, without links to learning,
communication, and assessment activities, are not learner centred and cannot be
considered true web based learning courses.

Below we have an example of a web based learning model. (Spartanburg school district 3)

Web Based Learning Model

Navigation skills

Guide tour

Recocile differences,
persuade compromise, Knowledge of search
Interpret information engines
Essential question
Barriers and
Wequest obstacles
Scavenger hunt
Use as learning
Best practices
in schools

Research and draw

conclusions Text editing skills

Construct own project

Ciberinquiry understanding
Web page


This model is a good example of best practices using Webquest for teaching using
internet at school.

Advantages and disadvantages

Using Web-based training, like all other delivery media, has advantages and disadvantages.
Trainers and designer must carefully weigh these against the profiles of other options on a
case-by-case basis.

Advantages of Web-based Learning Limitations of Web-based Learning

The general benefits of Web-based There are only two real disadvantages
training when compared to traditional to WBT, and both will be overcome in
instructor-led training include all those the next five to ten years as high
shared by other types of technology- bandwidth network connections become
based training. These benefits are that as common as telephones.
the training is usually self-paced,
• The first drawback, when
highly interactive, results in
compared to live instruction, is the
increased retention rates, and has
lack of human contact, which
reduced costs associated with student
greatly impacts learning.
travel to an instructor-led workshop.

• The second major drawback is the

• Access is available anytime,
lack of multimedia in many WBT
anywhere, around the globe.
programs. The use of audio and
• Per-student equipment costs are video are critical to creating
affordable. Student tracking is compelling metaphors, realistic job
made easy simulations, and accommodating
different learning styles.
• Possible "learning object"
architecture supports on
demand, personalized learning
Content is easily updated.

Web based learning offers huge opportunities for learning and access to a vast
amount of knowledge and information. The role of teachers is to ensure that the
learning environment provided takes account of learners' needs and ensures that they are
effectively prepared and supported. Online learning has advantages, but web based
learning should not always be viewed as the method of choice because barriers (such as
inadequate equipment) can easily detract from student learning. The technology must
therefore be applied appropriately and not used simply because it is available and
new or because students and teachers have particular expectations of this means of
course delivery.

WBL in Spain

The situation of the Web based Learning systems are directly related with the current ICT
infrastructure in the schools. For this reason it is interesting to know the following data.

ICTs use and infrastructure in Spanish schools

Table 1: ICT infrastructure in primary & secondary schools (2002-2003)

Country Year % of Students Computers % of schools

schools with per per 100 connected to
a computer computer students Internet
Austria 2002 95.0 8.1 12.3 94.0
Belgium 2002 99.0 9.1 11.1 93.0
Bulgaria 2003 250 0.4 (Primary)
25 4.0
(Secondary) (Secondary)
Cyprus 2003 100 15.9 6.3 (Primary) 100
(Primary) 12.2
8.2 (Secondary)
Czech Rep. 2003 11.2 8.9 (Primary)
(Primary) 9.5
10.5 (Secondary)
Denmark 2002 100 7 14.3 100
Finland 2002 100 6.3 16 99
France 2002 89 8.3 12 97
Germany 2002 95 14.2 7.4 99
Greece 2002 65 12.5 8 59
Hungary 2003 16.7 6.0 (Primary)
(Primary) 14.4
6.9 (Secondary)
Iceland 2002 100 10 10 100
Ireland 2002 99 10 10 99
Italy 2002 95 14.9 6.7 88
Lithuania 2003 32 3.1
(secondary) (secondary)
Luxembourg 2002 98 7.1 14 67
Netherlands 2002 99.0 7.7 13 92
Norway 2002 100 4.2 23.6 99

Poland 2003 3.7
Romania 2003 10.4
Slovenia 2002 16.7 6 99
Spain 2002 88.0 8.3 12 94
Sweden 2002 100 7.1 14 99
UK 2002 100 8 14.5 99

Note: Data refer to primary and secondary school. Data for “Students per computer” or
“Computers per 100 students” have been converted depending on which indicator was
supplied. Source: TMG, Inc. adapted from sources shown.

In Table nº 2, we can see some indicators frequently used for research in measuring ICT at

Table 2: Indicators for measuring ICT in schools

Indicator Note Used by


Percentage of A distinction is often made between whether the Yes
schools with computer is functioning/non functioning and
computers whether used for education or not.

Computer The “newness” of the computer is sometimes No

penetration (per measured. For example, Denmark: Pupils per
100 students, new computers = 10 whereas pupils per
students per, per computer = 7; “new” defined as less than five
school, etc.) years old or workstations. Can also distinguish
between notebook and desktop and location
(e.g., classroom, lab, library)

Percentage of This can broken down by type of connection Yes

schools with (e.g., DSL, cable modem, ISDN, etc.).
Internet access

Internet-connected This relates to the number of computers that are Yes

computer connected to the Internet (rather than the
penetration (per percentage of schools connected)
100 students,
students per, per
school, etc.)

Percentage of Distinction could be made as to whether the Yes

schools with home page is hosted independently

Percentage of This can include WIFI Yes

schools with local
area network

Percentage of Demand side indicator Yes

students using
computers /
Internet at school

7 of 10 Spanish schools are equipped with computers for teaching purposes and 92% of
stated schools or state-subsidised private school has broadband internet access.

Since 2002 up to date, Spain has increased the number of ICTs equipments and internet
access thanks to the public programs addressed to the implementation of the Information
society in the schools. These programs are mainly 2:

1.-Internet in the Classroom Programme

The Internet in the Classroom Programme has benefit 6 millions of students, 500.000
trainers, and 20.000 Non university Education Centres in the last 4 years. This programme
intends to support the integration and reinforcement of ICTs use in education. This
programme belongs to a wider governmental initiative entitled Avanza Plan: (2005-2010) with a overall budget of 5.700 € millions.

Plan AVANZA for the development of the Information Society in Spain for 2006-2010. The
initiative aims to bring the various regions of Spain into compliance with i2010, the
European Union’s initiative to ensure that Europe’s governments, businesses, and citizens
make the best use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT). In the effort to
improve industrial competitiveness, to support growth and the creation of jobs, and to
address key societal challenges – all cornerstones of i2010 – AVANZA has a specific target:

Data from Ministry of Industry- CNICE - Spanish National Centre for Educational Information and Communication
in June 2008- Congreso Nacional Internet en el Aula

in 2010 the percentage of economical activities related with ICT reaches 7% of the GDP. We
hope to maintain this expectation despite of the actual economic crash.

The AVANZA Plan includes five key areas:

• Citizen inclusion

• Competitiveness and Innovation

• Education (E-learning) in the Digital Era

• Digital Public Services

• New Digital Context includes a subarea called Digital

Content which foresees the creation of a cooperation framework with the digital content
industry to develop business models which allow the commercial re-use of the public sector.
It also envisages the creation of digital content through digitization and dissemination of
cultural heritage, especially of heritage coming from libraries and archives.

Information Society Agency,, depending on Ministry of Education, aims to promote

the Information Society in the Education sector. It invests in digitization equipment,
digitization services (digital photography, elaboration of virtual visits, 2D scanning, digital
video), broadband connectivity and consultancy services regarding Web usability, search
engine position, accessibility and content translation to achieve multilingual quality Web
content. provided in the last 5 years to the education centres: 95.402 computers, 23.545
video projectors, interactive whiteboard and printers and 7.570 Wireless access points.

Lack of comparable data

Unfortunately, no international agency regularly compiles statistics on the availability of ICTs

in schools for a wide range of countries. Data is available for Europe and for some other
nations from statistical offices, ministries responsible for education or one-off special
studies. There are significant inconsistencies in timeliness, coverage and the type of
indicators used that impact comparability.

In the next pages we are going to make an effort to review some studies that intent to
evaluate the impact of ICT in learning and teaching outcomes.

Use of ICT as learning tools in secondary schools

The ICT Impact Report in Europe

The key findings from the studies are summarised below. Six studies under review are more
quantitative based and tried to establish a causal link between use of ICT and students’
outcomes based on analysing the statistical relationship between use of ICT and students’
results in exams or tests. It led us to summarise the research of ICT impact on learning
outcomes in eight statements:

1. ICT impacts positively on 5. Schools with good ICT

educational performance in resources achieve better
primary schools, particular in results than those that are
English and less so on poorly equipped.
science and not in
6. ICT investment impacts on
educational standards most
2. Use of ICT improves attainment when there is fertile ground in
levels of school children in schools for making efficient use of
English- as a home language- it.
(above all), in Science and in
7. Broadband access in classrooms
Design and technology between
results in significant
ages 7 and 16, particularly in
improvements in pupils’
primary schools.
performance in national tests
3. In OECD countries there is a taken at age 16.
positive association between the
8. Introducing interactive
length of time of ICT use and
whiteboards results in pupils’
students’ performance in PISA
performance in national tests
mathematics tests.
in English (particularly for low-
4. Schools with higher levels of e- achieving pupils and for writing),
maturity demonstrate a more mathematics and science,
rapid increase in performance improving more than that of
scores than those with lower pupils in schools without
levels. interactive whiteboards.

Measuring ICT impact against students’ attainment and improvement of their basic skills is
one way of impact assessment, but one which assumes a fixed education system in which
school learning is primarily about mastering of a pre-determined body of knowledge, skills
and understanding.

On learning and learners, the studies indicate benefits for:

Motivation and Skills Independent learning

• A very high 86% of teachers in • ICT allows for greater differentiation

Europe state that pupils are more (especially in primary schools), with
motivated and attentive when programmes tailored to individual
computers and the Internet are used pupils’ needs.
in class.
• Pupils state that they do assignments
• However, in some countries there is a more their own way when using a
substantial number of teachers computer and their parents consider
(overall 1/5 of European teachers), that they solve assignments more at
who deny that there is much of a their own level.
pedagogical advantage of
• Teachers consider that pupils work more
computer use in class.
in cohesion with their own learning
• ICT has a strong motivational effect styles, resulting in a favorable impact on
and positive effects on behavior, both academically strong and weak
communication and process skills. students.

• Multimedia and interactive • Pupils with special needs or behavioral

content on interactive difficulties gain in different ways from
whiteboards is engaging and the use of ICT.
motivating, particularly for primary
• ICT use at schools can help to minimize
pupils, and students pay more
the social divide by reducing the digital
attention during lessons.
• Teamwork Collaboration between
• Students assume greater responsibility
students is greater when they use
for their own learning when they use
ICT for project work
ICT, working more independently and
effectively (9).

• ICT offers learners assignments better

suited to individual needs and makes it
easier to organize their own learning,
through the use of, for example, digital

Impact on teachers and teaching

There is considerable evidence of the impact of ICT on teachers and teaching.

Increased enthusiasm Increased efficiency and

• Government interventions and • Teachers use ICT to plan lessons
training programmes result in more efficiently and more effectively.
positive attitudes towards ICT in ICT increases efficiency in planning
teachers. and preparation of work due to a
more collaborative approach
• Issuing teachers with their own
between teachers.
laptop computer increases
positive attitudes towards their • ICT enables teachers to cooperate
work. more and share curriculum plans
with colleagues and managers.
Specific ICT uses

• Providing structured approaches to • Primary teachers consider ICT to

Internet research develop students’ have more impact than secondary

search and research skills which teachers.

are transferable across the

• Effective exploitation of Information
Management systems leads to
• Broadband is a major factor in increased and formalised

increasing collaboration between cooperative planning between

teachers. teachers, and this has a positive

impact on teaching practices.
• Embedded, reliable and high-capacity
However, there is not a positive
broadband in the classroom picture of the use of Learning
increases the quality and quantity Management Systems or Virtual
of educational activities that can Learning Environments for
be undertaken. pedagogical purposes. They are

• Interactive whiteboards make a predominantly used for administrative

difference to aspects of classroom

• Government interventions have

impacted on ICT on teaching and
have led to a ‘routine’ use of
embedded ICT.

Teachers’ competences and use of ICT

• Teachers’ basic ICT skills have • The impact of ICT is highly

increased dramatically. dependent on how it is used. The
impact of a specific ICT application or
• Teachers use ICT to support existing
device depends on the capacity of the
pedagogies. ICT is used most when
teacher to exploit it efficiently for
it fits best with traditional
pedagogical purposes. Factors beyond
the teacher’s control influence
• National competence development
• ICT can enhance teaching by
programmes have had limited impact
enhancing what is already practiced
on teachers’ pedagogical
or introducing news and better ways
competences. School leaders
of learning and teaching.
estimate that the impact of ICT
on teaching methods in their • Teachers do not yet exploit the
school is low. creative potential of ICT and
engage students more actively in
• Teachers teaching science,
the production of knowledge.
mathematics and computer
Teachers’ use of ICT for
science and active in vocational
communication with and between
education are the most intensive
pupils is still in its infancy.
users of the computer in class
using it in more than 50% of their • ICT is underexploited to create
lesson. learning environments where
students are more actively
• The greatest impact is found in
engaged in the creation of
relation to teachers who are
knowledge rather than just being
experienced users and who from the
passive consumers.
start had already come far with the
integration of ICT in their teaching.
Teachers who perceive a highly
positive impact of ICT use ICT in
the most project-oriented,
collaborative and experimental

With ICT, the teacher tends to become

more of an advisor, critical dialogue
partner and leader for specific subject

The ICT in Spanish schools

Ranking Global Technological Competitiveness

Spain has reached the 23 position of Ranking Global Technological Competitiveness 2008
and earns a post with regard to the ranking of 2007, which ranked 24. Data from The
Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU) and sponsored by Business Software Alliance (BSA).

The Spanish schools and the information society

In connection with the situation of the Spanish schools and their demands to face 21 st
century, the stakeholders have agreed the following points. While the introduction of the
information society is still low in the schools (compared with the OCDE countries), is
outlined a new educational landscape that in a schematic way, is characterized by:2

1. The necessity of a continuous updating of knowledge, skills and criteria

(Lifelong Learning).

2. The recognition of a new concept of digital literacy, which is extended to new

fields, as a complex concept and changing the time and whose domains and
applications are under constant review.

3. The option of generating virtual learning environments based on the

technologies of the information and communication, surpassing the temporal barriers
and facilitating, in addition to the methods of individual and collaborative learning.

4. The demand for modifying the roles of the teacher and students. The teacher
should not be a speaker or instructor who dominates the knowledge, and to become
an adviser, counselor, facilitator and mediator of the process of teaching-learning.
The teacher professional profile should include transversal skills: assess resources
and materials and, if possible, create their own digital teaching materials.

5. Public authorities and private initiative have joined forces to promote the
incorporation of the information and knowledge society to classrooms,
aware that the social and economic development of a country depends on the
youngest people.

“XXII Semana Monográfica de la Educación” entitled “Las Tecnologías de la Información y la Comunicación (TIC)
en la Educación: retos y posibilidades”. Fundación Santillana, 2008

On the other hand, the Educational Techniques Institute of CECE annually elaborates an
“ICT use in Education Report” which draws the following conclusions:

1. Computerization is a cultural process, which affects in a major way to the

person, changing relationships and communication processes. Therefore, it is not
just a purely economic process of computerization.

2. It's not worth to invest in hardware and software without having assured
the use of such equipment, through appropriate programming, access to
electronic resources, and a proper training programme.

3. Indicators must be developed in order to understand the situation of each

education centre, for achieving a proper computerization process. A key issue to
be highlighted is the level of the Teachers ICTs competences.

4. The initial training of the trainers should be urgently reviewed. It is

unacceptable that teacher’s career starter have not ICTs skills. This transversal
training should be introduced in all university studies syllabus.

5. The use of computers in classrooms should be encouraged, without just

attempting to equip schools with “Computers classrooms”, but to have at least one
laptop in each classroom. In this context, it is interested to take into account new
solutions such as electronic whiteboard in their different versions and possibilities.

6. Many good experiences in the use of ICT’s come from small groups of
innovative teachers who act on its own initiative. This is why the launching of
computerization processes must seize that ability where it is trying to get
collaborative environments they grow in intensity and extension

7. The digital gap between the different education centres is increasing. It is

likely that in a few years there will be first and second class Education centres based
on the use made of technology and the way in which reported a technological culture
determined to those who continue their studies in them. For that reason should be
encouraged the actions of benchmarking, the dissemination of good practices, etc.

8. It is necessary to establish goals and common ICTs methodologies to enable

the education centres to access to the Information and Knowledge society:
Promotion of basic digital skills among trainers and students: use of word
processors, ability to communicate through e-mail, conducting searches, ability to

complete the self-training at their own pace. All these initiatives aims to combat the
Digital illiteracy.

Barriers and obstacles for effective ICT use in schools

The factors that impede the successful implementation of ICT in teaching are identified in
the studies as the following:

• Although teachers appear to recognize the value of ICT in education, difficulties
nevertheless continue to be experienced within the processes of adopting these
technologies and as has been shown in the studies only a minority has so far
embedded ICT into teaching.
• The following analysis aims to present the perceived barriers to the use of ICT which
were highlighted in the reviewed studies and examine their causes and effects.
• The barriers are broadly divided into three categories: teacher-level barriers, i.e.
those related to teachers’ attitudes and approach to ICT, school-level barriers, i.e.
those related to the institutional context and system-level barriers, i.e. those
related to the wider educational framework.

Teacher-level School level barriers Institutional

barriers context and

Teachers’ poor ICT Limited access to ICT (due those related to the
competence, low to a lack or poor wider educational
motivation and lack organisation of ICT framework
of confidence in using resources), poor quality and
new technologies in inadequate maintenance of
teaching are hardware as well as

significant unsuitable educational
determinants of their software are also defining
levels of engagement elements in teachers’ levels
in ICT. These are of ICT use.
directly related to the
quality and quantity Moreover, the absence of an
of teacher training ICT dimension in the overall
programmes. schools’ strategies and their
limited experience with
project-oriented activities
supported by ICT, are
decisive in determining
levels of ICT use by

A comparison analysis

1.-Teacher level barriers

• Lack of ICT skills

The evaluation of the ITMF project in Denmark and the E-learning Nordic study revealed
that in some cases the reasons for selecting a technology are affected more by the teacher’s
skills than by professional consideration: ‘Many teachers still chose not to use ICT and
media in teaching situations because of their lack of ICT skills rather than for
pedagogical/didactics reason’. In the Netherlands, on the other hand, teachers’ ICT
knowledge and skills is not regarded anymore as the main barrier to ICT use. But even
though they are regarded as less of a problem, and despite teachers’ ICT training, there is
still a lack of follow-up on the utilization of newly acquired skills.

In Spain, according to the “ICT use in Education Report” elaborated by the Educational
Techniques Institute of CECE – Spanish Confederation of Education Centres, the data shows
that Spaniards teachers are not duly trained in the use of ICT in Education, and it is
consider as one of the most important barrier to ICT use. The statistics prove that teachers
are not aware of the necessity to be further trained in the ICT use for education, even if
they feel comfortable with their Competence on ICT tools, more or less as the average of
European teachers; also they feel that their level of access is on the EU average.

• Lack of motivation and confidence in using ICT

Their limited ICT knowledge, makes teachers anxious about using ICT in the classroom
and thus do not feel confident to embrace new pedagogical practices. The 2004 Becta
survey on the perceived barriers to the uptake of ICT by teachers also refers to the
‘teachers’ fear of admitting to their pupils their limited ICT knowledge’. In addition Elearning
Nordic shows that teachers who do not experience any impact of ICT asses that they only to
some or a lesser degree have sufficient ICT competences to integrate ICT into their
teaching. The Eurobarometer Benchmarking survey (Empirica 2006) analysed teachers’ data
according to the Access, Competence and Motivation Model (CTS) developed by Viherä and
Nurmela (2001).

It found that more than 80% of the European teachers describe themselves as competent in
using computers and the internet in classroom situations, two-thirds have the necessary
motivation for doing so (in their own opinion), and 60% describe the ICT infrastructure in
their schools and the internet connection as sufficiently rapid. However, there are large

variations across the countries on all three dimensions. In some countries, for example,
more than half of the teachers do not feel competent yet to use the ICT infrastructure in the
classroom, with Greece (60%), Portugal (70%), Hungary (71%) and France (76%) ranking
at the bottom end. It appears as if motivation seems to be a critical factor, since 14% with
access lack both motivation and competence and another 10% also lack motivation despite
their competence and access to ICT.

Recurring technical faults, and the expectation of faults occurring during teaching sessions,
are likely to further reduce teacher confidence and cause teachers to avoid using the
technology in their lessons. The evaluation of the IWBs project confirms that there is some
frustration every time there are technical problems. It could be stated that the more
frequently breakdowns of equipment occur (perhaps due to poor quality or lack of
preventative technical maintenance); the more likely teachers are to avoid using ICT in the
first place.

“Benchmarking Access and Use of ICT in European Schools 2006” is Motivation, and
here is where Spanish teachers are below average: they are not sufficiently convinced that
ICT are effective in enhancing learning. Nevertheless, our “ICT use in Education Report”
reveals that after some ICT supported experimentation in the classroom, with the creation
of peer networks, teachers become firmly convinced of ICT effectiveness. The main stress
should be then on supported experimentation and the development and maintenance of
teacher networks.

Spanish teachers also feel they need some more methodological training and this is an
important area for our work in 2007. On contents, an effort is being done in the
desegregation of contents in learning objects, indexed with standard metadata so to
facilitate teachers the identification of the best reusable learning resources.

• Inappropriate teacher training

Unsuitable teacher training programmes fail to engage teachers in using ICT both during
their lessons and also in the preparation of lessons beforehand. The most commonly
mentioned cause of this is that training courses focus mainly on the development of ICT
skills and not on the pedagogical aspects of ICT. It is interesting to observe that
although some teachers have good ICT skills in terms of their own personal use, they are
unable to transfer these skills to using ICT in the classroom (Becta, 2004).

Traditional teacher training does not prepare teachers for facilitation and support roles that
are required in student-centred learning. Furthermore, training courses are usually not
differentiated to meet the specific learning needs of teachers and they are rather ‘up-
front’ than regularly updated and followed-up sessions.

The need for continuation in the field of teacher training is also emphasized in many studies
(ICT test bed study, Elearning Nordic) since ‘increased competence leads to a demand for
even greater competence and to support for innovative pedagogy’. Up-to-date training in
specific ICT skills is essential particularly for teachers of a more advanced age that did not
receive any ICT education during their studies. Developing the skills to engage effectively
with the technology and creating structures to enhance ICT use is as important as investing
in ICT infrastructure. Therefore effective training is crucial if teachers are to implement ICT
in an effective way in their teaching. On the contrary, when training is inadequate or
inappropriate, teachers are not sufficiently prepared, and perhaps not sufficiently confident,
to make full use of technology in the classroom.

At the beginning of 2007, in Spain, the Education Authorities issued the first Decrees on
new curricula for teachers training. Their approach is in line with the EU design. The basic
competences have been integrated in the new curricula: ICT competence and its

2.-School – level barriers

Even after receiving basic and pedagogical training in ICT, some teachers are still not able to
make use of that training since they are hampered by a range of school level factors. These

• The absence and poor quality of ICT infrastructure

The availability of technology is not necessarily a factor for the successful implementation of
ICT, yet the absence of technology is a crucial hindrance, as analysed in E-learning
Nordic, for example. The provision of ICT infrastructure does not necessarily mean that use
will be higher. On the other hand, some studies (e.g. E-learning Nordic) show that in schools
with more ICT equipment, headmasters consider that ICT has encouraged the integration of
new pedagogical methods into teaching.

The lack of high quality hardware and suitable educational software is also
considered by the majority of ICT coordinators as an important hindrance to further

development of ICT in education. Poorly maintained computers are usually unreliable and
likely to cause disruption to even the best planned lessons. Similarly, inappropriate software
does not enhance a lesson in any way and rather disengages both teachers and students
from the learning process.

Therefore, the amount, range and quality of ICT resources available to the teachers are an
important influence on the use made of ICT in subjects and classes. Of course, the high cost
of ICT maintenance and software licenses should be also taken into consideration since it
further inhibits ICT usage in schools. In addition there is the need to customize and
standardise software.

In the case of Spain, the budget devoted to ICT in the schools is still very low. Schools do
invest in hardware and software, but without maintenance and equipment renewal. The
reality is that almost all the Schools have just one Computerized Classroom instead of one
computer per classroom. Anyway the ICT use in Education Report, shows that the trend
is changing and that now the Headmasters have realized that they need to buy different ICT
infrastructure such as Electronic blackboards, laptops, screens etc.

• Limited Access to ICT equipment

The inability of teachers and students to access ICT resources is a result of a number of
other factors and not only of the lack of ICT infrastructure. Sometimes a school may have
high quality of ICT resources but these are inappropriately organized and thus not optimally
used. In some schools for instance, prior booking of the ICT classroom is required, or the
internal school network cannot be accessed from outside. As a result teachers and students
do not have the opportunity to use ICT at any time according to their needs. This is the case
also in the majority of Education Centres of Spain

• Lack of experience in project-based learning

The Elearning Nordic study shows that most of the teachers who report the greatest positive
impact of ICT were experienced in project-oriented teaching supported by ICT, while half the
teachers who report no impact of ICT seldom or never did this. It is also the teachers who
experience the greatest impact of ICT who are most often engage their pupils in learning
activities in which pupils are asked to work exploratively and innovatively supported by ICT.
Yet, these activities are carried out by enthusiasts and lack continuous involvement of the
whole school or the whole municipality with a view to anchorage and dissemination of the

In Spain, during the last decade, the Education authorities are fostering the set up of
Bilingual schools in order to boost the improvement of the languages skills, of both teachers
and students. This is considered a priority for the development of project-based
learning, that it is still very low deployed in Spanish Education Centres.

• Absence of ICT mainstreaming into schools’ strategies

In Spain, schools face the problem of unsuccessful organisational implementation of ICT
because ICT is not seen as a part of the general strategy at school level. Even if some
schools have developed ICT strategies, these are not integrated into the school’s overall

3.-System-level barriers

• The rigid structure of the traditional schooling system

Sometimes education systems work against ICT impact and even if educators are not ICT-
resistant, in some cases the system under which they work is. ICT use in Education
Report gives some valuable results concerning the factors that impede the effective use of
investments in ICT. As it was shown in the study investments in ICT are not able to have an
impact they should have in secondary schools within the present education system. The
report has shown that teachers and parents are still nervous about the new methods’
capacity to lead to the same results in national exams and fear that schools using ICT will
be less performing than traditional schools.

Indeed, existing assessment and evaluation methods primarily focus on content and neglect
social and other abilities of learners. Competencies such as problem solving, presenting
material in novel ways, collaboration or creativeness are only to a limited degree covered in
national exams. Students receive no credit for these new competencies they have
developed, even though they are important for the development of the society. Yet, this is
evident in some countries more than in others; in Finland for instance, where differences
between schools are fewer and assessment is based more on evaluation, this is less the
case, but in Spain the difference is still very high.

To summarise

The main factors that prevent teachers from making full use of ICT can be broadly grouped
into three categories:

Teacher-level factors
• Lack of teacher ICT skills;
• Lack of teacher confidence;
• Lack of pedagogical teacher training;
• Lack of follow-up of new ICT skills;
• Lack of differentiated training programmes
School-level factors
• Absence of ICT infrastructure;
• Old or poorly maintained hardware;
• Lack of suitable educational software;
• Limited access to ICT;
• Limited project-related experience;
• Lack of ICT mainstreaming into school’s strategy
System-level factors
• Rigid structure of traditional education systems
• Traditional assessment
• Restrictive curricula
• Restricted organisational structure

Evidence Based Research

Knowing how educational technology changes teaching practices as well as the ways in
which students learn, is fundamental for evaluating its effectiveness and for developing
better tools. We also must be sensitive to the ways in which technology use can affect
outcomes, and must consider the ways in which individual differences change the use of
technology as well as learning processes and outcomes.

In Spain, according to the “ICT use in Education Report”, CECE evaluated how the
schools implement the ICT and how the teachers, students and administrative staff used the
technology. During the last 10 years, if we compare the same indicators in a bi-annual
progression we founded a strong and positive evolution in the use of ICT at schools in the
teaching process. In Spain we do not have a test (like UK) for evaluating the causal
relationship between ICT and better learning outcomes in national test (measurable systems

Since 2002, Spanish Education Centres have had a strong progression of the different
computerization rates, concerning the number of students per computer (see the next

ICT and learning outcomes

All the studies reviewed have identified a range of important wider benefits of ICT on
learning. These include the positive impact of ICT on students’ motivation and skills,
independent learning and teamwork. Increased motivation leads to more attention during
lessons which can be exploited by the teacher. Aspects for more individualised learning were
described in a variety of ways. Students learn more independently, at their own pace and
according to their needs. They also take more responsibility for their own learning process.

As seen, ICT can benefit likewise academically strong and weak students and students with
special needs. Studies reveal that these benefits can not only remain technology driven but
should be more intentionally exploited following a pedagogical approach. Collaboration or
teamwork as well as the use of specific ICTs should be more strategically exploited, better
planned and focused on the solving of a joint problem or given task. These skills should be
much more formally be taken into account in the future as they present important outcomes
of a new and changed educational context.

On an international level, the analysis of the OECD PISA results indicates that longer use of
computers by students is related to better results in mathematics in PISA results.

In Spain we found a positive impact of ICT on students’ motivation and skills, independent
learning and teamwork

ICT and teaching methodologies

There is considerable evidence of the impact of ICT on teaching, not all of it positive.
Whereas teachers estimate a high impact of ICT on learning and learning outcomes, the
perceived impact on teaching methodologies is seen much more moderate.

There is evidence of changes in roles of teachers either forced by the technology itself or
more actively steered by teachers. In changing the teacher–student relationship, as part of
the new educational paradigm, the most difficult process for teachers is to give up control
and have more trust in students planning their work independently.

Teachers do not feel confident yet in exploiting ICT to support new approaches in teaching.
According to the evidence, there is continuum along which teachers adopt new technologies.
We can assume schools are only in the beginning of the second stage towards the transition
into a new educational paradigm.

In Spain, many teachers feel unconfident using ICT at school. We need to deliver more
training courses about ICT and methodology in specific areas of the curricula.


Good practices and experiences in Spain

Author Project

Aragon Goverment Pueblo de Ariño

CNICE - Ministry of Education Newton – Physics

Descartes – Maths

Andalucia Goverment CGA Centro de Gestión Avanzada TIC

(ICT Advanced Management Centre)

Colegio Gaztelueta Elearning Pilot Project

Ave Maria Schools PDA Teaching Management

Grupo Santillana Kalipedia

ARIÑO Village Pilot Project – Aragon Goverment

Rural Primary School Uses Wireless Internet to Transform Teaching and Learning
Ariño School, which teaches pupils up to ten years old from a village in northeast Spain with
a population of just 900 people. Its head teacher wanted to raise educational standards and
motivate classes by giving them access to online research, and interactive learning tools.

Rather than simply increase the number of computers connected to the Internet, the school
decided to provide pupils with port- able Tablet PCs linked to a wireless network.

Now, final-year pupils use Tablet PCs in most of their classes. Lessons are much more
interactive and exciting, helping pupils to learn at their own pace. In biology, for example,
pupils access a picture of the heart that shows a three-dimensional animated image
pumping blood in and out of the arteries. And in mathematics, they follow a full, step-by-
step example of how to solve a problem.

It has also transformed the role of teachers in the school. Pupils are more motivated, using
Tablet PCs and the Internet to research subject matter and follow interactive lessons

themselves. So teachers spend less time instructing at the front of the classroom, and more
time coaching and directing individuals, and smaller groups of children.

The teaching day is also radically different. Because the regional government of Aragon has
set up a wireless network for the whole town, pupils can go online in the afternoons and
evenings after school. They can spend this time collaborating online with their fellow pupils,
or send questions to their teachers who make themselves available to answer messages as
quickly as possible.

This means that the normal school day can be set aside for more social activities. There is
more time for discussions, social education, sports, and arts teaching, where there is
greater value for pupils learning in groups with a teacher present.

The project has been so successful that the Ministry of Education in Aragon has announced
that it will provide a further 14,000 Tablet PCs to schools in the region over the next three
years. Six other regional governments in Spain have also started to introduce Tablet PCs
and wireless networks in their local schools.

Newton and Descartes – CNICE

The core mission of CNICE is to facilitate the enhancement of education outcomes through
ICT supported innovation. CNICE provides contents and services online, teacher training,
guidance and support, dissemination of good practice examples. CNICE proposes the
integration of ICT in the access to information, its analysis and processing, the validation of
knowledge, the interaction with systems and with other actors in the learning process, the
connection of the school with the outside world, the communication of the knowledge
acquired. Roles of learners and teachers change and the concept of school and education
itself drastically evolves. The acquisition from our pupils of firm ethical criteria is even more
a key issue in a world immediately interconnected. Many, if not all of these elements of
innovation are included in the etwinning scheme.

CNICE, as a unit of the Spanish Ministry of Education and Science, is a part of the Spanish
public administration. As such, the natural environment for our collaboration in education is
the European Union and Iberian America. The participation of Spain in European networks is
similar to that of Italy: European Commission, European Schoolnet. At the level of studies
and research Spain is an active member of the OECD, as is Italy, whose CERI is a fine
source of information and collaboration opportunities in education. With Latin America we
participate in the Education activities of OEI (Organisation of Iberian American States for

Education and Culture), we collaborate with the Network of (education) Portals and have
active agreements of education cooperation with most American countries.

• Descartes and Newton. (mathematics and physics) are the main ICT learning
contents developed by the CNICE. These Contents are increasingly used in the
education centres, and teachers trained for them. Teachers learn to use these
resources as part of its teaching methodology, along with the methodology of
working with pupils in small groups
• The main problems arose are that students are not accustomed to the use of
computer as part of the didactic way but as entertainment, they notice technology as
part of a game.

CGA Centro de Gestión Avanzada TIC (ICT Advanced Management Centre) –

Andalucia Goverment

The And@red Plan (standing for Andalusian Educational Network), started in 2003 with the
introduction of computers running free software in the schools in the Spanish region of
Andalucía. The Plan is a consequence of Decree 72/2003 of Measures to Encourage the
Knowledge Society. We call the schools in the project ICT Schools. These are schools whose
staffs have signed a commitment to receive training and to use the new tools.

Guadalinex is the Linux distribution created in Andalucía by the regional government, with
an origin in GNU Linex, the distribution in Extremadura.

Six Key Items

I. The size: Massive deployment

II. A Customized Distribution
III. Remote Administration and Support
IV. The creation of the role of ICT Coordinator
V. Training
VI. Educational Tools

The size: Massive deployment

As many computers as the school staff thinks necessary (one desktop every two students,
ICT corners with two/three computers, desktop groups or shareable laptops)

A huge single network, administered centrally (it is planned that in a few years all
Andalusian schools will be ICT schools). Two servers in each school, providing firewire,
proxy, cache, NFS homes and contents service

A Customized Distribution

Guadalinex is the name of the customized distribution of the regional government of

Andalucía. Developed by local companies through a public tender (the tender for V5 was
announced on the 28th of September), the present version, V4.0, is an Ubuntu derivative
that had an open development. V4.1beta, an update to Feisty Fawn with brand new
festival voices for Spanish, is already available for downloading and testing.

Remote Administration and Support

The Advanced Management Centre (in Spanish CGA) of ICT Schools was born as a
consequence of the services mentioned in articles 4, 6 and 15 of Decree 72/2003. Its tasks

• Management of the servers and the local networks of the ICT Schools network
• Users' helpdesk (called CAU-TIC)
• Connectivity support for the rest of the schools in Andalucía

• Maintaining and updating the packages of the FLOSS Operating System installed in
the Andalusian schools

ICT ccordinator

No-one in the school is supposed to be a hacker - ICT coordinators are teachers. In theory,
the coordinators' task is the pedagogical dynamization of the schools. In practice they (or
the ICT team) have to recognize all technical problems, contact the helpdesk and
administer the local accounts and the school's LMS.


Teacher training in Andalusia, organized by the regional educational authorities, is free for
all teachers. Over 20% of the whole training effort (courses, conferences...) is allocated to
ICT training. ICT schools have priority in training demands, and a training advisor is
assigned to each school.

Collaborative tools

Averroes, "The Andalusian telematics network" is the name of the educational portal of
Andalucía. Although the portal has existed since 1998, providing news, resources and
hosting to the schools, we have had access to the alfa versions of the new Averroes, full of
new and interesting possibilities. RSS feeds and the active participation of the teachers are
key features of the new site.

Helvia, the "educational platform", is the Learning Management System installed in each
and every one of the ICT schools. A scheduled-to-be-freed development of e-ducativa, it
provides an e-learning environment for teachers and students, blogging facilities and tools
to write and host the school's web page. The design is that of a network of interconnected
servers, permitting to move through the nodes of the network.

Pasen (Spanish for "come in") is an interface for the communication with the students'
parents. It provides mentoring facilities (information about attendance, behaviour, marks
but also planning homework for the ill, etc.).

BARTIC is the most demanded and the longest waited for. BARTIC will be (in fact it is
starting to be) a resources repository and indexer. The idea behind it is to create an index
of the quality resources already in Averroes, as assessed by experts in each of the
educational fields, and after that to start adding new valuable resources. It will permit social
tagging, tag clouds and even personal portfolios

Elearning Pilot Project - Colegio Gaztelueta

Technological Innovation

True to its tradition as a pioneer in the application of educational developments, Gaztelueta

has installed a fibre-optic ring connecting all its buildings. All its classrooms, staff rooms,
offices and libraries have their own computer terminals. There are also well-equipped
computer rooms with multimedia equipment where all students learn to work in a Windows
2000 environment with Word, Excel and PowerPoint. For those of a clearly creative,
aesthetic turn of mind optional courses are available from secondary level onwards in 3D
animation, programming in Pascal and CAD. However, the educational philosophy of
Gaztelueta certainly does not envisage turning the school into a computer centre. In the
words of Jaime Bernar, "in no case will computers replace teachers, though they will be used
for support in preparing classes". With terminals connected to the Internet in every
classroom, teachers can incorporate moving pictures, sound and many other teaching
resources into their explanations to facilitate comprehension of certain topics.

Young Net Surfers

Seeking to add value to the school, a group of teachers took part in the Edunet project,
which sought to make the best use of the potential of the Internet. The server installed
provides selective access to information, filtering out harmful content (violence, sects,
pornography, etc.). Edunet also seeks out sites of educational interest by categories. An
Intranet has also been designed that facilitates the management of the school, and a
WebSite has been posted where parents can consult grades, request certificates, reply to
documents, arrange meetings with teachers and obtain information.

PDA Teaching Management - Ave Maria Schools

• They are 10 years implementing new ICTs in the School. First with in the email and
Webpages. The introduction of video conferences with other schools to promote the
learning of languages were later promoted the learning of the creation of pages webs
customized by the students.
• Later on, all the teachers use special software to assess continuously the students
through the Internet, giving very positive results. In real time parents may know the
status of their children.

Kalipedia –Grupo Santillana

KALIPEDIA is a new free encyclopaedia by Santillana Group. Kalipedia was opened to help
students and teachers. You can find great graphics and video and more than 100.000
contents prepared by experts regarding to geography, language, science, history, literature,
phylosophy, arte, technology, physics, chemistry, maths and informatics.Also, you can share
your knowledge and experience by means of groups, foros, blogs, etc. It also has
interesting news and tests.

Studies in Europe
Studies under review identified important relationships that could maximize impact either in
the area of learning outcomes or teaching. They point to the necessary conditions for
transforming the potential of ICT into concrete outcomes for both areas:
Conditions to maximise ICT impact

• Schools with good ICT resources • Some of the best examples of the
also achieve better results use of ICT were where lessons
moved through different modes of
• Schools with higher levels of e-
teacher-pupil interaction which
maturity demonstrate a more
involved both in a variety of roles
rapid increase in performance
and where intended and actual
scores than those with lower
use coincided.
• Teachers, who report a great
• ICT investment impacts on
positive impact of ICT, think that
educational standards only when
ICT improves pupil performance,
there is fertile background for
consider ICT as a tool to support
making efficient use of it.
both subject content and
• The greatest impact is found in pedagogy and think ICT has an
relation to teachers who are impact on teaching. They use ICT
experienced users and who from in the most project-oriented,
the start had already come far collaborative and most
with the integration of ICT in their experimental way.
• Broadband plays an important
• Embedded ICT over a longer role in integrating ICT in schools,
period of time has lead to more affecting teaching and learning in
use of ICT by teachers and several ways.
considerably increased their
• Embedded, reliable and high
confidence in using ICT.
capacity broadband in the
• Teachers that assess to classroom has increased the
experience a more positive impact quality and quantity of
of ICT are most likely to be found educational activities that can be
in schools where headmasters undertaken
have used ICT to support the
development of the school’s
values and goals.

Conclusions about Spain

The studies, reports and interviews that we made in Spain permit us to conclude the
following main findings:

1. The ICT impact on teaching and learning is improving slowly but firmly since 2002.

2. We need to invest more money for training the teachers: 1€ per equipment and 1€
per training

3. The use of tools and applications like Moodle and others are increasing at the
Spanish schools, especially at VET centres.

4. The amount of money each school invests in ICT is low according with the needing;
this is more evident at the private school system.

5. Spain is in the middle way of use the ICT at schools if we compare with others
European countries, but inside Spain we can fin differences between the regions.

6. In Spain the 98% of the schools have ICT equipment and Internet access and the
next step is to promote the use of digital educational resources within the syllabus.

7. Primary and secondary schools are increasing step by step their presence in the use
of ICT at classrooms; also the nursery teachers are very interesting in the use of ICT
resources for their activities.


Features (own) Situation (environment)

Weaknesses Threats
• Requires more time to intregrate it in the syllabus • Most of the teachers are comfortable with the current status

• Teachers’ digital Illiteracy • Most of the students are used to perform the minimum

• Teachers need to be trained in ICT and Methodology • Education Responsible Authorities are not aware of technological changes

• Requires teachers and students eager to work • Scant of ICT infrastructure and appropriated spaces for teamwork
• Requires Education authorities that understand the current • Teachers knowledge without technological methodology
situation • Teachers are adverse to changes
• Lack of enough budget for hardware and software purchase
• Lack of ICT training for the trainers
• It is necessary a teachers intergenerational change
• The perceived impact of ICT on teaching methodologies is not enough
• Lack of motivation for using the ICT in the classroom

Strengths Opportunities
• Knowledge building • To foster ICTS training courses to enable all teachers and schools to reach
• Competences development: transversal and professional e-maturity and e-confidence.
(teamwork, problem solving, communication skills etc…) • ICTs implies a “Teacher Mentality change”, from the “only Expert in

• WBL boosts autonomous learning which foster LLL Classroom” to become a “Facilitator”·
• Students learn to learn • Promotion of international Conferences to disseminate the use of ICTs
• Improve motivation, and skills, independent learning and methodologies
teamwork • To stimulate the research at local, regional, national and European level
• The use of ICT and WBL is a demand of the market place • To promote WBL at European schools
• The prices are cheaper than before and we can use free
software applications for WBL


According to the conducted interviews and research, we can conclude the following
recommendations, divided in 3 levels:

Policy makers (national, regional and local level)

• Training programmes should be more school-based and adapted to the
particular needs of teachers and fit to personal and subject specific needs,
or project related needs: transversal skills

• Include new competencies in the curricula and in assessment schemes An

experimental approach using ICT in everyday practice is an important factor
in increasing teachers’ pedagogical competence.

• Implement new forms of continuous professional development in a

workplace environment and as part of a culture of lifelong and peer learning

• Built up a clear political will and invest in ICT consolidation in the schools: 1
€ invested for ICT equipment should go along with 1 € for training the

• Motivate and reward teachers to use ICT: Actions should be built into
policies that encourage teachers to use ICT more – and more effectively.

• Integrate the ICT strategy into the school’s overall strategies

• Furthermore this overall strategy needs to be developed and evaluated by

all school actors

• Transform positive attitudes towards ICT into efficient widespread practice.

Schools should capitalise on positive attitudes. To achieve greater impact it
is important that teachers underpin ICT use with a pedagogical approach.

• At least one computer in every classroom, and not only a Computer lab

• ICT Training programmes for all the teachers

• Technology deployment does not solve educational problems by itself

• The key is not to take the teachers to the computer lab but the introduce
the usage of computers in the ordinary classrooms

• Integrating computers in education is a pedagogical not a technical issue

Research and Development

• A holistic approach to identify impact is needed. What works for whom in

what circumstances is what policy makers/ shapers need to know.

• Apart from research that shows benefit for ICT in subject, research should
be conducted to find out how ICT can positively influence the learning

• Create closer links between research and practice

• More fundamental research, small scale, focused research on specific ICT

tools should be combined with research which is much more closely linked
to practice: Ways forward are to develop a critical and reflective attitude
amongst teachers or teachers carrying out research themselves (coached
by researchers) and involving schools in defining research questions.

• Any quantitative data from large scale national studies should be

complemented with qualitative data arising from smaller scale studies or
research projects.


• ICT use in Education Report (Informe Tecnología CECE)

• Informe eEspaña 2007, de la Fundación Orange

• World information society report 2007

• SIE_2007 Resumen-ejecutivo Telefonica

• ICTs en Educacion 2005-2006

• Informe Panel Hogares XV oleada

• The Future of Learning in the Knowledge Society: Disruptive

Changes for Europe by 2020

• Informe PISA (OCDE),3343,en_32252351_322357

• Education for a Digital World - Commonwealth of Learning

• The ICT Impact Report -


• STATISTICS ON ICT infrastructure in schools

Michael Minges, April 2005

• Web-based Learning: An Action Research

Chien-hsing Wang,


METHODOLOGY Maria Madarieta, Xabi Uranga, Felipe Garitaonandia, Jon

• When Teaching Meets Learning: Design Principles and Strategies for

Web-based Learning Environments that Support Knowledge
Construction - Ron Oliver

• Spartanburg school district 3