015 Alice Kilrington-de Vere

015 Alice Kilrington-de Vere

015 Alice Kilrington-de Vere

015 Annabella ‘of Scotland’ Stewart-Huntly — Biography

Annabella ‘of Scotland’ Stewart-Huntly
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Annabella Stewart (ca. 1433 – 1509) was the youngest daughter of King James I and Joan Beaufort. Early Life Annabella was presumably named after her father’s mother, Annabella Drummond. She was the youngest of the six daughters and two sons of James I and Joan Beaufort. Her sisters were Margaret, Isabella, Eleanor, Mary and Joan, and her brothers were James II of Scotland and his twin brother Alexander, who died in infancy. First Marriage Her first husband was Louis of Savoy, Count of Geneva whom she married in 1447 on either 1 April or 14 December. However, in the year 1458 they separated, divorced and the marriage was annulled upon the request of Charles VII of France. Second Marriage Annabella returned to Scotland and married George Gordon, 2nd Earl of Huntly. Notwithstanding this alliance, her ill fate pursued her, and she was legally divorced from her second husband by a sentence pronounced in the year 1471 which proceeded on the ground of consanguinity with his first wife, Elizabeth Dunbar, 8th Countess of Murray, as the two ladies were within the third and fourth degrees of relation. Issue Annabella and her second husband, the Earl of Huntly had issue:

Isabella (d. 1485), wife of William Hay, 3rd Earl of Errol (d. 1507).

She was thought also to have been mother to another five of his children, however this has not been proved nor disproved. Lord Byron claimed descent from Princess Annabella through his mother, Catherine, daughter of George Gordon, 12th Lord of Gight. Byron wrote: “By her [Annabella] he [the 2nd Earl of Huntly] left four sons: the third, Sir William Gordon, I have the honour to claim as one of my progenitors.” References 1. ^ McAndrew, Scotland’s Historic Heraldry, p 173 2. ^ http://thepeerage.com/p10210.htm#i102098 External Links

thepeerage.com

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015 Anne Belknap-Wotton

The Temple memoirs : an account of this historic family and its demesnes, with biographical sketches, anecdotes & legends from
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015 Anne 'Countess of Pembroke' Devereux-Herbert

015 Anne 'Countess of Pembroke' Devereux-Herbert

015 Cecily '7th Baroness of' Bonville-Grey — Biography

Cecily Bonville, 7th Baroness Harington
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Cecily Bonville Baroness Harington and Bonville Marchioness of Dorset Countess of Wiltshire

Effigy Of Cecily Bonville On Her Tomb In The Church Of St. Mary The Virgin, Astley, Warwickshire

Spouse(s) Thomas Grey, 1st Marquess of Dorset (m.1474-1501) Henry Stafford, 1st Earl of Wiltshire (m.1503-1523) Issue Thomas Grey, 2nd Marquess of Dorset Leonard Grey, 1st Viscount Grane Lady Dorothy Grey Lady Mary Grey Lady Elizabeth Grey Lady Cecily Grey Lord Edward Grey Lady Eleanor Grey Lady Margaret Grey Lord Anthony Grey Lady Bridget Grey Lord George Grey Lord Richard Grey Lord John Grey Noble Family Bonville Neville

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015 Cecily '7th Baroness of' Bonville Bonville-Grey — Biography

Father: William Bonville, 6th Baron Harington Mother: Lady Katherine Neville Born: c.30 June 1460 Died: 12 May 1529 (aged 68) Burial: Collegiate Church of St. Mary the Virgin, Astley, Warwickshire Cecily Bonville, 7th Baroness Harington and 2nd Baroness Bonville (c. 30 June 1460 – 12 May 1529) was an English peeress, who was also Marchioness of Dorset by her first marriage to Thomas Grey, 1st Marquess of Dorset, and Dorset Countess of Wiltshire by her second marriage to Henry Stafford, 1st Earl of Wiltshire. . The Bonvilles were loyal supporters of the House of York during the series of dynastic civil wars that were fought for the English throne, known as the Wars of the Roses (1455 – 1485). When she was less than a year old, Cecily became . b the wealthiest heiress in England after her male relatives were slain in battle, fighting against the House of Lancaster. Cecily’s life after the death of her first husband in 1501, was marked by an acrimonious dispute with her s son and heir, Thomas Grey, 2nd Marquess of Dorset This was over Cecily’s right to remain sole executor Dorset. s of her late husband’s estate and to control her own inheritance, both of which Thomas challenged s following her second marriage to Henry Stafford; a man many years her junior. Their quarrel required the intervention of King Henry VII and the royal council. Lady Jane Grey, Lady Catherine Grey and Lady Mary Grey were her great-granddaughters. All three granddaughters. were in the Line of Succession to the English throne, with Jane, the eldest, having reigned as queen for nine days in 1553. Bonville Inheritance Cecily Bonville was born on or about 30 June 1460[1] at Shute Manor in Shute near Axminster, Devon England. She was the only child and heiress of William Bonville, Devon, . 6th Baron Harington of Aldingham and Lady Katherine Neville, a younger sister of , military commander Richard Neville, 16th Earl of Warwick known to history as “Warwick the Kingmaker . Her family had acquired the barony of Harington through Warwick Kingmaker”. the marriage of her paternal grandfather, William Bonville, to Elizabeth, daughter and heiress of William Harington, 5th Baron Harington of Aldingham.[2] Aldingham.

When Cecily was just six months old, both her father, Lord Harington and grandfather, William Bonville, were executed following the disastrous Battle of Wakefield on 30 December 1460. The Bonvilles, having fought with the Yorkist contingent, were shown no mercy from the victorious troops of the Queen of shown England, Margaret of Anjou (consort of Henry VI), who headed the Lancastrian faction, and were thus consort swiftly decapitated on the battlefield. Cecily maternal grandfather, Richard Neville, 5th Earl of Cecily’s Salisbury was also executed after the battle which had been commanded on the Lancastrian side by Henry ter Beaufort, 3rd Duke of Somerset, while Richard, Duke of York had led the Yorkists and was consequently , slain in the fighting. Queen Margaret was in Scotland at the time raising support for her cause, so had not been present at Wakefield.[3] In less than two months, the Yorkists suffered another major defeat at the Second Battle of St Albans on 17 February 1461, and the Lancastrian army s commander Margaret of army’s Anjou, in an act of vengeance, personally ordered the execution of Cecily great-grandfather, William Cecily’s grandfather, Bonville, 1st Baron Bonville, the next day.[4] These executions left Cecily Bonville, the wealthiest heiress , in England,[5][6] having inherited numerous estates in the West Country,[7] as well as manors in Lancashire, Lincolnshire, Yorkshire and Cumberland.[8] She succeeded to the title of suo jure 7th Yorkshire,

The Yorkist emblem. Cecily Bonville was a member of an important Yorkist family during the Wars of the Roses (1455-1485)

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015 Cecily '7th Baroness of' Bonville-Grey — Biography Baroness Harington of Aldingham, on 30 December 1460,[9] and the suo jure title of 2nd Baroness Bonville, on 18 February 1461.[10] Stepfather Her mother remarried shortly before 6 February 1462. Cecily’s stepfather was William Hastings, 1st Baron Hastings, one of the most powerful men in England, and a personal advisor to her first cousin once removed,[11] King Edward IV, who by that time sat upon the English throne, having been proclaimed king in London on 4 March 1461. Edward had strengthened his claim with the resounding Yorkist victory on 29 March at the Battle of Towton where he as commander of the Yorkist army had overwhelmingly defeated the Lancastrians. In addition to her own dowry, Katherine brought the wardship of Cecily to her new husband.[12] By her mother’s marriage to Lord Hastings, Cecily acquired three surviving half-brothers, Edward Hastings, 2nd Baron Heraldic badge of William Hastings, 1st Hastings (26 November 1466 – 8 November 1506), who Baron Hastings, Cecily’s stepfather and married Mary Hungerford, Baroness Botreaux, by whom he one of England’s most powerful men in the reign of King Edward IV had issue, Richard Hastings (born 1468), William Hastings who married Jane Sheffield; and a half-sister, Anne Hastings who married George Talbot, 4th Earl of Shrewsbury, by whom she had issue. First Marriage Cecily was considered as a possible marriage candidate for William, the eldest son and heir of the Earl of Pembroke, who approached her uncle, the Earl of Warwick with his proposal in about 1468. Warwick turned his offer down as he considered the Earl’s son to have been lacking in sufficient noble birth and prestige to marry a member of his family. About six years later, another spouse was found for Cecily; however, Warwick had nothing to do with the bridegroom that was chosen for her.[13] Cecily married Thomas Grey, 1st Marquess of Dorset[14] on 18 July 1474, about two and a half weeks after her fourteenth birthday. He was the eldest son of King Edward’s queen consort, Elizabeth Woodville by her first husband, Sir John Grey of Groby, a Lancastrian knight who had been killed in combat at the Second Battle of St. Albans, the site of Cecily’s greatgrandfather’s execution. It was Thomas’s second marriage. His first wife, whom he had married in October 1466, was Anne Holland, the only daughter and heiress of Henry Holland, 3rd Duke of Exeter and Anne of York. Anne had died childless sometime between 26 August 1467 and 6 June 1474.[15] Cecily’s marriage had been proposed and arranged by Queen Elizabeth Woodville, who, with assistance from King Edward, persuaded Cecily’s stepfather and legal guardian Baron Hastings to agree to the match.[16] The Queen had that same year bought Cecily’s wardship from Hastings to facilitate the marriage.[17] The marriage accord stipulated that were Thomas to die prior to the consummation of the marriage, Cecily would then marry his younger brother Sir Richard Grey.[18][19] This accord was confirmed by an Act of Parliament.[20] The marriage had cost Elizabeth Woodville the sum of £2,500. She in turn, held on to Cecily’s inheritance until the latter turned 16 years old.[21] At the time of Cecily’s marriage to Thomas, the latter held the title of Earl of Huntingdon; he resigned this peerage a year later in 1475, when he was created Marquess of Dorset. Being that women were not permitted to sit in Parliament, Thomas sat in Cecily’s place as Baron Harington and Bonville.

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015 Cecily '7th Baroness of' Bonville-Grey — Biography Cecily’s husband shared the same mistress, Jane Shore with his stepfather King Edward.[22] When the King died in April 1483, Jane then became the mistress of Cecily’s stepfather Baron Hastings.[23] Jane was instrumental in Hastings’ defection from the side of King Edward’s youngest brother, Richard, Duke of Gloucester who had been made Lord Protector of the realm following Edward’s death. She persuaded him to join the Woodville family in a conspiracy aimed at removing the Lord Protector, and when Richard was apprised of Hastings’ treachery, he ordered his immediate execution on 13 June 1483 at the Tower of London. Hastings was not attainted, however, and Cecily’s mother was placed under Richard’s protection.[24] Thomas’s maternal uncle Anthony Woodville, Earl Rivers, and his younger full brother Richard Grey were both executed on 25 June 1483 by the orders of King Richard III, who had three days earlier claimed the crown for himself. Richard’s claim was supported by an Act of Parliament known as Titulus Regius which declared Thomas’s half-brother King Edward V and his siblings illegitimate. Although Thomas and Cecily attended Richard’s coronation, later that year, Thomas joined the rebellion of Henry Stafford, 2nd Duke of Buckingham against the king. When this revolt failed, he left Cecily behind in England and escaped to Brittany where he became an adherent of Henry Tudor, who would ascend the English throne as Henry VII following his success at the Battle of Bosworth on 22 August 1485. Cecily (notwithstanding her Yorkist family background) and her husband were both guests at King Henry’s coronation; the following month, the new king lifted the attainder which had been placed on Thomas in January 1484 by Richard III for his participation in the Duke of Buckingham’s unsuccessful rebellion.[25] The Dorsets also attended the wedding of Henry and Elizabeth of York in January 1486. Elizabeth was Thomas’ eldest uterine half-sister by his mother’s second marriage to King Edward. When she was crowned Queen consort in November 1487, Cecily and Thomas were present inside Westminster Abbey to witness the ceremony. Cecily had been honoured the preceding year on the occasion of Prince Arthur‘s baptism when she was chosen to carry the boy’s train while her mother-in-law, the dowager queen, stood as the Prince’s sponsor. The ceremony had taken place at Winchester Cathedral.[26] Thomas and Cecily together had a total of fourteen children, eleven of whom survived to adulthood. Her eldest son, Thomas’s birth was noted in a letter from John Paston II to John Paston III in June 1477: Tydyngys, butt that yisterdaye my lady Marqueys off Dorset whyche is my Lady Hastyngys dowtre, hadd chylde a sone.[27] Issue

Thomas Grey, 2nd Marquess of Dorset (22 June 1477 – 22 June 1530), married Margaret Wotton, by whom he had issue, including Henry Grey, 1st Duke of Suffolk who in his turn married Lady Frances Brandon, the daughter of Mary Tudor, Queen of France. Henry Grey and Frances Brandon were the parents of Lady Jane Grey, Lady Catherine Grey, and Lady Mary Grey. Leonard Grey, 1st Viscount Grane (c.1478 – 28 July 1541) Lord Deputy of Ireland, married Eleanor Sutton. He was attainted and executed at the Tower of London for High Treason by the orders of King Henry VIII. Lady Dorothy Grey (1480–1552), married firstly Robert Willoughby, 2nd Baron Willoughby de Broke, by whom she had issue, and secondly, William Blount, 4th Baron Mountjoy, by whom she had issue.

Lady Jane Grey was the greatgranddaughter of Cecily Bonville and her first husband Thomas Grey, 1st Marquess of Dorset

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015 Cecily '7th Baroness of' Bonville-Grey — Biography Lady Mary Grey (1491 – 22 February 1538), married 15 December 1503 Walter Devereux, 1st Viscount Hereford, by whom she had three sons, including Sir Richard Devereaux, who was the grandfather of Robert Devereux, 2nd Earl of Essex, and Penelope Devereaux. Lady Elizabeth Grey (c.1497 – after 1548), Maid of Honour to Mary Tudor, Queen of France and the latter’s successor, Queen Claude of France; married in about 1522 Gerald FitzGerald, 9th Earl of Kildare, by whom she had issue, including Lady Elizabeth FitzGerald, also known as “The Fair Geraldine”, and Gerald FitzGerald, 11th Earl of Kildare. Lady Cecily Grey (died 1554), married John Sutton, 3rd Baron Dudley, by whom she had issue. Lord Edward Grey, married Anne Jerningham. Lady Eleanor Grey, married John Arundell, by whom she had issue. Lady Margaret Grey, married Richard Wake, Esq. Lord Anthony Grey, died young. Lady Bridget Grey, died young. Lord George Grey, entered clerical orders; nothing further is known about him. Lord Richard Grey, married Florence Pudney. Lord John Grey, died young.

• • • • • • • • •

Later Years The “Dorset Aisle” On an unknown date sometime in the 1490s, Cecily added a magnificent fan vaulted aisle, which she had personally designed, to the Church of Ottery St Mary in Devon. This north aisle is therefore known as the “Dorset Aisle”. As Cecily had been present at the inauguration of the St George’s Chapel at Windsor Castle in 1476, she was inspired by its construction to later design the north aisle at Ottery St Mary in a similar style.[28] Her coat-of-arms, a figure of St. Cecilia, and carved heraldic devices and badges are displayed throughout the aisle representing her own lineage as well as that of her two spouses. The Church Of Ottery St Mary, Where She had also made several additions to other churches that were Cecily Added A Splendid Fan Vaulted situated within the realm of her vast West Country holdings; Aisle Known As The “Dorset Aisle” however, none were executed as splendidly, and with such meticulous attention to detail as the Dorset Aisle. Upon the death of Thomas Grey in September 1501, Cecily’s eldest son Thomas inherited his title and some of his estates, however Cecily kept the greater portion of his lands and properties. Cecily was also named as one of her mother’s executors in the latter’s will, which was written shortly before her death in 1504.[29] Dispute With Her Son She married a second time in 1503 on her Feast Day of 22 November, Henry Stafford, 1st Earl of Wiltshire; however, this marriage did not produce any children. As the marriage had required a papal dispensation and the King’s license, Stafford paid Henry VII the sum of £2,000 for the necessary permission to marry Cecily, who at 43 years old was 19 years older than her spouse. Her son Thomas, the 2nd Marquess of Dorset vehemently disapproved of the match, as it is alleged he feared she would use her inheritance to “endow her new husband at his own expense”.[30] His fears did have some foundation as

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015 Cecily '7th Baroness of' Bonville-Grey — Biography Cecily gave Stafford a life estate in holdings valued at £1,000 per year and even vowed to leave him the remainder of her capital should Thomas happen to predecease her.[31] This provoked Thomas to challenge Cecily’s right to continue as his father’s sole executor, resulting in an acrimonious dispute that necessitated the intervention of King Henry VII and his council to stop it from escalating even further.[32] The settlement the King decreed allowed Cecily to manage her late husband’s estate until she had paid off his debts, but prevented her from claiming her dowry until she had transferred the remainder of her son’s inheritance to him.[33] King Henry’s arbitrary decision also severely limited her control over her own inheritance: she was required to bequeath all of it to Thomas upon her death; until then, Cecily was permitted to grant lands worth up to 1,000 marks per annum for a certain number of years.[34] Historian Barbara J. Harris stated that the Crown’s oppressive decree greatly restricted Cecily’s personal rights as an heiress in favour of those of her eldest son and the tradition of primogeniture.[35] Nearly two decades later, she and her son quarrelled again; on this occasion it was about their mutual duties towards Thomas’s seven surviving siblings. Cardinal Thomas Wolsey arbitrated on behalf of King Henry VIII and ordered both Cecily and Thomas to contribute to the dowries of her four living daughters: the ladies Dorothy, Mary, Elizabeth, and Cecily. She was also forced to create individual annuities drawn from her own funds for her three younger sons.[36] Cecily is recorded as having made her last will on 6 March 1528,[37] signing her name as Cecill Marquess of Dorset, Lady Haryngton and Bonvyll, late wife of Thomas Marquess of Dorset.[38] Death And Legacy Cecily died during an outbreak of the sweating sickness on 12 May 1529 at Shacklewell, in Hackney, although she is buried in the Collegiate Church of St. Mary the Virgin, Astley, Warwickshire, where her effigy (which has been damaged), can be seen alongside those of Sir Edward Grey and Elizabeth Talbot. Cecily is on the far left of the group wearing a pedimental head-dress, a high-cut kirtle, cote-hardie, and mantle, at the corners of which are two small dogs. She was not quite sixty-nine years old at the time of her death. Her second husband had died six years earlier, deeply in debt; these debts, Cecily had been legally obliged to repay.[39] In her will, Cecily had expressed her wish to be buried with her first husband, and had made the necessary provisions for the construction of a “goodly tomb”.[40] She also requested for a thousand masses to be said for her soul “in as convenient haste as may be”.[41] Cecily Bonville had many notable descendants, including Lady Jane Grey, Lady Catherine Grey, Elizabeth FitzGerald, Countess of Lincoln, Robert Devereux, 2nd Earl of Essex, Elizabeth Vernon, Frances Howard, Countess of Somerset, Sir Winston Churchill, as well as those who are living today which include Prince William, Duke of Cambridge and Sarah, Duchess of York. One of Cecily Bonville’s West Country estates, Sock Denny Manor in Somerset was farmed for £22 in 1527-28, and again, ten years after her death, in 1539-40, .[42] In February 1537, her daughter Cecily Sutton wrote to Henry VIII’s chief minister, Thomas Cromwell, complaining of the poverty in which she and her husband were forced to live.[43] There is also an extant letter which Cecily Bonville herself had written to Cromwell. In Fiction Cecily Bonville is the protagonist in The Summer Queen, a historical romance which was written by Alice Walworth Graham and published in 1973. The novel is highly fictitious as it takes many liberties with the known facts of Cecily’s life, so it is not to be regarded as a biography. Sources 1. thepeerage Accessed 26 July 2008 2. Bridie, Marion Ferguson (1955). The Story of Shute: the Bonvilles and Poles. Axminster, England: Shute School.

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015 Cecily '7th Baroness of' Bonville-Grey — Biography 3. Fraser, Antonia (1975) The Lives of The Kings and Queens of England. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. ISBN 0-394-49557-4 4. Worldroots.com by Leo Van de Pas 5. Costain, Thomas Bertram (1962). The Last Plantagenets. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday. 6. Kendall, Paul Murray (1955). Richard The Third. London: George Allen & Unwin, Ltd. ISBN 0-04942048-8 7. Harris, Barbara Jean (2002). English Aristocratic Women, 1450-1550: Marriage and Family, Property and Careers. Oxford: Oxford University Press. References 1. ^ Bye, Arthur Edwin (1956). History of the Bye Family and Some Allied Families. p.275. Google Books. Retrieved 28 March 2011 2. ^ Douglas Richardson, Kimball G. Everingham, Magna Carta Ancestry: A Study in Colonial and Medieval Families, pp.109–110 3. ^ Kendall, Paul Murray (1955). Richard the Third. pp.39 – 40. London: George Allen & Unwin, Ltd. ISBN 0-04-942048-8 4. ^ Thomas B. Costain “The Last Plantagenets”, pp. 315–316 5. ^ Britannia: Lympstone From Roman Times to the 17th Century. The Early History of Lympstone in Devon, edited by Rosemary Smith. Retrieved 31-10-10 6. ^ W. H. Hamilton Rogers (2003). The Strife of the Roses and Days of the Tudors in the West. p.52. Google Books. Retrieved 28 March 2011. 7. ^ Janet Backhouse (1997). The Hastings Hours. San Francisco: Pomegranate Artbooks. p.34.Google Books, retrieved 31-10-10 8. ^ John Burke, A General and Heraldic Dictionary of the Peerages of England, Ireland, and Scotland, Extinct, Dormant and in Abeyance, p. 251, published by Henry Colburn and Richard Bentley, London, 1831, Google Books, retrieved on 12 June 2009 9. ^ Mosley, Charles (2003). Burke’s Peerage, Vol.2, p.1789 10. ^ Cokayne, G. E. (2000). The Complete Peerage. Vol. II. p.219. Gloucester, UK: Alan Sutton Publishing 11. ^ Cecily’s maternal grandfather and Edward’s mother, Cecily Neville were siblings 12. ^ Janet Backhouse. The Hastings Hours, p.34, Google Books, retrieved 28-12-09 13. ^ Michael A. Hicks (1998, 2002). Warwick the Kingmaker. UK: Blackwell Publisher’s, Ltd. p.270. Google Books. Retrieved 9 February 2011. 14. ^ Cecily Bonville and Thomas Grey shared a common ancestor in the person of Reginald Grey, 3rd Baron Grey de Ruthyn, who married twice; firstly to Margaret de Ros, and secondly to Joan de Astley. 15. ^ Charles Cawley, Medieval Lands, Earls of Kent, Holand, retrieved on 2 May 2010 16. ^ Charles Derek Ross (1974). Edward IV. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press. p.336. Google Books, retrieved 31-10-10. ISBN 0-520-02781-7 17. ^ Richmond, Colin (2000). The Pastons of the Fifteenth Century: Endings. UK: Manchester University Press. p.151. Google Books. Retrieved 28 March 2011

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015 Cecily '7th Baroness of' Bonville-Grey — Biography 18. ^ Ross, p.336 19. ^ Church Law forbade a man to marry the widow of his dead brother, but only if the union had been consummated. Fifty years later, when Henry VIII applied to the Pope seeking an annulment from Catherine of Aragon in order to marry Anne Boleyn, he would use this very law, which was written in the Book of Leviticus, to insist that his marriage to Catherine had been invalid from the beginning. 20. ^ Ross, p.336 21. ^ Michael A. Hicks (1991). Richard III and his rivals: magnates and their motives in the Wars of the Roses. London: Hambledon Press. p.220. Google Books. Retrieved 9 February 2011 ISBN 185285 053 1 22. ^ Costain, pp. 394–395 23. ^ Kendall, Paul Murray. Richard The Third. p. 204 24. ^ Kendall, pp.209–210 25. ^ Richardson, Everingham, p.391 26. ^ Anne Crawford (2007). The Yorkists: the History of a Dynasty. London: Hambledon Continuum. p.156. Google Books. Retrieved 9 February 2011. 27. ^ Richmond, p.151 28. ^ The Burlington Magazine, 1918, p.76, retrieved 29-12-09 29. ^ Hamilton Rogers, p.59 30. ^ Barbara Jean Harris (2002). English Aristocratic Women, 1450-1550: Marriage and Family, Property and Careers. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp.114–115, Google Books. Retrieved on 12 June 2009 31. ^ Emerson, Kathy Lynn, A Who’s Who of Tudor Women, Bo-Brom retrieved 31-10-10 32. ^ Harris, pp.114–115 33. ^ Harris, pp.114–115 34. ^ Harris, pp.114–115 35. ^ Harris, pp.114–115 36. ^ Barbara Jean Harris, English Aristocratic Women, 1450-1550:Marriage and Family, Property and Careers, pp.114–115, Google Books, retrieved on 13 June 2009 37. ^ www.thePeerage.com/Person Page 10756 38. ^ Nicholas Harris Nicolas (1826). Testamenta Vetusta: Illustrations being from wills, of manners, customs, &c, as well as of the Descents and Possessions of Many Distinguished Families. From the Reign of Henry the Second to the Accession of Queen Elizabeth Vol. II. p.631 39. ^ Kathy Lynn Emerson, A Who’s Who of Women, retrieved 3 October 2010 40. ^ Emerson, retrieved 3 October 2010 41. ^ Nicolas. Testamenta Vetusta. p.632 42. ^ The History of the County of Somerset: Volume 3, footnote:SC.6/Hen.VIII/6214-15, edited by R.W Dunning, 1974, British History Online, retrieved on 17 February 2009 43. ^ Kathy Lynn Emerson, A Who’s Who of Tudor Women, retrieved 19 April 2010

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015 Cecily '7th Baroness of' Bonville-Grey — Biography

Preceded By William Bonville Preceded By William Bonville

Peerage Of England Baroness Bonville 1461–1529 Baroness Harington 1460–1529

Succeeded By Thomas Grey

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015 Cecily '7th Baroness of Harrington' Bonville-Grey

015 Cecily '7th Baroness of Harrington' Bonville-Grey

015 Cecily '7th Baroness of Harrington' Bonville-Grey

015 Edward Richard '3rd Earl of Buckingham' Stafford — Biography

Edward Stafford, 3rd Duke Of Buckingham
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Edward Stafford, 3rd Duke of Buckingham, KG (3 February 1478 – 17 May 1521) was an English nobleman. He was the son of Henry Stafford, 2nd Duke of Buckingham and the former Lady Catherine Woodville, daughter of the 1st Earl Rivers and sisterin-law of King Edward IV. Early Life Stafford was born at Brecknock Castle in Wales. His father, who was strongly implicated in the murder of the two princes in the Tower, was attainted and executed for rebelling against King Richard III in 1483, when Stafford was five. Two years later, when King Henry VII ascended the throne, the attainder was reversed and the wardship of the young Duke of Buckingham, along with all his lands, was given to the King’s mother, the Countess of Richmond and Derby. (A possible reason for the reversal of the attainder is that Buckingham was a first cousin of Queen Elizabeth, the King’s wife.) Family In December 1489 Henry VII accepted £4000 from the estate of Henry Percy, 4th Earl of Northumberland for Buckingham’s hand for the earl’s eldest daughter, Lady Alianore (Eleanor) Percy.[1] They had four children: 1. Mary, (born c. 1494), who married the 5th Baron Bergavenny; parents of Mary Nevill, Baroness Dacre 2. Elizabeth Howard, Duchess of Norfolk, (1497 – 30 November 1558), who married the 3rd Duke of Norfolk 3. Catherine, (c. 1499 – 14 May 1555) who married Ralph Neville, 4th Earl of Westmorland. 4. Henry Stafford, 1st Baron Stafford (18 September 1501 – 30 April 1563). Edward was also said to have had two illegitimate children 1. Margaret (c. 1511 – 25 May 1537), One source says she was married firstly to William Cheney and secondly to John Bulmer.[2] A second says she married his ward Thomas Fitzgerald, the son of the 9th Earl of Kildare.[1] 2. Henry One of their main residences was Thornbury, which had been in the family since 1087. In 1508, Edward was granted permission to castellate the manor, work that was not completed due to his execution.[3] In 1511, he was subsequently granted a further 1,000 acres (4.0 km2) of land in the area by Henry VIII[4] Life At Court As a young man, Buckingham was made a Knight of the Garter (1495), and had various ceremonial roles at the Royal Court of Henry VII. He garnered even further honours following the accession of King Henry VIII: Buckingham was Lord High Steward at the King’s coronation in 1509, where he also carried the King’s crown, and in 1514 he became Lord High Constable.[5]

Edward Stafford, 3rd Duke of Buckingham, by an unknown artist, 1520, at Magdalene College, Cambridge

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015 Edward Richard '3rd Earl of Buckingham' Stafford — Biography Buckingham fell out dramatically with the King in 1510, when he discovered that the King was having an affair with the Countess of Huntingdon, the Duke’s sister and wife of the 1st Earl of Huntingdon.[6] She was taken to a convent sixty miles away. There are some suggestions that the affair continued until 1513. However, he returned to the King’s graces, being present at the marriage of Henry’s sister, served in Parliament and being present at negotiations with Francis I of France and Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor. Betrayal And Execution Buckingham, with his Plantagenet blood and numerous connections by descent or marriage with the rest of the aristocracy, became an object of Henry’s suspicion. During 1520, Buckingham became suspected of potentially treasonous actions and Henry VIII authorised an investigation. The King personally examined witnesses against him, gathering enough evidence for a trial. The Duke was finally summoned to Court in April 1521 and arrested and placed in the Tower. He was tried before a panel of 17 peers, being accused of listening to prophecies of the King’s death and intending to kill the King; however, the King’s mind appeared to be decided and conviction was certain. He was executed on Tower Hill on 17 May. He was posthumously attainted by Act of Parliament on 31 July 1523.[7] Guy (1988) concludes this was one of the few executions of high personages under Henry VIII in which the accused was “almost certainly guilty.” However Sir Thomas More complained that the key evidence from servants was hearsay.[8] In Fiction

Buckingham is played by Charles Dance in the 2003 two part drama Henry VIII starring Ray Winstone and Helena Bonham Carter. His character was a minor one, killed off in the first 15 minutes. Buckingham is a character in the first two episodes of the first season of the drama series The Tudors. Portrayed by Steven Waddington, Buckingham’s intrigues are fictionalized, with several key facts omitted. The accusation and condemnation of Buckingham is depicted in the Shakespeare play Henry VIII. Political Offices Lord High Constable 1514–1521 Peerage Of England Duke Of Buckingham (Restored) 1485–1521

Preceded By The Lord Stanley Preceded By Henry Stafford (Forfeit In 1483) References 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Succeeded By Merged In The Crown Succeeded By Forfeit

^ a b Oxford Dictionary of National Biography ^ [1] ^ Thornbury Castle Hotel ^ general and heraldic dictionary of the peerages of England, Ireland, and Scotland, extinct, dormant, and in abeyance.by John Burke Publisher Henry Colburn & Richard Bentley, 1831 ^ Entry at ThePeerage.com ^ Hart, Kelly (June 1, 2009). The Mistresses of Henry VIII (First ed.). The History Press. ISBN 0752448358. http://books.google.com/books?id=r6HGPAAACAAJ. ^ Dictionary of National Biography (1898) 53: 446-7. ^ John Guy, Tudor England (1988) p 97

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015 Edward Richard '3rd Earl of Buckingham' Stafford

015 Eleanor 'Dutchess of Buckingham' Percy-Stafford — Biography

Eleanor Percy-Stafford, Duchess of Buckingham
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Spouse(s) Edward Stafford and John Audley (no information available) Issue Mary Elizabeth Catherine Henry Father: Henry Percy, 4th Earl of Northumberland Mother: Maud Herbert Born: c. 1474, Leconfield, Yorkshire, England Died: 13 February 1530 (aged around 56) Eleanor Percy, Duchess of Buckingham (ca. 1474 – 13 February 1530), also known as Alianore, was a daughter of Henry Percy, 4th Earl of Northumberland by his wife Lady Maud Herbert, daughter of William Herbert, 1st Earl of Pembroke (1468 creation). Eleanor Percy married Edward Stafford, 3rd Duke of Buckingham, who was beheaded in 1521 on false charges of plotting to overthrow the king, Henry VIII. As a result, the Buckingham title and estates were forfeited, and her children lost their inheritance. Biography Eleanor Percy was born about 1474 in Leconfield, Yorkshire. On 14 December 1490, at about sixteen years of age, Eleanor married Edward Stafford, 3rd Duke of Buckingham, who was five years old when his father, the rebellious 2nd Duke of Buckingham, was attainted and executed for high treason. Edward Stafford’s mother, Catherine Woodville, went on to marry the first Duke of Bedford and thirdly, Richard Wingfield. Two years after his father’s execution, when Henry VII ascended the throne, the attainder was reversed, and the title and estates of Edward’s father were restored to him. At seven, Edward became the third Duke of Buckingham and also the ward of King Henry VII’s mother, Lady Margaret Beaufort. After Edward’s death, Eleanor remarried to John Audley. Her second marriage was childless. Children Eleanor Percy bore her husband, Edward Stafford, four children: 1. Mary (born abt. 1495), married George Nevill, 5th Baron Bergavenny, parents of Mary Nevill, Baroness Dacre 2. Elizabeth (1497 – 30 November 1558), married Thomas Howard, 3rd Duke of Norfolk. 3. Catherine (born abt. 1499 – 14 May 1555), married Ralph Neville, 4th Earl of Westmorland. 4. Henry (18 September 1501 – 30 April 1563), 1st Baron Stafford, married Ursula Pole, daughter of Margaret Pole, 8th Countess of Salisbury. References
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thepeerage.com Accessed November 21, 2007 tudorplace.com.ar Accessed November 21, 2007 familysearch.org Accessed November 21, 2007

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015 Eleanor Tuchet-Lewknor

015 Eleanor Tuchet-Lewknor

015 Eleanor Tuchet-Lewknor

015 Eleanor Tyrrell-Knyvett

015 Eleanor Tyrrell-Knyvett

015 Eleanor Tyrrell-Knyvett

015 Eleanor Tyrrell-Knyvett

015 Elizabeth Tilney-Howard — Biography

Elizabeth Tilney, Countess of Surrey
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Spouse(s) Sir Humphrey Bourchier Thomas Howard, Earl of Surrey Issue John Bourchier, 2nd Baron Berners Margaret Bourchier Anne Bourchier, Baroness Dacre Thomas Howard, 3rd Duke of Norfolk Lord Edward Howard Lord Edmund Howard Elizabeth Boleyn, Countess of Wiltshire Muriel Knyvett, Lady Knyvett Sir John Howard Charles Howard Henry Howard Richard Howard Father: Sir Frederick Tilney Mother: Elizabeth Cheney Born: Before 1445, Ashwellthorpe Manor, Norfolk Died: 4 April 1497, England Burial: Convent of the Minoresses, outside Aldgate, London Occupation Lady-in-waiting Lady of the Bedchamber Elizabeth Tilney, Countess of Surrey (before 1445 – 4 April 1497) was an English heiress and lady-inwaiting to two queens. She became the first wife of Thomas Howard, Earl of Surrey. She served as a lady-in-waiting to Queen consort Elizabeth Woodville, and later as Lady of the Bedchamber to the Queen’s daughter, Elizabeth of York, consort of King Henry VII of England. She stood as joint godmother to Princess Margaret Tudor at her baptism. She was the mother of Thomas Howard, 3rd Duke of Norfolk. Through her daughter Elizabeth she was the maternal grandmother of Anne Boleyn, and through another son, Edmund, the paternal grandmother of Catherine Howard, both queens consort of King Henry VIII. Elizabeth’s great-granddaughter was Queen Elizabeth I of England. Elizabeth was commemorated as the “Countess of Surrey” in John Skelton‘s poem, The Garlande of Laurell, following his visit to the Howard residence of Sheriff Hutton Castle. Family Elizabeth Tilney was born at Ashwellthorpe Hall sometime before 1445, the only child of Sir Frederick Tilney, of Ashwellthorpe, Norfolk, and Boston, Lincolnshire, and Elizabeth Cheney (1422–1473) of Fen Ditton, Cambridgeshire. Sir Frederick Tilney died before 1447, and before 1449 Elizabeth’s mother married as her second husband Sir John Say of Broxbourne, Hertfordshire, Speaker of the House of Commons, by whom she had three sons, Sir William, Sir Thomas and Leonard, and four daughters, Anne (wife of Sir Henry Wentworth of Nettlestead, Suffolk), Elizabeth (wife of Thomas Sampson), Katherine

Detail of a stained glass window at Holy Trinity Church, Long Melford, Suffolk depicting Elizabeth Tilney

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015 Elizabeth Tilney-Howard — Biography (wife of Thomas Bassingbourne), and Mary (wife of Sir Philip Calthorpe).[1] A fifth daughter died as a young child. Henry VIII’s third Queen, Jane Seymour, was the granddaughter of Henry Wentworth and Anne Say,[2] and thus a second cousin to Henry VIII’s second and fifth Queens, Anne Boleyn and Katherine Howard.[3] Elizabeth’s paternal grandparents were Sir Philip Tilney and Isabel Thorpe, and her maternal grandparents were Sir Laurence Cheney of Fen Ditton and Elizabeth Cockayne, widow of Sir Philip Butler. Elizabeth Cockayne was the daughter of Sir John Cockayne, Chief Baron of the Exchequer and Ida de Grey. Ida was a daughter of Welsh Marcher Lord Reginald Grey, 2nd Baron Grey de Ruthyn and Eleanor Le Strange of Blackmere.[4] Through her mother, Ida was a direct descendant of Welsh Prince Gruffydd II ap Madog, Lord of Dinas Bran and his wife Emma de Audley. Elizabeth was co-heiress to the manors of Fisherwick and Shelfield in Walsall, Staffordshire by right of her descent from Roger Hillary, Chief Justice of the Common Pleas (d.1356).[5] Marriages Elizabeth married her first husband, Sir Humphrey Bourchier, the son and heir of John Bourchier, 1st Baron Berners, and his wife Margery, in about 1466. The marriage produced a son, John Bourchier, 2nd Baron Berners and two daughters. Following her marriage, Elizabeth went to court where she served as lady-in-waiting to Queen Elizabeth Woodville, whose train she had carried at the latter’s coronation in May 1465 at Westminster Abbey. Elizabeth accompanied the Queen and her children into sanctuary at Westminster Abbey when King Edward IV had been ousted from the throne, and was present at the birth of the future King Edward V. She remained with the Queen until Edward IV was restored to power. Sir Humphrey was killed at the Battle of Barnet on 14 April 1471 fighting on the Yorkist side.[6] On 30 April 1472 The Battle of Barnet where Elizabeth’s first Elizabeth married Thomas Howard, Earl of Surrey,[7] a husband Sir Humphrey Bourchier was slain marriage arranged by the King.[8] In 1475, Elizabeth inherited her father’s property of Ashwellthorpe Manor.[9] Her second husband was a close friend and companion of Richard, Duke of Gloucester who was crowned king in 1483. Elizabeth was one of Queen Anne Neville‘s attendants at Richard’s coronation, while her husband bore the Sword of State.[10] On 22 August 1485 Thomas’s father John Howard, 1st Duke of Norfolk was killed at the Battle of Bosworth while fighting for Richard III; like his son, John was also one of King Richard’s dearest friends.[11] Thomas Howard was wounded at Bosworth and imprisoned in the Tower for several years, and the dukedom of Norfolk was forfeited. Elizabeth was fortunate that Thomas’ attainder stipulated that she would not lose her own inheritance. On 3 October 1485, she wrote to John Paston, who was married to her cousin. The letter, which she had written from the Isle of Sheppey, mentioned how she had wished to send her children to Thorpe, pointing out that Paston had pledged to send her horses as a means of transporting them there. She continued to complain that Lord FitzWalter, an adherent of the new king Henry VII, had dismissed all of her servants; however, because of the stipulations in her husband’s attainder, FitzWalter was unable to appropriate her manor of Askwell.[12] In December 1485 she was living in London, near St Katharine’s by the Tower, which placed her in the vicinity of her incarcerated husband.[13] After Thomas was released from prison and his earldom and estates were restored to him, he entered the service of Henry VII. In November 1487, Thomas and Elizabeth attended the coronation of Henry’s consort Elizabeth of York, who appointed Elizabeth a Lady of the Bedchamber. Elizabeth was further honoured by being asked to stand as joint godmother to the Princess Margaret Tudor at her baptism in late 1489.

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015 Elizabeth Tilney-Howard — Biography Her second marriage produced nine children, including Thomas Howard, 3rd Duke of Norfolk, Elizabeth Howard, mother of Queen Anne Boleyn, and Lord Edmund Howard, father of Queen Katherine Howard. Death And Legacy Elizabeth Tilney died on 4 April 1497 and was buried in the nun’s choir of the Convent of the Minoresses outside Aldgate.[14] In her will, she left money to be distributed to the poor of Whitechapel and Hackney.[15] By licence dated 8 November 1497 Thomas Howard married as his second wife her cousin, Agnes Tilney, by whom he had six more children.[16] Elizabeth’s granddaughters included not only Queen Katherine Howard and Queen Anne Boleyn, but also three of Henry VIII’s mistresses, Elizabeth Carew, Mary Boleyn and, allegedly, Mary Howard, Duchess of Richmond.[17] During the reign of Henry VIII the Howards, led by Elizabeth’s eldest son, Thomas Howard, 3rd Duke of Norfolk, became the premier family of England. Elizabeth Tilney has been identified as the “Countess of Surrey” commemorated in John Skelton‘s The Garlande of Laurell, written by the poet laureate while he was a guest of the Howards in 1495 at Sheriff Hutton Castle. Three of Elizabeth’s daughters, Anne, Elizabeth and Muriel are also addressed in the poem, which celebrates the occasion when Elizabeth, her daughters, and gentlewomen of her household placed a garland of laurel worked in silks, gold and pearls upon Skelton’s head as a sign of homage to the poet.[18] Elizabeth’s likeness is depicted in a stained glass window at Holy Trinity Church, Long Melford, Suffolk. She is shown facing Elizabeth Talbot, Duchess of Norfolk, and both figures are surmounted by the Mowbray family’s coat of arms. A highly romanticized fictional account of Elizabeth Tilney’s life was written by Juliet Dymoke in The Sun in Splendour which depicts Elizabeth, known as “Bess”, at the court of King Edward IV. Issue
• Anne Boleyn,granddaughter of Elizabeth Tilney by her second husband, Thomas Howard, 2nd Duke of Norfolk

In poetry, art and fiction

John Bourchier, 2nd Baron Berners (1467–1533), married Katherine (d. 12 March 1536), the daughter of John Howard, 1st Duke of Norfolk, by whom he had a son, Thomas, and three daughters, Joan, Margaret and Mary; by a mistress allegedly named Elizabeth Bacon he had three illegitimate sons, Sir James, Humphrey and George, and one daughter, Ursula (wife of Sir William Sherington)[19] Margaret Bourchier (1468–1552), Lady Governess to Princess Mary and Princess Elizabeth; married firstly, by agreement dated 11 November 1478, John Sandys, son and heir apparent of William Sandys of the Vyne, by whom she had no issue; secondly, Sir Thomas Bryan, by whom she had three children, including Sir Francis Bryan.[20] Anne Bourchier (1470- 29 September 1530), married Thomas Fiennes, 8th Baron Dacre,[21] by whom she had three children. Thomas Howard, 3rd Duke of Norfolk[22] Sir Edward Howard[23] Lord Edmund Howard, father of Henry VIII’s fifth Queen, Katherine Howard[24] Sir John Howard[25]

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015 Elizabeth Tilney-Howard — Biography Lord Henry Howard[26] Lord Charles Howard[27] Lord Henry Howard (the younger)[28] Lord Richard Howard[29] Lady Elizabeth Howard, married Thomas Boleyn, 1st Earl of Wiltshire, and was mother of Queen Anne Boleyn, and grandmother of Queen Elizabeth[30] Lady Muriel Howard (d.1512), married firstly John Grey, Viscount Lisle (d.1504), and secondly Sir Thomas Knyvet[31] daughter (died young)[32] Dukes of Norfolk family tree ^ Roskell 1981, p. 170; Richardson 2004, pp. 206–207; Kirby 2008. ^ Beer 2004; Richardson 2004, pp. 381, 611, 729. ^ G. E. Cokayne. The Complete Peerage ^ Taylor 1822, p. 8. ^ Richardson 2004, p. 141. ^ Cokayne 1912, pp. 153–154. ^ Richardson 2004, pp. 141, 236; Cokayne 1912, p. 153. ^ Women of History — Index S. Retrieved 15 March 2011 ^ Women of History — Index S ^ Women of History — Index S. Retrieved 15 March 2011 ^ Kendall, pp. 193–196. ^ Kathy Lynn Emerson. A Who’s Who of Tudor Women — T ^ Kathy Lynn Emerson. A Who’s Who of Tudor Women — T. Retrieved 15 March 2011 ^ Women of History — Index S. Retrieved 15-03-11 ^ Women of History — Index S ^ Richardson 2004, p. 237. ^ Hart 2009. ^ Skelton 1990, pp. 23, 31–32; Scattergood 2004. ^ Richardson 2004, p. 142; Cokayne 1912, pp. 153–154. ^ Richardson 2004, pp. 141–2. ^ Richardson 2004, p. 141. ^ Richardson 2004, p. 236. ^ Richardson 2004, p. 236; Loades 2008.

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See Also

Footnotes 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23.

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015 Elizabeth Tilney-Howard — Biography 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. ^ Richardson 2004, p. 236;Warnicke 2008. ^ Richardson 2004, p. 236. ^ Richardson 2004, p. 236. ^ Richardson 2004, p. 236. ^ Richardson 2004, p. 236. ^ Richardson 2004, p. 236. ^ Richardson 2004, p. 236; Hughes 2007. ^ Richardson 2004, p. 236; Gunn 2008. ^ Weir 1991, p. 619. Beer, Barrett L. (2004). Jane (née Jane Seymour) (1508/9–1537), queen of England, third consort of Henry VIII. Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. http://www.oxforddnb.com/index/14/101014647/. Retrieved 15 March 2011. Cokayne, George Edward (1912). The Complete Peerage edited by the Honourable Vicary Gibbs. II. London: St. Catherine Press. Cokayne, George Edward (1936). The Complete Peerage, edited by H.A. Doubleday. IX. London: St. Catherine Press. Gunn, S.J. (2008). Knyvet, Sir Thomas (c.1485–1512), courtier and sea captain. Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. http://www.oxforddnb.com/index/15/101015799/. Retrieved 13 March 2011. Hart, Kelly (2009). The Mistresses of Henry VIII. Head, David M. (2008). Howard, Thomas, second duke of Norfolk (1443–1524), magnate and soldier. Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. http://www.oxforddnb.com/index/13/101013939/. Retrieved 12 March 2011. Hughes, Jonathan (2007). Boleyn, Thomas, earl of Wiltshire and earl of Ormond (1476/7–1539), courtier and nobleman. Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. http://www.oxforddnb.com/index/2/101002795/. Retrieved 13 March 2011. Kendall, Paul Murray (1953). Richard III. London: George Allen and Unwin Ltd. Kirby, J.L. (2008). Say (Fynys), Sir John (d. 1478), administrator and speaker of the House of Commons. Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. http://www.oxforddnb.com/index/24/101024764/. Retrieved 15 March 2011. Loades, David (2008). Howard, Sir Edward (1476/7–1513), naval commander. Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. http://www.oxforddnb.com/index/13/101013891/. Retrieved 13 March 2011. Richardson, Douglas (2004). Plantagenet Ancestry: A Study in Colonial and Medieval Families, ed. Kimball G. Everingham. Baltimore, Maryland: Genealogical Publishing Company, Inc. Riordan, Michael (2004). Howard, Lord Thomas (c.1512–1537), courtier. Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. http://www.oxforddnb.com/index/70/101070793/. Retrieved 12 March 2011. Roskell, John Smith (1981). Parliament and Politics in Late Medieval England. II. London: The Hambledon Press. pp. 153–174. http://books.google.ca/books?id=k95Sra3I56oC&printsec=frontcover&dq=%22parliament+and+polit ics+in+late+medieval+england%22&source=bl&ots=sMal1fyeze&sig=7YJuEQ7PVoeqCsT3O-

References

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015 Elizabeth Tilney-Howard — Biography _KoUj0cyc&hl=en&ei=PJdTZ2cB86NrQHm4qWXCQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CBkQ6AEwAA#v =onepage&q&f=false. Retrieved 14 March 2011.
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Scattergood, John (2004). Skelton, John (c.1460–1529), poet. Cambridge: Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. http://www.oxforddnb.com/index/25/101025661/. Retrieved 14 March 2011. Skelton, John (1990). The Book of the Laurel, ed. by Frank Walsh Brownlow. London: Associated University Presses. http://books.google.ca/books?id=db3Px1xkr44C&printsec=frontcover&dq=%2Bbrownlow+%2B%22 book+of+the+laurel%22&source=bl&ots=yJ2pIaBh0M&sig=uxD0oxEiUCAf5UFNFLJe0tqkdFY&h l=en&ei=N6VTcWyA8aDrQHky7z4CA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=5&ved=0CDsQ6AEwBA#v= onepage&q&f=false. Retrieved 14 March 2011. Taylor, Ida Ashworth (1822). Lady Jane Grey and Her Times. London: Sherwood, Neely and Jones. http://books.google.ca/books?id=j1ZjAAAAMAAJ&printsec=frontcover&dq=%22lady+jane+grey+a nd+her+times%22&source=bl&ots=InOjiW4Qvg&sig=mNMOwkH5r81f_vAItZgPHIqVSZM&hl=e n&ei=1JpTcTiEM3zrAHo1diVCQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CBUQ6AEwAA#v= onepage&q&f=false. Retrieved 14 March 2011. Warnicke, Retha M. (2008). Katherine (Catherine; nee Katherine Howard) (1518x24-1542), queen of England and Ireland, fifth consort of Henry VIII. Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. http://www.oxforddnb.com/index/4/101004892/. Retrieved 13 March 2011. Weir, Alison (1991). The Six Wives of Henry VIII. New York: Grove Weidenfeld. Elizabeth Tylney in A Who’s Who of Tudor Women Dukes of Norfolk (Howard), Medieval Lands website by Charles Cawley

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015 Elizabeth Wingfield-Brandon

015 Elizabeth Wingfield-Brandon

015 Elizabeth Wingfield-Brandon

015 Elizabeth Wingfield-Brandon

015 Elizabeth Wingfield-Brandon

015 Geffrey Dormer III

015 Geffrey Dormer III

015 Geffrey Dormer III

015 Geffrey Dormer III

015 Geffrey Dormer III

015 George '2nd Earl of Huntly' Gordon — Biography

George Gordon, 2nd Earl of Huntly
Born: January 1, 1455, Huntly, Aberdeenshire, Scotland Died: June 8, 1501 (aged 46), Stirling, Stirlingshire, Scotland Title: 2nd Earl of Huntly, Chancellor of Scotland George Gordon, 2nd Earl of Huntly (before 1455 – 8 June 1501) was Chancellor of Scotland from 1498–1501. Gordon fought on the King's side against the Douglases during The Douglas Rebellion and helped secure a defeat at the Battle of Brechin. The 2nd Earl completed the building work that his father begun in constructing Huntly Castle. He died at Stirling Castle on 8 June 1501.[1] Family He married Elizabeth Dunbar, the daughter of John Dunbar, 4th Earl of Moray, on 20 May 1455. There were no children from the marriage; the two were married for only a short time before he obtained a divorce in order to marry Annabella of Scotland, daughter of James I of Scotland. The couple had at least one daughter, Isabella (d. 1485), wife of William Hay, 3rd Earl of Errol (d. 1507), though some sources list them as having as many as six children. The Earl obtained an annulment on 24 July 1471 on the basis of Annabella of Scotland's consanguinity with Elizabeth Dunbar. He then married his mistress, Elizabeth Hay, on 12 May 1476; they had children:
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Adam Gordon (died between 17 Mar 1537 — 1538) Alexander Gordon, 3rd Earl of Huntly (died 21 Jan 1523/24) Lady Catherine Gordon (died October 1537) William Gordon (died 9 September 1513) James Gordon Lady Agnes Gordon Lady Eleanor Gordon[2]

References 1. ^ http://www.geni.com/people/George-Gordon-2nd-Earl-of-Huntly/6000000000772899261 2. ^ http://thepeerage.com/p10827.htm#i108267 Sources

"Gordon, George (d.1502?)". Dictionary of National Biography. London: Smith, Elder & Co. 1885– 1900. Peerage Of Scotland Earl Of Huntly 1470–1501 Political Offices Lord Chancellor Of Scotland 1498–1501

Preceded By Alexander Gordon Preceded By 5th Earl Of Angus

Succeeded By Alexander Gordon Succeeded By Duke Of Ross

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015 Gerald 'The Great', '8th Earl of Kildare' FitzGerald — Biography

Gerald ‘The Great’, ‘8th Earl of Kildare’ FitzGerald
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

White Castle, Northwest View

Gerald Mór FitzGerald, 8th Earl of Kildare, KG (died c. 3 September 1513), known variously as “Garret the Great” (Gearóid Mór) or “The Great Earl” (An Iarla Mór), was Ireland‘s premier peer. He served as Lord Deputy of Ireland from 1477 to 1494, and from 1496 onwards. Politics Gerald FitzGerald (or, in Irish, Gearoid Mór FitzGerald) was appointed Lord Deputy in 1477, but was replaced by Lord Grey on the supposition that an Englishman could do the job better. The lords of the Pale set up a breakaway parliament in protest, and Edward IV was forced to re-install FitzGerald. He inherited the title of Earl of Kildare in 1478. FitzGerald managed to keep his position after the York dynasty in England was toppled and Henry VII becoming king, but Fitzgerald blatantly disobeyed King Henry on several occasions; he supported the pretender to the throne of England and the Lordship of Ireland, Lambert Simnel. However, Henry needed Fitzgerald to rule in Ireland, and at the same time could not control him.[1] He presided over a period of near independence from English rule between 1477 and 1494. This independence ended when his enemies in Ireland seized power and had him sent to London as a traitor. He suffered a double blow: he was imprisoned in the Tower of London, and his wife died soon after. He was tried in 1496, and used the trial to convince Henry VII that the ruling factions in Ireland were “false knaves”. Henry immediately appointed him as Lord Deputy of Ireland, saying “All Ireland cannot govern this Earl; then let this Earl govern all Ireland.” Gearóid returned to Ireland in triumph. He ruled with an iron fist. He suppressed a rebellion in the city of Cork in 1500 by hanging the city’s mayor. He raised up an army against rebels in Connacht in 1504, defeating them at the Battle of

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015 Gerald 'The Great', '8th Earl of Kildare' FitzGerald — Biography Knockdoe. In 1512, after entering O’Neill of Clandeboye‘s territory, capturing him and then taking the castle of Belfast, FitzGerald then for reasons now unknown proceeded through to utterly ravage the Bissett family‘s lordship of the coastal Glens of Antrim.[2] A year later, on an expedition against the O’Carrolls, he was mortally wounded while watering his horse in Kilkea. He was conveyed back to Kildare, where he died on or around 3 September 1513. Family Gearoid Mór was the son of Thomas FitzGerald, 7th Earl of Kildare and Jane FitzGerald, the daughter of James FitzGerald, 6th Earl of Desmond, ‘the Usurper’. The Cambro-Norman FitzGerald dynasty had risen to become the premier Old English peers in Ireland. They were descended from Gerald de Windsor and the Welsh Princess Nest ferch Rhys, the daughter of Rhys ap Tewdwr, Prince of Deheubarth. Gearoid Mór FitzGerald married Alison FitzEustace, daughter of Rowland FitzEustace, 1st Baron Portlester, with whom he had five children:
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Gearoid Óg FitzGerald, 9th Earl of Kildare Lady Eleanor FitzGerald — married Donal MacCarthy Reagh, 9th Prince of Carbery [3] Lady Alice FitzGerald — married Conn O’Neill, Prince of Ulster Margaret FitzGerald — married Piers Butler, later the 8th Earl of Ormond. Lady Elllis FitzGerald, who married Christopher Fleming, 8th Baron Slane. Sir James FitzGerald of Leixlip
o

He later married Elizabeth St. John of County Kildare and had a further five children:

Isabel FitzGerald — married Richard de Barry of Rathbarry

James de Barry, 4th Viscount Buttevant
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Oliver FitzGerald Richard FitzGerald of Fassaroe Sir John FitzGerald Walter FitzGerald

The Legend Of The Great Earl’s Ghost Main article: King in the mountain A legend, re-told by Nuala O’Faoláin, says that Gearóid was skilled in the black arts, and could shapeshift. However, he would never let his wife see him take on other forms, much to her chagrin. After much pleading, he yielded to her, and turned himself into a goldfinch before her very eyes. A sparrowhawk flew into the room, seized the “goldfinch”, and he was never seen again. According to legend, the Great Earl and his soldiers now slumber in a cavern beneath the Curragh of Kildare, ready to awaken to defend Ireland in her hour of need. The Earl rises once every seven years on May Day, and rides around the Curragh on his steed. When his horse’s shoes are worn down to the thickness of a cat’s ear, he will lead his army against the English, drive them out, and reign as king of Ireland for forty years. References 1. ^ Chrimes S.B. Henry VII Yale University Press 1999 2. ^ Annals of Ulster 1512.2; Annals of the Four Masters 1512.11

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015 Gerald 'The Great', '8th Earl of Kildare' FitzGerald — Biography 3. ^ Irish Pedigrees: MacCarthy Reagh, Prince of Carbery (#119) Peerage Of Ireland Earl Of Kildare 1478–1513

Preceded By Thomas Fitzgerald

Succeeded By Gearoid Óg Fitzgerald

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015 Gerald 'The Great', '8th Earl of Kildare' FitzGerald

015 Gervase Clifton II - Biography

Gervase Clifton II
Sir Gervase Clifton (1415–1471) was a 15th century English knight and landowner. He was a junior member of the Clifton family of Nottinghamshire and possibly a younger son of Sir Gervase Clifton (died 1453). He served as Lieutenant of Dover Castle and as Captain of Pontoise, France where he was knighted. He came into an estate at Bradbourne, Kent by his marriage to heiress Isabel Herbert. He was Mayor of Canterbury in 1450, served as High Sheriff of Kent 1439,1450 and 1458 and represented Kent in the Parliament of 1455. He was briefly Treasurer of the Household of Henry VI and Treasurer of Calais 1450–60. He was declared a traitor for his support of Margaret of Anjou. He took part in and was captured at the Battle of Tewkesbury during the Wars of the Roses and was executed along with other Lancastrian leaders on 6 May 1471.

Battle of Tewkesbury
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Battle of Tewkesbury Part of Wars of the Roses

The Battle Of Tewkesbury, Depicted In A Ghent Manuscript Date Location Result 4 May 1471 Tewkesbury in Gloucestershire, England Decisive Yorkist victory

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015 Gervase Clifton II - Biography

House of York

Edward IV Richard of Gloucester 3,500[1] Unknown Wars Of The Roses

Belligerents House of Lancaster Commanders And Leaders Duke of Somerset † Margaret of Anjou Edward, Prince of Wales † Strength 5,000 Casualties and losses 2,000[2]

The Battle of Tewkesbury, which took place on 4 May 1471, was one of the decisive battles of the Wars Tewkesbury, of the Roses. The forces loyal to the House of Lancaster were completely defeated by those of the rival Roses. House of York under their monarch, King Edward IV. The Lancastrian heir to the throne, Edward, Prince IV. of Wales, and many prominent Lancastrian nobles were killed during the battle or were dragged from , sanctuary two days later and immediately executed. The Lancastrian King, Henry VI, who was a prisoner , in the Tower of London, died or was murdered shortly after the battle. Tewkesbury restored political London, stability to England until Edward's death in 1483. Edward s Background Backgrou The term, the Wars of the Roses, refers to the informal heraldic badges of the two rival houses of Roses, Lancaster and York which had been contending for power, and ultimately for the throne, since the late 1450s. In 1461 the Yorkist claimant, Edward, Earl of March, was proclaimed King Edward IV and March, defeated the supporters of the weak, intermittently insane Lancastrian king Henry VI at the Battle of Towton. Lancastrian revolts in the far north of England were defeated in 1464, and the fugitive King . Henry was captured and imprisoned the next year. His Queen, Margaret of Anjou, and their thirteen-yearAnjou, thirteenold son Edward of Westminster, were exiled and impoverished in France. Edward IV s hold on the throne Westminster, impoverished IV's appeared temporarily to be secure. Edward IV owed his victory in large measure to the support of his cousin, the powerful Earl of Warwick Warwick. They became estranged when Edward spurned the French diplomatic marriage that Warwick was seeking for him and instead married Elizabeth Woodville, widow of an obscure Lancastrian gentleman, in secret in 1464. When the marriage became public knowledge, Edward placed many of his new queen s family in When queen's powerful positions that Warwick had hoped to control. Edward meanwhile reversed Warwick s policy of Warwick's friendship with France by marrying his sister Margaret to Charles the Bold the Duke of Burgundy The Bold, Burgundy. embittered Warwick secured the support of Edward IV s brother George, Duke of Clarence, for a coup, in IV's Clarence, exchange for Warwick's promise to crown Clarence king. Although Edward was imprisoned briefly, Warwick se Clarence was unacceptable as monarch to most of the country. Edward was allowed to resume his rule, outwardly reconciled with Warwick and Clarence. Within a year, he accused them of fresh treachery and treachery forced them to flee to France. Redemption Of Henry VI With no hope of a reconciliation with Edward, Warwick s best hope of regaining power in England lay in Warwick's restoring Henry VI to the throne. Louis XI of France feared a hostile alliance of Burgundy under Charles the Bold and England under Edward IV. He was prepared to support Warwick with men and money, but to give legitimacy to any uprising by Warwick, the acquiescence of Margaret of Anjou was required. Warwick and Margaret were previously sworn enemies, but Margaret s attendants (in particular Sir John Margaret's in Fortescue, Fortescue, formerly Chief Justice during Henry VI reign) and Louis eventually persuaded her to ally the VI's

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015 Gervase Clifton II - Biography House of Lancaster with Warwick. At Angers, Warwick begged her pardon on his knees for all past wrongs done to her, and was forgiven. Prince Edward was betrothed to Warwick's younger daughter Anne. (The marriage was eventually solemnised at Amboise on 13 December 1470 but may not have been consummated, as Margaret was seeking a better match for Edward once he was King.)[3] Finally, they swore loyalty to Henry VI on a fragment of the True Cross in Angers Cathedral. However, Margaret declined to let Prince Edward land in England or to land there herself until Warwick had established a firm government and made the country safe for them.[4] Warwick landed in the West Country on 13 September 1470, accompanied by Clarence and some unswerving Lancastrian nobles, including the Earl of Oxford and Jasper Tudor, the Earl of Pembroke. As Edward made his way south to face Warwick, he realised that Warwick's brother John, Marquess of Montagu, who had up till then remained loyal to Edward, had defected at the head of a large army in the North of England. Edward fled to King's Lynn where he took ship for Flanders, part of Burgundy, accompanied only by his youngest brother, Richard of Gloucester, and a few faithful adherents. In London, Warwick released King Henry, led him in procession to Saint Paul's cathedral and installed him in Westminster palace. Warwick's position nevertheless remained precarious. His alliance with Louis of France and his intention to declare war on Burgundy was contrary to the interests of the merchants, as it threatened English trade with Flanders and the Netherlands. Clarence had long been excluded from Warwick's calculations. In November 1470, Parliament declared that Prince Edward and his descendants were Henry's heirs to the throne; Clarence would become King only if the Lancastrian line of succession failed. Unknown to Warwick, Clarence secretly became reconciled with his brother, King Edward.[5] Edward's Landing And The Death Of Warwick With Warwick in power in England, it was Charles of Burgundy's turn to fear a hostile alliance of England and France. As an obvious counter to Warwick, he supplied Edward with money (50,000 florins), ships and several hundred men (including handgunners). Edward set sail from Flushing on 11 March 1471 with 36 ships and 1200 men.[6] He touched briefly on the English coast at Cromer but found that the Duke of Norfolk, who might have supported him, was away from the area and that Warwick controlled that part of the country. Instead, his ships made for Ravenspurn, near the mouth of the River Humber, where Henry Bolingbroke had landed in 1399 on his way to reclaim the Duchy of Lancaster and ultimately depose Richard II. Edward's landing was inauspicious at first; the ships were scattered by bad weather and his men landed in small detachments over a wide area on 14 March.[7] The port of Kingston-upon-Hull refused to allow Edward to enter, so he made for York, claiming rather like Bolingbroke that he was seeking only the restoration of the Duchy of York. He then began to march south. Near Pontefract Castle he evaded the troops of Warwick's brother Montagu. By the time Edward reached the city of Warwick, he had gathered enough supporters to proclaim himself King again. The Earl of Warwick sent urgent requests for Queen Margaret, who was gathering fresh forces in France, to join him in England. He himself was at Coventry, preparing to bar Edward's way to London, while Montagu hastened up behind the King's army. Edward however, knew that Clarence was ready to turn his coat once again and betray Warwick, his father-in-law. He marched rapidly west and joined with Clarence's men who were approaching from Gloucestershire. Clarence appealed to Warwick to surrender, but Warwick refused to even speak to him. Edward's army made rapidly for London, pursued by Warwick and Montagu. London was supposedly defended by the 4th Duke of Somerset, but he was absent and the city readily admitted Edward. The unfortunate and by now feeble Henry VI was sent back to the Tower of London.[8] Edward then turned about to face Warwick's approaching army. On 14 April, they met at the Battle of Barnet. In a confused fight in thick fog, some of Warwick's army attacked each other by mistake and at the cries of "Treachery!" his army disintegrated and was routed. Montagu died in the battle, and Warwick was cut down trying to reach his horse to escape.

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015 Gervase Clifton II - Biography The Tewkesbury Campaign Urged on by Louis XI, Margaret had finally sailed on 24 March. Storms forced her ships back to France several times, and she and Prince Edward finally landed at Weymouth in Dorsetshire on the same day that the Battle of Barnet was fought. While Margaret sheltered at nearby Cerne Abbey, the Duke of Somerset brought news of the disaster at Barnet to her. She briefly wished to return to France, but Prince Edward persuaded her to gamble for victory.[9] Somerset and the Earl of Devon had already raised an army for Lancaster in the West Country. Their best hope was to march northwards and join forces with the Lancastrians in Wales, led by Jasper Tudor. Other Lancastrian forces could be relied upon to distract King Edward; in particular, a fleet under Warwick's relation, the Bastard of Fauconberg, was preparing to descend on Kent where the Nevilles and Warwick in particular had always been popular. In London, Edward had learned of Margaret's landing only two days after she arrived. Although he had given many of his supporters and troops leave after the victory at Barnet, he was rapidly able to muster a substantial force at Windsor, just west of London. It was difficult at first to determine Margaret's intentions, as the Lancastrians had sent out several feints which suggested that they might be making directly for London, but Edward's army set out for the West Country within a few days. On 30 April, Margaret's army had reached Bath, on its way towards Wales. She turned aside briefly to secure guns, reinforcements and money from the city of Bristol.[10] On the same day, Edward reached Cirencester. On hearing that Margaret was at Bristol, he turned south to meet her army. However, the Lancastrians made a feint towards Little Sodbury, about 12 miles (19 km) north-west of Bristol. Nearby was Sodbury Hill, an Iron Age hill fort which was an obvious strategic point for the Lancastrians to seize. When Yorkist scouts reached the hill, there was a sharp fight in which they suffered heavy casualties. Believing that the Lancastrians were about to offer battle, Edward temporarily halted his army while the stragglers caught up and the remainder could rest after their rapid march from Windsor. However, the Lancastrians instead made a swift move north by night, passing within 3 miles (4.8 km) of Edward's army. By the morning of 2 May, they had gained the safety of Berkeley Castle and had a head start of 15 miles (24 km) over Edward.[11] Edward realised that the Lancastrians were seeking to cross the River Severn into Wales. The nearest crossing point they could use was at the city of Gloucester. He sent urgent messages to the Governor, Sir Richard Beauchamp, ordering him to bar the gates to Margaret and man the city's defences. When Margaret arrived in the morning of 3 May, Beauchamp refused Margaret's summons to let her army pass, and she realised that there was insufficient time to storm the city before Edward's army arrived. Instead, her army made another forced march of 10 miles (16 km) to Tewkesbury, attempting to reach the next bridge at Upton-upon-Severn, 7 miles (11 km) further on. Edward meanwhile had marched no less than 31 miles (50 km), passing through Cheltenham (then little more than a village) in the late afternoon. The day was very hot, and both the Lancastrians and Edward's pursuing army became exhausted. The Lancastrians were forced to abandon some of their artillery, which was captured by Yorkist reinforcements following from Gloucester.[11] At Tewkesbury, the tired Lancastrians halted for the night. Most of their army were footmen, and unable to continue further without rest, and even the mounted troops were weary. By contrast, Edward's army was composed mainly of mounted men, who nevertheless dismounted to fight on foot as most English armies did at this period. Hearing from his "prickers" or mounted scouts of Margaret's position, Edward drove his army to make another march of 6 miles (9.7 km) from Cheltenham, finally halting 3 miles (4.8 km) from the Lancastrians. The Lancastrians knew they could retreat no further before Edward attacked their rear, and that they would be forced to give battle.

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015 Gervase Clifton II - Biography Battle Lancastrian Positions As day broke on 4 May, the Lancastrians took up a defensive position a mile south of the town of Tewkesbury. To their rear were River Avon and the Severn. Tewkesbury Abbey was just behind the Lancastrian centre. A farmhouse then known as Gobes Hall marked the centre of the Lancastrian position; nearby was "Margaret's camp", earthworks of uncertain age. Queen Margaret is said to have spent the night at Gobes Hall, before hastily taking refuge on the day of battle in a religious house some distance from the battlefield.[12] The main strength of the Lancastrians' position was provided by the ground in front, which was broken up by hedges, woods, embankments and "evil lanes". This was especially true on their right.
[13]

Tewkesbury Abbey

The Lancastrian army numbered approximately 6,000. As was customary at the time, it was organised into three "battles". The right battle was commanded by the Duke of Somerset. A stream, the Colnbrook, flowed through his position, making some of the ground difficult to traverse. The Lancastrian centre was commanded by Baron Wenlock. Unlike the other principal Lancastrian commanders, Wenlock had deserted the Lancastrian cause after the First Battle of Saint Albans, only to revert to the Lancastrians when he was deprived by Edward IV of the Lieutenancy of Calais. Prince Edward was present with the centre. At eighteen, Prince Edward was no stranger to battlefields, having been given by his mother the task of condemning to death Yorkist prisoners taken at the Second Battle of St Albans, but he lacked experience of actual command. The left battle was commanded by the Earl of Devon, another devoted Lancastrian. His battle, and part of the centre, occupied a low ridge known locally as the "Gastons".[14] A small river, the Swilgate, protected Devon's left flank, before curving behind the Lancastrian position to join the Avon. Edward's Moves The Yorkists numbered 5,000 and were slightly outnumbered by the Lancastrians.[13] Like the Lancastrians, Edward organised his army into three battles. Edward's vanguard was commanded by his youngest brother, Richard, Duke of Gloucester. Although he was only eighteen years old, Richard was already an experienced commander and had led a division at the Battle of Barnet. Edward himself commanded the main battle, in which Clarence was also stationed. Edward was twenty-eight years old, and at the height of his prowess as a soldier. His lifelong friend and supporter, Lord Hastings, commanded the rear. He too was an experienced commander and like Richard, had accompanied Edward into exile in the Low Countries and had led a battle at Barnet. Although by tradition, the vanguard occupied the right of the line of battle, several authors have conjectured from descriptions in near-contemporary accounts (such as the Historie of the Arrivall of Edward IV) that Richard of Gloucester's division actually took position to the left of Edward's battle[13] or that the divisions of Edward's army advanced in line ahead, with Edward's division leading. King Edward made one other important tactical disposition. To the left of his army was a thickly wooded park. Concerned that hidden Lancastrians might attack from this quarter, he ordered 200 mounted spearmen to occupy part of the woods and prevent the Lancastrians making use of them, or act on their own initiative if they were not themselves attacked.[13] He then "displayed his bannars: dyd blowe up the trompets: commytted his caws and qwarell to Almyghty God, to owr most blessyd lady his mother: Vyrgyn Mary, the glorious Seint George, and all the saynts: and advaunced, directly upon his enemyes"[15]

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015 Gervase Clifton II - Biography Action As they moved towards the Lancastrian position, Edward's army found that the ground was so broken up by woods, ditches and embankments that it was difficult to attack in any sort of order. However, the Yorkist archers and artillery showered the Lancastrians with arrows and shot. The Yorkists certainly had more guns than their enemies, and they were apparently better served.[16] Either to escape the cannonade and volleys of archery or because he saw an opportunity to outflank King Edward's isolated battle, the Duke of Somerset led at least part of his men via some of the "evil lanes" to attack Edward's left flank. Although taken by surprise, Edward's men resisted stoutly, beating back Somerset's attack among the hedges and banks. At the vital moment, the 200 spearmen Edward had earlier posted in the woods far out on the left attacked Somerset from his own right flank and rear, as Gloucester's battle also joined in the fighting. Somerset's battle was routed, and tried to escape across the Severn. Most were cut down as they fled. The long meadow astride the Colnbrook leading down to the river is known to this day as "Bloody Meadow".[16] Somerset galloped up to Wenlock, commanding the centre, and demanded to know why Wenlock had failed to support him. According to legend (recounted in Edward Hall's chronicle, written several years afterwards though from first-hand accounts), he did not wait for an answer but dashed out Wenlock's brains with a battleaxe[17] before seeking sanctuary in the Abbey. As its morale collapsed, the rest of the Lancastrian army tried to flee, but the Swilgate became a deadly barrier. Many who succeeded in crossing it converged on a mill south of the town of Tewkesbury and a weir in the town itself, where there were crossings over the Avon. Here too, many drowned or were killed by their pursuers. Some 3,000 Lancastrians died in the battle or the pursuit. Aftermath Of The Battle Among the leading Lancastrians who died on the field were Somerset's younger brother John Beaufort, Marquess of Dorset and the Earl of Devon. Prince Edward was found in a grove by some of Clarence's men. He was summarily executed, despite pleading for his life to Clarence, who had sworn allegiance to him in France barely a year before.[10] Many of the other Lancastrian nobles and knights sought sanctuary in Tewkesbury Abbey. King Edward attended prayers in the Abbey shortly after the battle. He granted permission for Prince Edward and others slain in the battle to be buried within the Abbey or elsewhere in the town without being quartered as traitors as was customary. However, two days after the battle, Somerset and other leaders were dragged out of the Abbey, and were ordered by Gloucester and the Duke of Norfolk to be put to death after perfunctory trials.[12] Among them were Hugh Courtenay, younger brother of the Earl of Devon, and John Langstrother, the prior of the military order of St. John's.[10] The Abbey was not officially a sanctuary,[18] though it is doubtful whether this would have deterred Edward even if it had been. It had to be re-consecrated a month after the battle, following the

The execution of the Duke of Somerset after the battle

violence done within its precincts. A few days later, Margaret sent word to Edward from her refuge that she was "at his commandment".[19]

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015 Gervase Clifton II - Biography Fauconberg's Repulse Edward was unable to rest after the battle. Lancastrians under Jasper Tudor were still active in Wales, and there was an ineffective rising in the North. Edward went to Coventry in the Midlands to make dispositions against the northern and Welsh Lancastians, and give his army three days' rest.[12] The most dangerous Lancastrian force however, was that commanded by the Bastard of Fauconberg. As anticipated, he had landed at Sandwich and rapidly recruited a force from among the pro-Neville Kentishmen. Together with exiled Lancastrians and freebooters from several countries, his army may have numbered 16,000 or even 17,000 in total.[12] On 14 May, he attacked London from the south. His men burned Southwark Bridge and part of the suburb of Southwark, but were beaten back at London Bridge. The next day, he attacked Aldgate and Bishopsgate from the east, but was again beaten back by citizens defending their property. Had Fauconberg succeeded in capturing the city, he might also have captured Edward's Queen Elizabeth and their children and released King Henry from the Tower. However, on hearing that Edward's army was approaching, he retreated to Sandwich. Like Margaret, he appeared to be dispirited by the news of Tewkesbury and Prince Edward's death, and later rather tamely surrendered himself and his ships. He was Yorkist defenders of London sally against executed five months later after attempting to escape from Fauconberg's besieging force. custody. The End Of The Lancastrian Royal Family On his way to suppress Fauconberg and the Kentish rebels, Edward passed through London in triumph on 21 May, with the captive Queen Margaret beside him in a chariot. King Henry VI died in the Tower of London that night, at the hands of or by the order of Richard of Gloucester according to several contemporary accounts.[20] It was announced in public that he had died "of pure displeasure and melancholy", but few believed this. Gloucester later married Anne Neville, the younger daughter of Warwick and the widow of Prince Edward. With the deaths of Somerset and his younger brother, the House of Beaufort, who were distant cousins of Henry VI and had a remote claim to succeed him, had been almost exterminated. Only the female line of Somerset's uncle, the 1st Duke of Somerset, remained, represented by Lady Margaret Beaufort and her son Henry Tudor. Henry escaped from Wales with Jasper Tudor, his paternal uncle, and remained in exile in Brittany for the remainder of Edward's reign. The year after the Battle of Tewkesbury however, Lady Margaret married Lord Stanley, one of King Edward's supporters, who later turned against Edward's brother Richard of Gloucester when he became King as Richard III, and was instrumental in putting Henry Tudor on the throne. Re-Enactment Every year the battle is re-enacted on the second weekend in July at the Tewkesbury Medieval Festival. The event founded in 1984 is the largest event of its kind in Europe, attracting enthusiasts from all over the world.

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015 Gervase Clifton II - Biography Footnotes 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. ^ Weir, p.406 ^ Weir, p.407 ^ Royle (2009), p.323 ^ Rowse, p.164 ^ Rowse, p.166 ^ Gravett, p.16 ^ Gravett, p.29 ^ Rowse, p.167 ^ Churchill, p.346 ^ a b c Rowse, p.169 ^ a b Warner, p.102 ^ a b c d Part 5 of the Arrivall ^ a b c d Warner, p.96 ^ "English Heritage Battlefield Report: Tewkesbury 1471". English Heritage. 1995. pp. 2–3. http://www.english-heritage.org.uk/upload/pdf/tewkesbury.pdf?1253781010. Retrieved 2010-04-24. ^ From the Historie of the Arrivall of Edward IV ^ a b Warner, p.97 ^ Warner, p.97-98 ^ Warner, p.99 ^ Rowse, p.170 ^ Rowse, pp.170-171 Churchill, Winston (1956). A History of the English-Speaking Peoples. 1. Cassell. ISBN 0-30429500-0. Goodchild, Steven J. (2005). Tewkesbury 1471. Barnsley: Pen and Sword Books. ISBN 1844151905. http://www.pen-and-sword.co.uk/?product_id=828. Gravett, Christopher; Turner, Graham (2003). Tewkesbury 1471: The Last Yorkist Victory. Campaign Series. 131. Osprey. ISBN 9781841765143. Rowse, A.L. (1966). Bosworth Field & the Wars of the Roses. Wordsworth Military Library. ISBN 185326-691-4. Royle, Trevor (2009). The Road to Bosworth Field. Little, Brown. ISBN 978-0-316-72767-9. Warner, Philip (1972). British Battlefields: The South. Fontana. ISBN 0-00-633822-4. Weir, Alison (1996). The Wars of the Roses. Ballantyne. ISBN 9780345404336. English Heritage Battlefield Report: Tewkesbury 1471. A contemporary account This reference should be to the 1838 translation of a contemporary chronicle on http://www.hillsdalesites.org/personal/hstewart/war/Ren/1471-Tewkesbury.htm. The Coming of Queen Margaret through the Battle of Tewkesbury, extract from the published edition of the Historie of the Arrivall of Edward IV, ed. J. Bruce (Camden Society, 1838) Part V: The Aftermath of Tewkesbury through the Surrender of the Bastard of Fauconberg, extract from the published edition of the Historie of the Arrivall of Edward IV, ed. J. Bruce (Camden Society, 1838) Tewkesbury Battlefield Society

Sources
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External Links
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015 Gervase Clifton II - Biography

Wars Of The Roses
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Red Rose of Lancaster White Rose of York Tudor Rose
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Key figures

Monarchs Of England

Henry VI Edward IV Edward V Richard III Henry VII Margaret of Anjou, Queen of England Henry Percy, 2nd Earl of Northumberland Henry Percy, 3rd Earl of Northumberland Richard Neville, 16th Earl of Warwick Edmund Beaufort, 2nd Duke of Somerset Henry Beaufort, 3rd Duke of Somerset Edmund Beaufort, 4th Duke of Somerset George Plantagenet, 1st Duke of Clarence Richard Plantagenet, 3rd Duke of York Richard Neville, 16th Earl of Warwick Richard Neville, 5th Earl of Salisbury John Neville, 1st Marquess of Montagu William Neville, 1st Earl of Kent Thomas Neville Battle of Ludford Bridge Battle of Wakefield Second Battle of St Albans Battle of Ferrybridge (Indecisive) Battle of Edgecote Moor Battle of Bosworth Field Battle of Stoke Field First Battle of St Albans Battle of Blore Heath Battle of Sandwich Battle of Northampton Battle of Mortimer's Cross Battle of Ferrybridge (Indecisive) Battle of Towton Battle of Hedgeley Moor Battle of Hexham Battle of Lose-coat Field Battle of Barnet Battle of Tewkesbury

Lancastrian

Yorkist

Battles Lancastrian Victories

Yorkist Victories

See also

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Act of Accord Percy-Neville feud

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015 Gervase Clifton II - Biography

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Issue of Edward III of England

Book:Wars of the Roses Category:Wars of the Roses Portal:England / Monarchy

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015 Henry '4th Lord of Bolton' le Scrope — Biography

Henry le Scrope, 4th Lord Scrope of Bolton
b. 4 June 1418, d. 14 January 1459 Henry le Scrope, 4th Lord Scrope of Bolton was born on 4 June 1418. He was the son of Richard Scrope, 3rd Lord Scrope of Bolton and Lady Margaret Neville. He married Elizabeth Scrope, daughter of John le Scrope, 4th Lord Scope of Masham. He died on 14 January 1459 at age 40. Children of Henry le Scrope, 4th Lord Scrope of Bolton and Elizabeth Scrope: Elizabeth Scrope [1] d. 12 Jun 1503 Sir Richard Scrope[2] John Scrope, 5th Lord Scrope of Bolton[3] b. 22 Jul 1437, d. 17 Aug 1498 Citations [1] Alison Weir, Britain’s Royal Family: A Complete Genealogy (London, U.K.: The Bodley Head, 1999), page 103. Hereinafter cited as Britain’s Royal Family. [2] G.E. Cokayne; with Vicary Gibbs, H.A. Doubleday, Geoffrey H. White, Duncan Warrand and Lord Howard de Walden, editors, The Complete Peerage of England, Scotland, Ireland, Great Britain and the United Kingdom, Extant, Extinct or Dormant, new ed., 13 volumes in 14 (1910-1959; reprint in 6 volumes, Gloucester, U.K.: Alan Sutton Publishing, 2000), volume II, page 63. Hereinafter cited as The Complete Peerage. [3] Peter Townend, editor, Burke’s Genealogical and Heraldic History of the Landed Gentry, 18th edition, 3 volumes (London, England: Burke’s Peerage Ltd, 1965-1972), volume 1, page 625. Hereinafter cited as Burke’s Landed Gentry, 18th ed. — thepeerage.com 2010, edited

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015 Henry '4th Lord of Bolton' le Scrope — Biography

Bolton Castle
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Bolton Castle

Location within North Yorkshire

General information Town or city: Castle Bolton, North Yorkshire Country: England Coordinates: 54°19′19″N 1°56′53 ′53″W54.321932°N 1.948106°W Completed: 14th century Design And Construction Client: Richard le Scrope Architect: John Lewyn

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015 Henry '4th Lord of Bolton' le Scrope — Biography Bolton Castle in North Yorkshire, is located in Wensleydale in the Yorkshire Dales (grid reference SE03379183). The nearby village Castle Bolton takes its name from the castle. The castle is a Grade I listed building and a Scheduled Ancient Monument.[1][2] The castle was damaged in the English Civil War, but much of it remains. It has never been sold and is still in the ownership of the descendants of the Scrope family, and is now a tourist attraction. The Castle It was built between 1378 and 1399 by Richard le Scrope, 1st Baron Scrope of Bolton, and is an example of a quadrangular castle. Construction was reputed to cost 18,000 Marks. The licence to build it was granted in July 1379 and a contract with the mason Johan Lewyn was made in September 1378. Leland described ‘An Astronomical Clock’ in the courtyard and how smoke was conveyed from the hearth in the hall through tunnels. Bolton Castle was described by Sir Francis Knollys as having ‘The highest walls of any house he had seen’. The first recorded major event took place in 1536 during the lordship of Sir John Scrope, 8th Baron Scrope of Bolton, who not only supported the Pilgrimage of Grace rebellion against the reforms of King Henry VIII but gave Adam Sedbar, Abbot of Jervaulx, sanctuary in the castle. In consequence John Scrope had to flee to Skipton pursued by the King’s men but Sedbar was caught and executed. In retribution the king ordered the castle to be torched, causing extensive damage but within a few years the damage had been repaired and Sir John had regained his seat in Parliament. The most famous event to have taken place in the castle’s history was the stay by Mary, Queen of Scots. After her defeat in Scotland at the Battle of Langside in 1568 she abdicated and fled to England, posing a threat to the position of the Protestant Queen Elizabeth I. Although Mary was initially held in Carlisle under the watch of Henry Scrope, 9th Baron Scrope of Bolton, Carlisle proved unsuitable and in July 1568 Mary was moved to Bolton Castle. Mary was given Henry Scrope’s own apartments in the SouthWest tower. Of her retinue of 51 knights, servants and ladies-in-waiting only 30 of her men and six ladies-in-waiting were able to stay in the castle, the rest taking lodgings nearby. Her retinue included cooks, grooms, hairdresser, embroiderer, apothecary, physician and surgeon. Bolton Castle was not initially suitable for housing a Queen, and tapestries, rugs and furniture were borrowed from local houses and nearby Barnard Castle in County Durham. Queen Elizabeth herself loaned some pewter vessels as well as a copper kettle. Mary was allowed to wander the surrounding lands and often went hunting. Her prime occupation while at the castle was having her hair done. But Sir Francis Knollys, whom Mary nicknamed ‘Schoolmaster’, taught her English, as she only spoke French and Latin. She even met with local Catholics, something for which Knollys and Scrope were severely reprimanded. In January 1569 Mary left Bolton Castle for the last time, being taken to Tutbury in Staffordshire where she spent 18 years before her execution in 1587. Bolton Castle was inherited after the death of Emanuel Scrope, 1st Earl of Sunderland by his illegitimate son John who, like much of Yorkshire, declared for the King during the English Civil War. From Autumn 1644 until November 1645 the castle was besieged by Parliamentary forces, with the North-West tower suffering the brunt of their bombardment, Sir John surrendering only after the last of the horses and all other animals had been eaten, with the Royalist troops inside starving. The defeated garrison were allowed to leave with colours flying, their military commander Col. Chaytor being reputed to have cut off his own hand and thrown it to the besiegers. The castle, after two years of occupation by Parliamentary forces, was ordered in 1647 to be slighted with much of it pulled down and John Scrope fined £7,000. This was never paid in his lifetime as, after being weakened by the siege, John died in London of the plague in 1646 aged only 23. The castle is currently owned by Harry, the eighth Lord Bolton, who resides at nearby Bolton Hall, which was originally built in 1675. Bolton Castle is run by his son and daughter-in-law, Tom and Katie OrdePowlett.

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015 Henry '4th Lord of Bolton' le Scrope — Biography Several movies and television productions have used the site as a location including Ivanhoe, Elizabeth, Heartbeat, and All Creatures Great and Small. There is a garden and a vineyard on the site in addition to the castle. See Also
• •

Castles in Great Britain and Ireland List of castles in England

References 1. ^ “Bolton Castle”. Images of England. http://www.imagesofengland.org.uk/Details/Default.aspx?id=321750. Retrieved 2008-02-24. 2. ^ “Bolton Castle”. Pastscape.org.uk. http://www.pastscape.org.uk/hob.aspx?hob_id=48868. Retrieved 2008-02-24.

Fry, Plantagenet Somerset, The David & Charles Book of Castles, David & Charles, 1980. ISBN 07153-7976-3

External links
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Bolton Castle official website Bolton Castle — UK Heritage

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015 Jacquetta de Luxembourg-Wydeville — Biography

Duchess Of Bedford, Jacquetta Of Luxembourg
War Of The Roses Jacquetta of Luxembourg, duchess of Bedford, was the mother of Queen Elizabeth WOOD VILLE and the matriarch of the WOODVILLE FAMILY. The daughter of Pierre, Count of St. Pol, a French nobleman who traced his family to Charlemagne, Jacquetta married John, duke of Bedford, the uncle of HENRY VI, in April 1433. After her husband’s death in 1435, the duchess shocked her royal nephew by marrying Richard WOODVILLE, a Northamptonshire gentleman whose father had been Bedford’s chamberlain. Because Woodville had nothing but looks to recommend him as a husband for the duchess, the government fined the couple ÂŁ1,000 for their misalliance. Besides social rank and a connection to the house of LANCASTER, Jacquetta brought her husband land and wealth, and bore him at least fourteen children. On the outbreak of civil war, the duchess accompanied her husband, now Lord Rivers, to Sandwich, where Queen MARGARET OF ANJOU had ordered him to assemble a fleet. In January 1460, Jacquetta, Rivers, and their eldest son, Anthony WOODVILLE, were captured by Yorkist raiders and carried to CALAIS. Although the duchess was shortly released, her husband and son remained in Yorkist custody. A year later, after the Battle of ST. ALBANS, the LONDON authorities sent Jacquetta to Queen Margaret as part of a deputation seeking the queen’s assurance that her army would not plunder the city. In May 1464, after the Woodvilles had made their peace with the house of YORK, Jacquetta witnessed the secret union of EDWARD IV and her eldest daughter Elizabeth, a match that constituted an even greater misalliance than the duchess’s own marriage. Edward spent the next three days with the Woodvilles, and each night Jacquetta brought her daughter secretly to the king. By 1468, Jacquetta and her family were influential enough to be accused of ruining Sir Thomas COOK, a wealthy London merchant who owned a rich tapestry supposedly coveted by the duchess. The traditional account is that Cook refused Jacquetta’s demand that he sell her the tapestry at far less than its worth, and that she then accused him of being a Lancastrian sympathizer. Because Cook’s name had surfaced during the recent investigation of the CORNELIUS PLOT, Edward allowed Rivers, as constable of England, to proceed against the merchant. Although Cook had refused a Lancastrian request for money, he had not revealed the contact and was convicted of misprision of treason. A fine of ÂŁ8,000 ruined Cook, and the duchess obtained her tapestry when Woodville servants ransacked the merchant’s house. Much of this story has been called into question by modern historians who suggest that the involvement of the duchess and her family in the Cook case was greatly exaggerated by the anti-court propaganda of Richard NEVILLE, earl of Warwick, and that Cook may indeed have been an active Lancastrian. In August 1469, Warwick, angered, in part, by the rise of the Woodvilles, rebelled and seized temporary control of the king. After executing Rivers, Warwick arrested Jacquetta on charges of witchcraft; although the basis for these charges is uncertain, Warwick may have accused Jacquetta of using black magic to bewitch Edward into contracting marriage with her daughter. The duchess wrote to the mayor of London, who, remembering her efforts to protect the city from the Lancastrian army in 1461, interceded on her behalf with the COUNCIL. Further investigation revealed that the witnesses against her had been bribed, and the case fell apart. Jacquetta was released and formally exonerated by Edward in February 1470, although the charge of witchcraft resurfaced in 1483 when RICHARD III included it in TITULUS REGIUS as one of his justifications for taking the throne from Jacquetta’s grandson, EDWARD V. The duchess died in April 1472.

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015 Jacquetta de Luxembourg-Wydeville — Biography Further Reading: Hicks, Michael, “The Changing Role of the Wydevilles in Yorkist Politics to 1483,” in Charles Ross, ed., Patronage, Pedigree and Power in Later Medieval England (Stroud, Gloucestershire, UK: Alan Sutton, 1979); MacGibbon, David, Elizabeth Woodville: Her Life and Times (London: A. Barker, 1938);Weir, Alison, The Wars of the Roses (New York: Ballantine Books, 1995).

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015 James 'Sheriff of Yorkshire' Pickering

015 James 'Sheriff of Yorkshire' Pickering

015 James 'Sheriff of Yorkshire' Pickering

015 Jane Diggs-Bayton

015 Jane Diggs-Bayton

015 Jane Diggs-Bayton

015 Jane Diggs-Bayton

015 Jane Diggs-Bayton

015 Joan Arches-Dinham II

015 John '14th Earl of Oxford' de Vere — Biography

John de Vere, 14th Earl of Oxford
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia John de Vere, 14th Earl of Oxford (14 August 1499 – 14 July 1526) was the second but only surviving son of Sir George Vere and Margaret, the daughter and heir of Sir William Stafford of Bishop’s Frome in Hereford.[1] Custody of his person was granted on 29 May 1514 to Thomas Howard, 2nd Duke of Norfolk. He attended the Field of the Cloth of Gold in June 1520, and was granted livery of his lands on 16 August of that year, but because of his extravagance was again placed in Norfolk’s custody. In 1512 he married Anne Howard, Norfolk’s daughter by his second wife, Agnes Tilney. The couple had no surviving children. The Earl died on 14 July 1526. His widow survived him for many years, dying before 22 February 1558/9, when she was buried in the parish church at Lambeth.[2] The Earl was popularly known as ‘Little John of Campes.’[citation needed] He was succeeded by his second cousin, John de Vere, 15th Earl of Oxford. Both were great-grandsons of Richard de Vere, 11th Earl of Oxford.[3] Footnotes 1. ^ Cokayne 1945, pp. 244–245. 2. ^ Cokayne 1945, pp. 244–245. 3. ^ Cokayne 1945, pp. 244–245. References
• •

Cokayne, George Edward (1945). The Complete Peerage, edited by H.A. Doubleday. X. London: St. Catherine Press. Davies, Catherine (2008). Howard [née Tilney], Agnes, duchess of Norfolk (b. in or before 1477, d. 1545), noblewoman. Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Peerage of England Earl of Oxford 1513–1526

Preceded by John de Vere, 13th Earl of Oxford

Succeeded by John de Vere, 15th Earl of Oxford

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015 John '14th Earl of Oxford' de Vere

015 John '14th Earl of Oxford' de Vere

015 John Gage — Biography

John Gage (Tudor Politician)
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Lord Chamberlain In office: 1553–1556 Monarch: Mary I Preceded by: The Lord Darcy of Chiche Succeeded by: Sir Edward Hastings Personal details Born: 28 October 1479, Burstow, Surrey, England Died: 18 April 1556 (aged 76), Firle Place, East Sussex, England Resting Place: Firle, East Sussex, England Nationality: English Occupation: Courtier Religion: Catholic Sir John Gage KG (28 October 1479 – 18 April 1556) was an English courtier during the Tudor period. He held a number of offices, including Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster (1542–1547), Comptroller of the Household (1540–1547), Constable of the Tower (1540–1556) and Lord Chamberlain (1553–1556). Early Life And Family Gage was born in 1479 at Burstow in Surrey. He was the only son of William Gage and Agnes Bolney. He married Philippa, daughter of Sir Sir Richard Guildford, in 1502 and they had eight children. Career An Esquire of the Body to both Henry VII and Henry VIII, he served offices in the Pale of Calais, becoming Comptroller in 1524. After receiving a knighthood in 1525,[1] he moved to the post of ViceChamberlain of the Household in 1526, leaving court in 1533. He also represented Sussex in the parliaments of Henry VIII from 1529.[1] He remained active, attending, in 1537, the baptism of Prince Edward and the funeral of Jane Seymour.[1] He returned to favour, and 1540 saw his appointment as Comptroller of the Household, Constable of the Tower and as a Privy Counsellor. In 1541 he became a Knight of the Garter and in 1542 he succeeded as Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster.[1] In 1544 he undertook an important role for the invasion of France, organising transport and supplies for the army, and he became a knight banneret. Present at the funeral of Henry VIII, he was appointed one of the executors of the king’s will and a member of Edward VI‘s Regency Council. Differences soon arose between him and The Duke of Somerset, who expelled him from the council and from his posts of Comptroller and Chancellor when he became Lord Protector in 1547. He re-joined the council, before resigning upon the accession to power of The Earl of Warwick, later Duke of Northumberland. He was suspended as Constable for not supporting Northumberland’s attempt to install Lady Jane Grey as Edward’s successor. The accession of Mary I saw his restoration as Constable and appointment as Lord Chamberlain. He bore her train at her coronation and at her marriage to Philip of Spain. As Constable, he guarded Princess Elizabeth in 1555; he was described by Heylyn as “her bitter enemy, but more for love of the Pope than for hate of her person”.[2]

Portrait of Sir John Gage, by Hans Holbein the Younger (c. 1535–1540)

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015 John Gage — Biography Gage died at his house, Firle Place, on 18 April 1556, and was buried on 25 April at West Firle Church by , his wife. References

This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Bradley, Emily Tennyson (1889). “Gage, John“ In Leslie Stephen. Dictionary of National Biography. 20. London: “. Biography Smith, Elder & Co.

January 2010). 1. ^ a b c d Potter, David (January 2010 “Gage, Sir John (1479–1556)”. Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/10272. Press. http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/10272 Retrieved 12 February 2011.Subscription or UK http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/10272. Subscription public library membership required 2. ^ Heylyn, Peter (1849). James Craigie Robertson. ed. Ecclesia restaurata; or the History of the . Craigie, Reformation of the Church of England 2. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 259. England. . Political Offices Vice-Chamberlain of the Household 1526–1533 Comptroller Of The Household 1540–1547 Constable Of The Tower 1540–1556 Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster 1542–1547 Lord Chamberlain 1553–1556

Preceded By The Lord Sandys Preceded By Sir William Kingston

Unknown Next Known Title Holder: Holder Sir William Kingston Succeeded By Sir William Paget Unknown Succeeded By Sir William Paget Unknown Next Known Title Holder: Holder Sir Edward Hastings

Preceded By The Earl of Southampton Preceded By The Lord Darcy of Chiche

Sir John Gage, Tudor Courtier And Soldier
Sir John Gage, Tudor courtier and soldier (1479-1556). The English Historical Review November 01, 2002 Potter, David Copyright Ads by Google Full-Text Online Journals Research online. Academic journals & books at Questia Online Library. www.Questia.com/Journals TotalSIR Leak detection — Statistical Inventory Reconciliation. SIR www.totalsir.com GaGe Applied Technologies Worldwide Industry Leader in Performance Digitizers. www.GaGe-Products.com JOHN GAGE of Firle Place in Sussex is an example of one of the numerous Tudor political figures of the example second rank whose lives and activities spanned the severe upheavals which marked the changes of

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015 John Gage — Biography religious establishment and political regime under Henry VIII, Edward and Mary, and who represented the level of the politically active provincial gentry upon whom the stability of the Tudor political system rested. More commonly than is sometimes supposed, such men, though their public lives were interrupted by the swings of political fortune, seem to have managed to survive them. Since the growth of interest in the royal household and access to the sovereign, the study of Tudor politics has, of course, been marked by sharp divisions between those who view it as articulated in formal factional terms and those who see factions as rather more fluid and temporary combinations, in effect still dominated by the personality of the monarch; added to this, there has been much debate about how far court factions were shaped explicitly by ‘religious’ loyalties. (1) The problem, though, has always been that most of the theories advanced rested on inferences and assumptions based on questionable evidence. Steven Gunn, in his critical examination of the available sources, has very usefully reminded us that fundamental prosopographical work remains to be done on the whole range of royal servants and courtiers since it is only in the analysis of careers of such people that the workings of that system can be explored. (2) The results have already begun to call into question straightforward notions of factions and combinations in Tudor politics and draw attention to the continuing importance of a wide variety of affinities and friendships as well as the crucial element of personal allegiance to the monarch. (3) Gage spent his long public career in one form or another of royal service at court or in the field but had another very localized dimension to his life. He has hitherto been rather simplistically pigeonholed as a `conservative’ in religion, Queen Elizabeth’s gaoler while she was in the Tower and a staunch pillar of the Marian regime. (4) The following analysis of his career both public and private is designed both to dispel some of the myths and place him in the context of a more nuanced view of Tudor political society. Gage was born on 28 October 1479 at Burstow, Surrey, the only son of William Gage of Burstow. (5) His mother Agnes was the daughter of Bartholomew Bolney, of Firle in Sussex. (6) His status as an only son was emphasized by the fact that his sister Margaret was in effect abducted by her husband John Mills, spawning a lawsuit that in the first decade of the sixteenth century John Gage was to blame for his `utter undoyng’. (7) The tradition that after his father’s death at just over the age of 50 on 16 February 1497 (8) John became a ward of Edward Stafford, third duke of Buckingham seems to have been based on recollections of his third son Robert, (9) but has no basis in fact since Buckingham was then only 19. Despite William Gage’s provision that his wife should have `the custodye, guyding and rule’ of his son during his `nonage’, in 1499 Gage’s wardship and the guardianship of lands in Buckinghamshire, Sussex, Kent and Gloucestershire were acquired by Robert Tate, alderman of London, who milked his property of its revenues. (10) John’s mother Agnes died on 5 July 1501 and he came into possession of his parents’ property on his majority in October of that year. (11) In April 1502 he was betrothed to Philippa, daughter of Sir Richard Guildford of Cranbrook, Kent, Comptroller of the Royal Household. (12) While this marriage brought a dowry of 300 marks, it more importantly brought Gage into close kinship with a prominent Kentish family which was to play a leading role in the royal household under Henry VIII and was in turn related to Lord de la Warr, the Bryans, Vaux, Wottons, Fitzwilliams and Dudleys; Philippa’s sisters were to bring connections with the Wyatts, Culpepers, Pointz and Brays. (13) The origins of the Gage family remain obscure. Though some family traditions chose to link them to an Anglo-Norman family of the de Gaugi, their genealogy in reality cannot be traced back much beyond the fifteenth century. (14) It seems likely that they stemmed from Gloucestershire (probably Cirencester) (15) but they had migrated first to Northamptonshire (16) and then to Surrey by the time of John’s grandfather, Sir John Gage of Burstow. The Gages seem to have been few in number in the male line but to have exploited their wives’ connections to the full. The elder John Gage’s marriage to Eleonor, co-heiress of the Seynclers of Ightham, may be said to have made the landed fortune of his family (indicated partly by the subsequent quartering of the Gage and Seyncler arms on the family crest). (17) It brought him both the Seyncler manors of Tarring and Heighton in East Sussex (the latter including the land which later formed part of the estate at Firle) and also those of Burstow and Penshurst in Surrey and Kent and Aston Clinton in Buckinghamshire. No less important was the kinship it established with the local familes of Lewkenor, Oxenridge and Culpeper, whose names recur among the feofees to use appointed in the late

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015 John Gage — Biography fifteenth century, and also those of Hoo and Harcourt. (18) The Lewkenors were an important Lancastrian family in Sussex and Thomas Lewkenor of Trotton had supported Buckingham’s rebellion in 1483. William Gage was pardoned by Richard III in December 1483. (19) Indeed, its seems possible that the story of the younger John Gage’s being in wardship to the third Duke of Buckingham is related to Thomas Lewkenor’s service in the Duke’s household when Buckingham was in the wardship of Margaret Beaufort; he may then have introduced his kinsman Gage there as a page in the 1490s. (20) The elder John Gage died in 1486. (21) His younger son John founded the branch of the family in Northampton, while the elder, William, took over the interests in Buckinghamshire, Kent, Surrey and Sussex. At any rate, the extension of Gage interest into Sussex was obviously well established by his generation and clearly reinforced by William’s marriage to Agnes Bolney, whose father Bartholomew, whatever his status, had achieved a substantial place among the landowners of East Sussex through his legal skills and stewardship of Battle Abbey. (22) The Bolneys in turn were connected with the Ashburnhams and Culpepers. (23) Agnes’s father was buried at West Firle (24) and his son Richard, who died in August 1500, had held a group of lands there. Though he had both a minor son and a brother, the family interest in West Firle declined and, linking conveniently with their holdings at Tarring and Heighton, was sold to the Gages in 1532. (25) It was probably through the patronage of Sir Richard Guildford that John Gage had entered the royal household as esquire of the body by 1503, one of just over ninety men by 1509 in that position who, with the rest of the chamber staff, have been described as in effect a royal affinity. (26) However, Guildford was disgraced and withdrew from court in 1505. He died on pilgrimage in the Holy Land in 1506 (27) though his sons returned to royal favour with the accession of Henry VIII and Gage remained close to them. Some of Henry VII’s esquires of the body may have been compensated with positions in the new company of `spears of honour’ formed in 1510. (28) Gage seems not to have been continued as esquire of the body under Henry VIII, though he had regained that post by 1523. (29) There is no evidence that he became one of the spears but family tradition again had it that he accompanied the King on the expedition to France of June-November 1513 and, though there is no independent evidence for this, it seems likely. (30) His appointments in Sussex as escheator (1513-14), commissioner for the subsidy (1515) (31) and as Justice of the Peace from 1514 onwards (32) (he also served on the Surrey bench from 1528), (33) coming in the aftermath of the French war, indicate his emergence in the first rank of the local gentry, with a degree of royal favour. Gage’s first major military post came some time well before 1522, by which year he was serving as deputy to Sir Nicholas Vaux, captain of Guines in the Calais Pale since 1502. Gage’s mother-in-law was Joan, Vaux’s sister, while his brother-in-law Sir Edward Guildford, Knight of the Body, had been High Marshal of Calais since May 1519, posted there possibly as a result of the changes in the Privy Chamber staff after the misbehaviour of Henry’s boon companions. (34) Vaux’s deputy at Guines from 1504-9 had been Robert Wotton, who also had family connections with Vaux and the Guildfords. (35) Gage’s connections of kinship and familiarity in the Calais establishment were therefore plentiful. It seems, though, that Vaux wished to replace him, and an early patron of Gage’s--Sir William Sandys, treasurer of Calais, widely respected for his generalship and sense of honour--(36) pressed hard in a number of letters to Wolsey in 1522 for a new office. In May, having already mentioned Gage’s case, he took the opportunity of the fact that the existing Comptroller of Calais, Robert Wotton, was `sore vexed with contynewall infyrmite and by all symylitude of no longe perseverance in this liff’ to affirm that `I knowe of no man more convenyent for that room’ than Gage, praising his `wisdom, personadge and hardynes’. (37) In June he described him as: a man that [hath done] to the kinges grace right good and acceptable service and right [ready] for to do as any man I knowe both for his wisdome [and] manhod, unto whom I humbly beseche your grace that y[our will] may be to extend your grace and favour for a better room.... convenyent for hym than that which he now occupies. (38) In July Sandys asked again for the office of Comptroller of Calais for him, Wotton, still being `very seke’:

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015 John Gage — Biography I perceyve that at Michaelmas next cumyng Mr [Vaux is] determined to put hym besides his room at Guysnes [and] institute yonge Throgmerton in the same, so that then [he] be of cler destitute without eny room. (39) This young Throckmorton was the later Sir George of Coughton in Warwickshire, a spear in 1513, who had married Katherine, Vaux’s daughter. He did indeed get Gage’s place, for he handed over the fortress of Guines to Sandys in 1523 after Vaux’s death. (40) Sandys’s lobbying, however, had succeeded handsomely for on 17 August 1522 Gage was granted the reversion of the comptrollership of Calais. It seems likely that this was also the moment Gage was restored to the roll of esquires of the body, for he is named as such in an allocation of expenses in March 1523. (41) Gage’s close friend Sir William Fitzwilliam replaced Vaux as Captain of Guines in May 1523 (42) and Sir John Wallop recalled in 1541 that Gage had served under both Vaux and Fitzwilliam. The fact that in 1524 they were campaigning together, for instance in the mid-summer attack of that year on the French castle of Hardinghen, suggests that Gage did continue to serve at Guines under his friend’s patronage. (43) Robert Wotton died some time between December 1523 and June 1524, when Gage succeeded him formally as comptroller, but in August 1524 he fell dangerously ill. Fitzwilliam reported that: Maister comptroller of Calays came hider from the said towne and soubdainly felle sike of a fervent fever in such wise as he hathe beene and yet is in greate daunger of his life. And the opinion of the phisicians is that chaunge of eyre shuld bee the thing that shuld bringe and recover hym sonest to helth again, and noon eyre soo good for hym, as it is thought, as England. Wherefore he hath desired me to write to Your Grace most humbly beseching the same, as I doo in likewise, to be meane to the Kinges Highnes for his licence. For suerly his mynde is soo sett to goe into England, seeing his phisicians have shewed hym as above, it is the place moost convenient for hym that I doubt, in caas he have no licence soo to do, it will cost hym his life, which in myne opinione were to greate losse. (44) There is no clear evidence of his further service at Calais after this time. Gage had plainly gained much experience, possibly in the French wars of 1512-13 and certainly in those of 1522-25 and by 1525, when he was relieved of his obligations to the subsidy, he was a knight. (45) Major changes took place as a result of Wolsey’s plans to remodel the royal household in the Eltham Ordinances (completed December 1525, promulgated January 1526). One effect of this was to remove many members of it (leaving only four esquires of the body for instance), a process in which Gage’s brother-in-law Sir Henry Guildford was closely involved as comptroller. (46) In January 1526 Gage was granted an annuity of 100 marks, possibly in anticipation of the loss of his post at Calais, (47) and he may in April have exchanged the post of Comptroller of Calais for that of Vice-chamberlain of the household (48) when his patron Sandys became Lord Chamberlain. (49) Sandys also became Captain of Guines in place of Fitzwilliam, who had become treasurer of the household by October 1525. (50) There was thus a general movement between the offices of Calais and the household in 1526 which makes Gage’s move all the more likely. In the post of vice-chamberlain, part of the department of the chamber, he was responsible for the employment of the grooms of the chamber and sanctioned absentees from chamber service, while in the frequent absence of Sandys on service at Calais, the vice-chamberlainship was naturally more important. (51) In 1526 Gage was 47 years old and thus unlikely to have figured among the boon companions who were the King’s contemporaries such as Compton, Norris and Guildford, yet it is obvious from subsequent events that Henry had conceived a high regard for him. Curiously, the chalk and ink portrait of him by Holbein at Windsor Castle shows him to be a very youthful and vigorous man. (52) In Autumn 1529 he was elected to Parliament for Sussex (sitting in all the subsequent Henrician Parliaments) alongside his wife’s brother-in-law Sir Richard Shirley. (53) We know too that by this time Gage enjoyed fairly close relations with the rising star in the King’s service, Thomas Cromwell. In fact, Wolsey’s fall and Cromwell’s survival of it stand out as the first major political imbroglio in which we know that Gage was involved and one which shows that the association between Gage and Cromwell was

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015 John Gage — Biography already well established. At the time Gage was arranging for his seat in Parliament, Cromwell was at Esher discussing with his master how to salvage his fortunes. On 1 November (Parliament was to meet on 3rd) Ralph Sadler reported to him from London his conversations with Gage at court in which he had `moved’ the Vice-chamberlain to approach Norfolk for a seat for Cromwell. The letter is cryptic but Gage’s role as intermediary is clear. He had spoken to Norfolk `lyke a faythful frende’ and had been told by the Duke that the King was content Cromwell should have a seat if he followed certain instructions. Henry sent Cromwell a turquoise ring via Gage as a sign `assuringe you that your frendes wolde not have you to tarrie with my lord (Wolsey) there as little as myghte be for many consideracyons as Mr Gage will shew you who much disireth to speke with you’. (54) In the event, Cromwell’s alternative strategy of getting a seat through Wolsey’s steward Paulet at Taunton was the one he opted for. Late in November, Cromwell again went to Esher instructing Sadler to talk once more to Gage at court. Sadler reported that he had asked Gage: to knowe of him suche newes as he had concerning my lorde his affayres, who answered me that of trewth he knew nothing more then he dyd at your last being with him, howbeit he saied that he had spoken with Mr Thesaurer [Fitzwilliam] at length and that Mr Thesaurer and Mr Secretary [Gardiner] had consulted togithers and determyned their intente but as yet they had no tyme to put the same in execucyon fforasmoche as the king his highnes cam not abrode this day ne as the said Mr Vizchamberleyn thinketh will do to morow, but assone as he shall knowe any thing he hathe promised to wryte unto you undelayedlye alledging that suche as be my lorde his enemyes and hinderers have had tyme with the king before his ffrendes. Gage had gone on to say that Gardiner had shamefully done nothing for Wolsey and was not to be trusted. (55) In April 1530 Gage wrote to Cromwell from Windsor about Wolsey’s ostentatious journey to the north advising him of `schoche sayenges as I have harde of the maner of my lord cardenarllys departenge towardys the northe partteys’ and that `yt schalle be vyssedome for hyme to have hyme selfe in godde avatte vatte vordeys passeyd hyme ... I trust to see you here thys ester holy daye and and thane you ande I schalle consyder forder in thys matteys’, terms which suggest a degree of intimacy with the affairs both of the cardinal and of his former agent. (56) We find him writing again to Cromwell via his son James about financial transactions in 1531 and with warm Easter greetings in 1532. (57) Gage’s letters to Cromwell in the early 1530s are written on terms very much of equality though the tone becomes distinctly obsequious as Cromwell’s power is consolidated. As Vice-chamberlain, Gage was expected to reside at court for part of the year and had to excuse himself for a long absence in the spring of 1532 as a result of severe back-ache. (58) He accompanied the King and Anne Boleyn on their journey to meet Francis I at Boulogne in October of that year. (59) Important administrative duties were now being assigned to him. Earlier in 1532 he had been appointed commissioner to survey the lands of Calais (60) and in December he went north on important royal business, conveying messages to the Lord Warden and the administration in the north, reporting on the readiness and supply of the garrison, staying until the spring of 1533. Sir Thomas Wharton wrote to Cromwell from Newcastle that his coming had been `much to the king’s honour’ by showing the King’s `zeal’ for the troubled affairs of his northern counties. (61) It is also from this period that we begin to understand much more about Gage’s increasingly extensive business operations. In 1528 we find him lending money to Henry Percy, Earl of Northumberland. (62) In November 1528, property was alienated to him by the prior of Leeds, Kent (63) and in 1529-30 he received grants of wardship, (64) portions of Wolsey’s property, (65) a manor in Lincolnshire (66) and the lease of the deer park at Burstow from Archbishop Warham. (67) Direct business relations with Cromwell were close. Gage sold some manors to him in 1530, had borrowed money from him by 1529 and became his tenant when the minister acquired Archbishop Cranmer’s interest in Burstow in 1536. (68) Gage’s family was by now extensive. The eldest son, Edward, was destined to succeed to the bulk of his estate and his father was concerned to press his interests hard in land disputes but it seems that his second son James was installed by his father at court, first in the lowly ranks of the pitcher house, second clerk of

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015 John Gage — Biography the spicery, then as clerk of the greencloth and finally, by 1540, as master of the household. (69) His third son Robert (born c. 1519) (70) also began his public life around the court and was placed by his father with Stephen Gardiner, then ambassador to France, in 1538, one of the young men including also Edward Hungerford and Jacques Wingfield apt to brawl with the French. (71) He seems by 1544 to have entered the Queen’s household and then become a gentleman pensioner (one of the new guard created in 1539) around 1550 (72) Little is known about the other son, William, who founded no line. Gage’s eldest daughter Alice he married to a leading courtier of the Privy Chamber, with whom he was to work closely in the 1530s and 1540s, Sir Anthony Browne, Master of the Horse (1539). Browne succeeded his halfbrother William Fitzwilliam in possession of Cowdray Park in Sussex on his death in 1542 and both of them had figured prominently as feoffees to use for Gage’s lands in the 1530s’. (73) Another, Elizabeth (d. 1557) was married to Sir John Jenyns of the Privy Chamber, master of the ordnance for the Boulogne campaign. Jenyns, like Gage both a courtier and a technocrat, began his household career like James Gage in a lowly department, but by December 1522 was already involved in ordnance administration. He died in September 1545 and Gage acquired the wardship of his grandson Edward in 1546; (74) finally Cecily was married in 1527 to George, heir to a Gloucestershire gentleman Sir Christopher Baynham. (75)

Philipa Guldeford and John Gage’s Tomb

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Resources For Philippa Guldeford
1

Davis, Walter Goodwin, The Ancestry of Mary Isaac, c. 1549-1613: Wife of Thomas Appleton of Little Waldingfield, co. Suffolk... (Portland, Maine: 1955.), p. 94, Los Angeles Public Library, 929.2 I73.

Burke, John, A Genealogical and Heraldic History of the Extinct and Dormant Baronetcies of England, Ireland, and Scotland (Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co., 1977.), p. 231, Family History Library, 942 D22bu 1977. Bannerman, William Bruce, The Visitations of the County of Sussex, Made and Taken in the Years 1530 (London: Harleian Society Publications, 1905.), p. 9, Los Angeles Public Library, Gen 942.005 H284 v.53.
4 3

2

Richardson, Douglas, Magna Carta Ancestry: A Study in Colonial and Medieval Families (Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co., 2005.), p. 361, Family History Library, 942 D5rdm.

Bindoff, Stanley Thomas, The History of Parliament: The House of Commons, 1509-1558 (London: Secker & Warburg, 1982.), 2:179, Family History Library, 942 D3hp 1509-1558.
6

5

Brydges, Egerton, Collins's Peerage of England (London: T. Bensley, 1812.), 8:255, Family History Library, 942 D22be.

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015 John Gage — Biography
7

Berry, William, County Genealogies: Pedigrees of the Families in the County of Sussex (London: Sherwood, Gilbert and Piper, 1830.), p. 295, Family History Library, 942.25 D2b. Bindoff, S. T., History of Parliament, 1509-1558, 2:179.

8

Online at: http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~hwbradley/aqwc3221.htm#70367C1

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015 John Gage

015 John Newdigate

015 John Packenham

015 Katherine Percy-Grey

015 Lucy Neville-Browne I

015 Lucy Neville-Browne I

015 Margaret 'Baroness of Bletsoe' Beauchamp-St. John

015 Margaret Gresley-Blount I

015 Margaret Gresley-Blount I

015 Murrough Carrach '1st Earl of Thomond' OBrien

015 Philippa Guldeford-Gage

015 Robert ‘3rd Baron of’ Hungerford II — Biography

Robert Hungerford, 3rd Baron Hungerford
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Robert Hungerford, 3rd Baron Hungerford (1431–1464) was son and heir of Robert Hungerford, 2nd Baron Hungerford, and was grandson of Walter Hungerford, 1st Baron Hungerford (d. 1449). He supported the Lancastrians cause in the War of the Roses. In the late 1440s and early 1450s he was a member of successive parliaments. He was a prisoner of the French for much of the 1450s until his mother arranged a payment of a 7,966l ransom. In 1460 after successive defeats on the battle field he fled with Henry VI to Scotland. In 1461 he was attainted in Edward IV’s first parliament, and executed in Newcastle soon after he was captured at the Battle of Hexham. Parliament Hungerford was summoned to parliament as Baron Moleyns in 1445, sui uxoris, Alianore or Eleanor, the great-great-granddaughter of John, baron de Molines or Moleyns (d. 1371). Hungerford received a like summons till 1453. Dispute With John Paston In 1448 Hungerford began a fierce quarrel with John Paston regarding the ownership of the manor of Gresham in Norfolk. Hungerford, acting on the advice of John Heydon, a solicitor of Baconsthorpe, took forcible possession of the estate on 17 February 1448. William Waynflete, bishop of Winchester, made a vain attempt at arbitration. Paston obtained repossession, but on 28 January 1450 Hungerford sent a thousand men to dislodge him. After threatening to kill Paston, who was absent, Hungerford’s adherents violently assaulted Paston’s wife Margaret, but Hungerford finally had to surrender the manor to Paston.[1] French Wars In 1452 Hungerford accompanied John Talbot, 2nd Earl of Shrewsbury, to Aquitaine, and was taken prisoner while endeavouring to raise the siege of Chastillon. His ransom was fixed at 7,966l., and his mother sold her plate and mortgaged her estates to raise the money. His release was effected in 1459, after seven years and four months’ imprisonment. In consideration of his misfortunes he was granted, in the year of his return to England, license to export fifteen hundred sacks of wool to foreign ports without paying duty, and received permission to travel abroad. He thereupon visited Florence. Wars Of The Roses In 1460 Hungerford was home again, and took a leading part on the Lancastrian side in the Wars of the Roses. In June 1460 he retired with Lord Scales and other of his friends to the Tower of London, on the entry of the Earl of Warwick and his Kentish followers into the city; but after the defeat of the Lancastrians at the battle of Northampton (10 July 1460), Hungerford and his friends surrendered the Tower to the Yorkists on the condition that he and Lord Scales should depart free,[2] After taking part in the battle of Towton (29 March 1461)—a further defeat for the Lancastrians— Hungerford fled with Henry VI to York, and thence into Scotland. He visited France in the summer to obtain help for Henry and Margaret, and was arrested by the French authorities in August 1461. Writing to Margaret at the time from Dieppe, he begged her not to lose heart.[3] He was attainded in Edward IV’s first parliament in November 1461. He afterward met with some success in his efforts to rally the Lancastrians in the north of England, but was taken prisoner at the Battle of Hexham on 15 May 1464, and was executed at Newcastle. He was buried in Salisbury Cathedral. On 5 August 1460 many of his lands were granted to Richard, Duke of Gloucester (afterward Richard III). Other portions of his property were given to Lord Wenlock, who was directed by Edward IV to make provision for Hungerford’s wife and young children.

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015 Robert ‘3rd Baron of’ Hungerford II — Biography Marriage And Children Hungerford married at a very early age (about 1441 Alianore or Eleanor (b. 1425), daughter and heiress married about 1441) , of Sir William de Molines or Moleyns (d. 1428). They had two children: .
• •

Thomas Hungerford of Rowden Walter Hungerford of Farleigh

Eleanor, Baroness Moleyns, survived her husband and subsequently married Sir Oliver de Manningham. She was buried at Stoke Poges, Buckinghamshire.[4] Poges, Notes 1. ^ Lee, DNB, p. 256. Citing see Paston Letters, ed. Gairdner, i. xxxi, lxix, 75 6, 109 Letters, 75-6, 109-12, 221-3, iii. 3, 449. 2. ^ Lee, DNB, p. 256,257. Cites: William of Worcester [772 , Lee states that “the year is wrongly 772-3], the given as 1459 1459”. 3. ^ Lee DNB, p. 257. cites: Paston Letters, ii. 45 93. 45-6, 4. ^ Lee, DNB, p. 257. DNB, References

Lee, Sidney Dictionary of National Biography Volume 28, pp. 256,257 Cites:
o o o o o o o

Dugdale’s Dugdale s Baronage ; Hoare’s Hoare s Hungerfordiana ; Letters, &c., of Henry VIII; Materials for the Keign of Henry VII (Eolls Ser. ; Eolls Ser.) Paston Letters, passim, ed. G G-airdner; Hoare’s Hoare s Mod. “Wiltshire, Heytesbury Hundred Wiltshire, Collinson’s Somerset, Collinson s Somerset, iii. 355. ”Robert Hungerford“. Dictionary of National Biography London: Smith, Elder & Co. 1885–1900. Robert Hungerford Biography. 1900.

Attribibution

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015 Robert '3rd Baron of' Hungerford

015 Robert '3rd Baron of' Hungerford

015 Robert '3rd Baron of' Hungerford

015 Robert '3rd Baron of' Hungerford

015 Robert '3rd Baron of' Hungerford

015 Robert '3rd Baron of' Hungerford

015 Robert '3rd Baron of' Hungerford

015 Robert '3rd Baron of' Hungerford

015 Robert '3rd Baron of' Hungerford

015 Robert '3rd Baron of' Hungerford

015 Robert '3rd Baron of' Hungerford

015 -Robert Wotton

UK, Extracted Probate Records
Text: Book: Collection: 1524 Wotton, Robert, knight, comptroller of Calais; Bocton Malherbe, Kent; Essex 22 Bodfelde 1383 to 1558. England: Canterbury - Wills Proved in The Prerogative Court of Canterbury, 1383-1558 (K-Z)

Source Information: Ancestry.com. UK, Extracted Probate Records [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations Inc, 2009. Original data: Electronic databases created from various publications of probate records. Description: This database is a collection of probate registers from the United Kingdom. These records can range in date from the early 1500s to the mid- to late-1800s. The records include wills and other miscellaneous types of probate records.

© 2011, The Generations Network, Inc.

015 Thomas '1st Baron Hoo and Hastings' Hoo - Biography

Thomas Hoo, Baron Hoo and Hastings
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Thomas Hoo, 1st Baron Hoo and Hastings KG (ca. 1396-1455) was a Knight of the Garter and English courtier. Thomas was the son of Sir Thomas Hoo (ca. 1370 – Luton Hoo, Bedfordshire, 23 August 1420) and wife (m. 1395) Eleanor de Felton (Litcham, Norfolk, 1378 – 8 August 1400). He succeeded his father in 1420, inheriting the family's ancestral home of Luton Hoo in Bedfordshire as well as Mulbarton, Norfolk and other estates. He fought for Henry VI of England in France, and for his services was made, first Keeper of the Seals, then Chancellor of France. In 1439, he was granted the castle, lordship and honour of Hastings, and in 1445 elected Knight of the Garter. Two years later he was created Baron of Hoo and Hastings. Lord Hoo was twice married. His first wife was Elizabeth Wychingham, the daughter of Nicholas Wychingham of Witchingham, Norfolk, whom he married by settlement dated 1 July 1428. By her he had one daughter, Anne, who married Sir Geoffrey Boleyn, mercer and Lord Mayor of London. Lord Hoo married, secondly, before 1445, Eleanor Welles, by whom he had three daughters, Anne (wife of Roger Copley, and secondly of William Greystoke), Eleanor (wife of James Carew of Beddington) and Elizabeth (wife of Thomas Masingbeard, and secondly Sir John Devenish).[1] Lord Hoo died 13 February 1454/5. The barony of Hoo and Hastings become extinct at his death, and his properties passed to his four daughters and his half-brother, Sir Thomas Hoo, born 1416 to his father's second wife, Elizabeth de Etchyngham. The brothers are interred together in the Dacre Tomb at Herstmonceux All Saints Church in Sussex. Footnotes 1. ^ Richardson 2004, pp. 179, 759–760. References
• • •

Cokayne, George Edward (1949). The Complete Peerage, edited by Geoffrey H. White. XI. London: St. Catherine Press. p. 51. Cokayne, George Edward (1945). The Complete Peerage, edited by H.A. Doubleday. X. London: St. Catherine Press. pp. 137–142. Hughes, Jonathan (2007). Boleyn, Thomas, earl of Wiltshire and earl of Ormond (1476/7–1539), courtier and nobleman. Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. http://www.oxforddnb.com/index/2/101002795/. Retrieved 17 March 2011. Ives, E.W. (2004). Anne (Anne Boleyn) (c.1500–1536), queen of England, second consort of Henry VIII. Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. http://www.oxforddnb.com/index/0/101000557/. Retrieved 17 March 2011. Richardson, Douglas (2004). Plantagenet Ancestry: A Study in Colonial and Medieval Families, ed. Kimball G. Everingham. Baltimore, Maryland: Genealogical Publishing Company Inc. pp. 179–180. Weir, Alison (1991). The Six Wives of Henry VIII. New York: Grove Weidenfeld. p. 145. British History Online — Offley St. Ledgers Kelly's Directory of Bedfordshire, 1885 – Luton

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015 Thomas '1st Baron Hoo and Hastings' Hoo

015 Thomas '1st Baron Hoo and Hastings' Hoo

015 Thomas '1st Marquess of Dorset' Grey — Biography

Thomas Grey, 1st Marquess of Dorset
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Thomas Grey, 7th Baron Ferrers of Groby, 1st Earl of Huntingdon and 1st Marquess of Dorset, KG (c.1455 – 20 September 1501), was an English nobleman, courtier and a man of mediocre abilities pushed into prominence by his mother Elizabeth Woodville‘s second marriage to the king, Edward IV.[1] Family Thomas was born about 1455, the elder son of Sir John Grey and Elizabeth Woodville, who later became Queen consort to Edward IV. His one full brother, Sir Richard Grey (c.1458-1483), was arrested by Richard, Duke of Gloucester, as he moved to take the throne on the death of King Edward IV. Gloucester’s forces later executed Richard Grey at Pontefract Castle. The Grey brothers had ten half-siblings by their mother’s marriage to King Edward. Career His mother endeavoured to improve his estates by the conventional means of their class and time, through his marriages and purchase of custodies and wardships. On the death of his stepfather, Edward IV, and his 12 year old half-brother’s, Edward V‘s, accession to the throne on 9 April 1483 Grey proved unable to maintain his family’s position. It was not possible to arrange a Yorkist regency. Internal fighting, particularly the long established battle for ascendancy in Leicestershire between the Grey and Hastings families, now on the national stage, allowed Gloucester to seize power and usurp the throne. On 25 June an assembly of parliament declared Richard to be the legitimate king. Later in the summer, learning of the apparent murder of both his young half-brothers, Grey joined the Duke of Buckingham’s rebellion against Richard III. When the rebellion failed he fled to Brittany to join Henry Tudor, the future Henry VII, who pledged to marry Grey’s half-sister Elizabeth and heal the Yorkist Lancastrian division. However, just before Henry’s successful invasion of England in August 1485, Grey learned his mother had come to terms with Richard III, and was persuaded to desert Henry Tudor. He was intercepted at Compiègne on his way to England and played no part in the overthrow of Richard III. Grey was instead left at Paris, as security for the repayment of a loan made to Henry Tudor by the French government, unable to return home until Henry VII was safely installed as king of England. Thereafter Henry VII took good care to keep his Queen’s brother under control and Grey was not permitted to recover his former influence. Thomas Grey was confined in the Tower in 1487 during Lambert Simnel‘s rising and not released until after the battle of Stoke. Though he accompanied the King on his expedition to France in 1492 he was obliged to commit himself in writing to ensure he did not commit treason. He was permitted to assist in suppression of the Cornish rising in 1497.

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015 Thomas '1st Marquess of Dorset' Grey — Biography Thomas Grey, Marquess of Dorset, died in London on 30 August 1501, aged about 45, and was buried in the collegiate church of Astley, Warwickshire. His wife survived him and married Henry Stafford, later earl of Wiltshire. Marriages His mother sought to make provision for him by marriage to a wealthy heiress. Thomas first married, at Greenwich in October 1466, Anne Holland (c.1455-c.1474), the only daughter of Henry Holland, 3rd Duke of Exeter and Anne of York. His Mother in Law was the second child and eldest surviving daughter of Richard Plantagenet, 3rd Duke of York and Cecily Neville, thus sister to his mother’s second husband king Edward IV. After Anne died young without issue, Thomas married on 18 July 1474, Cecily Bonville, 7th Baroness Harington of Aldingham and 2nd Baroness Bonville, the wealthiest heiress in England.[2] Cecily was born on or around 30 June 1460, and was the daughter and heiress of William Bonville, 6th Baron Harington by his wife Katherine Neville. Grey’s new mother-in-law, since 1462 the wife of William Hastings, 1st Baron Hastings, a close associate of Edward IV, was a daughter of Alice Montagu, 5th Countess of Salisbury by her consort Richard Neville, 5th Earl of Salisbury (jure uxoris). The maternal uncles of Cecily Bonville included Richard Neville, 16th Earl of Warwick, John Neville, 1st Marquess of Montagu and George Neville, Archbishop of York and Chancellor of England. Children He and his second wife Cecily Bonville had seven sons and seven daughters, including:
• • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Edward Grey, married Anne Jerningham but died young leaving no children. Anthony Grey, believed to have died young. Thomas Grey, 2nd Marquess of Dorset (22 June 1477 – 22 June 1530), father of Henry Grey, 1st Duke of Suffolk. Richard Grey, married Florence Pudsey. John Grey, married Anne daughter of William Barlow but left no children. Leonard Grey, Viscount Graney (c. 1479 – 28 July 1541), served as Lord Lieutenant of Ireland but was executed. George Grey, in holy orders. Cecily Grey (d. 28 April 1554), married John Sutton, 3rd Baron Dudley. Bridget Grey, believed to have died young. Dorothy Grey (1480–1552), married first Robert Willoughby, 2nd Baron Willoughby de Broke and secondly William Blount, 4th Baron Mountjoy. Elizabeth Grey, married Gerald FitzGerald, 9th Earl of Kildare. Margaret Grey, married Richard Wake of Blisworth. Eleanor Grey, living 24 Feb. 1501/2, married Sir John Arundell of Lanherne, Cornwall, and had Sir Thomas Arundell of Lanherne. Mary Grey (1493 – 22 February 1538), married Walter Devereux, 1st Viscount Hereford. Lord Astley, 1461- , inherited on the death of his father

Titles

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015 Thomas '1st Marquess of Dorset' Grey — Biography Earl of Huntingdon, 1471–1475, created for him but after acquiring the next it was surrendered to the King so the King might be able to give it to the Earl of Pembroke whose title the King wanted for his own son Lord Harington and Bonville in right of his (second) wife, 1474, his wife being unable to sit in Parliament Marquess of Dorset, 1475- , created for Thomas Grey 14 May 1475 (Whitsunday) in place of the repossessed earldom of Huntingdon Lord Ferrers of Groby, 1483- , inherited on the death of his grandmother Grey born Elizabeth Ferrers and Lady Bourchier after his grandfather’s death Attainted 1484 following the bid to oust Richard III After reversal of his attainder by Henry VII, styled himself marquess of Dorset, lord Ferrers of Groby, Bonville, and Harington

• • • • •

Depictions In Fiction He is depicted in William Shakespeare‘s play Richard III. Peerage Of England Marquess Of Dorset 1475–1501 Earl Of Huntingdon 1471–1475 Baron Ferrers Of Groby 1483–1501

New Creation New Creation Preceded By Edward Grey References And Sources

Succeeded By Thomas Grey Resigned Succeeded By Thomas Grey

1. ^ T. B. Pugh, ‘Grey, Thomas, first marquess of Dorset’, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004 2. ^ Lympstone: From Roman Times to the 17th Century. Retrieved 1 September 2011
• •

A Genealogical History of the Dormant, Abeyant, Forfeited, and Extinct Peerages of the British Empire by Sir Bernard Burke, 1866 Leigh Rayment’s Peerage Pages

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015 Thomas '1st Marquis of Dorset' Grey

015 Thomas '2nd Duke of Norfolk' Howard

015 Thomasine Barrington-Sydney II

015 Ursulla Collinridge-Dormer III

015 William ‘1st Earl of Pembroke’ Herbert — Biography

William Herbert, 1st Earl of Pembroke (1423–1469)
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

William Herbert, 1st Earl of Pembroke KG (c. 1423 – 27 July 1469), known as “Black William”, was the son of William ap Thomas founder of Raglan Castle and Gwladys ferch Dafydd Gam, and grandson of Dafydd Gam, an adherent of King Henry V of England. His father had been an ally of Richard of York, and Herbert supported the Yorkist cause in the Wars of the Roses. Herbert was rewarded by King Edward IV with the title Lord Herbert of Raglan in 1461, having assumed an English-style surname in place of the Welsh patronymic. In 1468 he was promoted to Earl of Pembroke. He obtained custody of the young Henry, Earl of Richmond, whom he planned to marry to his own daughter. However, he soon fell out with his great rival, Warwick “the Kingmaker”, who turned against the king. Herbert was executed by the Lancastrians, now led by Warwick, after the Battle of Edgecote Moor, near Banbury. Herbert was succeeded by his legitimate son, William, but the earldom was surrendered in 1479. It was later revived for a grandson, another William Herbert, the son of Black William’s illegitimate son, Sir Richard Herbert of Ewyas. Marriage And Children He married Anne Devereux, daughter of Walter Devereux, Lord Chancellor of Ireland and Elizabeth Merbury. They had at least ten children:
• • • • • •

William Herbert, 2nd Earl of Pembroke (5 March 1451 – 16 July 1491). Sir Walter Herbert. (c. 1452 — d. 16 September 1507) Married Anne Hastings, Countess of Huntingdon, sister to the Duke of Buckingham. Sir George Herbert of St. Julians. Philip Herbert of Lanyhangel. Cecilie Herbert. Maud Herbert, Countess of Northumberland. Married Henry Percy, 4th Earl of Northumberland.
Ann Devereux and William Pembroke

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015 William ‘1st Earl of Pembroke’ Herbert — Biography Katherine Herbert. Married George Grey, 2nd Earl of Kent. Anne Herbert. Married John Grey, 1st Baron Grey of Powis, 9th Lord of Powys (died 1497). Isabel Herbert. Married Sir Thomas Cokesey. Margaret Herbert. Married first Thomas Talbot, 2nd Viscount Lisle and secondly Sir Henry Bodringham. Sir Richard Herbert of Ewyas. Father of William Herbert, 1st Earl of Pembroke (1551 creation). Probably son of Maud, daughter of Adam ap Howell Graunt (Gwynn). Sir George Herbert. Most likely the son of Frond Verch Hoesgyn. Married Sybil Croft.[1]

• • • •

William had two illegitimate children but the identity of their mother or mothers are uncertain:
• •

References 1. ^ “http://www.tudorplace.com.ar/HERBERT2.htm“. Sir George Herbert External Links

A listing of his descendants Peerage Of England Preceded By New Creation Earl Of Pembroke 1468–1469 Succeeded By William Herbert

Ancient Welsh Study Of The Herbert Family Pedigree
1450ish , Ragland, Wales THE HERBERT FAMILY PEDIGREE By Darrell Wolcott In the mid-1400’s, two brothers assumed the surname Herbert; these were Sir William, Earl of Pembroke and Sir Richard of Coldbrook, sons of Sir William ap Thomas and his wife Gwladys Ddu, daughter of Sir Dafydd Gam. This was probably done at the time Sir William was named Earl of Pembroke by King Edward IV. Apparently these brothers knew their grandfather, Thomas, was the son of Gwilym ap Jenkin ap Adam but further back they were unsure. We are told King Edward IV commissioned one Hywel Lloyd and others to find the true pedigree of the Earl of Pembroke.[1] The result of that project traced Jenkin ap Adam back through a succession of men, ending with a “Lord Herbert, Duke of Cornwall son of Godwin” [2] said to have lived prior to the 1066 Norman conquest. Based on those now extant, this early attempt at a family pedigree probably looked like this[3]: Godwin Herbert Henry Herbert Herbert Peter Reginald Peter

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015 William ‘1st Earl of Pembroke’ Herbert — Biography Herbert Adam Jenkin Gwilym Thomas Sir William==Gwladys Ddu Sir William Sir Richard Since the first Herbert shown in this chart was subsequently identified as a companion of William the Conqueror[4], early genealogists scoffed at the notion he could have been the son of a Saxon and Godwin was dropped from the pedigree. Soon, amended pedigrees were being cast making the second-named Herbert a base son of King Henry I[5]. That failed to convince others who said the Henry in the pedigree was the “Henry the Treasurer” found in the 1086 Domesday Book[6], but we suspect all the early generations were men called Herbert. Yet others claimed an early marriage to Emma de Blois, half-sister to King Stephen and a daughter of Adelia, a base daughter of William the Conqueror[7]. Other early marriage matches inserted in the various versions of the pedigree included Nest ferch Rhys ap Tewdwr[8], Julia daughter of Robert Corbet[9] and Lucy daughter of Milo fitz Walter[10]. It was almost certainly not Julia but Sibyl Corbet that married a Herbert. A son of the Corbet marriage would fit chronologically with Lucy and the liason with Lucy produced Peter. A public record[11] calls “Sibilla” the grandmother of “Petr fili Herbti”. This section of the early Norman family probably looks like this: 1035 Herbert, Count of Vermandois l 1085 Nest vz Rhys ==/==Herbert II===Emma de Blois 1080 l 1070 l 1105 Sybil Corbet====Herbert III St William, archbishop ob 1154 l 1100 1130 Herbert IV====Lucy dau of Milo fitzWalter 1135 l 1165 Peter fitz Herbert==Alice dau Robert FitzRoger 1175 Without spending a lot of time dissecting the charted family, the chronological time line is possible. If any of those men sired a child by the infamous Nest ferch Rhys ap Tewdwr[12] it would have to be the one called Herbert II although those pedigrees who include Nest match her with the father of the Herbert who married Lucy. (See Appendix below) Reginald fitz Peter (son of Peter in the above chart) is said to have married Joan, daughter of William Fortibus (1190-1241) and their son, Peter fitz Reginald, died in 1323 leaving a son Herbert fitz Peter who was 48 years old at the inquisition taken in 1323....thus born in 1275. It is the marriage match claimed for Peter fitz Reginald which, we believe, was faked in order to connect this family to the later Earl of Pembroke.[13] The lady in question is Alis ferch Bleddyn Broadspear, heiress of the manors of Llanllowel and Beachley. We shall return to this lady momentarily, but first we should present a chart showing the remainder of the pedigree together with estimated birthdates which will expose the fraud: 1275 Herbert fitz Peter (birthdate on record) l 1255 Adam l 1290 Jenkin l 1325 Gwilym obit 1377 l 1360 Thomas obit 1438

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015 William ‘1st Earl of Pembroke’ Herbert — Biography l 1390 Sir William ap Thomas obit 1446 We date the Adam in the above chart by his marriage, which all versions of the pedigree agree was Cristyn ferch Gwarin Ddu. This man was descended from Ynyr, king of Upper Gwent, as follows: 1030 Ynyr 1065 Meurig 1095 Ynyr Fychan 1125 Caradog 1155 Sir Gwarin 1190 Iorwerth 1230 Gwarin Ddu 1265 Cristyn========Adam 1255 While the medieval genealogists had made a number of emendations to the basic pedigree, some seeking to paper over the chronological problem by attaching Adam to Reginald instead of to his grandson, all insisted the family at the bottom of the chart descended from the one at the top. But in 1876, George T. Clark debunked the pedigree as “a forgery and a clumsy one, and its statements not to be reconciled with independent dates and records”.[14] Rather than be content that the ancestry of Adam clearly was not that claimed in the pedigree, we sought to learn not only his correct ancestry but why the earlier genealogists had connected him to the old Norman family. Our journey began with two pedigrees which said the father of Adam was actually named Cynhaethwy[15] and a third pedigree which said Peter fitz Herbert had a brother named Cynhaethwy, and that man had a son named Adam[16]. Down to this point in the pedigree, all men bore common English names and married English/Norman ladies but suddenly we encounter a purely Welsh name. Further research led us to the family of Adam Gwent.[17] Among his sons were Adam Fychan and Cynhaethwy; while his pedigree did not chart the descendants of Cynhaethwy, it does identify a son of Adam Fychan who is styled “Lord of Beachley”. Return now to a lady mentioned earlier: Alis ferch Bleddyn Broadspear. Most of the citations which mention Bleddyn identify him as Lord of Llanllowel and Beachley.[18] The fake Herbert pedigrees show Llanllowell descending to Sir Thomas ap Adam, older brother of Jenkin ap Adam. They omit any mention of Beachley, a fact “corrected” by Joseph Morris in 1858.[19] He simply takes Sir John ap Adam Fychan (the man who did inheirit Beachley) and makes him the brother of Jenkin ap Adam and assigns Llanllowel to him. Acting on the theory that both the families we find holding those two manors c. 1300 had a common ancestor, and that ancestor was a son of Alis ferch Bleddyn, we decided to see where it might lead us if we were to identify the Cynhaethwy claimed to be a brother of Peter fitz Herbert (and father of Adam) with the man of that name cited as a son of Adam Gwent. Our result was this chart[20]: 965 Rhiwallon l 1000 Caradog[21] l 1030 Breichiol l 1060 Pyll l 1095 Meurig l 1125 Caradog of Penrhos Bleddyn Broadspear

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015 William ‘1st Earl of Pembroke’ Herbert — Biography ll 1160 Iorwerth=================Alis l 1190 Adam Gwent ___________________l_____________ ll 1220 Adam Fychan Cynhaethwy 1225 ll 1255 Sir John[22] Adam 1255 ____________l________ Lord of Beachley l l and Beverstone[23] Sir Thomas 1285 1290 Jenkin Lord of Llanllowel Lord of Wern Ddu [24] Iorwerth ap Caradog in this chart was steward to Hywel ap Iorwerth ap Owain Wan of Caerleon, ruler of Lower Gwent c. 1175. Adam Gwent was steward to Morgan ap Hywel c. 1210[25] Our construction is chronologically stable now that we have disconnected Jenkin ap Adam from the Norman fitz-Herbert family and placed Alis ferch Bleddyn in a marriage that produced the descendants that actually inherited her lands. Bleddyn’s ancestry is nowhere given, but it is a common Welsh name and the form “Alis ferch Bleddyn” used in the pedigrees should identify him as a Welshman. Our guess is he was related to the ruling family in Caerleon, in whose realm Llanllowel is located[26] and in whose service we find Iorwerth ap Caradog the father of Adam Gwent. We can only guess as to why the 15th century Earl of Pembroke did not want his ancestor listed as Adam Gwent, a nobleman of purely Welsh ancestry. We even suspect Adam’s ancestors represent a junior cadet of one of the families who ruled Gwent in the tenth and eleventh centuries[27]. But Sir William Herbert, as he styled himself, was an ardent Yorkist and must have preferred to claim ancestry from an illustrous Norman family, not a “lowly” Welshman. His genealogists thus did a cut and paste job to accomplish his desire, ignoring chronology as they went. But their principal error was in bringing Alis ferch Bleddyn into the pedigree to account for a Thomas ap Adam holding her manor of Llanllowel while failing to include the family holding Beachley. While our construction cannot be guaranteed correct, it follows a stable timeline and places both of Alis’ manors in the hands of Adam Gwent whose descendants are known to have inherited them. Notes: [1] Llyfr Baglan, pp 13 [2] LB 51 [3] LB 51, 79 [4] John B. Burke “Roll of the Battle Abbey”, 1848 (1998 reprint, pp 55) where the companion of William I is called Herbert, Count of Vermandois. [5] Dwnn i, 293 [6] Cited as a landholder in Hampshire; since his entry immediately follows land held by a “Herbert the Chamberlain”, some would say they were father and son. That this conjecture is untrue can be seen from the dates; if both held land in capite from King William I in 1086, both must date from before 1066 and if related at all, they are from the same generation. But nothing compels belief they were related. [7] John of Hexham, Historical Works (ed by Thomas Arnold), 1882-85, vol ii, pp 305-307 [8] LB 79, 215, 269; Dwnn i, 196

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015 William ‘1st Earl of Pembroke’ Herbert — Biography [9] LB 79; Dwnn i, 196, 292, 293 [10] LB 79, 215, 269, 323; Dwnn i, 196, 292, 293 [11] Archaeologia Cambrensis, 1858, pp 21 [12] Born c. 1085, Nest spent her childhood as a hostage at the court of William Rufus and Henry I before marrying Gerald of Windsor. She is known to have had out-of-wedlock children with several important men at court, including King Henry I. In 1109, she was abducted from her husband’s bed by Owain ap Cadwgan of Powys “who was moved by passion and love for the woman”. Her only complaint to Owain was “if you want me for yourself, at least send my husband’s children back to him”. [13] Dwnn i, 196 may contain the identification of Peter’s actual wife, Alice daughter of John St. John, although it matches her with the earlier Peter. Burke’s Dormant and Extinct Peerages says Peter had a sister named Alice who married John St John, Lord of Basing born c. 1235. If that man had a base daughter born c. 1255 before his marriage, she would fit chronologically with Peter. [14] Limbus Patrum Morganiae et Glamorganiae, pp 250-251 [15] Dwnn ii, 42, 43 [16] LB 323 [17] Joseph Bradney “A History of Monmouthshire”, vol 3, part 2, pp 218 [18] LB 215, 269, 323; Dwnn i, 293 [19] Archaeologia Cambrensis, 1858, pp 30 [20] see note 17 [21] Caradog ap Rhiwallon appears in several Llandaff Charters; in a charter which scholars date to c. 1045, he described himself as “decomitibus” or “comes” to King Meurig (ap Hywel ap Owain ap Morgan Hen). Text of the Book of Llan Dav, pp 261 [22] Sir John ab Adam was a baronet called to Parliament and to military service many times between 1297 and 1307. [23] Sir John had Beverstone from his mother and Beachley from his father. [24] Jenkin was the younger son of Adam and received his mother’s manor. She was a daughter of Gwarin Ddu, whose pedigree can be found in LB 257 and Bradney’s History of Monmouthshire, vol 1, part 2b, pp 360 [25] See note 17 [26] Llanllowell was located in the parish of Llantrisant Fawr in the hundred of Usk, just north of Caerleon. [27] Rhiwallon, the father of Caradog, could well have been a younger brother of King Meurig ap Hywel. Not only does the chronology fit, but the nephew of a king could be expected to hold a key role at his court...perhaps even his penteulu Appendix: The tradition that Nest ferch Rhys ap Tewdwr was the mother of one of the early Norman Herberts (but not married to the father) is widely believed. The Dictionary of Welsh Biography, 1959, page 683 cites a number of illegitimate sons she bore by liasons with not only King Henry I, but by other highly-placed Norman men. That one of these was the Herbert ancestor who was married to Emma de Blois is suggested by the fact that none of the Herbert pedigrees found in Llyfr Baglan or in Dwnn’s Visitations of Wales cite Emma de Blois as mother to any of the early Herberts, but several do say Nest ferch Rhys ap Tewdwr

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015 William ‘1st Earl of Pembroke’ Herbert — Biography was. One can never be sure whether the “marriage matches” shown in medieval pedigrees were meant to indicate (a) that the lady was married to the man to whose name she is connected, or (b) that she was the mother of the next following person in the pedigree, whether or not married to the father. Our best guess is that Emma was excluded from the pedigrees because she was not the mother of any cited son; not all the offspring of each generation was included. According to the 12th century chronicler John of Hexham, Emma and Herbert of Winchester were the parents of William, archbishop of York. On the other hand, Nest ferch Rhys ap Tewdwr may have been named because she was the mother of a Herbert, not because she was actually married to his father.

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015 William '1st Earl of Pembroke' Herbert

015 William ‘Count of Eu’ Bourchier - Biography

William ‘Count Of Eu’ Bourchier
Sir William Bourchier, 1st Count of Eu was born circa 1374.3 He was the son of Sir William Bourchier.2 He married Anne of Woodstock, Countess of Buckingham, daughter of Thomas of Woodstock, 1st and last Duke of Gloucester and Lady Eleanor de Bohun, before 20 November 1405.1 He died on 28 May 1420 in Troyes, Champagne, France. He was buried in Llanthony Priory, Llanthony, Monmouthshire, Wales. On 10 November 1405 he was pardoned. He was created 1st Count of Eu [NORMANDY] on 10 June 1419, created by King Henry V

Eu Chateau

1|P a g e

015 William Clement II

015 William Haute — Biography

Sir William Haute, Sir Richard Haute And Alice Haute
1462-1483 , England Excerpt from Richard’s Rebels at http://edwardv1483.com/index.php?p=1_7_Richard-s-Rebels “William Haute, a ringleader in the Kentish rising. Through his mother he was a first cousin of Elizabeth Woodville. His brother was Richard Haute, who is often listed as having been executed by Richard at Pontefract on June 25, 1483, along with Anthony Woodville, Richard Grey, and Thomas Vaughan. William had been associated with young Richard of York’s household and had been prominent in the Woodville-dominated wedding celebrations of little Richard and Anne Mowbray in January 1478. He was appointed constable of Swansea and steward of the Gower lordship acquired by little Richard thorugh his wife. A leading rebel in Kent, according to royal indictments, November 1483-1484. Richard Haute, esquire of the Body, attainted in Richard III’s Parliament, January 1484 for the Risings in Kent and Surrey, at Maidstone, Gravesend, Guildford, and elsewhere between October 18 and October 25, 1483...Cousin of Queen Elizabeth Woodville. On October 18, 1483, Fogge, Brown, the Gaynesfords, the Guildfords, Thomas Lewkenor, Richard Haute, and others assembled at Maidstone. Richard III’s men were scouring the area, and they were forced to disperse, meeting again at Penedon Heath. They reached Gravesend by way of Rochester on October 22, harrassed by Lord Cobham and the earl of Surrey all the way, until a number of them under Lewkenor took refuge in Bodiam Castle, Sussex. John Fogge of Ashford in Kent, knight of the Body, attainted in Richard III’s Parliament, January 1484 for the Risings in Kent and Surrey, at Maidstone, Gravesend, Guildford, and elsewhere between October 18 and October 25, 1483....Fogge was a wealthy man. He had been one of Edward IV’s longest serving followers, having joined the Yorkists in 1460. He served as one of Prince Edward’s councillors since 1473 and had been active in the administration of the Prince’s lands, especially in the duchy of Cornwall. His first wife was Alice Haute who died around 1462.”

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015 William Sydney II

1st Cousin 14x Removed – Lady Catherine Grey — Biography

Lady Catherine Grey, Countess of Hertford
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Spouse(s) Henry Herbert Edward Seymour, 1st Earl of Hertford Issue Edward Seymour, Lord Beauchamp of Hache Thomas Seymour Noble Family Grey Father: Henry Grey, 1st Duke of Suffolk Mother: Lady Frances Brandon Born: 25 August 1540, Bradgate Park, Leicester, England Died: 26 January 1568 (aged 27), Cockfield Hall, Yoxford, Suffolk Burial: Cockfield Chapel, Yoxford Church, Suffolk

Lady Catherine Grey, by Levina Teerlinc, c. 1555-1560. On the reverse of this portrait miniature it reads: “The La Kathe’/ Graye. / Wyfe of Therle of / hertford”

Lady Catherine Grey (25 August 1540 – 26 January 1568), Countess of Hertford, was the younger sister of Lady Jane Grey. A granddaughter of Henry VIII‘s sister Mary, she was a potential successor to her cousin, Queen Elizabeth I of England, but incurred Elizabeth’s wrath by her secret marriage to Edward Seymour, 1st Earl of Hertford. She lived in captivity until her death. Family And Claim To The Throne She was born at Bradgate Park in the vicinity of Leicester. She was the second surviving daughter of Henry Grey, 1st Duke of Suffolk, by his marriage to Lady Frances Brandon. She was the younger sister of Lady Jane Grey and older sister of Lady Mary Grey. Catherine Grey’s maternal grandparents were Charles Brandon, 1st Duke of Suffolk and Mary Tudor, younger daughter of Henry VII, and former Queen consort of France.[1] Through her grandmother, the Grey sisters had a claim to the English throne. They were preceded in proximity only by Henry VIII’s three children — Prince Edward, Lady Mary and Lady Elizabeth — and the descendents of Margaret Tudor, the elder daughter of Henry VII and Queen consort of Scotland, after 1542 represented by Mary, Queen of Scots. However, Henry VIII had excluded the Scottish line from the English succession in his will, placing the Grey sisters next-in-line after his own children.[2] Jane Grey And Catherine’s First Marriage In 1553, as King Edward VI was dying, the King and his chief minister, John Dudley, 1st Duke of Northumberland, attempted to exclude his sister Mary from the succession and put Catherine’s elder sister Jane on the throne. To support this succession, Jane was married to Northumberland’s son, Guilford Dudley, on 21 May 1553. The same day, Catherine was married to Henry Herbert, son of William Herbert, 1st Earl of Pembroke at Durham House. After the wedding, Catherine went to live with her husband at Baynard’s Castle on the Thames.[3] When Jane’s accession failed due to a lack of popular support, the Earl of Pembroke sought to distance himself from the Grey family by separating from Catherine and seeking the annulment of the marriage.[4] Pembroke secured the Queen Mary‘s favour, but

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1st Cousin 14x Removed – Lady Catherine Grey — Biography after another rebellion Jane Grey, Guilford Dudley and their fathers were executed for high treason in February 1554. Potential Heir Under Mary And Elizabeth After Jane Grey’s execution, her sister Catherine inherited her claim to the throne. During the first phase of Queen Mary‘s reign, Catherine was a potential successor as Mary was yet unmarried and her younger sister Elizabeth was regarded as illegitimate.[5] Demoted when Elizabeth was declared heir, Catherine’s claim came to the fore again when Elizabeth came to the throne in November 1558. At one point the Queen seemed to be warming to Catherine as a potential Protestant heir, with rumours speaking of a possible adoption, but any such opportunities were cut short by Catherine’s second marriage. Second Marriage One of Catherine’s friends, Jane Seymour, daughter of Edward Seymour, 1st Duke of Somerset, introduced Catherine to her brother, Edward Seymour, 1st Earl of Hertford. Without seeking the Queen’s permission, the two were married in December 1560 in a secret ceremony at Edward’s house in Canon Row, with Jane Seymour being the only witness. Shortly afterwards, the Queen sent Edward Seymour with Thomas Cecil, eldest son of William Cecil, on a tour across Europe to improve their education. Seymour provided his wife with a document that would, in the event of his death, allow her to prove the marriage and inherit his property,[6] but Catherine lost the document. Thus, after Jane Seymour died of tuberculosis in 1561, Catherine was unable to prove that she was married. Imprisonment Catherine concealed the marriage from everyone for months, even after she became pregnant; in her eighth month of pregnancy and on progress with the Court in Ipswich, she decided to ask someone to plead for her with the Queen. She first confided in Bess of Hardwick, who refused to listen to Catherine and berated her for implicating her. Catherine then went to her brother-in-law, Robert Dudley. Visiting his bedroom in the middle of the night, she explained her dilemma. As Dudley’s room adjoined the Queen’s chamber, he was afraid they might be overheard or that he might be caught with a visibly pregnant woman at his bedside, and tried to get rid of Catherine as soon as he could. The next day he told Elizabeth everything he knew regarding Catherine and her pregnancy.[7] Elizabeth was greatly angered that her cousin had married without her permission. The marriage upset Anglo-Scottish diplomacy, as a possible union between Catherine and the Earl of Arran, a young and unstable nobleman with a strong claim to the Scottish throne, was now removed from the table.[8] The Queen also disapproved of her choice of husband and, still

Catherine Grey with her elder son Edward.

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1st Cousin 14x Removed – Lady Catherine Grey — Biography unmarried, also feared that Catherine’s ability to bear a son could facilitate a rebellion in support of Catherine as queen.[9] To Catherine’s misfortune, her claim to the throne was at the time argued by a book written by John Hales.[10] Elizabeth had Catherine imprisoned in the Tower of London, where Edward joined her on his return to England. Bess of Hardwick was also imprisoned, as Elizabeth became convinced that the marriage was part of a wider conspiracy against herself.[11] Sir Edward Warner, the Lieutenant of the Tower, permitted secret visits between Catherine and Edward. Warner reported that the furnishings of Catherine’s room, which were provided from the royal wardrobe in the Tower, had been damaged by her pet monkey and dogs.[12] While imprisoned in the Tower, Catherine gave birth to two sons:

Edward Seymour, Lord Beauchamp of Hache (1561–1612), who married Honora Rogers and fathered six children, including William Seymour, 2nd Duke of Somerset. Among his descendents was Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon, mother of Queen Elizabeth II. Thomas Seymour (born 1563).

In 1562, the marriage was annulled and the Seymours were censured as fornicators for their “carnal copulation” by the Archbishop of Canterbury‘s commission.[13] This rendered the children illegitimate and thus ineligible to succeed to the throne. However, they were nevertheless courted as potential heirs to the Crown. Final Years After the birth of her second child in 1563, the enraged Queen ordered Catherine’s permanent separation from her husband and younger son. Catherine was removed to the care of her uncle, Sir John Grey, at Pirgo. She stayed there until November 1564, when she was committed to the charge of Sir William Petre. For two years she was in his custody, and probably resided at Ingatestone Hall; then she was removed to Sir John Wentworth’s (a kinsman of Petre’s first wife) at Gosfield Hall, and after seventeen months’ confinement there was taken to Cockfield Hall at Yoxford in Suffolk. There, Lady Catherine died fourteen days later on 26 January 1568 at the age of twenty-seven of consumption.[14] She was buried in the Cockfield Chapel in Yoxford church in Suffolk. Notes 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. ^ Chapman p. 154. ^ Chapman, p. 156. ^ Chapman, p. 165. ^ Chapman, p. 166-167, 169. ^ Chapman, p. 169. ^ Chapman, p. 197 ^ Chapman, p. 199-200. ^ Calendar State Papers Scotland, vol. i, HMSO (1898), 483, Thomas Randolph to Cecil, 23 September 1560 ^ Chapman p. 200

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1st Cousin 14x Removed – Lady Catherine Grey — Biography 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. ^ Ellis, Original Letters, 2nd series vol. 2, London (1827), 285, note citing British Library Ms. Lansdown, no. 102 art. 49. ^ Chapman, p. 200-201. ^ Ellis, Original Letters, 2nd series vol. 2 (1827), 274, note citing British Library MS. Lansdown no.7 art. 32. ^ Chapman, p. 214. ^ Farquhar p.33 Chapman, Hester: Two Tudor Portraits: Henry Howard, Earl of Surrey and Lady Katherine Grey Jonathan Cape 1960 Farquhar, Michael: A Treasure of Royal Scandals Penguin Books 2001 ISBN 0739420259 de Lisle, Leanda: The Sisters Who Would be Queen: The Tragedy of Mary, Katherine & Lady Jane Grey Harper Press 2009 Ellis, Henry, Original Letters illustrative of English History, 2nd series vol. 2, London (1827), pp. 272–290. Catherine at Cockfield Hall — Tudor Place Anne Stanley, Countess of Castlehaven Lady Catherine Grey House Of Tudor Born: 25 August 1540 Died: 26 January 1568 English Royalty Disputed Heir To The English And Irish Thrones As Heiress Presumptive 6–19 July 1553

References
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Further Reading
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External Links

See Also

Preceded By Lady Jane Grey

Succeeded By Lady Elizabeth Tudor

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1st Cousin 14x Removed – Lady Jane Grey - Biography

Lady Jane Grey
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Queen of England and Ireland (disputed) (more...) Reign: 10 July 1553 – 19 July 1553 Predecessor: Edward VI Successor: Mary I Spouse: Lord Guilford Dudley Father: Henry Grey, 1st Duke of Suffolk Mother: Lady Frances Brandon Born: 1536/1537 Died: 12 February 1554 (aged 16–17), Tower of London, London Burial: St Peter ad Vincula, London Signature

Lady Jane Grey (1536/1537 – 12 February 1554), also the beginning of the 21st century and known as The Nine Days’ Queen,[2] was an English believed to be a copy of a contemporary noblewoman who was de facto monarch of England from 10 portrait of Lady Jane Grey.[1] July until 19 July 1553 and was subsequently executed. A great-granddaughter of Henry VII by his younger daughter Mary, Jane was a first-cousin-once-removed of Edward VI. In May 1553 Jane was married to Lord Guildford Dudley, a younger son of Edward’s chief minister, John Dudley, Duke of Northumberland. When the 15-year-old King lay dying in June 1553, he nominated Jane as successor to the Crown in his will, thus subverting the claims of his half-sisters Mary and Elizabeth under the Third Succession Act. During her short reign, Jane resided in the Tower of London. She became a prisoner there when the Privy Council decided to change sides and proclaim Mary as Queen on 19 July 1553. She was convicted of high treason in November 1553, though her life was initially spared. Wyatt’s rebellion in January and February 1554 against Queen Mary’s plans of a Spanish match led to her execution at the age of 16 or 17, and that of her husband. Lady Jane Grey had an excellent humanist education and a reputation as one of the most learned young women of her day.[3] A committed Protestant, she was posthumously regarded as not only a political victim but also a martyr. Early Life And Education Lady Jane Grey was the eldest daughter of Henry Grey, 1st Duke of Suffolk, and his wife, Lady Frances Brandon. The traditional view is that she was born at Bradgate Park in Leicestershire in October 1537, while more recent research indicates that she was born somewhat earlier, possibly in London, in late 1536 or in the spring of 1537.[4][5] Lady Frances was the daughter of Mary Tudor, Queen of France, the younger sister of Henry VIII. Jane had two younger sisters, Lady Catherine Grey and Lady Mary Grey; through their mother, the three sisters were great-granddaughters of Henry VII, grandnieces of Henry VIII, and first cousins once removed of Edward VI. Jane received a first-rate humanist education, studying Latin, Greek and Hebrew with John Aylmer, and Italian with Michelangelo Florio.[6] Through the influence of

The Streatham Portrait, discovered at

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1st Cousin 14x Removed – Lady Jane Grey - Biography her father and her tutors, she became a committed Protestant and also corresponded with the Zürich reformer, Heinrich Bullinger.[7] Jane preferred book studies to hunting parties[9] and regarded her strict upbringing, which was certainly well meant and typical of the time,[10] well-meant as harsh To the visiting scholar Roger Ascham, who found her reading harsh. , Plato she complained: Plato, “For when I am in the presence either of father or mother, whether I For speak, keep silence, sit, stand or go, eat, drink, be merry or sad, be sewing, playing, dancing, or doing anything else, I must do it as it were in such weight, measure and number, even so perfectly as God made the world; or else I am so sharply taunted, so cruelly threatened, yea presently sometimes with pinches, nips and bobs and other ways (which I will not name for the honour I bear them ... that I think myself in them) hell. [11] hell.” In early February 1547 Jane was sent to live in the household of Thomas Seymour who soon married Henry VIII’s widow, Catherine Parr. Jane Seymour, Parr lived with the couple until the death of Queen Catherine in childbirth in September 1548.[12] Contracts For Marriage Jane acted as chief mourner at Catherine Parr s funeral, and Thomas Seymour showed continued interest Parr’s in her, and she was again in his household for about two months when he was arrested at the end of 1548.[13] Seymour’s brother, the Lord Protector Edward Seymour, 1st Duke of Somerset, felt threatened Protector, Somerset by Thomas’ popularity with the young King Edward. Among other things, Thomas Seymour was charged . with proposing Jane as a royal bride.[14] In the course of Thomas Seymour’ following attainder and execution, Jane’s father was lucky to stay ’s s largely out of trouble. After his fourth interrogation by the Privy Council, he proposed his daughter Jane , as a bride for the Protector’s eldest son, Lord Hertford.[15] Nothing came of this, however, and Jane’s next s Jane engagement, in the spring of 1553, was to Lord Guilford Dudley, a younger son of John Dudley, 1st Duke of Northumberland.[16] Her prospective father law was then the most powerful man in the country.[17] father-in-law On 21 May 1553, the couple were married at Durham House in a triple wedding, in which Jane sister Catherine was Jane’s matched with the heir of the Earl of Pembroke Lord Herbert; Pembroke, and another Catherine, Lord Guilford sister, with Henry , Guilford’s Hastings, the Earl of Huntingdon‘s heir.[16] s Claim To The Throne And Accession See also: Third Succession Act The Third Succession Act of 1544 restored Henry VIII VIII’s daughters Mary and Elizabeth to the line of succession, although the law regarded them as illegitimate. Furthermore, “My devise for the Succession” by Edward this Act authorised Henry VIII to alter the succession by his VI. The draft will was the basis for the will. Henry’s will reinforced the succession of his three s letters patent which declared Lady Jane children, and then declared that, should none of them leave Grey successor to the Crown.[18] Edward’s heirs, the throne would pass to heirs of his younger sister, autograph shows his alteration of his text, from “L Janes heires masles” to “L Jane Mary Tudor, who included Jane (for unknown reasons, Henry for and her heires masles”.[19] excluded Jane’s mother, Frances Grey, from the s succession[20]). Henry’s will excluded the descendants of his elder sister Margaret Tudor owing in part to s dor,

Lady Jane Grey, engraving published 1620, possibly based on an earlier painting[8]

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1st Cousin 14x Removed – Lady Jane Grey - Biography Henry’s desire to keep the English throne out of the hands of the Scots monarchs, and in part to a previous Act of Parliament of 1431 that barred foreign-born persons, including royalty, from inheriting property in England. When the 15-year-old Edward VI lay dying in the early summer of 1553, his Catholic half-sister Mary was still the heiress presumptive to the throne. However, Edward, in a draft will composed earlier in 1553, had first restricted the succession to (non-existent) male descendants of Frances Brandon and her daughters, before he named his Protestant cousin Jane Grey as his successor on his deathbed,[21] perhaps under the persuasion of Northumberland.[22] Edward VI personally supervised the copying of his will which was finally issued as letters patent on 21 June and signed by 102 notables, among them the whole Privy Council, peers, bishops, judges, and London aldermen.[23] Edward also announced to have his “declaration” passed in parliament in September, and the necessary writs were prepared.[24] Many contemporary legal theorists believed the monarch could not contravene an Act of Parliament without passing a new one that would have established the altered succession;[citation needed] Jane’s claim to the throne therefore remained weak. The King died on 6 July 1553. On 9 July Jane was informed that she was now queen, and according to her own later claims accepted the crown only with reluctance. The next day, she was officially proclaimed Queen of England after she had taken up secure residence in the Tower of London, where English monarchs customarily resided from the time of accession until coronation. Jane refused to name her husband Dudley as king by letters patent and deferred to Parliament. She offered to make him Duke of Clarence instead. Northumberland faced a number of key tasks to consolidate his power after Edward’s death. Most importantly, he had to isolate and, ideally, capture Lady Mary to prevent her from gathering support. As soon as Mary was sure of King Edward’s demise, she left her residence at Hunsdon and set out to East Anglia, where she began to rally her supporters. Northumberland set out from London with troops on 14 July; in his absence the Privy Council switched their allegiance from Jane to Mary, and proclaimed her queen in London on 19 July among great jubilation of the populace. Jane was imprisoned in the Tower’s Gentleman Gaoler’s apartments, her husband in the Beauchamp Tower. The new queen entered London in a triumphal procession on 3 August, and the Duke of Northumberland was executed on 22 August 1553. In September, Parliament declared Mary the rightful queen and denounced and revoked Jane’s proclamation as that of a usurper. Jane and Lord Guildford Dudley were both charged with high treason, together with two of Dudley’s brothers and the former Archbishop of Canterbury, Thomas Cranmer. Their trial, by a special commission, took place on 13 November 1553, at the Guildhall in the City of London. The commission was chaired by Sir Thomas White, Lord Mayor of London, and Thomas Howard, 3rd Duke of Norfolk. Other members included Edward Stanley, 3rd Earl of Derby and John Bourchier, 2nd Earl of Bath. As was to be expected, all defendants were found guilty and sentenced to death. Jane’s sentence was that she “be burned alive on Tower Hill or beheaded as the Queen pleases” (the traditional English punishment for treason committed by women).[25] However, the imperial ambassador reported to Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, that her life was to be spared.[26] The Protestant rebellion of Thomas Wyatt the younger in late January 1554 sealed Jane’s fate, although she had nothing to do with it directly. Wyatt’s rebellion started as a popular revolt, precipitated by planned marriage of Mary to the future Philip II of Spain. Jane’s father (the Duke of Suffolk) and other
Official letter of Lady Jane Grey signing herself as “Jane the Quene”

Trial And Execution

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1st Cousin 14x Removed – Lady Jane Grey - Biography nobles joined the rebellion. Charles V and his ambassadors pressed Mary to execute Jane to put an end to any future focus for unrest. Five days after Wyatt’s arrest, Jane and Guilford were executed. On the morning of 12 February 1554, the authorities took Guilford from his rooms at the Tower of London to the public execution place at Tower Hill and there had him beheaded. A horse and cart brought his remains back to the Tower of London, past the rooms where Jane remained as a prisoner. Jane was then taken out to Tower Green, inside the Tower of London, and beheaded in private. With few exceptions, only royalty were offered the privilege of a private execution; Jane’s execution was conducted in private on the orders of Queen Mary, as a gesture of respect for her cousin.

According to the account of her execution given in the anonymous Chronicle of Queen Jane and of Two Years of Queen Mary, which formed the basis for Raphael Holinshed‘s depiction, Jane gave a speech upon ascending the scaffold:[27] Good people, I am come hither to die, and by a law I am condemned to the same. The fact, indeed, against the Queen’s highness was unlawful, and the consenting thereunto by me: but touching the procurement and desire thereof by me or on my behalf, I do wash my hands thereof in innocency, before God, and the face of you, good Christian people, this day. She then recited Psalm 51 (Have mercy upon me, O God) in English,[27] and handed her gloves and handkerchief to her maid. John Feckenham, a Catholic chaplain sent by Mary who had failed to convert Jane, stayed with her during the execution. The executioner asked her forgiveness, and she gave it.[27] She pleaded the axeman, “I pray you dispatch me quickly.” Referring to her head, she asked, “Will you take it off before I lay me down?” and the axeman answered, “No, madam.” She then blindfolded herself. Jane had resolved to go to her death with dignity, but once blindfolded, failing to find the block with her hands, began to panic and cried, “What shall I do? Where is it?”[27] An unknown hand, possibly Sir Thomas Brydges’, then helped her find her way and retain her dignity at the end. With her head on the block, Jane spoke the last words of Jesus as recounted by Luke: “Lord, into thy hands I commend my spirit!”[27] She was then beheaded. Jane and Guilford are buried in the Chapel of St Peter ad Vincula on the north side of Tower Green. Jane’s father, Duke of Suffolk, was executed a week after Jane, on 19 February 1554. Her mother, the Duchess of Suffolk, married her Master of the Horse and chamberlain, Adrian Stokes in March 1555 (not as often said, three weeks after the execution of the Duke of Suffolk).[28] She was fully pardoned by Mary and allowed to live at Court with her two surviving daughters. She died in 1559. Legacy Main article: Cultural depictions of Lady Jane Grey “The traitor-heroine of the Reformation”, as historian Albert Pollard called her,[29] was merely 16 or 17 years old at the time of her execution. During and in the aftermath of the Marian persecutions, Jane became viewed as a Protestant martyr for centuries, featuring prominently in the several editions of the Book of Martyrs by John Foxe. The tale of Lady Jane grew to legendary proportions in popular culture, producing a flood of romantic biographies, novels, plays, paintings, and films, one of which was the 1986 production Lady Jane, starring Helena Bonham Carter. References 1. ^ Higgins, Charlotte (2006-01-16). “Is this the true face of Lady Jane?”. The Guardian. http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk/2006/jan/16/arts.research. Retrieved 2008-05-11.

The Execution of Lady Jane Grey, by the French painter Paul Delaroche, 1833

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1st Cousin 14x Removed – Lady Jane Grey - Biography 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. ^ Ives 2009, p. 2 ^ Ascham 1863, p. 213 ^ Ives 2009, pp. 36, 299 ^ de Lisle 2008, pp. 5–8 ^ Ives 2009, pp. 51, 65 ^ Ives 2009, pp. 63–67 ^ Ives 2009, p. 15 ^ Ives 2009, p. 51 ^ Ives 2009, p. 53 ^ Ives 2009, p. 52 ^ Ives 2009, pp. 42–45 ^ Ives 2009, pp. 45–47 ^ Ives 2009, pp. 47–49 ^ Ives 2009, pp. 47 ^ a b Loades 1996, pp. 238–239 ^ Loades 1996, p. 179 ^ Ives 2009, p. 137 ^ Alford 2002, pp. 171–172 ^ Ives 2009, p. 35 ^ Alford 2002, pp. 171–172 ^ Loades 1996, p. 240 ^ Ives 2009, pp. 145, 165–166 ^ Dale Hoak: “Edward VI (1537–1553)”, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004, online edn. Jan 2008, Retrieved 2010-04-04 (subscription required) ^ Ives 2009, pp. 251–252, 334 ^ Plowden, Alison (2004-09-23). “Grey, Lady Jane (1534–1554), noblewoman and claimant to the English throne”. Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0198613628. ^ a b c d e Anonymous (1997) [1850], “1554, The Execution of Lady Jane Grey and Lord Guildford Dudley”, in Nichols, John Gough, Chronicle of Queen Jane and of Two Years of Queen Mary, The Camden Society; Marilee Hanson, http://englishhistory.net/tudor/exjane.html ^ Ives 2009, p. 38 ^ Pollard, Albert J. (1911). The History of England. London: Longmans, Green. p. 111. http://www.questia.com/read/58544100. Alford, Stephen (2002), Kingship and Politics in the Reign of Edward VI, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 9780521039710

27.

28. 29.

Bibliography

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1st Cousin 14x Removed – Lady Jane Grey - Biography Ascham, Roger. Mayor, John E. B. ed. The Scholemaster (1863 ed.). London: Bell and Daldy. OCLC B.. . 251212421. http://www.archive.org/details/scholemasterorp00aschgoog http://www.archive.org/details/scholemasterorp00aschgoog. de Lisle, Leanda (2008). The Sisters who would be Queen - the Tragedy of Mary, Katherine and Lady Jane Grey. London: Harper Press. ISBN 978-0-00-721906-3. . Ives, Eric (2009). Lady Jane Grey: A Tudor Mystery. Malden MA; Oxford UK: Wiley-Blackwell. Mystery. Wiley ISBN 978-1-4051-9413-6. Loades, David (1996), John Dudley Duke of Northumberland 1504 1504–1553, Oxford: Clarendon Press, , ISBN 0198201931

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External Links Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Lady Jane Grey
• •

Edwards, J. Stephan. “Somegreymatter.com http://www.somegreymatter.com/index.html. Somegreymatter.com”. http://www.somegreymatter.com/index.html Works by or about Lady Jane Grey in libraries (WorldCat catalog) Jane Of England House Of Grey Cadet Branch Of The House Of Tudor Born 1537 Died: 12 February 1554 Born: Regnal Titles Disputed Queen Of England 10–19 July 1553 English Royalty Heir To The English And Irish Thrones As Heiress Presumptive Under Edward VI’s Will 21 June – 6 July 1553

Preceded By Edward VI Preceded By Lady Mary Tudor

Succeeded By Mary I Succeeded By Lady Catherine Grey

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1st Cousin 14x Removed – Lady Jane Grey - Biography

Lord Guildford Dudley
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Lord Guildford Dudley Born: c. 1535 Died: 12 February 1554, Tower Hill, London Cause of death: Decapitation Resting place: St Peter ad Vincula, London Known for: English royal consort (disputed) Spouse: Lady Jane Grey Parents John Dudley, 1st Duke of Northumberland Jane Guildford Lord Guildford Dudley (also spelt Guilford) (c. 1535[1] – 12 February 1554) was the husband of Lady Jane Grey who, declared as his heir by King Edward VI, occupied the English throne from 6/10 July till 19 July 1553. Guildford Dudley enjoyed a humanist education and was married to Jane in a magnificent celebration about six weeks before the King's death. After Guildford's father, the Duke of Northumberland, had engineered Jane's accession, Jane and Guildford spent their brief rule residing in the Tower of London, acting in the roles of queen and king. Guildford's demand to be made an actual king was declined by Jane, however. They were still in the Tower when their regime collapsed and remained there, in different quarters, as prisoners. They were condemned to death for high treason in November 1553. Queen Mary I was inclined

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1st Cousin 14x Removed – Lady Jane Grey - Biography to spare their lives, but Thomas Wyatt's rebellion against her plans to marry Philip of Spain led to the young couple's execution, a measure that was widely seen as unduly harsh. Family And Marriage Guildford Dudley was the second youngest surviving son of John Dudley, 1st Duke of Northumberland and his wife Jane, daughter of Sir Edward Guildford.[2] The Dudley lineage goes back to a family called Sutton. In the early 14th century they became the lords of Dudley Castle,[3] from whom Guildford descended through his paternal grandfather. This was Edmund Dudley, a councillor to Henry VII, who was executed after his royal master's death. Through his father's mother, Elizabeth Grey, Viscountess Lisle, Guildford descended from the Hundred Years War heroes, Richard Beauchamp, Earl of Warwick, and John Talbot, 1st Earl of Shrewsbury.[4] The Dudley children—there were thirteen born in all—grew up in a Protestant household and enjoyed a humanist education.[5] Under the young King Edward VI, Guildford's father became Lord President of the Privy Council and de facto ruled England from 1550–1553.[6] The cronicler Richard Grafton, who knew him,[7] described Guildford as "a comely, virtuous and goodly gentleman".[8] In 1552 Northumberland unsuccessfully tried to marry Guildford to Margaret Clifford, a cousin of Jane Grey.[9] Instead, in the spring of 1553, Guildford was engaged to the sixteen-year-old Jane Grey herself.[10] Jane Grey figured higher in the line of succession than Margaret Clifford.[2][note 1] At Whitsun, on 21 May and the next days, three weddings were celebrated at Durham Place, the Duke of Northumberland's town mansion. Guildford married Jane, his sister Katherine was matched with Henry Hastings, the Earl of Huntingdon's heir, and another Catherine, Jane's sister, married Lord Herbert, the heir of the Earl of Pembroke.[11][note 2] It was a magnificent festival, with jousts, games, and masques. For the latter, two different companies had been booked, one male, one female. The Venetian and French ambassadors were guests, and there were "large numbers of the common people ... and of the most principal of the realm".[8] Guildford and some others suffered an attack of food poisoning, because of "a mistake made by a cook, who plucked one leaf for another."[14] Acting As Consort Mortally ill, King Edward, in his "Device of the Succession", settled the Crown on his cousin once removed, Jane Grey, bypassing his half-sisters Mary and Elizabeth Tudor. After Edward's death on 6 July 1553 the Duke of Northumberland undertook the enforcement of the King's will.[15] The envoys of the Holy Roman Empire and France were sure of the plan's success.[16] Jane was reluctant to accept the Crown: She gave in after remonstrances by an assembly of nobles, including her parents and in-laws; Guildford chimed in with a lovelier approach, with "prayers and caresses".[17] On 10 July Jane and Guildford The Crown Offered to Lady Jane Grey, as imagined in the made their ceremonial entry into the Tower of 1820s: Guildford and Jane are in the centre London.[18] Residing in there, Guildford wanted to be made king; according to her own later account, Jane had a long discussion about this with Guildford, who "assented that if he were to be made king, he would be so by me, by Act of Parliament".[19] But then, Jane would agree only to make him Duke of Clarence—"I will not be a duke, I will be King", Guildford replied.[20] When the Duchess of Northumberland heard of the argument she became furious and forbade Guildford to sleep any longer with his wife. She also commanded him to leave the Tower and go home, but Jane insisted that he remain at court, at her side.[21]

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1st Cousin 14x Removed – Lady Jane Grey - Biography According to later remarks by the Imperial ambassadors the daily Council meetings were presided by Guildford, who allegedly also dined in state alone and had himself addressed in regal style.[22] Antoine de Noailles, the French ambassador, described Guildford as "the new King".[23] The Imperial court in Brussels also believed in the existence of King Guildford.[19] Imprisonment On 10 July, the same day as Jane's proclamation, a letter from Mary Tudor arrived in London, saying that she was now queen and demanding the obedience of the Council.[24] Mary was assembling her supporters in East Anglia; it was decided to take the field against her after some discussion over who should go, in which Queen Jane made sure that her father should not.[25] The Duke of Northumberland marched to Cambridge with his troops and passed a week that saw no action, until he heard on 20 July that the Council in London had declared for Mary. Northumberland now proclaimed Mary Tudor himself at the market-place and was arrested the next morning.[26] On 19 July, a few hours before Queen Mary's proclamation in London, the baptism of one of the Gentlemen Pensioners' children took place. Queen Jane had agreed to be the godmother and wished the child's name to be Guildford.[27] The Bishop of Winchester, Stephen Gardiner, who had been imprisoned in the Tower for five years, took great offence at this fact as he heard of it.[28] A majority of the Privy Council moved out of the Tower before switching their allegiance.[29] Becoming aware of his colleagues' change of mind, Jane's father, the Duke of Suffolk, abandoned his command over the fortress and proclaimed Mary on nearby Tower Hill. After he had left his Duchess was told she could also go home,[27] while Jane, Guildford, and the Duchess of Northumberland were not allowed to.[30] Later Jane was moved from the Royal apartments to the Gentleman Gaoler's lodgings and Guildford was imprisoned in the Bell Tower. There he was soon joined by his brother, Robert.[31] His remaining brothers were imprisoned in other towers, as was his father, who was for the moment the only prominent person to go to the scaffold; Queen Mary was prepared to spare Jane's and Guildford's lives.[32] Jane and Guildford were indicted on 12 August,[34] and Jane submitted a letter of explanation to Queen Mary, "asking forgiveness ... for the sin she was accused of, informing her majesty about the truth of events."[35] In this account she spoke of herself as "a wife who loves her husband".[36] On 14 November 1553 Jane and Guildford were tried at Guildhall, together with Archbishop Cranmer and Guildford's brothers Ambrose and Henry. They were all convicted of high treason after pleading guilty.[37] Guildford was convicted of compassing to depose Queen Mary by sending troops to the Duke of Northumberland and by proclaiming and honouring Jane as queen.[38]

In December Jane was allowed to walk freely in the Queen's Garden.[39] "Lord Robert and Lord Guildford" had to be content with taking the air on the leads of the Bell Tower.[40] Jane and Guildford may have had some contact with each other,[41] and at some point Guildford wrote a message to his father-in-law in Jane's prayer book: Your loving and obedient son wishes unto your grace long life in this world with as much joy and comfort as ever I wish to myself, and in the world to come joy everlasting. Your humble son to his death, G. Dudley[8] Execution Queen Mary's plan to marry Philip II of Spain was greeted with widespread opposition, not just among the populace but also among Members of Parliament and privy councillors. Thomas Wyatt's Rebellion in early 1554, in which the Duke of Suffolk took part, was a result of this dislike.[42] It was not the intention

"JANE" carving in the Tower of London, traditionally believed to have been made by Guildford Dudley[33]

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1st Cousin 14x Removed – Lady Jane Grey - Biography of the conspirators to bring Jane Grey on the throne again. Nevertheless the government, at the height of the military crisis around 7 February, decided to execute Jane and her husband, possibly out of panic. It was also an opportunity for removing possible inspirations for future unrest and unwelcome reminders of the past.[43] Mary was still hesitant to let her cousin die; Simon Renard, the Imperial ambassador, and highranking Council members—some of them the very same who had been instrumental in placing Jane on the throne—prevailed upon her.[44] Bishop Gardiner pressed for the young couple's execution in a court sermon.[45] Soon, Renard was confident that "Jane of Suffolk and her husband are to lose their heads."[46] The day before their executions Guildford asked Jane for a last meeting, which she refused, explaining it "would only ... increase their misery and pain, it was better to put it off ... as they would meet shortly elsewhere, and live bound by indissoluble ties."[47] Around ten o'clock in the morning of 12 February Guildford was led towards Tower Hill, where "many ... gentlemen" waited to shake hands with him.[48] Guildford made a short speech to the assembled crowd, as was customary.[49] "Having no ghostly father with him",[50][note 3] he kneeled, prayed, and asked the people to pray for him, "holding up his eyes and hands to God many times".[7] He was killed with one stroke of the axe, after which his body was conveyed on a cart to the Tower chapel of St Peter ad Vincula. Watching the scene from her window, Jane exclaimed: "Oh, Guildford, Guildford!"[7] He was buried in the chapel with Jane who was dead within an hour after him.[51] The executions did not contribute to the government's popularity.[7] Five months after the couple's death, John Knox, the future Scottish reformer, wrote of them as "innocents ... such as by just laws and faithful witnesses can never be proved to have offended by themselves".[45] Of Guildford, the chronicler Grafton wrote ten years later: "even those that never before the time of his execution saw him, did with lamentable tears bewail his death".[7] See Also
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Cultural depictions of Lady Jane Grey Lady Jane Tudor Rose (film)

Footnotes 1. ^ Jane Grey was the daughter of Frances Grey, Duchess of Suffolk, a niece of Henry VIII by his younger sister Mary. 2. ^ Traditionally these matches came to be seen as part of a conspiracy by the Duke of Northumberland to bring his family to the throne. Some historians, though, like David Loades, W.K. Jordan[12] and Eric Ives,[13] have interpreted them as "routine actions of dynastic politics".[11] 3. ^ Guildford had probably refused to be attended by a Catholic priest and been denied a Protestant divine.[50] Citations 1. ^ Richardson 2008 2. ^ a b Loades 1996 p. 238 3. ^ Wilson 1981 pp. 1–4 4. ^ Wilson 1981 pp. 1, 3; Adams 2002 pp. 312–313 5. ^ Adams 2008; Chapman 1962 p. 65 6. ^ Loades 1996 pp. 147, 285 7. ^ a b c d e Ives 2009 p. 275 8. ^ a b c Ives 2009 p. 185 9. ^ Loades 1996 pp. 226, 238 10. ^ Ives 2009 pp. 185, 36

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1st Cousin 14x Removed – Lady Jane Grey - Biography 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50. 51. ^ a b Loades 1996 p. 239 ^ Jordan and Gleason 1975 pp. 10–11 ^ Ives 2009 p. 153 ^ Chapman 1962 p. 82 ^ Alford 2002 pp. 171–172 ^ Loades 1996 p. 256–257 ^ Ives 2009 p. 187 ^ Ives 2009 p. 188 ^ a b Ives 2009 p. 189 ^ Chapman 1962 p. 118; Ives 2009 p. 189 ^ Chapman 1962 pp. 117–118; Ives 2009 p. 189 ^ Ives 2009 pp. 189, 241 ^ Chapman 1962 p. 121 ^ Chapman 1962 p. 122 ^ Ives 2009 p. 198 ^ Ives 2009 pp. 246, 241–242, 243–244 ^ a b Ives 2009 p. 215 ^ Ives 2009 pp. 184, 241 ^ Ives 2009 p. 214 ^ Ives 2009 p. 241 ^ Ives 2009 p. 249; Wilson 1981 p. 59 ^ Wilson 1981 pp. 59, 62, 63 ^ Wilson 1981 p. 61 ^ Ives 2009 p. 247 ^ Ives 2009 p. 18 ^ Ives 2009 p. 186 ^ Wilson 1981 p. 63 ^ Bellamy 1979 p. 54 ^ Ives 2009 pp. 252, 355 ^ Nichols 1850 p. 33 ^ Ives 2009 p. 252; Wilson 1981 p. 59 ^ Ives 2009 pp. 261–262 ^ Ives 2009 pp. 265–268 ^ Chapman 1962 p. 195; Tytler 1839 p. 292 ^ a b Ives 2009 p. 268 ^ Chapman 1962 p. 190 ^ Ives 2009 p. 274 ^ Nichols 1850 p. 55; Ives 2009 p. 274–275 ^ Chapman 1962 p. 204 ^ a b Nichols 1850 p. 55 ^ Chapman 1962 p. 203 Adams, Simon (2002): Leicester and the Court: Essays in Elizabethan Politics Manchester University Press ISBN 0719053250 Adams, Simon (2008): "Dudley, Robert, earl of Leicester (1532/3–1588)" Oxford Dictionary of National Biography online edn. May 2008 (subscription required) Retrieved 2010-04-03 Alford, Stephen (2002): Kingship and Politics in the Reign of Edward VI Cambridge University Press ISBN 9780521039710

References
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1st Cousin 14x Removed – Lady Jane Grey - Biography Bellamy, John (1979): The Tudor Law of Treason: An Introduction Routledge & Kegan Paul ISBN 0802022669 Chapman, Hester (1962): Lady Jane Grey Jonathan Cape Ives, Eric (2009): Lady Jane Grey: A Tudor Mystery Wiley-Blackwell ISBN 9781405194136 Jordan, W.K. and M.R. Gleason (1975): The Saying of John Late Duke of Northumberland Upon the Scaffold, 1553 Harvard Library LCCN 75-15032 Loades, David (1996): John Dudley, Duke of Northumberland 1504–1553 Clarendon Press ISBN 0198201931 Nichols, J.G. (ed.) (1850): The Chronicle of Queen Jane Camden Society Richardson, G. J. (2008): "Dudley, Lord Guildford (c.1535–1554)" Oxford Dictionary of National Biography online edn. Oct 2008 (subscription required) Retrieved 2010-05-19 Tytler, P. F. (1839): England under the Reigns of Edward VI. and Mary Vol. II Richard Bentley Wilson, Derek (1981): Sweet Robin: A Biography of Robert Dudley Earl of Leicester 1533–1588 Hamish Hamilton ISBN 0241101492 Guilford Dudley at The Internet Movie Database

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External Links

English Royalty Vacant Title Last Held By Catherine Parr Royal Consort Of England 10–19 July 1553 Vacant Title Next Held By Anne Of Denmark

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1st Cousin 14x Removed – Lady Mary Grey — Biography

Lady Mary Grey
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Spouse: Thomas Keyes Father: Henry Grey, 1st Duke of Suffolk Mother: Lady Frances Brandon Born: 1545 Northumberland, England Died: April 1578 (aged 32–33), St. Dunstan and All Saints, Stepney, Middlesex, England Lady Mary Grey (1545 – 20 April 1578), sometimes spelled Marie, was the third and youngest daughter of Henry Grey, 1st Duke of Suffolk and Lady Frances Brandon. Mary was described as the smallest person at court, crooked backed and “very ugly”. Her reported deformity could be described as kyphosis. Mary was a younger sister of Lady Jane Grey and Lady Catherine Grey. Her maternal grandparents were Charles Brandon, 1st Duke of Suffolk and Mary Tudor, former Queen consort of France, who was the younger daughter of King Henry VII of England. As great-grandchildren of Henry VII, Mary and her sisters were Mary Grey potential heirs to the throne. When King Edward VI of England died in 1553, the Duke of Northumberland tried to make Mary’s eldest sister Jane Queen. This intrigue failed, ending in Jane’s execution; Edward was instead succeeded by his older half-sisters, Mary I, and then Elizabeth I. Since Queens Mary and Elizabeth were both childless, the surviving Grey sisters were considered likely heirs to the throne, and were not permitted to marry without Elizabeth’s permission. In 1565, Mary was imprisoned for having married in 1563 royal gatekeeper Thomas Keyes, without the permission of Queen Elizabeth. The marriage surprised some at court, since Keyes was an unusually large man whose height contrasted with that of the tiny Mary; William Cecil wrote to Sir Thomas Smith, “The Sergeant Porter, being the biggest gentleman at Court, hath married secretly the Lady Mary Grey, least of all the Court”.[1] When Catherine Grey died in 1568, Mary was brought to relative prominence as the last surviving grandchild of Mary Tudor. Since Catherine Grey’s children were considered illegitimate, some regarded Mary as heiress presumptive to the English throne.[1] She remained under house arrest until 1572 following the death of Keyes in 1571, and was permitted to attend Court occasionally. In spite of the intrigues involving her sisters, it does not appear that Mary Grey ever made a serious claim to the throne. She died childless and in some poverty, in 1578, aged 33.[1] References 1. ^ a b c Mary S. Lovell, Bess of Hardwick (Abacus, 2005), p.178. • Britannia.com • Life in Elizabethan England • De Lisle, Leanda (2009). The Sisters Who Would Be Queen; the Tragedy of Katherine, Mary, & Lady Jane Grey. London: HarperPress. ISBN 978-0-00-721905-6.

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001st Cousin 15 Removed Cousin Mary Boleyn

1st Cousin 14x Removed Cousin Anne Bolyen Bolyen-Tudor — Biography

Anne Boleyn-Tudor
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Queen consort of England Reign: 28 May 1533 – 17 May 1536 Coronation: 1 June 1533 Spouse: Henry VIII of England Issue: Elizabeth I Of England House: House of Tudor Father: Thomas Boleyn, 1st Earl of Wiltshire Mother: Lady Elizabeth Howard Born: c.1501/1507, Blickling Hall/ Hever Castle, England Died: 19 May 1536 (aged 29-35), Beheaded, Tower of London , Signature:

Religion: Anglican, formerly Roman Catholic [1]
Anne Boleyn Anne Boleyn;[2][3] c.1501/1507[4] – 19 May 1536) was Queen of Later copy of an original portrait, which England from 1533 to 1536 as the second wife of Henry VIII of was painted in about 1534. Several England and Marquess of Pembroke in her own right.[5] Henry’s portraits of Anne are housed in the Tudor marriage to Anne, and her subsequent execution, made her a key portrait collection at Hever Castle as are figure in the political and religious upheaval that was the start of two of her Books of Hours which are the English Reformation. A commone Anne was the daughter of . commoner, signed and inscribed by her. Thomas Boleyn, 1st Earl of Wiltshire and his wife, Lady Elizabeth Howard, and was educated in the Netherlands and France, largely as a maid of honour to Claude of , France. She returned to England in early 1522, in order to marry her Irish cousin James Butler, 9th Earl of Ormond; however, the marriage plans ended in failure and she secured a post at court as maid of honour ; to Henry VIII’s queen consort, Catherine of Aragon Aragon.

Early in 1523 there was a secret betrothal between Anne and Henry Percy son of the 5th Earl of Northumberland. However, in January of 1524 Cardinal Thomas Wolsey broke the betrothal, Anne was . sent back home to Hever Castle, and Percy was married to Lady Mary Talbot, to whom he had been , betrothed since adolescence. In February/ March of 1526 Henry VIII began courtly pursuit of Anne. She resisted his attempts to seduce her, refusing to become his mistress as her sister Mary had. It soon became the one absorbing object of Henry’s desires to annul his marriage to Queen Catherine so he would be free s to marry Anne. When it became clear that Pope Clement VII would not annul the marriage, the breaking of the power of the Catholic Church in England began. In 1532, Henry granted her the Marquesate of Pembroke. Henry and Anne married on 25 January 153 On 23 May 1533 Thomas Cranmer declared Henry and 1533. Catherine’s marriage null and void; five days later, he declared Henry and Anne s marriage to be good s Anne’s and valid. Shortly afterwards, the Pope decreed sentences of excommunication against Henry and rwards, Cranmer. As a result of this marriage and these excommunications, the first break between the Church of England and Rome took place and the Church of England was brought under the King control. Anne King’s was crowned Queen of England on 1 June 1533. On 7 September she gave birth to the future Elizabeth I of England. To Henry’s displeasure, however, she failed to produce a male heir. Henry was not totally s

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1st Cousin 14x Removed Cousin Anne Bolyen-Tudor — Biography discouraged, for he said that he loved Elizabeth and that a son would surely follow. Three miscarriages followed, however, and by March 1536, Henry was courting Jane Seymour. Henry had Anne investigated for high treason in April 1536. On 2 May she was arrested and sent to the Tower of London, where she was tried before a jury of peers and found guilty on 15 May. She was beheaded four days later on Tower Green. Modern historians view the charges against her, which included adultery and incest, as unconvincing. Following the coronation of her daughter, Elizabeth, as queen, Anne was venerated as a martyr and heroine of the English Reformation, particularly through the works of John Foxe.[6] Over the centuries, she has inspired or been mentioned in numerous artistic and cultural works. As a result, she has retained her hold on the popular imagination. Anne has been called “the most influential and important queen consort England has ever had,”[7] since she provided the occasion for Henry VIII to divorce Catherine of Aragon, and declare his independence from Rome. Early Years Anne was the daughter of Thomas Boleyn, later Earl of Wiltshire and Earl of Ormond, and his wife, Lady Elizabeth Howard, daughter of Thomas Howard, 2nd Duke of Norfolk. Thomas Boleyn was a respected diplomat with a gift for languages; he was also a favourite of Henry VII of England, who sent him on many diplomatic missions abroad. Anne and her siblings grew up at Hever Castle in Kent. A lack of parish records from the period has made it impossible to establish Anne’s date of birth. Contemporary evidence is contradictory, with several dates having been put forward by various historians. An Italian, writing in 1600, suggested that she had been born in 1499, while Sir Thomas More’s son-in-law, William Roper, indicated a much later date of 1512. However her birth was most likely sometime between 1501 and 1507. As with Anne herself, it is uncertain when her two siblings were born, but it seems clear that her sister Mary was older than Anne. Mary’s children clearly believed their mother had been the elder sister.[8] Most historians now agree that Mary was born in 1499. Mary’s grandson claimed the Ormonde title in 1596 on the basis she was the elder daughter, which Elizabeth I accepted.[9][10] Also, Mary was married first, and by custom, the eldest daughter would be married before the younger. Their brother George was born some time around 1504.[11][12] The academic debate about Anne’s birth date focuses on two key dates: 1501 and 1507. Eric Ives, a British historian and legal expert, advocates the 1501 date, while Retha Warnicke, an American scholar who has also written a biography of Anne, prefers 1507. The key piece of surviving written evidence is a letter Anne wrote sometime in 1514.[13] She wrote it in French to her father, who was still living in England while Anne was completing her education at Mechelen, in the contemporary Netherlands, now Belgium. Ives argues that the style of the letter and its mature handwriting prove that Anne must have been about thirteen at the time of its composition, while Warnicke argues that the numerous misspellings and grammar errors show that the letter was written by a child. In Ives’s view this would also be around the minimum age that a girl could be a Anne’s sister Mary Boleyn Maid of Honour, as Anne was to the regent, Margaret of Austria, Duchess of Savoy. This is supported by claims by a chronicler from the late 16th century, who wrote that Anne was twenty when she returned from France.[14] These findings are contested by Warnicke in several books and articles, but the evidence does not conclusively support either date.[15] Anne’s great-grandparents included a Lord Mayor of London, a duke, an earl, two aristocratic ladies, and a knight. One of them, Geoffrey Boleyn, had been a mercer and wool merchant before becoming Lord Mayor.[16][17] The Boleyn family originally came from Blickling in Norfolk, fifteen miles north of Norwich.[16] At the time of Anne’s birth, the Boleyn family was considered one of the most respected in the English aristocracy. Among her relatives, she numbered the Howards, one of the pre-eminent families in the land; and one of her ancestors included King Edward I of England. According to Eric Ives, she was

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1st Cousin 14x Removed Cousin Anne Bolyen-Tudor — Biography certainly of more noble birth than Jane Seymour, Catherine Howard, and Catherine Parr, Henry VIII’s three other English wives.[18] The spelling of the Boleyn name was variable. Sometimes it was written as Bullen, hence the bull heads which formed part of her family arms.[19] At the court of Margaret of Austria in the Netherlands, Anne is listed as Boullan. [10] From there she signed the letter to her father as Anna de Boullan.[20] She is also referred to as “Anna Bolina” (which is Latin); that name is in most portraits of her.[20] Anne’s early education was typical for women of her class. Her academic education was limited to arithmetic, her family genealogy, grammar, history, reading, spelling, and writing. She developed domestic skills such as dancing, embroidery, good manners, household management, music, needlework, and singing. Anne learned to play games, such as cards, chess, and dice. She was also taught archery, falconry, horseback riding, and hunting. Netherlands And France Anne’s father continued his diplomatic career under Henry VIII. In Europe Thomas Boleyn’s charm won many admirers, including Archduchess Margaret of Austria, daughter of Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor. During this period, she ruled the Netherlands on her father’s behalf and was so impressed with Boleyn that she offered his daughter Anne a place in her household. Ordinarily, a girl had to be twelve years old to have such an honour, but Anne may have been younger, as the Archduchess affectionately referred to her as “la petite Boulin [sic]”.[21] Anne made a good impression in the Netherlands with Claude of France, queen consort her manners and studiousness, Margaret reported that she was well of Francis I. Anne served as her spoken and pleasant for her young age (“son josne eaige”).[22] and told maid of honour for nearly seven years Sir Thomas Boleyn that his daughter was “so presentable and so pleasant, considering her youthful age, that I am more beholden to you for sending her to me, than you to me” (E.W. Ives, op.cit.). Anne stayed with Margaret from spring 1513 until her father arranged for her to attend Henry VIII’s sister, Mary Tudor, Queen of France, for Mary’s marriage to Louis XII of France in October 1514. In France Anne was a maid of honour to Queen Mary, and then to 15-year-old Queen Claude of France, with whom she stayed nearly seven years.[23][24] In the Queen’s household she completed her study of French and developed interests in fashion and religious philosophy. She also acquired knowledge of French culture and etiquette.[25] Though all knowledge about Anne’s experiences in the French court are conjecture, even Eric Ives, in his latest edition of the biography, conjectures that she was likely to have made the acquaintance of King Francis I‘s sister, Marguerite de Navarre, a patron of humanists and reformers. Marguerite de Navarre was also an author in her own right, and her works include elements of Christian mysticism and reform that, but for her protection as the French king’s beloved sister, verged on heresy. She or her circle may have encouraged Anne’s interest in reform, as well as in poetry and literature.[24] Anne’s education in France proved itself in later years, inspiring many new trends among the ladies and courtiers of England, and it may have been instrumental in pressing their King toward the culture-shattering contretemps with the Papacy itself. Eric Ives’s latest version of his biography hypothesizes that Anne may have had evangelist conviction and a strong spiritual inner life. William Forrest, author of a contemporary poem about Catherine of Aragon, complimented Anne’s “passing excellent” skill as a dancer. “Here”, he wrote, “was [a] fresh young damsel, that could trip and go.”[26]

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1st Cousin 14x Removed Cousin Anne Bolyen-Tudor — Biography Anne exerted a powerful charm on those who met her, though opinions differed on her attractiveness. The Venetian diarist Marino Sanuto, who saw Anne when Henry VIII met Francis I at Calais in October 1532, described her as “not one of the handsomest women in the world; she is of middling stature, swarthy complexion, long neck, wide mouth, bosom not much raised ... eyes, which are black and beautiful”.[27] Simon Grynée wrote to Martin Bucer in September 1531 that Anne was “young, good-looking, of a rather dark complexion”. Lancelot de Carles called her “beautiful with an elegant figure”, and a Venetian in Paris in 1528 also reported that she was said to be beautiful.[28] The most influential description of Anne,[29] but also the least reliable, was written by the Catholic propagandist and polemicist Nicholas Sanders in 1586, half a century after Anne’s death: “Anne Boleyn was rather tall of stature, with black hair, and an oval face of a sallow complexion, as if troubled with jaundice. It is said she had a projecting tooth under the upper lip, and on her right hand six fingers. There was a large wen under her chin, and therefore to hide its ugliness she wore a high dress covering her throat ... She was handsome to look at, with a pretty mouth”.[30] Sanders held Anne responsible for Henry VIII’s rejection of the Catholic church, and writing fifty years after her death, was keen to demonize her. Sanders’s description contributed to what biographer Eric Ives calls the “monster legend” of Anne Boleyn.[31] Though his details were fictitious, they have formed the basis for references to Anne’s appearance even in some modern textbooks.[32] Anne’s experience in France made her a devout Christian in the new tradition of Renaissance humanism. Anne knew little Latin but, trained at a French court, she was influenced by an “evangelical variety of French humanism” which led her to champion the vernacular Bible.[33] While she would later hold the reformist position that the papacy was a corrupting influence on Christianity, her conservative tendencies could be seen in her devotion to the Virgin Mary.[34] Anne’s European education ended in 1521, when her father summoned her back to England. She sailed from Calais in January 1522.[35] At The Court Of Henry VIII: 1522–1533

An early 20th-century painting of Anne Boleyn, depicting her deer hunting with the King

Anne was recalled to marry her Irish cousin, James Butler, a young man who was several years older than she was and who was living at the English court,[36] in an attempt to settle a dispute over the title and estates of the Earldom of Ormond. The 7th Earl of Ormond died in 1515, leaving his daughters, Margaret Boleyn and Anne St. Leger, as co-heiresses. In Ireland the great-great-grandson of the 3rd earl, Sir Piers Butler, contested the will and claimed the Earldom himself. He was already in possession of Kilkenny Castle — the ancestral seat of the earls. Sir Thomas Boleyn, being the son of the eldest daughter, felt the title belonged to him and protested to his brother-in-law, the Duke of Norfolk, who spoke to King Henry about the matter. Henry, fearful the dispute could be the spark to ignite civil war in Ireland, sought to resolve the matter by arranging an alliance between Piers’s son, James, and Anne Boleyn. She would bring her Ormond inheritance as dowry and thus end the dispute. The plan ended in failure, perhaps because Sir Thomas hoped for a grander marriage for his daughter or because he himself coveted the titles. Whatever the reason, the marriage negotiations came to a complete halt.[37] James Butler later married Lady Joan Fitzgerald, daughter and heiress of James FitzGerald, 10th Earl of Desmond and Amy O’Brien. Mary Boleyn, Anne Boleyn’s older sister, had earlier been recalled from France in late 1519, ostensibly for her affairs with the French king and his courtiers. She married William Carey, a minor noble, in February 1520, at Greenwich, with Henry VIII in attendance: soon after, Mary Boleyn became the English King’s mistress. Historians dispute King Henry VIII’s paternity of one or both of Mary Boleyn’s children born during this marriage. Henry VIII: The King and His Court, by Alison Weir, questions the

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1st Cousin 14x Removed Cousin Anne Bolyen-Tudor — Biography paternity of Henry Carey;[38] Dr. G.W. Bernard (The King’s Reformation) and Joanna Denny (Anne Boleyn: A New Life of England’s Tragic Queen) argue that Henry VIII was their father. Henry did not acknowledge either child, as he did his son Henry Fitzroy, his illegitimate son by Elizabeth Blount, Lady Talboys. Anne made her début at the Chateau Vert (Green Castle) pageant in honour of the imperial ambassadors on 4 March 1522, playing “Perseverance.” There she took part in an elaborate dance accompanying Henry’s younger sister Mary, several other ladies of the court, and her sister. All wore gowns of white satin embroidered with gold thread.[39] She quickly established herself as one of the most stylish and accomplished women at the court, and soon a number of young men were competing for her.[40] The Six Wives of Henry VIII The American historian Retha M. Warnicke writes that Anne was “the perfect woman courtier... her carriage was graceful and her French clothes were pleasing and stylish; she danced with ease, had a pleasant singing voice, played the lute and several other musical instruments well, and spoke French fluently... A remarkable, intelligent, quick-witted young noblewoman... that first drew people into conversation with her and then amused and entertained them. In short, her energy and vitality made her the center of attention in any social gathering.” Henry VIII’s biographer J. J. Scarisbrick adds that Anne “revelled in” the attention she received from her admirers.[41] During this time, Anne was courted by Henry Percy, son of the Earl of Northumberland, and entered into a secret betrothal with the young man. Thomas Wolsey’s gentleman usher, George Cavendish, maintained the two had not been lovers. If Cavendish is to be believed, it may be that their relationship wasn’t sexual.[42] The romance was broken off when Percy’s father refused to support their engagement. According to Cavendish, Anne was sent from court to her family’s countryside estates, but it is not known for how long. Upon her return to court, she again entered the service of Catherine of Aragon. Catherine of Aragon Anne Boleyn

Jane Seymour Anne of Cleves Catherine Howard Catherine Parr

The distinguished courtier-poet Sir Thomas Wyatt grew up at Allington, an estate nearly adjoining the Boleyn family’s estate at Hever Castle in Kent. Wyatt was estranged from his own wife, and unverifiable romantic legends about Anne and him abound, particularly in the writings of Wyatt’s grandson. There is conjecture that some of the most yearning poetry attributed to Wyatt was inspired by their relationship and that it is Anne whom he describes in the sonnet Whoso List to Hunt,[43] as unobtainable, headstrong, and belonging to the King: “noli me tangere for Caesar’s I am/And wild for to hold though I seem tame”.[44] In 1526 King Henry became enamoured with her and began his pursuit.[45] Some say that Anne resisted the King’s attempts to seduce her, refusing to become his mistress, often leaving court for the seclusion of Hever Castle. But within a year, he proposed marriage to her, and she accepted. Both assumed an annulment could be obtained within a matter of months. There is no evidence to suggest that they engaged in a sexual relationship until very shortly before their marriage; Henry’s love letters to Anne seem to suggest that their love affair remained unconsummated for much of their seven year courtship. However, Anne was pregnant by the time of her marriage.

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1st Cousin 14x Removed Cousin Anne Bolyen-Tudor — Biography Henry’s Annulment It is probable that the idea of annulment (not divorce as commonly assumed) had suggested itself to Henry much earlier than this and was motivated by his desire for an heir to secure the legitimacy of the Tudor claim to the crown. Before Henry’s father Henry VII ascended the throne, England was beset by civil warfare over rival claims to the crown and Henry wanted to avoid a similar uncertainty over the succession. He and Catherine had no living sons: all Catherine’s children except Mary died in infancy.[47] Catherine of Aragon had first come to England to be bride to Henry’s brother Arthur who died soon after their marriage. Spain and England had, at that time, still wanted a union of their kingdoms, and, in 1509, Henry and Catherine were wed. But this marriage could not take place until the Pope had ruled about a passage in the Leviticus 20:21, which seems to forbid the marriage of a man to his brother’s widow lest he and the widow be cursed. The Pope ruled that the passage was Late Elizabethan portrait of inapplicable as Arthur had not had relations with Catherine and so the Anne Boleyn, possibly derived Pope issued a dispensation to that effect. However some years and a new from a lost original of 1533– Pope later, Henry was re-thinking things. Prodded by Catherine’s 36.[46] inability to provide an heir, and possibly by Anne herself, Henry decided that no Pope had a right to overrule the Bible. This meant that he had been living in sin with Catherine of Aragon all these years, though Catherine hotly contested this and refused to concede that her marriage to Arthur had been consummated. It also meant that his daughter Mary was a bastard, and that the new Pope (Clement VII) must admit the previous Pope’s mistake and annul his marriage. Henry’s quest for an annulment became euphemistically known as the “King’s Great Matter.”[48] Anne saw an opportunity in Henry’s infatuation and the convenient moral quandary. She determined that she would yield to his embraces only as his acknowledged queen. She began to take her place at his side in policy and in state, but not, at least not just yet, in his bed.[49] Confusing the issue of whether or not Anne and Henry had a sexual relationship, is the fact that there is no doubt that Anne was pregnant with Elizabeth (born on 7 September 1533) when she and Henry hastily and secretly wed in order to be married when Anne was crowned queen in May, 1533, since any child born before she was queen would not be able to succeed to the throne. Various are the opinions of scholars and historians as to how deep was Anne’s commitment to the Reformation, how much was she perhaps only personally ambitious, and how much she had to do with Henry’s defiance of Papal power. There is anecdotal evidence, related to biographer George Wyatt by her former lady-in-waiting Anne Gainsford,[50] that Anne brought to Henry’s attention a heretical pamphlet, perhaps Tyndale’s “The Obedience of the Christian Man” or one by Simon Fish called “Supplication for Beggars,” which cried out to monarchs to rein in the evil excesses of the Catholic Church. She was sympathetic to those seeking further reformation of the Church, and actively protected scholars working on English translations of the scriptures. According to Marie Dowling “Anne tried to educate her waitingwomen in scriptural piety” and is believed to have reproved her cousin, Mary Shelton, for “having ‘idle poesies’ written in her prayer book.”[51] If Cavendish is to be believed, Anne’s outrage at Wolsey may have personalized whatever philosophical defiance she brought with her from France. Further, the most recent edition of Ives‘s biography admits that Anne may very well have had a personal spiritual awakening in her youth which spurred her on, not just as catalyst but expediter for Henry’s Reformation, though the process took a number of years. In 1528 sweating sickness broke out with great severity. In London the mortality rate was great and the court was dispersed. Henry left London, frequently changing his residence; Anne Boleyn retreated to the Boleyn residence at Hever Castle, but contracted the illness; her brother-in-law, William Carey, died. Henry sent his own physician to Hever Castle to care for her,[52] and shortly afterwards, she recovered. It

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1st Cousin 14x Removed Cousin Anne Bolyen-Tudor — Biography soon became the one absorbing object of Henry’s desires to secure an annulment from Catherine.[53] Henry had set his hopes upon a direct appeal to the Holy See, acting independently of Cardinal Wolsey, to whom he at first communicated nothing of his plans related to Anne. In 1527 William Knight, the King’s secretary, had been sent to Pope Clement VII to sue for the annulment of his marriage to Catherine, on the grounds that the dispensing bull of Pope Julius II permitting him to marry his brother’s widow, Catherine, had been obtained under false pretences. Henry also petitioned, in the event of his becoming free, a dispensation to contract a new marriage with any woman even in the first degree of affinity, whether the affinity was contracted by lawful or unlawful connection. This clearly referred to Anne.[54] As the Pope was, at that time, prisoner of Charles V, the Holy Roman Emperor, as a result of the Sack of Rome in May 1527, Knight had some difficulty obtaining access. In the end he had to return with a conditional dispensation, which Wolsey insisted was technically insufficient.[55] Henry had now no choice but to put his great matter into the hands of Wolsey, who did all he could to secure a decision in Henry’s favor.[56] Wolsey went so far as to convene an ecclesiastical court in England, with a special emissary, Lorenzo Campeggio, from the Pope himself to decide the matter. But the Pope never had empowered his deputy to make any decision. The Pope was still a veritable hostage of Charles V, and Charles V was the loyal nephew of Henry’s queen, Catherine.[57] The Pope forbade Henry to contract a new marriage until a decision was reached in Rome, not in England. Convinced that Wolsey’s loyalties lay with the Pope, not England, Anne, as well as Wolsey’s many enemies, Catherine of Aragon, Henry’s ensured his dismissal from public office in 1529. George Cavendish, first wife and queen Wolsey’s chamberlain, records that the servants who waited on the king and Anne at dinner in 1529 in Grafton heard her say that the dishonour that Wolsey had brought upon the realm would have cost any other Englishman his head. Henry replied, “Why then I perceive...you are not the Cardinal’s friend.” Henry finally agreed to Wolsey’s arrest on grounds of praemunire.[58] Had it not been for his death from illness in 1530, he might have been executed for treason.[59] A year later in 1531 (fully two years before Henry’s marriage to Anne), Queen Catherine was banished from court and her rooms were given to Anne. Public support, however, remained with Queen Catherine. One evening in the autumn of 1531, Anne was dining at a manor house on the river Thames and was almost seized by a crowd of angry women. Anne just managed to escape by boat.[60] When Archbishop of Canterbury William Warham died in 1532, the Boleyn family chaplain, Thomas Cranmer, was appointed, with papal approval.[61] In 1532 Thomas Cromwell brought before Parliament a number of acts including the Supplication against the Ordinaries and Submission of the Clergy, which recognised royal supremacy over the church, thus finalizing the break with Rome. Following these acts, Thomas More resigned as Chancellor, leaving Cromwell as Henry’s chief minister.[62] Marriage Anne Boleyn was able to grant petitions, receive diplomats, give patronage and had enormous influence over her future husband to plead the cause of foreign diplomats. The ambassador from Milan wrote in 1531 that it was essential to have her approval if one wanted to influence the English government, a view corroborated by an earlier French ambassador in 1529. During this period, Anne Boleyn did indeed play an important role in England’s international position by solidifying an alliance with France. She established an excellent rapport with the French ambassador, Gilles de la Pommeraie. Anne and Henry attended a meeting with the French king at Calais in winter

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1st Cousin 14x Removed Cousin Anne Bolyen Bolyen-Tudor — Biography 1532, in which Henry hoped to enlist the support of Francis I of France for his intended marriage. On 1 September 1532, Henry granted her suo jure the Marquessate of Pembroke, an appropriate peerage for a , future Queen;[63] as such she became a rich and important woman: The three Dukes and two Marquesses who existed in 1532 were the King’ brother-in-law, the King’s bastard, and other descendants of royalty; ’s s she ranked above all other peeresses. The Pembroke lands and the title of Earl of Pembroke had been held by Henry’s great-uncle,[64] and Henry performed the investiture himself [65] himself. Anne s family also profited from the relationship. Her father, already Anne’s Viscount Rochford, was created Earl of Wiltshire. Henry also came to . an arrangement with Anne Irish cousin and created him Earl of Anne’s sin Ormond. At the magnificent banquet to celebrate her father’s elevation, Ormond. father Anne took precedence over the Duchesses of Suffolk and Norfolk, seated in the place of honour beside the King which was usually occupied by the Queen.[66] Thanks to Anne’s intervention, her widowed s sister Mary received an annual pension of £100, and Mary’s son, Henry Mary Carey was educated at a prestigious Cistercian monastery. Carey, The conference at Calais was something of a political triumph, but even though the French government gave implicit support for Henry reHenry’s marriage and Francis I himself held private conference with Anne, the French King maintained alliances with the Pope which he could not explicitly defy.[67] Soon after returning to Dover, Henry and Anne married in a secret , ceremony.[68] She soon became pregnant and, to legalise the first ame wedding considered to be unlawful at the time, there was a second wedding service, also private in 69] accordance with The Royal Book,[69 which took place in London on 25 January 1533. Events now began ok to move at a quick pace. On 23 May 1533, Cranmer (who had been hastened, with the Pope’s assent, into who Pope the position of Archbishop of Canterbury recently vacated by the convenient death of Warham) sat in judgment at a special court convened at Dunstable Priory to rule on the validity of the King’s marriage to King Catherine of Aragon. He thereupon declared the marriage of Henry and Catherine null and void. Five days later, on 28 May 1533, Cranmer declared the marriage of Henry and Anne to be good and valid.[70] Queen Of England: 1533–1536 Catherine was formally stripped of her title as Queen and Anne was consequently crowned queen consort on 1 June 1533 in a magnificent ceremony at Westminster Abbey with a banquet afterwards.[72] She was the last Queen Consort of England to be crow crowned separately from her husband. Unlike any other queen consort, Anne was crowned with St Edward’s crown, which had previously been used to crown only a reigning , monarch.[73] Historian Alice Hunt suggests that this was done because Anne’s pregnancy was visible by then and she was carrying the heir who s was presumed to be male.[74] On the previous day, Anne had taken part in an elaborate procession through the streets of London seated in a litter of Anne Boleyn’s arms as queen Boleyn “white cloth of gold” that rested on two palfreys clothed to the ground in consort[71] white damask, while the barons of the Cinque Ports held a canopy of cloth of gold over her head. In accordance with tradition she wore white, and on her hea a gold coronet head beneath which her long dark hair hung down freely.[75] The public’s response to her appearance was s lukewarm.[76]
Henry VIII, by Hans Holbein the Younger, c. 1536

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1st Cousin 14x Removed Cousin Anne Bolyen-Tudor — Biography Meanwhile, the House of Commons had forbidden all appeals to Rome and exacted the penalties of praemunire against all who introduced papal bulls into England. It was only then that Pope Clement at last took the step of announcing a provisional sentence of excommunication against the King and Cranmer. He condemned the marriage to Anne, and in March 1534, he declared the marriage to Catherine legal and again ordered Henry to return to her.[77] Henry now required his subjects to swear the oath attached to the First Succession Act, which effectively rejected papal authority in legal matters and recognised Anne Boleyn as queen. Those who refused, such as Sir Thomas More, who had resigned as Lord Chancellor, and John Fisher, Bishop of Rochester, were then placed in the Tower of London. In late 1534 parliament declared Henry “the only supreme head on earth of the Church of England”.[78] The Church in England was now under Henry’s control, not Rome’s. Struggle For A Son After her coronation, Anne settled into a quiet routine at the King’s favourite residence, Greenwich Palace, to prepare for the birth of her Bishop John Fisher, by Hans baby. The child was born slightly premature on 7 September 1533. Holbein the Younger. Fisher Between three and four in the afternoon, Anne gave birth to a girl, who refused to recognise Henry was christened Elizabeth, probably in honour of either or both Anne’s VIII’s marriage to Anne Boleyn mother Elizabeth Howard and Henry’s mother, Elizabeth of York.[79] But the birth of a girl was a heavy blow to her parents, since they had confidently expected a boy. All but one of the royal physicians and astrologers had predicted a son for them and the French king had already been asked to stand as his godfather. Now the pre-prepared letters announcing the birth of a prince had an s hastily added to them to read princes[s] and the traditional tournament for the birth of an heir was cancelled.[80][81] Nevertheless the infant princess was given a splendid christening, but Anne feared that Catherine’s daughter, Mary, now stripped of her title of princess and labelled a bastard, posed a threat to Elizabeth’s position. Henry soothed his wife’s fears by separating Mary from her many servants and sending her to Hatfield House, where Princess Elizabeth would be living with her own sizeable staff of servants, and where the country air was thought better for the baby’s health.[82] Anne frequently visited her daughter at Hatfield and other residences.[83] The new queen had a larger staff of servants than Catherine. There were over 250 servants to tend to her personal needs, everyone from priests to stable-boys. There were over 60 maids-of-honour who served her and accompanied her to social events. She also employed several priests who acted as her Greenwich Palace, after a 17th-century confessors, chaplains, and religious advisers. One of these was drawing Matthew Parker, who would become one of the chief architects of Anglican thought during the reign of Anne’s daughter Elizabeth I.[84]

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1st Cousin 14x Removed Cousin Anne Bolyen-Tudor — Biography Strife With The King The king and his new queen enjoyed a reasonably happy accord with periods of calm and affection. Anne Boleyn’s sharp intelligence, political acumen and forward manners, although desirable in a mistress, were unacceptable in a wife. She was once reported to have spoken to her uncle in words that “shouldn’t be used to a dog”.[85] After a stillbirth or miscarriage as early as Christmas 1534, Henry was discussing with Cranmer and Cromwell the possibility of leaving Anne without having to return to Catherine.[86] Nothing came of the issue as the royal couple reconciled and spent summer 1535 on progress. By October, she was again pregnant. Anne Boleyn presided over a magnificent court. She spent lavish amounts of money on gowns, jewels, head-dresses, ostrich-feather fans, riding equipment, furniture and upholstery, Henry’s reconciliation with Anne Boleyn, maintaining the ostentatious display required by her status. Numerous palaces were renovated to suit her and Henry’s by George Cruikshank, 19th century. extravagant tastes.[87] Her motto was “The most happy”, and she had chosen a white falcon as her personal device. Anne was blamed for the tyranny of her husband’s government and was referred to by some of her subjects as “The king’s whore” or a “naughty paike [prostitute]”.[88] Public opinion turned further against her following her failure to produce a son. It sank even lower after the executions of her enemies Sir Thomas More and Bishop John Fisher.[89] Downfall And Execution: 1536 On 8 January 1536, news of Catherine of Aragon’s death reached the King and Anne. Hearing of her death, they were overjoyed. The following day, Henry and Anne wore yellow, the symbol of joy and celebration in England, from head to toe, and celebrated Catherine’s death with festivities.[90] In Spain, the home country of Catherine of Aragon, yellow is the colour of mourning, in addition to black.[91] For this reason, the wearing of yellow by Henry and Anne may have been a symbol of mourning. With Princess Mary’s mother dead, Anne, for her part, attempted to make peace with her.[92] The Queen, pregnant again, was aware of the dangers if she failed to give birth to a son. With Catherine dead, Henry would be free to marry without any taint of illegality. Mary rebuffed Anne’s overtures, perhaps because of rumours circulating that Catherine had been poisoned by Anne and/or Henry. These began after the discovery during her embalming that her heart was blackened. Modern medical experts are in agreement that this was not the result of poisoning, but of cancer of the heart, something which was not understood at the time.[85]

Jane Seymour became Henry’s third wife shortly after Anne’s execution

Later that month, the King was unhorsed in a tournament and knocked unconscious for two hours, a worrying incident that Anne believed led to her miscarriage five days later.[93] On the day that Catherine of Aragon was buried at Peterborough Abbey, Anne miscarried a baby which, according to the imperial ambassador Chapuys, she had borne for about three and a half months, and which “seemed to be a male child”.[94] For Chapuys, this personal loss was the beginning of the end of the royal marriage.[95]

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1st Cousin 14x Removed Cousin Anne Bolyen-Tudor — Biography Given Henry’s desperate desire for a son, the sequence of Anne’s pregnancies has attracted much interest. Author Mike Ashley speculated that Anne had two stillborn children after Elizabeth’s birth and before the male child she miscarried in 1536.[96] Most sources attest only to the birth of Elizabeth in September 1533, a possible miscarriage in the summer of 1534, and the miscarriage of a male child, of almost four months gestation, in January 1536.[97] As Anne recovered from her miscarriage, Henry declared that he had been seduced into the marriage by means of “sortilege”—a French term indicating either “deception” or “spells”. His new mistress, Jane Seymour, was quickly moved into royal quarters. This was followed by Anne’s brother being refused a prestigious court honour, the Order of the Garter, given instead to Sir Nicholas Carew.[98] Charges Of Adultery, Incest And Treason According to author and Tudor historian Alison Weir, Thomas Cromwell plotted Anne’s downfall while feigning illness and detailing the plot 20– 21 April 1536. Anne’s biographer Eric Ives, among others, believes that her fall and execution were engineered by Thomas Cromwell.[99] The conversations between Chapuys and Cromwell thereafter indicate Cromwell as the instigator of the plot to remove Anne; evidence of this is seen in the Spanish Chronicle and through letters written from Chapuys to Charles V. Anne differed with Cromwell over the redistribution of Church revenues and over foreign policy. She advocated that revenues be distributed to charitable and educational institutions; and she favoured a French alliance. Cromwell insisted on filling the King’s depleted coffers, while taking a cut for himself, and preferred an imperial alliance.[100] For Thomas Cromwell, Anne’s one- these reasons, suggests Ives, “Anne Boleyn had become a major threat to time strong ally, with whom she Thomas Cromwell.”[101] Cromwell’s biographer John Schofield, on the clashed over foreign policy and other hand, contends that no power struggle existed between Anne and the redistribution of church Cromwell and that “not a trace can be found of a Cromwellian wealth. Portrait by Hans conspiracy against Anne ... Cromwell became involved in the royal Holbein the Younger, c. 1532. marital drama only when Henry ordered him onto the case.”[102] Cromwell did not manufacture the accusations of adultery, though he and other officials used them to bolster Henry’s case against Anne.[103] Historian Retha Warnicke questions whether Cromwell could have manipulated the king in such a matter.[104] Henry himself issued the crucial instructions: his officials, including Cromwell, carried them out.[105] The result, historians agree, was a legal travesty.[106] In order to do so the Master Secretary Cromwell would need sufficient evidence that would be convincing enough for her conviction or risk his own offices and perhaps life. Towards the end of April a Flemish musician in Anne’s service named Mark Smeaton was arrested, perhaps tortured or promised freedom. He initially denied being the Queen’s lover but later confessed. Another courtier, Sir Henry Norris, was arrested on May Day, but since he was an aristocrat, he could not be tortured. Prior to his arrest, Norris was treated kindly by the King, who offered him his own horse to use on the May Day festivities. It seems likely that during the festivities the King was notified of Smeaton’s confession and it was shortly thereafter the alleged conspirators were arrested upon order of the King. Norris was arrested at the festival. Norris denied his guilt and swore that Queen Anne was innocent. One of the most damaging pieces of evidence against Norris was an overheard conversation with Anne at the end of April, where she accused him of coming often to her chambers not to pay court to her lady-in-waiting Madge Shelton but to herself. Sir Francis Weston was arrested two days later on the same charge. Sir William Brereton, a Groom of the King’s Privy Chamber, was also apprehended on grounds of adultery. Sir Thomas Wyatt, a poet and friend of the Boleyns who was allegedly infatuated with her before her marriage to the king, was also imprisoned for the same charge but was later released, most likely due to his friendship or his family’s friendship with Cromwell. Sir Richard Page was also accused of having a sexual relationship with the Queen, but he was acquitted of all charges after further

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1st Cousin 14x Removed Cousin Anne Bolyen-Tudor — Biography investigation could not implicate him with Anne. The final accused was Queen Anne’s own brother, arrested on charges of incest and treason, accused of having a sexual relationship with his sister.[107] George Boleyn was accused of two incidents of incest: November, 1535 at Whitehall and the following month at Eltham.[108] On 2 May 1536 Anne was arrested and taken to the Tower of London. In the Tower, she collapsed, demanding to know the location of her father and “swete broder”, as well as the charges against her. In what is reputed to be her last letter to King Henry, dated May 6, she wrote: “Sir, Your Grace’s displeasure, and my imprisonment are things so strange unto me, as what to write, or what to excuse, I am altogether ignorant. Whereas you send unto me (willing me to confess a truth, and so obtain your favour) by such an one, whom you know to be my ancient professed enemy. I no sooner received this message by him, than I rightly conceived your meaning; and if, as you say, confessing a truth indeed may procure my safety, I shall with all willingness and duty perform your demand. But let not your Grace ever imagine, that your poor wife will ever be brought to acknowledge a fault, where not so much as a thought thereof preceded. And to speak a truth, never prince had wife more loyal in all duty, and in all true affection, than you have ever found in Anne Boleyn: with which name and place I could willingly have contented myself, if God and your Grace’s pleasure had been so pleased. Neither did I at any time so far forget myself in my exaltation or received Queenship, but that I always looked for such an alteration as I now find; for the ground of my preferment being on no surer foundation than your Grace’s fancy, the least alteration I knew was fit and sufficient to draw that fancy to some other object. You have chosen me, from a low estate, to be your Queen and companion, far beyond my desert or desire. If then you found me worthy of such honour, good your Grace let not any light fancy, or bad council of mine enemies, withdraw your princely favour from me; neither let that stain, that unworthy stain, of a disloyal heart toward your good grace, ever cast so foul a blot on your most dutiful wife, and the infant-princess your daughter. Try me, good king, but let me have a lawful trial, and let not my sworn enemies sit as my accusers and judges; yea let me receive an open trial, for my truth shall fear no open flame; then shall you see either my innocence cleared, your suspicion and conscience satisfied, the ignominy and slander of the world stopped, or my guilt openly declared. So that whatsoever God or you may determine of me, your grace may be freed of an open censure, and mine offense being so lawfully proved, your grace is at liberty, both before God and man, not only to execute worthy punishment on me as an unlawful wife, but to follow your affection, already settled on that party, for whose sake I am now as I am, whose name I could some good while since have pointed unto, your Grace being not ignorant of my suspicion therein. But if you have already determined of me, and that not only my death, but an infamous slander must bring you the enjoying of your desired happiness; then I desire of God, that he will pardon your great sin therein, and likewise mine enemies, the instruments thereof, and that he will not call you to a strict account of your unprincely and cruel usage of me, at his general judgment-feat, where both you and myself must shortly appear, and in whole judgment I doubt not (whatsoever the world may think of me) mine innocence shall be openly known, and sufficiently cleared. My last and only request shall be, that myself may only bear the burden of your Grace’s displeasure, and that it may not touch the innocent souls of those poor gentlemen, who (as I understand) are likewise in strait imprisonment for my sake. If ever I found favour in your sight, if ever the name of Anne Boleyn hath been pleasing in your ears, then let me obtain this request, and I will so leave to trouble your Grace any further, with mine earnest prayers to the Trinity to have your Grace in his good keeping, and to direct you in all your actions. From my doleful prison in the Tower, this sixth of May; Your most loyal and ever faithful wife, Anne Boleyn”

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1st Cousin 14x Removed Cousin Anne Bolyen-Tudor — Biography Four of the accused men were tried in Westminster on 12 May 1536. Weston, Brereton, and Norris publicly maintained their innocence and only the tortured Smeaton supported the Crown by pleading guilty. Three days later, Anne and George Boleyn were tried separately in the Tower of London. She was accused of adultery, incest, and high treason.[109] By the Treason Act of Edward III adultery on the part of a queen was a form of treason (presumably because of the implications for the succession to the throne) for which the penalty was hanging, drawing and quartering for a man and burning alive for a woman, but the accusations, and especially that of incestuous adultery, were also designed to impugn her moral character. The other form of treason alleged against her was that of plotting the king’s death, with her “lovers”, so that she might later marry Henry Norris.[108] Henry Percy, 6th Earl of Northumberland sat on the jury that found Anne guilty. When the verdict was announced, he collapsed and had to be carried from the courtroom. He died eight months later, leaving no heirs and his nephew became the next Earl of Northumberland. On 14 May, Cranmer declared Anne’s marriage to Henry dissolved.[110] Final Hours Although the evidence against them was unconvincing, the accused were found guilty under the law and condemned to death by a jury of their peers. George Boleyn and the other accused men were executed on 17 May 1536. Anthony Kingston, the keeper of the Tower, reported Anne seemed very happy and ready to be done with life. The King commuted Anne’s sentence from burning to beheading and employed a swordsman from St Omer for the execution, rather than having a queen beheaded with the common axe. They came for Anne on the morning of 19 May to take her to the Tower Green.[111] Anthony Kingston, the Constable of the Tower, wrote: This morning she sent for me, that I might be with her at such time as she received the good Lord, to the intent I should hear her speak as touching Anne Boleyn in the Tower by her innocency alway to be clear. And in the writing of this she sent for Edouard Cibot (1799 — 1877) me, and at my coming she said, ‘Mr. Kingston, I hear I shall not die afore noon, and I am very sorry therefore, for I thought to be dead by this time and past my pain.’ I told her it should be no pain, it was so little. And then she said, ‘I heard say the executioner was very good, and I have a little neck,’ and then put her hands about it, laughing heartily. I have seen many men and also women executed, and that they have been in great sorrow, and to my knowledge this lady has much joy in death. Sir, her almoner is continually with her, and had been since two o’clock after midnight.[112] However, her impending death may have caused her great sorrow for some time during her imprisonment. The poem “Oh Death Rock Me Asleep“ is generally believed to have been authored by Anne and reveals that she may have hoped death would end her suffering.[113] Shortly before dawn, she called Kingston to hear mass with her, and swore in his presence, on the eternal salvation of her soul, upon the Holy Sacraments, that she had never been unfaithful to the king. She ritually repeated this oath both immediately before and after receiving the sacrament of the Eucharist.[114] On the morning of Friday 19 May, Anne Boleyn was judicially executed, not upon Tower Green, but rather, a scaffold erected on the north side of the White Tower, in front of what is now the Waterloo Barracks.[115] She wore a red petticoat under a loose, dark grey gown of damask trimmed in fur and a mantle of ermine.[116] Accompanied by two female attendants, Anne made her final walk from the Queen’s House to the scaffold and she showed a “devilish spirit”[117] and looked “as gay as if she was not going to die”.[118] Anne climbed the scaffold and made a short speech to the crowd: Good Christian people, I am come hither to die, for according to the law, and by the law I am judged to die, and therefore I will speak nothing against it. I am come hither to accuse no man, nor to speak

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1st Cousin 14x Removed Cousin Anne Bolyen-Tudor — Biography anything of that, whereof I am accused and condemned to die, but I pray God save the king and send him long to reign over you, for a gentler nor a more merciful prince was there never: and to me he was ever a good, a gentle and sovereign lord. And if any person will meddle of my cause, I require them to judge the best. And thus I take my leave of the world and of you all, and I heartily desire you all to pray for me. O Lord have mercy on me, to God I commend my soul.[112] This is one version of her speech, written by Lancelot de Carles in Paris, a few weeks following her death; he had been in London, but did not witness either trial or execution. All the accounts are similar, and undoubtedly correct to varying degrees. It is thought that she avoided criticizing Henry to save Elizabeth and her family from further consequences, but even under such extreme pressure Anne did not confess guilt, in fact subtly implying her innocence, in her appeal to historians who “will meddle of my cause”. Death And Burial She knelt upright, in the French style of executions. Her final prayer consisted of her repeating continually, “To Jesus Christ I commend my soul; Lord Jesus receive my soul.” Her ladies removed her headdress and necklaces, and then tied a blindfold over her eyes. Anne Boleyn was executed by French expert swordsman Jean Rombaud. According to Eric W. Ives, Rombaud was so taken by Anne that he was shaken. Rombaud found it so difficult to proceed with the execution that in order to distract her and for her to position her head correctly, he may have shouted, “Where is my sword?” just before killing her.[119][120] The execution consisted of a single stroke.[121] It was witnessed by Thomas Cromwell, Charles Brandon, 1st Duke of Suffolk, the King’s illegitimate son, Henry Fitzroy, the Lord Mayor of London, as well as aldermen, sheriffs, and representatives of the various craft guilds. Most Thomas Cranmer, who was the of the King’s Council were also present.[122] Cranmer, who was at sole supporter of Anne in the Lambeth Palace, was reported to have broken down in tears after telling council. Alexander Ales: “She who has been the Queen of England on earth will today become a Queen in heaven.”[123] When the charges were first brought against Anne, Cranmer had expressed his astonishment to Henry and his belief that “she should not be culpable.” Still, Cranmer felt vulnerable because of his closeness to the queen. On the night before the execution, he had declared Henry’s marriage to Anne to have been void, like Catherine’s before her. He made no serious attempt to save Anne’s life, although some sources record that he had prepared her for death by hearing her last private confession of sins, in which she had stated her innocence before God.[124] However, on the day of her death a Scottish friend found Cranmer weeping uncontrollably in his London gardens, saying that he was sure that Anne had now gone to Heaven.[125] Henry failed to have organised any kind of funeral or even provide a proper coffin for her. Her body lay on the scaffold for some time before a man (believed to be working inside the Tower) found an empty arrow chest and placed her head and body inside. She was then buried in an unmarked grave in the Chapel of St Peter ad Vincula. Her skeleton was identified during renovations of the chapel in the reign of Queen Victoria and Anne’s resting place is now marked in the marble floor. Recognition And Legacy Nicholas Sander, a Roman Catholic recusant born c. 1530, was committed to deposing Elizabeth I and reestablishing Roman Catholicism in England. In his De Origine ac Progressu schismatis Anglicani (The Rise and Growth of the Anglican Schism), published in 1585, he was the first to write that Anne had six fingers on her right hand.[126] Since physical deformities were generally interpreted as a sign of evil, it is unlikely that Anne Boleyn would have gained Henry’s romantic attention had she had any.[127] Upon

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1st Cousin 14x Removed Cousin Anne Bolyen-Tudor — Biography exhumation in 1876, no abnormalities were discovered. Her frame was described as delicate, approximately 5’3”, with finely formed, tapering fingers.[128] Anne Boleyn was described by contemporaries as intelligent and gifted in musical arts and scholarly pursuits. She was also strong-willed and proud, and often quarreled with Henry.[129] Biographer Eric Ives evaluates the apparent contradictions in Anne’s persona: To us she appears inconsistent—religious yet aggressive, calculating yet emotional, with the light touch of the courtier yet the strong grip of the politician—but is this what she was, or merely what we strain to see through the opacity of the evidence? As for her inner life, short of a miraculous cache of new material, we shall never really know. Yet what does come to us across the centuries is the impression of a person who is strangely appealing to the early twenty-first century: A woman in her own right—taken on her own terms in a man’s world; a woman who mobilized her education, her style and her presence to outweigh the disadvantages of her sex; of only moderate good looks, but taking a court and a king by storm. Perhaps, in the end, it is Thomas Cromwell’s assessment that comes nearest: intelligence, spirit and courage.[130] No contemporary portraits of Anne Boleyn survive. The only likeness is a medal struck in 1534 to commemorate her second pregnancy, though it appears to be severely damaged.

Following the coronation of her daughter as queen, Anne was venerated as a martyr and heroine of the English Reformation, particularly through the works of John Foxe, who argued that Anne had saved England from the evils of Roman Catholicism and that God had provided proof of her innocence and virtue by making sure her daughter Elizabeth I became Queen regnant. An example of Anne’s direct influence in the reformed church is what Alexander Ales described to Queen Elizabeth as the “evangelical bishops whom your holy mother appointed from among those scholars who favoured the purer doctrine”.[132] Over the centuries, Anne has inspired or been mentioned in numerous artistic and cultural works. As a result, she has remained in the popular memory and Anne has been called “the most influential and important queen consort England has ever had.”[7] Legends Many legends and fantastic stories about Anne Boleyn have survived over the centuries. One is that she was secretly buried in Salle Church in Norfolk under a black slab near the tombs of her Boleyn ancestors.[133] Her body was said to have rested in an Essex church on its journey to Norfolk. Another is that her heart, at her request,[134] was buried in Erwarton (Arwarton) Church, Suffolk by her uncle Sir Philip Parker.[135] In 18th century Sicily the peasants of Nicolosi believed that Anne Boleyn, for having made Henry VIII a heretic, was condemned to burn for eternity inside Mount Etna. This legend was often told for the benefit of foreign travellers.[136]
St Mary’s Church, Erwarton, Suffolk, where Anne Boleyn’s heart was allegedly buried

A 17th-century portrait incorrectly identified as Anne Boleyn by a later inscription on the back.[131]

A number of people have claimed to have seen Anne’s ghost at Hever Castle, Blickling Hall, Salle Church, Tower of London, and Marwell Hall.[137][138][139] The most famous account of her reputed sighting has been described by paranormal researcher Hans Holzer. In 1864, Major General J.D. Dundas of the 60th Rifles regiment was quartered in the Tower of London. As he was looking out the window of his quarters, he noticed a guard below in the courtyard, in front of the lodgings where Anne had been

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1st Cousin 14x Removed Cousin Anne Bolyen-Tudor — Biography imprisoned, behaving strangely. He appeared to challenge something, which to the General “looked like a whitish, female figure sliding towards the soldier”. The guard charged through the form with his bayonet, then fainted.[140] Only the General’s testimony and corroboration at the court-martial saved the guard from a lengthy prison sentence for having fainted while on duty. In 1960, Canon W. S. Pakenham-Walsh, vicar of Sulgrave, Northamptonshire, reported having conversations with Boleyn.[141] See Also Anglicanism portal
• • • •

Anne Boleyn in popular culture Anna Bolena, an opera by Gaetano Donizetti with lyrics by Felice Romani (1830) Anne of the Thousand Days, a 1969 drama distributed by Universal Pictures List of English consorts ^ Ives, page 230 ^ Jones, Daniel Everyman’s English Pronouncing Dictionary 12th edition (1963) ^ Wells, John C. (1990). Longman pronunciation dictionary. Harlow, England: Longman. p. 83. ISBN 0582053838. entry “Boleyn” ^ The Life of Jane Dormer, Duchess of Feria, contemporary account ^ Ives, pp.158-59, p.388 n32, p.389 n53; Warnicke, p.116. Anne is also called “marchioness”. ^ “Review: The Life and Death of Anne Boleyn”. Copperfieldreview.com. http://www.copperfieldreview.com/reviews/life_and_death_of_anne_boleyn.htm. Retrieved 2010-04-26. ^ a b Ives, p. xv. ^ The argument that Mary might have been the younger sister is refuted by firm evidence from the reign of Queen Elizabeth I that the surviving Boleyns knew Mary had been born before Anne, not after. See Ives, pp. 16–17 and Fraser, p. 119. ^ Ives, pp. 16-17 ^ a b Fraser, p.119 ^ Warnicke, p. 9; ^ Ives, p. 15 ^ “Anne Boleyn’s handwriting”. Nellgavin.net. http://www.nellgavin.net/boleyn_links/boleynhandwriting.htm. Retrieved 2011-11-02. ^ Ives, pp.18–20. ^ The date 1507 was accepted in Roman Catholic circles. The 16th century author William Camden inscribed a date of birth of 1507 in the margin of his Miscellany. The date was generally favoured until the late nineteenth century: in the 1880s, Paul Friedmann suggested a birth date of 1503. Art historian Hugh Paget, in 1981, first placed Anne Boleyn at the court of Margaret of Austria. See Eric Ives’s biography The Life and Death of Anne Boleyn for the most extensive arguments favoring 1500/1501 and Retha Warnicke‘s The Rise and Fall of Anne Boleyn for her proposal of a birth year of 1507. ^ a b Ives, p. 3.

References 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

7. 8.

9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15.

16.

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1st Cousin 14x Removed Cousin Anne Bolyen-Tudor — Biography 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. ^ Fraser, pp. 116-17. ^ Ives, p.4. “She was better born than Henry VIII’s three other English wives”. ^ Fraser, p.115 ^ a b Ives, plate 14. ^ Fraser and Ives argue that this appointment proves Anne was probably born in 1501; but Warnicke disagrees, partly on the evidence of Anne’s being described as “petite.” See Ives, p. 19; Warnicke, pp. 12–3. ^ Warnicke, p. 12. ^ Starkey, pp. 261–63. ^ a b Fraser, p. 121. ^ Starkey, p. 263. ^ Fraser, p. 115. ^ Strong, p. 6. ^ Ives, p. 20. ^ Warnicke, p. 243. ^ Strong, 6; Ives, 39. ^ Ives, p. 39. ^ Warnicke, p. 247. ^ Dowling 1991, p.39 ^ Ives, pp. 219–226. For a masterful re-evaluation of Anne’s religious beliefs, see Ives, pp. 277– 287. ^ Williams, p.103. ^ Fraser, p. 122. ^ Fraser, pp. 121-124. ^ Weir. Henry VIII: The King and His Court. p. 216. ^ Ives, pp. 37–39. ^ Starkey, p. 271; Ives, 45 ^ Scarisbrick, J. J. (1968): Henry VIII. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press. p.349 ^ Fraser, pp. 126–7; Ives, p. 67 and p. 80. ^ “Full text of the poem ‘‘Whoso List to Hunt’’“. Nellgavin.com. http://www.nellgavin.com/ThomasWyatt/. Retrieved 2011-11-02. ^ Ives, p. 73. ^ Scarisbrick, p. 154. ^ Ives, pp. 42–43; Strong, pp. 6–7. ^ Lacey, p.70.

22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47.

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1st Cousin 14x Removed Cousin Anne Bolyen-Tudor — Biography 48. 49. 50. 51. 52. 53. 54. 55. 56. 57. 58. 59. 60. 61. 62. 63. ^ Fraser, p.133 ^ Graves, p. 132. ^ Fraser, p.145 ^ Dowling 1986, 232 ^ Starkey p. 331. ^ Brigden, p. 114. ^ Starkey, p. 301. ^ Starkey, pp. 308–12. ^ Starkey, pp. 314, 329. ^ Morris, p. 166. ^ Starkey, pp. 430–33. ^ Haigh, 88–95. ^ Fraser, p. 171. ^ Graves, pp. 21–22; Starkey, pp. 467–73. ^ Williams p. 136. ^ Ives, pp. 158–59, p. 388 n32, p. 389 n53; Warnicke, p. 116. Contemporary documents call her marquess or lady marquess of Pembroke; this reflects Tudor spelling. Marquesates were relatively new in sixteenth century England, and the English translations of French marquis/marquise were spelled even less stably than most Tudor orthography and many forms were used for either. A male peer was Marquys, marquoys, marquess and so on; his wife would be marquess, marquesse, marquisess and so on, the same ending as Duchess; the resulting confusion was sometimes clarified by such phrases as lady marquess; the modern distinction, by which the wife is Marchioness, was imported from Latin in her daughter’s reign. The OED and the Complete Peerage (Vol X., p. 402) take Boleyn’s title as the feminine sense of marquess; some biographers, such as Fraser, p. 184, take it as the male sense. ^ Starkey, p. 459. ^ Wooding, 167. ^ Starkey, p. 366. ^ Williams, p.123. ^ Starkey, pp. 462–464. ^ Starkey, Six Wives p.463. ^ Williams, p.124. ^ Boutell, Charles (1863). A Manual of Heraldry, Historical and Popular. London: Winsor & Newton. p. 278 ^ Fraser, p. 195. ^ Ives, p. 179 ^ Alice Hunt, The Drama of Coronation: Medieval Ceremony in Early Modern England, Cambridge University Press, 2008

64. 65. 66. 67. 68. 69. 70. 71. 72. 73. 74.

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1st Cousin 14x Removed Cousin Anne Bolyen-Tudor — Biography 75. 76. 77. 78. 79. 80. 81. ^ Ives, p. 177; Starkey, pp. 489–500 ^ Fraser, pp. 191–194 ^ Scarisbrick, pp. 414–18; Haigh, pp. 117–18 ^ Haigh, pp. 118–20. ^ Williams, pp.128-131. ^ David Starkey: Six Wives, 2003, p. 508 ^ Letter by Chapuys to the Emperor, 10th July 1533“the King’s mistress (amie) was delivered of a daughter, to the great regret both of him and the lady, and to the great reproach of the physicians, astrologers, sorcerers, and sorceresses, who affirmed that it would be a male child” ^ Starkey, p. 512. ^ Somerset, pp. 5–6. ^ “About Matthew Parker & The Parker Library”. Parkerweb.stanford.edu. http://parkerweb.stanford.edu/parker/actions/page.do?forward=aboutparker&section=parker. Retrieved 2011-11-02. ^ a b Fraser. ^ Williams, p.138. ^ Ives, pp. 231–260. ^ Farquhar, Michael (2001). A Treasure of Royal Scandals, p.67. Penguin Books, New York. ISBN 0-7394-2025-9. ^ Williams, pp.137-138. ^ Starkey, pp. 549–51; Scarisbrick, p. 436. ^ E. Cobham Brewer 1810–1897. Dictionary of Phrase and Fable. 1898. ^ Starkey, p. 551. ^ Scarisbrick, p. 452. ^ Scarisbrick, pp. 452–53; Starkey, pp. 552–53. ^ Starkey, pp. 553–54. ^ Ashley, p. 240. ^ Williams, chapter 4. ^ Williams, p.142. ^ Ives, pp. 319–329. See also Starkey, pp. 559–569, and Elton, pp. 252–53, who share this view. ^ Ives, pp. 309–16. ^ Ives, p. 315. ^ Schofield, pp. 106–108. Schofield claims that evidence for the power struggle between Anne and Cromwell which “now dominates many modern accounts of Anne’s last weeks” comprises “fly-by-night stories from Alesius and the Spanish Chronicle, words of Chapuys taken out of context and an untrustworthy translation of the Calendar of State Papers.” ^ Warnicke, pp. 212, 242; Wooding, p. 194.

82. 83. 84.

85. 86. 87. 88. 89. 90. 91. 92. 93. 94. 95. 96. 97. 98. 99. 100. 101. 102.

103.

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1st Cousin 14x Removed Cousin Anne Bolyen-Tudor — Biography 104. ^ Warnicke, pp. 210–212. Warnicke observes: “Neither Chapuys nor modern historians have explained why if the secretary [Cromwell] could manipulate Henry into agreeing to the execution of Anne, he could not simply persuade the king to ignore her advice on foreign policy”. ^ “Clearly, he was bent on undoing her by any means.” Scarisbrick, p. 455. ^ Wooding, pp. 194–95; Scarisbrick, pp. 454–55; Fraser, p.245. ^ Williams, pp.143-144. ^ a b Ives, p. 344. ^ Hibbert, pp.54-55. ^ David Starkey, p.581, Six Wives: The Queens of Henry VIII ^ Hibbert, pp.58-59. ^ a b Hibbert, p.59. ^ O Death! rocke me asleep Sources differ whether George or Anne Boleyne wrote it, O Death Rock Me Asleep though the consensus is that Anne wrote it. O Death Rock Me Asleep. ^ Ives, p356 ^ Ives, p. 423, based on the contemporary Lisle letters. ^ Williams, p.146. ^ Fraser, p.256 ^ Fraser, p. 256. ^ Fraser, p.257 ^ The Life and Death of Anne Boleyn: The Most Happy (new ed. 2004)[page needed] ^ Hibbert, p.60. ^ Bruce, Marie Louise (1973). Anne Boleyn. New York: Warner Paperback Library Edition. p.333 ^ MacCulloch, p. 159. ^ Schama, p.307. ^ MacCulloch, pp. 149–159 ^ Ives, 39. ^ Warnicke, pp. 58–9. ^ Bell, p. 26, Google Books, retrieved on 17 August 2010 ^ Warnicke, pp. 58–9; Graves, 135. ^ Ives, p. 359. ^ “Portrait of an Italian Lady by POURBUS, Frans the Younger”. Wga.hu. http://www.wga.hu/html/p/pourbus/frans_y/portlady.html. Retrieved 2010-04-26. ^ Ives, p.261, Google Books, retrieved on 5 December 2009 ^ Norah Lofts, Anne Boleyn, p.181

105. 106. 107. 108. 109. 110. 111. 112. 113. 114. 115. 116. 117. 118. 119. 120. 121. 122. 123. 124. 125. 126. 127. 128. 129. 130. 131. 132. 133.

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1st Cousin 14x Removed Cousin Anne Bolyen-Tudor — Biography 134. 135. 136. 137. 138. 139. 140. 141. ^ Suffolk, Churches. “St Mary’s Erwarton”. http://www.suffolkchurches.co.uk/erwarton.html. Retrieved 2009-05-19. ^ Any Village. “Erwarton, Suffolk”. http://www.anyvillage.com/UK/England/Suffolk/Erwarton/home.aspx. Retrieved 2009-05-19. ^ Pratt, Michael (2005). Nelson’s Duchy, A Sicilian Anomaly. UK: Spellmount Limited. p.48 ISBN 1-86227-326-X ^ Lofts, Anne Boleyn, p.182 ^ “Ghosts and Hauntings”. The Shadowlands. http://theshadowlands.net/ghost/ghost342.html. Retrieved 2009-07-07. ^ “Marwell Hall”. http://www.zurichmansion.org/halls/marwell.html. ^ Hans Holzer, Ghosts I’ve Met, p. 196 ^ “Vicar Who ‘Talked’ to Henry VIII”. The Sydney Morning Herald. 31 July 1960. http://news.google.com/newspapers?nid=1301&dat=19600731&id=alsVAAAAIBAJ&sjid=HuY DAAAAIBAJ&pg=2757,4559585. Retrieved 12 October 2009. ^ a b c d e f g h Lundy, Darryl. “thePeerage”. http://www.thepeerage.com/p11285.htm#i112843. Retrieved 26 October 2007 ^ a b c d e f Lundy, Darryl. “thePeerage”. http://www.thepeerage.com/p11285.htm#i112844. Retrieved 26 October 2007 ^ Lady Elizabeth Howard, Anne Boleyn’s mother, was the sister of Lord Edmund Howard, father of Catherine Howard (fifth wife of Henry VIII of England), making Anne Boleyn and Catherine Howard first cousins. ^ Lundy, Darryl. “thePeerage”. http://www.thepeerage.com/p338.htm#i3380. Retrieved 26 October 2007 ^ a b c Lundy, Darryl. “thePeerage”. http://www.thepeerage.com/p339.htm#i3381. Retrieved 26 October 2007 ^ Lundy, Darryl. “thePeerage”. http://www.thepeerage.com/p10298.htm#i102977. Retrieved 26 October 2007 ^ Elizabeth Tilney is the paternal grandmother of Catherine Howard. ^ a b c d e f Lundy, Darryl. “thePeerage”. http://www.thepeerage.com/p10299.htm#i102982. Retrieved 26 October 2007

142. 143. 144.

145. 146. 147. 148. 149.

Bibliography
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Ashley, Mike British Kings & Queens (2002) ISBN 0-7867-1104-3 Bell, Doyne C. Notices of the Historic Persons Buried in the Chapel of St. Peter ad Vincula in the Tower of London (1877) Bernard, G.W. “The fall of Anne Boleyn”, English Historical Review, 106 (1991), 584–610 in JSTOR Brigden, Susan New Worlds, Lost Worlds (2000) Elton, G. R. Reform and Reformation. London: Edward Arnold, 1977. ISBN 0-7131-5953-7. Davenby, Claire Anne Boleyn (2009) (Manuscript) Davenby, Claire The Women Of Henry Tudor (2011) (Manuscript)

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1st Cousin 14x Removed Cousin Anne Bolyen-Tudor — Biography Dowling, Maria “A Woman’s Place? Learning and the Wives of King Henry VII.” History Today, 3842 (1991). Dowling, Maria Humanism in the Age of Henry the VIII (1986) Fraser, Antonia The Wives of Henry VIII (1992) ISBN 0-679-73001-X Graves, Michael Henry VIII. London, Pearson Longman, 2003 ISBN 0-582-38110-X Haigh, Christopher English Reformations (1993) Hibbert, Christopher Tower Of London: A History of England From the Norman Conquest (1971) Ives, Eric The Life and Death of Anne Boleyn (2004) ISBN 1-4051-3463-1 Ives, E. W. “Anne (c.1500–1536)”, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, (2004) accessed 8 Sept 2011 Lacey, Robert The Life and Times of Henry VIII (1972) Lehmberg, Stanford E. The Reformation Parliament, 1529-1536 (1970) Lindsey, Karen Divorced Beheaded Survived: A Feminist Reinterpretation of the Wives of Henry VIII (1995) ISBN 0-201-40823-6 MacCulloch, Diarmaid Thomas Cranmer New Haven: Yale University Press (1996) ISBN 0-30007448-4. Morris, T. A. Europe and England in the Sixteenth Century (1998) Norton, Elizabeth Anne Boleyn: Henry VIII’s Obsession 2009 hardback ISBN 978-1-84868-084-5 paperback ISBN 978-1-84868-514-7 Parker, K. T. The Drawings of Hans Holbein at Windsor Castle Oxford: Phaidon (1945)OCLC 822974. Rowlands, John The Age of Dürer and Holbein London: British Museum (1988) ISBN 0-7141-16394 Scarisbrick, J. J. Henry VIII (1972) ISBN 978-0-520-01130-4 Schama, Simon A History of Britain: At the Edge of the World?: 3000 BC–AD 1603 (2000) ISBN 0563-38497-2 Schofield, John. The Rise & Fall of Thomas Cromwell. Stroud (UK): The History Press, 2008. ISBN 978-0-7524-4604-2. Somerset, Anne Elizabeth I. London: Phoenix (1997) ISBN 0-385-72157-9 Starkey, David Six Wives: The Queens of Henry VIII (2003) ISBN 0-06-000550-5 Strong, Roy Tudor & Jacobean Portraits”. London: HMSO (1969)OCLC 71370718. Walker, Greg. “Rethinking the Fall of Anne Boleyn,” Historical Journal, March 2002, Vol. 45 Issue 1, pp 1-29; blames what she said in incautious conversations with the men who were executed with her Warnicke, Retha M. “The Fall of Anne Boleyn: A Reassessment,” History, Feb 1985, Vol. 70 Issue 228, pp 1-15; stresses role of Sir Thomas Cromwell, the ultimate winner Warnicke, Retha M. The Rise and Fall of Anne Boleyn: Family politics at the court of Henry VIII (1989) ISBN 0-521-40677-3 Weir, Allison “The Lady in the Tower: The Fall of Anne Boleyn” ISBN 978-0-224-06319-7

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1st Cousin 14x Removed Cousin Anne Bolyen-Tudor — Biography Williams, Neville Henry VIII and His Court (1971). Wilson, Derek Hans Holbein: Portrait of an Unknown Man London: Pimlico, Revised Edition (2006) ISBN 978-1-84413-918-7 Wooding, Lucy Henry VIII London: Routledge, 2009 ISBN 978-0-415-33995-7 To Die For: A Novel of Anne Boleyn, (2011) by Sandra Byrd ISBN 978-1-439-18311-3 Anne Boleyn, a Music Book, and the Northern Renaissance Courts: Music Manuscript 1070 of the Royal College of Music, London” Ph.D., Musicology, University of Maryland, 1997 ISBN 0-59146653-8 The Politics of Marriage by David Loades (1994) The Lady in the Tower: The Fall of Anne Boleyn by Allison Weir. ISBN 978-0-224-06319-7 The Hever Castle Guide Book The Anne Boleyn Files Queen Anne Boleyn Website Anne Boleyn at Salle church Norfolk, UK Anne Boleyn’s indictment and other Tudor treasures online to mark the 500th anniversary of Henry VIII’s accession Works by or about Anne Boleyn in libraries (WorldCat catalog)

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Further Reading
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External Links
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English Royalty Vacant Title Last Held By Catherine Of Aragon Queen Consort Of England Lady Of Ireland 28 May 1533–17 May 1536 Vacant Title Next Held By Jane Seymour

English Royal Consorts Matilda Of Flanders (1066–1083) · Adeliza Of Louvain (1121–1135) · (Geoffrey V Of Anjou?) (1141) · Margaret Of France (1172–1183) · Isabella Of Angoulême (1200–1216) · Eleanor Of Castile (1272–1290) Isabella Of France (1308–1327) Anne Of Bohemia (1383–1394) Joanna Of Navarre (1403–1413 Matilda Of Scotland (1100–1118) · Matilda I Of Boulogne (1135–1152) · Eleanor Of Aquitaine (1154–1189) · Berengaria Of Navarre (1191–1199) · Eleanor Of Provence (1236–1272) · Margaret Of France (1299–1307) Philippa Of Hainault (1328–1369) Isabella Of Valois (1396–1399) Catherine Of Valois (1420–1422)

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1st Cousin 14x Removed Cousin Anne Bolyen-Tudor — Biography

Margaret Of Anjou (1445–1471) Anne Neville (1483–1485 Catherine Of Aragon (1509–1533) Jane Seymour (1536–1537) Catherine Howard (1540–1542) (Lord Guilford Dudley?) (1553) Henrietta Maria Of France (1625–1649 Mary Of Modena (1685–1688)

Elizabeth Woodville (1464–1483) Elizabeth Of York (1486–1503 Anne Boleyn (1533–1536 Anne Of Cleves (1540 Catherine Parr (1543–1547) Anne Of Denmark (1603–1619) Catherine Of Braganza (1662–1685) George Of Denmark (1702–1707)

Retrieved from “http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Anne_Boleyn&oldid=461392013“

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001st Cousin 15x Removed Anne Boleyn-Tudor

001st Cousin 15x Removed Anne Boleyn-Tudor

001st Cousin 15x Removed Anne Boleyn-Tudor

1st Cousin 15x Removed Cousin Mary Boleyn — Biography

Mary Boleyn
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Spouse(s) Sir William Carey, Aldenham Sir William Stafford, of Chebsey Issue Catherine Knollys, Lady Knollys Henry Carey, 1st Baron Hunsdon Anne Stafford Edward Stafford Noble family Boleyn Father: Thomas Boleyn, 1st Earl of Wiltshire Mother: Lady Elizabeth Howard Born: c. 1499/1500, Blickling Hall, Norfolk Died: 19 July 1543 (aged 43-44) Mary Boleyn (c. 1499/1500 – 19 July 1543), was the sister of Mary Boleyn English queen consort Anne Boleyn and a member of the Boleyn family, which enjoyed considerable influence during the reign of King Henry VIII of England. Some historians claim she was Anne’s younger sister, but her children believed Mary was the elder sister, as do most historians today. Mary was one of the mistresses of Henry VIII. It has been alleged that she bore two of the King’s children, though Henry did not acknowledge either of them as he did with Henry Fitzroy, his son by Bessie Blount. Mary was also rumoured to have been a mistress of Henry VIII’s rival, King Francis I of France.[1] She was also the maternal aunt of Queen Elizabeth I of England. Mary Boleyn married twice: first to Sir William Carey, whom she wed in 1520, and second to Sir William Stafford, a soldier. This latter marriage to a man so far beneath her station angered King Henry and her sister, Queen Anne, and resulted in Mary’s banishment from the royal court in 1534. She spent the remainder of her life in obscurity. Early Life Mary was probably born at the family seat in Blickling Hall, Norfolk and grew up at Hever Castle, Kent.[2] She was the daughter of a wealthy diplomat and courtier, Thomas Boleyn, 1st Earl of Wiltshire and his wife, Lady Elizabeth Howard, Countess of Wiltshire, the eldest daughter of Thomas Howard, 2nd Duke of Norfolk. There is no concrete evidence of her exact date of birth, but it was sometime between 1499 and 1508. Most historians suggest that she was also the eldest of the three Boleyn children who survived infancy.[3] The evidence suggests that the surviving Boleyns believed Mary to have been the eldest child; in 1597, her grandson, Lord Hunsdon, claimed the title of “Earl of Ormond“ on the grounds that he was the Boleyns’ legitimate heir. According to the strict rules of aristocratic inheritance, if Anne had been the elder sister, the title would have belonged to her daughter, Queen Elizabeth I, since a title descended through the eldest female line in the absence of a male line. However, Queen Elizabeth was said to have offered Henry, Mary’s son, the title as he was dying, but he declined it. If Mary was the eldest Boleyn, Henry would have inherited the title upon his grandfather’s death without the need to claim it.[4] There is more evidence to suggest that she was older than Anne.[5] Furthermore, she was married off first on 4 February 1520, and by tradition an elder daughter would be married before her younger sister. In 1532,

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1st Cousin 15x Removed Cousin Mary Boleyn — Biography when Anne was made marquess of Pembroke, she was referred to as “one of the daughters of Thomas Boleyn.” Where she the eldest, that would likely have been mentioned. Either way, most historians now accept Mary as the eldest child, placing her birth some time in 1499.[6] Mary was brought up along with her brother George and her sister Anne by a French governess at Hever Castle in Kent. She was given a conventional good education deemed essential for young ladies of her rank and status at the time. These were the essentials in arithmetic, her family genealogy, grammar, history, reading, spelling, and writing. Mary learned feminine accomplishments such as dancing, embroidery, good manners, household management, music, needlework, and singing, and games such as cards and chess. She was also taught archery, falconry, horseback riding, and hunting. It was once believed[by whom?] that it was Mary who began her education abroad and spent time as a companion to Archduchess Margaret of Austria; but it is now clear that it was her sister, Anne, who did so. Mary was kept in England for most of her childhood. She was sent abroad in 1514 around the age of fifteen when her father secured her a place as maid-of-honour to the King’s sister, Princess Mary, who was going to Paris to marry King Louis XII of France. After a few weeks, many of the Queen’s English maids were sent away but Mary Boleyn was allowed to stay, probably because her father was the new English ambassador to France. Even when Queen Mary left France after she was widowed on 1 January 1515, Mary Boleyn remained, joining the court of Louis’s successor, Francois I and his queen consort Claude. Royal Affair In France Mary was joined in Paris by her father, Sir Thomas, and also her sister, Anne, who had been studying in the Netherlands for the last year. Mary supposedly embarked on several affairs, including one with King Francis himself.[7] Although some historians believe that the reports of her sexual affairs are exaggerated, the French king referred to her as “The English Mare” and as “una grandissima ribalda, infame sopra tutte” (“a great slag, infamous above all”).[7][8][9] She returned to England in 1519, where she was appointed a maid-of-honour to Catherine of Aragon, the queen consort of Henry VIII.[10] Royal Mistress Soon after her return, Mary was married to William Carey, a wealthy and influential courtier, on 4 February 1520, and Henry VIII was a guest at the couple’s wedding. At some point, Henry and Mary began an affair, and although the timing is unclear, some say it began in 1521.[11] The affair was never publicised, and Mary never enjoyed the fame, wealth and power that acknowledged mistresses in France and other countries sometimes had.[12] The affair is believed to have ended prior to the birth of Mary’s second child, Henry Carey, in March 1526, and thought to have lasted for five years.[11][13] Her first child, Catherine, was born in 1524. During the affair or sometime after, it was rumoured that one or both of Mary’s children were fathered by the king.[14][15] One witness noted that Mary’s son, Henry Carey, bore a resemblance to Henry VIII.[11] John Hale, Vicar of Isleworth, some ten years after the child was born, remarked that he had met a ‘young Master Carey’ who was the king’s purported bastard child.[11] No other contemporary evidence exists to support the argument that Henry was the king’s biological son. Henry VIII’s wife, Catherine of Aragon, had been briefly married to Henry’s elder brother Arthur, but Arthur had died just a few months into the marriage, when he was a little over fifteen years old. Henry later used that as the justification for the annulment of his marriage to Catherine, on the grounds that her marriage to Arthur (assuming it was consummated) created an affinity between Henry and Catherine. When Mary became Henry’s mistress, a similar affinity was created between Henry and Anne, according to some interpretations of church law. In 1527, during his initial attempts to obtain a papal annulment of his marriage to Catherine, Henry also requested a dispensation to marry his mistress’ sister.[16]

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1st Cousin 15x Removed Cousin Mary Boleyn — Biography Sister’s Rise To Power Mary’s sister, Anne, returned to England in January 1522; she soon joined the royal court as one of Queen Catherine’s Maids-of-Honour. Anne achieved considerable popularity at court, although the sisters are not thought to have been particularly close and they moved in different social circles. Although Mary was alleged to have been more attractive than her sister, Anne seems to have been more ambitious and intelligent. When the king took an interest in Anne, she refused to become his mistress, being shrewd enough to wait and not give in to his sexual advances until it was the most advantageous.[17] By the middle of 1527, Henry was determined to marry her. This gave him further incentive to seek the annulment of his marriage to Catherine of Aragon. A year later, when Mary’s husband died during an outbreak of sweating sickness, Henry granted Anne Boleyn the wardship of her nephew, Henry Carey. Mary’s husband had left her with considerable debts, and Anne arranged for Henry to be educated at a respectable Cistercian monastery. Anne interceded to secure Mary an annual pension of £100.[18] Second Marriage In 1532, when Anne accompanied Henry to Calais on a state visit to France, Mary was one of her companions. Anne was crowned queen on 1 June 1533 and gave birth to her daughter (later to become Queen Elizabeth I) on 7 September. In 1534, Mary secretly married soldier William Stafford. Because Stafford was a commoner with a small income, some believe their union to have been a love match. When the marriage was discovered, Anne was furious, and the Boleyn family disowned Mary, probably for marrying without the king’s permission and marrying beneath her station. The couple was banished from the royal court. Mary’s financial circumstances became so desperate that she was reduced to begging the King’s adviser Thomas Cromwell to speak to Henry and Anne on her behalf. She admitted that she might have chosen ‘a greater man of birth and a higher’, but never one that should have loved her so well, nor a more honest man. And she went on, ‘I had rather beg my bread with him than to be the greatest queen in Christendom. And I believe verily ... he would not forsake me to be a king.’ Henry, however, seems to have been indifferent to her plight; so, Mary asked Cromwell to speak to her father, her uncle, and her brother, but to no avail. It was Anne who relented, sending Mary a magnificent golden cup and some money, but still refusing to receive her at court. This partial reconciliation was the closest the two sisters came to, since it is not thought that they met after Mary’s court exile. Mary’s life between 1534 and her sister’s execution on 19 May 1536 is difficult to trace. There is no record of her visiting her parents, nor did she visit her sister Anne or her brother George when the latter was imprisoned in the Tower of London. There is also no evidence that she sent correspondence. Like their uncle, Thomas Howard, 3rd Duke to Norfolk, she may have thought it wise to avoid association with her now-disgraced relatives. Mary and her husband remained social outcasts, living in retirement at Rochford Hall in Essex, which was owned by the Boleyns. After Anne’s execution, their mother retired from the royal court, dying in seclusion just two years later. Her father, Thomas, died the following year. After the deaths of her parents, Mary inherited some property in Essex. She seems to have lived out the rest of her days in obscurity and relative comfort with her second husband. She died in her early forties, on 19 July 1543. Issue Her marriage to Sir William Carey (1500 – 22 June 1528) resulted in the birth of two children (however, there were rumours that King Henry VIII was the biological father):

Catherine Carey (1524 – 15 January 1569). Rumoured[19][20] to have been the child of King Henry VIII. Maid-of-Honour to both Anne of Cleves and Catherine Howard, she married a Puritan, Sir Francis Knollys, Knight of the Garter, by whom she had issue. She later became Chief Lady of the

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1st Cousin 15x Removed Cousin Mary Boleyn — Biography Bedchamber to her cousin, Queen Elizabeth I. One of her daughters, Lettice Knollys, became the second wife of Robert Dudley, 1st Earl of Leicester, the favourite of Elizabeth I.

Henry Carey, 1st Baron Hunsdon (4 March 1526 – 23 July 1596). Also rumoured[19] to have been the child of Henry VIII. He was ennobled by Queen Elizabeth I just after her coronation and later made a Knight of the Garter. When he was dying, Elizabeth offered Henry the Boleyn family title of Earl of Ormond, which he had long sought, but he declined. He was married to Anne Morgan, by whom he had issue. Anne Stafford (?–?), probably named in honour of Mary’s sister, Queen Anne Boleyn. Edward Stafford (1535–1545).

Mary’s marriage to Sir William Stafford (d. 5 May 1556) resulted in the birth of two children:
• •

Depictions In Fiction Mary was depicted in the 1969 film Anne of the Thousand Days, and was played by Valerie Gearon. A fictionalised form of her character also features prominently in the novels The Secret Diary of Anne Boleyn by Robin Maxwell, I, Elizabeth by Rosalind Miles, The Rose of Hever by Maureen Peters, The Lady in the Tower by Jean Plaidy, Mistress Anne by Norah Lofts, The Concubine by Norah Lofts, Anne Boleyn by Evelyn Anthony, Dear Heart, How Like You This? by Wendy J. Dunn, Wolf Hall by Hilary Mantel, Brief Gaudy Hour by Margaret Campbell Barnes, and Young Royals: Doomed Queen Anne by Carolyn Meyer. Mary has been the central character in three novels based on her life: Court Cadenza (later published under the title The Tudor Sisters) by British author Aileen Armitage, Karen Harper‘s The Last Boleyn, and The Other Boleyn Girl by Philippa Gregory. Gregory later nominated Mary as her personal heroine in an interview to the BBC History Magazine. Her novel was a bestseller and spawned five other books in the same series. However, it was controversial, especially with historians who found the work inaccurate in regards to historical events and individual characterizations. The Other Boleyn Girl was made into a BBC television drama in January 2003, starring Natascha McElhone as Mary and Jodhi May as Anne. A Hollywood version of the film was released in February 2008, with Scarlett Johansson as Mary and Natalie Portman as Anne. Non-Fiction Mary is also the subject of three non-fiction books, The Mistress of Kings by Alison Weir, The Mistresses of Henry VIII by Kelly Hart and Mary Boleyn: The True Story of Henry VIII’s Mistress by Josephine Wilkinson.[21] Styles
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Mistress Mary Boleyn (1499–1520) Lady Carey (1520–1529) Lady Carey; Lady Mary Carey (1529–1532) Lady Mary Stafford (1532–1543)

Mary Boleyn became Lady Carey upon her marriage to Sir William Carey in 1520. She then became Lady Mary Carey when her father was granted the titles of Earl of Ormond and Earl of Wiltshire. Footnotes 1. 2. ^ Letters and Papers of the Reign of Henry VIII, X, no.450. ^ Letters of Matthew Parker, p.15.

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1st Cousin 15x Removed Cousin Mary Boleyn — Biography 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. ^ Ives, p. 17; Fraser, p. 119; Denny, p. 27. All three scholars argue that Mary was the eldest of the three Boleyn children. ^ Hart, Kelly (June 1, 2009). The Mistresses of Henry VIII (First ed.). The History Press. ISBN 0752448358. http://books.google.com/books?id=r6HGPAAACAAJ. ^ The Life and Death of Anne Boleyn: The Most Happy by Eric Ives ^ Antonia Fraser, The Wives of Henry VIII, p.119, Alfred A. Knopf, New York, 1992 ^ a b Weir, Alison (2002). “Henry VIII: The King and His Court”, p. 216. New York: Ballantine Books ^ Charles Carlton, Royal Mistresses (1990) ^ Denny, p. 38 ^ Bruce, p. 13 ^ a b c d Weir, Alison (2002). “Henry VIII: The King and His Court”, p. 216-217. New York: Ballantine Books ^ Alison Weir, pp. 133 – 134 ^ See Letters & Papers viii.567 and Ives, pp. 16 — 17. ^ Ives, Eric William (2004). “The Life and Death of Anne Boleyn”, p. 369 (note 75). Malden, MA: Blackwell Pub. ^ Weir, Alison (1991). “The Six Wives of Henry VIII”, p. 133-134. New York: Grove Weidenfeld ^ Kelly, Henry Angsar: The Matrimonial Trials of Henry VIII pp42 ff ^ Weir, p. 160 ^ Karen Lindsey, p. 73 ^ a b Hart pp.60-63 ^ Sally Varlow, “Knollys, Katherine, Lady Knollys (c.1523–1569)”, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, online edn, Oxford University Press, Oct 2006; online edn, Jan 2009 , accessed 11 April 2010 ^ ISBN 1848680899 ^ a b c d e f g h Lundy, Darryl. “thePeerage”. http://www.thepeerage.com/p11285.htm#i112843. Retrieved 26 October 2007 ^ a b c d e f Lundy, Darryl. “thePeerage”. http://www.thepeerage.com/p11285.htm#i112844. Retrieved 26 October 2007 ^ Lady Elizabeth Howard, Anne Boleyn’s mother, was the sister of Lord Edmund Howard, father of Catherine Howard (fifth wife of King Henry VIII), making Anne Boleyn and Catherine Howard first cousins. ^ Lundy, Darryl. “thePeerage”. http://www.thepeerage.com/p338.htm#i3380. Retrieved 26 October 2007 ^ a b c Lundy, Darryl. “thePeerage”. http://www.thepeerage.com/p339.htm#i3381. Retrieved 26 October 2007 ^ Lundy, Darryl. “thePeerage”. http://www.thepeerage.com/p10298.htm#i102977. Retrieved 26 October 2007

21. 22. 23. 24.

25. 26. 27.

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1st Cousin 15x Removed Cousin Mary Boleyn — Biography 28. 29. ^ Elizabeth Tilney is the paternal grandmother of Catherine Howard. ^ a b c d e f Lundy, Darryl. “thePeerage”. http://www.thepeerage.com/p10299.htm#i102982. Retrieved 26 October 2007 Bruce, Marie-Louise: Anne Boleyn (1972) Denny, Joanna: Anne Boleyn: A New Life of England’s Tragic Queen (2004) Fraser, Antonia: The Wives of Henry VIII (1992) Hart, Kelly: The Mistresses of Henry VIII The History Press (2009) Ives, Eric: The Life and Death of Anne Boleyn (2004) Lindsey, Karen: Divorced Beheaded Survived: A Feminist Reinterpretation of the Wives of Henry VIII (1995) Lofts, Norah: Anne Boleyn (1979) Weir, Alison: The Six Wives of Henry VIII (1991)

References
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001st Cousin 15x Removed Cousin Mary Boleyn

001st Cousin 15x Removed Cousin Mary Boleyn

001st Cousin 15x Removed Cousin Mary Boleyn

001st Cousin 14x Removed Henry VIII 'King of England' Tudor — Biography

Henry VIII of England
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia King of England (more...) Reign: 21 April 1509 – 28 January 1547 Coronation: 24 June 1509 Predecessor: Henry VII Successor: Edward VI Spouse Catherine of Aragon (annulled) Anne Boleyn (annulled)[1] Jane Seymour (widower) Anne of Cleves (annulled) Catherine Howard (annulled)[2] Catherine Parr (widow) Among others Issue Prince Henry, Duke of Cornwall (died young died young) Mary I of England Henry FitzRoy, 1st Duke of Richmond and Somerset Catherine Carey, Lady Knollys (possibly possibly) Henry Carey, 1st Baron Hunsdon (possibly possibly) Elizabeth I of England Edward VI of England House House of Tudor Father: Henry VII of England Mother: Elizabeth of York Born: 28 June 1491, Greenwich Palace Greenwich Palace, Died: 28 January 1547 (aged 55) Palace of Whitehall London Whitehall, Burial: 4 February 1547 St. George Chapel, Windsor Castle George’s Signature
King Henry VIII after Hans Holbein the Younger, Walker Art Gallery, Liverpool ,

Religion: Christianity (Anglican, previously Roman Catholic Catholic) Henry VIII (28 June 1491 – 28 January 1547 was King of England from 21 April 1509 until his death. 1547) He was Lord, and later King, of Ireland, as well as continuing the nominal claim by the English monarchs , Englis to the Kingdom of France. Henry was the second monarch of the House of Tudor, succeeding his father, , Henry VII. Besides his six marriages, Henry VIII is known for his role in the separation of the Church of England from the Roman Catholic Church. He Henry’s struggles with Rome led to the separation of the Church of s England from papal authority, the Dissolution of the Monasteries, and establishing himself as the , establishin Supreme Head of the Church of England. Yet he remained a believer in core Catholic theological England.

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001st Cousin 14x Removed Henry VIII 'King of England' Tudor — Biography teachings, even after his excommunication from the Catholic Church.[3] Henry oversaw the legal union of England and Wales with the Laws in Wales Acts 1535–42. Henry was known by some to be an attractive and charismatic man in his prime, educated and accomplished.[4] He was an author and a composer. He ruled with absolute power. His desire to provide England with a male heir—which stemmed partly from personal vanity and partly because he believed a daughter would be unable to consolidate the Tudor Dynasty and the fragile peace that existed following the Wars of the Roses[5]—led to the two things that Henry is remembered for: his wives, and the English Reformation that made England a mostly Protestant nation. In later life he became morbidly obese and his health suffered; his public image is frequently depicted as one of a lustful, egotistical, harsh, and insecure king.[6] Early Years: 1491–1509 Born at Greenwich Palace, Henry VIII was the third child of Henry VII and Elizabeth of York.[7] Of the young Henry’s six siblings, only three – Arthur, Prince of Wales; Margaret; and Mary – survived infancy. In 1493, at the age of two, Henry was appointed Constable of Dover Castle and Lord Warden of the Cinque Ports. In 1494, he was made Duke of York. He was subsequently appointed Earl Marshal of England and Lord Lieutenant of Ireland. Henry was given a first-rate education from leading tutors, becoming fluent in Latin, French, and Spanish.[8] As it was expected that the throne would pass to Prince Arthur, Henry’s older brother, Henry was prepared for a clerical career. Elizabeth of York, his mother, died when Henry was aged 11.[9] Death Of Prince Arthur

Arthur, Prince of Wales around the time of his marriage c. 1501

Catherine of Aragon as a young widow, by Henry VII‘s court painter, Michael Sittow, in c. 1502.

In 1502, Arthur died at the age of 15, after only 20 weeks of marriage to Catherine of Aragon. Arthur’s death thrust all his duties upon his younger brother, the 10-year-old Henry, who then became Prince of Wales. Henry VII renewed his efforts to seal a marital alliance between England and Spain, by offering his second son in marriage to Prince Arthur’s widow, Catherine of Aragon, youngest surviving child of King Ferdinand II of Aragon and Queen Isabella I of Castile.[10] For the new Prince of Wales to marry his brother’s widow, a dispensation from the Pope was normally required to overrule the impediment of affinity because, as told in the Book of Leviticus, “If a brother is to marry the wife of a brother they will remain childless.” Catherine swore that her marriage to Prince Arthur had not been consummated. Still, both the English and Spanish parties agreed that an additional papal dispensation of affinity would be prudent to remove all doubt regarding the legitimacy of the marriage.

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001st Cousin 14x Removed Henry VIII 'King of England' Tudor — Biography The impatience of Catherine’s mother, Queen Isabella I, induced Pope Julius II to grant dispensation in the form of a Papal bull. So, 14 months after her young husband’s death, Catherine was betrothed to his even younger brother, Henry. Yet by 1505, Henry VII lost interest in a Spanish alliance and the younger Henry declared that his betrothal had been arranged without his consent. Continued diplomatic manoeuvring over the fate of the proposed marriage lingered until the death of Henry VII in 1509. Only 17 years old, Henry married Catherine on 11 June 1509 and, on 24 June 1509, the two were crowned at Westminster Abbey. Early Reign: 1509–1525 Two days after his coronation, he arrested his father’s two most unpopular ministers, Sir Richard Empson and Edmund Dudley (grandfather of Henry’s daughter Elizabeth’s favourite courtier, Robert Dudley). They were charged with high treason and were executed in 1510. This was to become Henry’s primary tactic for dealing with those who stood in his way,[11] as believed by historians such as Crofton. Henry also returned to the public some of the money supposedly extorted by the two ministers. ...his executors made restitution of great sums of money, to many persons taken against good conscience to the said king’s use, by the forenamed Empson and Dudley.[12] Henry cultivated the image of a Renaissance Man and his court was a centre of scholarly and artistic innovation and glamorous excess, epitomised by the Field of the Cloth of Gold. He was an accomplished musician, author, and poet. His best known musical composition is “Pastime with Good Company“ or “The Kynges Ballade”. He was an Eighteen year-old Henry after avid gambler and dice player, and excelled at sports, especially jousting, his coronation in 1509. hunting, and real tennis. He was known for his strong defence of conventional Christian piety.[13] Meeting Francis I on 7 June 1520 near Calais, he entertained the French king with a fortnight of lavish entertainment to establish a closer diplomatic relationship after the military conflicts of the previous decade. France And The Habsburgs

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001st Cousin 14x Removed Henry VIII 'King of England' Tudor — Biography

Henry VIII’s suit of armour designed by Hans Holbein the Younger made at Greenwich, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York

Henry VIII’s suit of armour, c.1544, Italian made. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York

In 1511, Pope Julius II proclaimed a Holy League against France. The new alliance rapidly grew to include not only Spain and the Holy Roman Empire but England as well. Henry decided to use the occasion to expand his holdings in northern France. He concluded the Treaty of Westminster, a pledge of mutual aid with Spain against France, in November 1511 and prepared for involvement in the War of the League of Cambrai. In 1513, Henry invaded France and his troops defeated a French army at the Battle of the Spurs. His brother-in-law, James IV of Scotland, invaded England at the behest of Louis XII of France,[14] but failed to draw Henry’s attention away from France. The English army, led by Queen Catherine, who acted as regent of England while Henry was in France, defeated the Scots at the Battle of Flodden on 9 September 1513. Among the dead was the Scottish King James IV, ending Scotland’s brief involvement in the war. On 18 February 1516, Queen Catherine bore Henry his first child to survive infancy, Princess Mary. (A son, Henry, Duke of Cornwall, had been born in 1511 but lived only a few weeks.) Power And Authority Government And Finances Under Henry Financially, the reign of Henry was a near-disaster. Although he inherited a prosperous economy (and further augmented his royal treasury by seizures of church lands), Henry’s heavy spending and high taxes damaged the economy.[15][16] For example, Henry expanded the Royal Navy from 5 to 53 ships. He loved palaces; he began with a dozen and died with fifty-five, in which he hung 2,000 tapestries.[17] By comparison, his neighbour and nephew James V of Scotland had five palaces and 200 tapestries.[18] He took pride in showing off his collection of weapons, which included exotic archery equipment, 2,250 pieces of land ordinance and 6,500 handguns.[19]

Half-Groat of Henry VIII

Henry began his reign with heavy reliance on advisors and ended with complete control. From 1514 to 1529, Thomas Wolsey (1473–1530), a Catholic cardinal, served as lord chancellor and practically controlled domestic and foreign policy for the young king. He negotiated the truce with France that was signalled by the dramatic display of amity on the Field of the Cloth of Gold (1520). He switched England back and forth as an ally of France and the Holy Roman Empire. Wolsey centralised the national government and extended the jurisdiction of the conciliar courts, particularly the Star Chamber. His use of forced loans to pay for foreign wars angered the rich, who were annoyed as well by his enormous wealth and ostentatious living. Wolsey disappointed the king when he failed to secure a quick divorce from Queen Henry VIII with Charles Quint (right) and Catherine. The treasury was empty after years of extravagance; Pope Leo X (center), circa 1520. the peers and people were dissatisfied and Henry needed an entirely new approach; Wolsey had to be replaced. After 16 years at the top he lost power in 1529 and in 1530 was arrested on false charges of treason and died in custody. Wolsey’s fall was a warning to the

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001st Cousin 14x Removed Henry VIII 'King of England' Tudor — Biography Pope and to the clergy of England of what might be expected for failure to comply with the king’s wishes. Henry then took full control of his government, although at court numerous complex factions continued to try to ruin and destroy each other. Elton (1962) argues there was a major Tudor revolution in government. While crediting Henry with intelligence and shrewdness, Elton finds that much of the positive action, especially the break with Rome, was the work of Thomas Cromwell and not the king. Elton sees Henry as competent, but too lazy to take direct control of affairs for any extended period; that is, the king was an opportunist who relied on others for most of his ideas and to do most of the work. Henry’s marital adventures are part of Elton’s chain of evidence; a man who marries six wives, Elton notes, is not someone who fully controls his own fate. Elton shows that Thomas Cromwell had conceived of a commonwealth of England that included popular participation through Parliament and that this was generally expressed in the preambles to legislation. Parliamentary consent did not mean that the king had yielded any of his authority; Henry VIII was a paternalistic ruler who did not hesitate to use his power. Popular “consent” was a means to augment rather than limit royal power.[20] Reformation Main article: English Reformation Henry never formally repudiated the doctrines of the Catholic Church, but he declared himself supreme head of the church in England in 1534. This, combined with subsequent actions, eventually resulted in a separated church, the Church of England. Henry and his advisors felt the pope was acting in the role of an Italian prince involved in secular affairs, which obscured his religious role. They said Rome treated England as a minor stepchild, allowing it one cardinal out of fifty, and no possibility of that cardinal becoming pope. For reasons of state it was increasingly intolerable to Henry that major decisions in England were settled by Italians. The divorce issue exemplified the problem but was not itself the cause of the problem.[21] Henry’s reformation of the English church involved more complex motives and methods than his desire for a new wife and an heir. Henry asserted that his first marriage had never been valid, but the divorce issue was only one factor in Henry’s desire to reform the church. In 1532–37, he instituted a number of statutes – the act of appeal (Statute in Restraint of Appeals, 1533), the various Acts of Succession (1533, 1534, and 1536), the first Act of Supremacy (1534), and others – that dealt with the relationship between the king and the pope and the structure of the Church of England. During these years, Henry suppressed monasteries and pilgrimage shrines in his attempt to reform the church. The king was always the dominant force in the making of religious policy; his policy, which he pursued skilfully and consistently, is best characterised as a search for the middle way.[22] Questions over what was the true faith were resolved with the adoption of the orthodox “Act of Six Articles“ (1539) and a careful holding of the balance between extreme factions after 1540. Even so, the era saw movement away from religious orthodoxy, the more so as the pillars of the old beliefs, especially Thomas More and John Fisher, had been unable to accept the change and had been executed in 1535 for refusing to renounce papal authority. Critical for the Henrician reformation was the new political theology of obedience to the prince that was enthusiastically adopted by the Church of England in the 1530s. It reflected Martin Luther‘s new interpretation of the fourth commandment (“Honor thy father and mother”) and was mediated to an English audience by William Tyndale. The founding of royal authority on the Ten Commandments, and thus on the word of God, was a particularly attractive feature of this doctrine, which became a defining feature of Henrician religion. Rival tendencies within the Church of England sought to exploit it in the pursuit of their particular agendas. Reformers strove to preserve its connections with the broader framework of Lutheran theology, with the emphasis on faith alone and the word of God, while conservatives emphasised good works, ceremonies, and charity. The Reformers linked royal supremacy and the word of God to persuade Henry to publish the Great Bible in 1539, an English translation that was a formidable prop for his new-found dignity.[23]

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001st Cousin 14x Removed Henry VIII 'King of England' Tudor — Biography Response to the reforms was mixed. The reforms, which closed down monasteries that were the only support of the impoverished,[24] alienated most of the population outside of London and helped provoke the great northern rising of 1536–37, known as the Pilgrimage of Grace.[25] It was the only real threat to Henry’s security on the throne in all his reign. Some 30,000 rebels in nine groups were led by the charismatic Robert Aske, together with most of the northern nobility. Aske went to London to negotiate terms; once there he was arrested, charged with treason and executed. About 200 rebels were executed and the disturbances ended.[26] Elsewhere the changes were accepted and welcomed, and those who clung to Catholic rites kept quiet or moved in secrecy. They would reemerge in the reign of Henry’s daughter Mary (1553–58). Dissolving The Monasteries Main article: Dissolution of the Monasteries England possessed numerous religious houses that owned large tracts of land worked by tenants. Henry dissolved them (1536–1541) and transferred a fifth of England’s landed wealth to new hands. The program was designed primarily to create a landed gentry beholden to the crown, which would use the lands much more efficiently. Henry made radical changes in traditional religious practices. He ordered the clergy to preach against superstitious images, relics, miracles, and pilgrimages, and to remove most candles. The catechism of 1545, called the King’s Primer, left out the saints. Latin rituals gave way to English. Shrines to saints were destroyed – including the popular one of St. Thomas of Canterbury – and relics were ridiculed as worthless old bones. Mistresses Contrary to popular belief, Henry may not have had very many affairs outside marriage. Apart from women he later married, the identities of only two mistresses are completely undisputed: Elizabeth Blount and Mary Boleyn.[27] However, it is unlikely that they were the only two; Alison Weir has argued that, aside from the affairs listed below, there were numerous other short-term and secret liaisons, most of them conducted in the king’s river-side mansion of Jordan House.[28] Elizabeth “Bessie” Blount gave birth in June 1519 to Henry’s illegitimate son, Henry FitzRoy. The young boy was made Duke of Richmond in June 1525 in what some thought was one step on the path to legitimising him. In 1533, FitzRoy married Mary Howard, Anne Boleyn’s first cousin, but died three years later without any children. At the time of FitzRoy’s death (July 1536), Parliament was enacting the Second Succession Act, which could have allowed Henry’s illegitimate son to become king. Mary Boleyn was Henry’s mistress before her sister, Anne, became his second wife. She is thought to have been Catherine’s lady-in-waiting at some point between 1519 and 1526. There has been speculation that Mary’s two children, Catherine and Henry, were fathered by Henry, but this has never been proved and the King never acknowledged them as he did Henry FitzRoy. In 1510 it was reported that Henry was conducting an affair with one of the sisters of Edward Stafford, 3rd Duke of Buckingham, either Elizabeth or Anne Hastings, Countess of Huntingdon.[29] Her brother, the Duke of Buckingham, became enraged and Lord George Hastings, her husband, sent her to a convent. Eustace Chapuys wrote, “the husband of that lady went away, carried her off and placed her in a convent sixty miles from here, that no one may see her.”.[30] Biographer Antonia Fraser has claimed that Henry had an affair with Mary Shelton in 1535, in opposition to the traditional belief that Margaret (“Madge”) Shelton was Henry’s lover.[31]

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001st Cousin 14x Removed Henry VIII 'King of England' Tudor — Biography King’s Great Matter: 1525–1533 Henry became impatient with Catherine’s inability to produce the heir he desired. All of Catherine’s children died in infancy except their daughter Mary.[32] Henry wanted a male heir to consolidate the power of the Tudor dynasty. In 1525, as Henry grew more impatient, he became enamoured of a charismatic young woman in the Queen’s entourage, Anne Boleyn.[33] Anne at first resisted his attempts to seduce her, and refused to become his mistress as her sister Mary Boleyn had. She said “I beseech your highness most earnestly to desist, and to this my answer in good part. I would rather lose my life than my honesty.”[28]:160 This refusal made Henry even more attracted, and he pursued her relentlessly. Eventually, Anne saw her opportunity in Henry’s infatuation and determined she would only yield to his embraces as his acknowledged queen.[34] It soon became the King’s absorbing desire to annul his marriage to Catherine.[35] The Six Wives of Henry VIII Catherine of Aragon Anne Boleyn

Jane Seymour Anne of Cleves

Henry appealed directly to the Holy See, independently from Cardinal Catherine Howard Thomas Wolsey, from whom he kept his plans for Anne secret. Instead, Henry’s secretary, William Knight, was sent to Pope Clement VII to sue for the annulment. The grounds were that the bull of Pope Julius II was obtained Catherine Parr by false pretences, because Catherine’s brief marriage to the sickly Arthur had been consummated. Henry petitioned, in the event of annulment, a dispensation to marry again to any woman even in the first degree of affinity, whether the affinity was contracted by lawful or unlawful connection. This clearly had reference to Anne.[34] However, as the pope was at that time imprisoned by Catherine’s nephew, Emperor Charles V, Knight had difficulty in getting access to him, and so only managed to obtain the conditional dispensation for a new marriage. Henry now had no choice but to put the matter into the hands of Wolsey. Wolsey did all he could to secure a decision in the King’s favour, going so far as to arrange an ecclesiastical court to meet in England, with a representative from the Pope.[34] Shakespeare‘s play, Henry VIII, accurately records Catherine of Aragon’s astounding coup in that remarkable courtroom in Act II, scene iv. She bows low to Henry, put herself at his mercy, states her case with irrefutable eloquence and then sweeps out of the courtroom, a woman both formidable and clearly wronged. However much this moment swayed those present and the rest of the world to her side, the Pope had never Catherine of Aragon, first queen had any intention of empowering his legate. Charles V resisted the of Henry VIII annulment of his aunt’s marriage, but it is not clear how far this influenced the pope. But it is clear that Henry saw that the Pope was unlikely to give him an annulment from the Emperor’s aunt.[36] The pope forbade Henry to proceed to a new marriage before a decision was given in Rome, not in England. Wolsey bore the blame. Convinced that he was treacherous, Anne Boleyn maintained pressure until Wolsey was dismissed from public office in 1529. After being dismissed, the cardinal begged her to help him return to power, but she refused. He then began a plot to have Anne forced into exile and began communication with Queen Catherine and the Pope to that end. When this was discovered, Henry ordered Wolsey’s arrest and had it not been for his death from illness in 1530, he might have been executed for treason.[37] His replacement, Sir Thomas More, initially cooperated with the king’s new policy, denouncing Wolsey in Parliament and proclaiming the opinion of the theologians at

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001st Cousin 14x Removed Henry VIII 'King of England' Tudor — Biography Oxford and Cambridge that the marriage of Henry to Catherine had been unlawful. As Henry began to deny the authority of the Pope, More’s qualms grew. A year later, Queen Catherine was banished from court and her rooms were given to Anne. With Wolsey gone, Anne had considerable power over political matters. She was an unusually educated and intellectual woman for her time, and was keenly absorbed and engaged with the ideas of the Protestant Reformers. When Archbishop of Canterbury William Warham died, Anne had the Boleyn family’s chaplain, Thomas Cranmer, appointed to the vacant position. Through the intervention of the King of France, this was conceded by Rome, the pallium being granted to him by Clement.[38] Breaking the power of Rome in England proceeded slowly. In 1532, a lawyer who was a supporter of Anne, Thomas Cromwell, brought before Parliament a number of acts including the Supplication against the Ordinaries and the Submission of the Clergy, which recognised Royal Supremacy over the church. Following these acts, Thomas More resigned as Chancellor, leaving Cromwell as Henry’s chief minister.[39] Second Marriage In the winter of 1532, Henry attended a meeting with Francis I of France at Calais in which he enlisted the support of the French king for his new marriage.[40] Immediately upon returning to Dover in England, Henry and Anne went through a secret wedding service.[41] She soon became pregnant and there was a second wedding service in London on 25 January 1533. On 23 May 1533, Cranmer, sitting in judgment at a special court convened at Dunstable Priory to rule on the validity of the king’s marriage to Catherine of Aragon, declared the marriage of Henry and Catherine null and void. Five days later, on 28 May 1533, Cranmer declared the marriage of Henry and Anne to be valid.[42]

Portrait of Anne Boleyn, Henry’s second queen; a later copy of an original painted in about 1534

Catherine was formally stripped of her title as queen, and Anne was crowned queen consort on 1 June 1533. The queen gave birth to a daughter slightly prematurely on 7 September 1533. The child was christened Elizabeth, in honour of Henry’s mother, Elizabeth of York.[43] Rejecting the decisions of the Pope, Parliament validated the marriage of Henry and Anne with the First Succession Act (Act of Succession 1533). Catherine’s daughter, Mary, was declared illegitimate, and Anne’s issue were declared next in the line of succession. Most notable in this declaration was a clause repudiating “any foreign authority, prince or potentate”. All adults in the Kingdom were required to acknowledge the Act’s provisions by oath; those who refused were subject to imprisonment for life. Any publisher or printer of any literature alleging that the marriage was invalid was automatically guilty of high treason and could be punished by death. Separation From Rome: 1533–1540 Meanwhile, Parliament had forbidden all appeals to Rome and exacted the penalties of praemunire against all who introduced papal bulls into England. Parliament prohibited the Church from making any regulations (canons) without the king’s consent. It was only then that Pope Clement at last took the step of launching sentences of excommunication against Henry and Thomas Cranmer,[44][45] declaring at the same time the archbishop’s decree of annulment to be invalid and the marriage with Anne null and papal nuncio was withdrawn from England and diplomatic relations with Rome were broken off.[38] Several more laws were passed in England. The Ecclesiastical Appointments Act 1534 required the clergy to elect bishops nominated by the Sovereign. The Act of Supremacy in 1534 declared that the King was “the only Supreme Head in Earth of the Church of England” and the Treasons Act 1534 made it high treason, punishable by death, to refuse to acknowledge the King as such. In response to the excommunications, the Peter’s Pence Act was passed in and it reiterated that England had “no superior under God, but only your

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001st Cousin 14x Removed Henry VIII 'King of England' Tudor — Biography Grace“ and that Henry’s “imperial crown” had been diminished by “the unreasonable and uncharitable usurpations and exactions” of the Pope.[46] In defiance of the Pope the Church of England was now under Henry’s control, not Rome’s. Protestant Reformers still faced persecution, particularly over objections to Henry’s annulment. Many fled abroad where they met further difficulties, including the influential William Tyndale, who was eventually executed and his body burned at King Henry’s behest. Theological and practical reforms would follow only under Henry’s successors (see end of section). Personal Troubles The king and queen were not pleased with married life. The royal couple enjoyed periods of calm and affection, but Anne refused to play the submissive role expected of her. The vivacity and opinionated intellect that had made her so attractive as an illicit lover made her too independent for the largely ceremonial role of a royal wife, given that Henry expected absolute obedience from those who interacted with him in an official capacity at court. It made her many enemies. For his part, Henry disliked Anne’s constant irritability and violent temper. After a false pregnancy or miscarriage in 1534, he saw her failure to give him a son as a betrayal. As early as Christmas 1534, Henry was discussing with Cranmer and Cromwell the chances of leaving Anne without having to return to Catherine.[47]
The Tower of London, the site of many Opposition to Henry’s religious policies was quickly royal executions. suppressed in England. A number of dissenting monks were tortured and executed. The most prominent resisters included John Fisher, Bishop of Rochester, and Sir Thomas More, Henry’s former Lord Chancellor, both of whom refused to take the oath to the King and were subsequently convicted of high treason and beheaded at Tower Hill, just outside the Tower of London.

These suppressions, including the Dissolution of the Lesser Monasteries Act of 1536, in turn contributed to further resistance among the English people, most notably in the Pilgrimage of Grace, a large uprising in northern England in October, 1536. Henry VIII promised the rebels he would pardon them and thanked them for raising the issues to his attention, then invited the rebel leader, Robert Aske to a royal banquet. At the banquet, Henry asked Aske to write down what had happened so he could have a better idea of the problems he would “change.” Aske did what the King asked, although what he had written was later used against him as a confession. The King’s word could not be questioned (as he was held as God’s chosen, and second only to God himself) so Aske told the rebels they had been successful and they could disperse and go home. However, because Henry saw the rebels as traitors, he did not feel obliged to keep his promises. The rebels realised that the King was not keeping his promises and rebelled again later that year, but their strength was less in the second attempt and the King ordered the rebellion crushed. The leaders, including Aske, were arrested and executed for treason. Execution Of Anne Boleyn

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001st Cousin 14x Removed Henry VIII 'King of England' Tudor — Biography On 8 January 1536 news reached the king and the queen that Catherine of Aragon had died. Upon hearing the news of her death, Henry and Anne reportedly decked themselves in bright yellow clothing, yellow being the colour of mourning in Spain at the time. Henry called for public displays of joy regarding Catherine’s death. The queen was pregnant again, and she was aware of the consequences if she failed to give birth to a son. Her life could be in danger, as with both wives dead, Henry would be free to remarry and no one could claim that the union was illegal. Later that month, the King was unhorsed in a tournament and was badly injured. It seemed for a time that the King’s life was in danger. When news of this accident reached the queen, she was sent into shock and miscarried a male child that was about 15 weeks old, on the day of Catherine’s funeral, 29 January 1536. For most observers, this personal loss was the beginning of the end of the royal marriage.[48] Given the King’s desperate desire for a son, the sequence of Anne’s pregnancies has attracted much interest. Author Mike Ashley speculated Jane Seymour became Henry’s that Anne had two stillborn children after Elizabeth’s birth and before third wife. the birth of the male child she miscarried in 1536.[49] Most sources attest only to the birth of Elizabeth in September 1533, a possible miscarriage in the summer of 1534, and the miscarriage of a male child, of almost four months gestation, in January 1536.[50] As Anne recovered from her final miscarriage, Henry declared that his marriage had been the product of witchcraft. The King’s new mistress, Jane Seymour, was quickly moved into new quarters. This was followed by Anne’s brother, George Boleyn, being refused a prestigious court honour, the Order of the Garter, which was instead given to Jane Seymour’s brother.[51] Five men, including Anne’s own brother, were arrested on charges of incest and treason, accused of having sexual relationships with the queen.[52] On 2 May 1536 Anne was arrested and taken to the Tower of London. She was accused of adultery, incest and high treason.[53] Although the evidence against them was unconvincing, the accused were found guilty and condemned to death by the peers. George Boleyn and the other accused men were executed on 17 May 1536. At 8 am on 19 May 1536, the queen was executed on Tower Green. She knelt upright, in the French style of executions. The execution was swift and consisted of a single stroke.[54] Birth Of A Prince

Henry VIII with Jane Seymour and the young Prince Edward, c.1545, by unknown artist, Royal Collection,

Henry around 1539 or 1540

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001st Cousin 14x Removed Henry VIII 'King of England' Tudor — Biography
Hampton Court (detail)

One day after Anne’s execution in 1536 Henry became engaged to Jane Seymour, one of the Queen’s ladies-in-waiting to whom the king had been showing favour for some time. They were married 10 days later. At about the same time as this, his third marriage, Henry granted his assent to the Laws in Wales Act 1535, which legally annexed Wales, uniting England and Wales into one unified nation. This was followed by the Second Succession Act (Act of Succession 1536), which declared Henry’s children by Queen Jane to be next in the line of succession and declared both the Lady Mary and the Lady Elizabeth illegitimate, thus excluding them from the throne. The king was granted the power to further determine the line of succession in his will. In 1537, Jane gave birth to a son, Prince Edward, the future Edward VI. The birth was difficult and the queen died at Hampton Court Palace on 24 October 1537 from an infection. After Jane’s death, the entire court mourned with Henry for an extended period. Henry considered Jane to be his “true” wife, being the only one who had given him the male heir he so desperately sought. He was later to be buried next to her at his death. Final Years: 1540–1547 See also: Italian War of 1542–1546 and First Siege of Boulogne In 1540, Henry sanctioned the destruction of shrines to saints. At this time, Henry desired to marry once again to ensure the succession. Thomas Cromwell, created Earl of Essex, suggested Anne, the sister of the Protestant Duke of Cleves, who was seen as an important ally in case of a Roman Catholic attack on England. Hans Holbein the Younger was dispatched to Cleves to paint a portrait of Anne for the king. Although it has been said that he painted her in a more flattering light, it is unlikely that the portrait was highly inaccurate, since Holbein remained in favour at court. After regarding Holbein’s portrayal, and urged by the complimentary description of Anne given by his courtiers, Henry agreed to wed Anne. On Anne’s arrival in England, Henry is said to have found her utterly unattractive, privately calling her a “Flanders Mare”.

Portrait of Anne of Cleves by Hans Holbein the Younger, 1539.

Miniature Portrait of Catherine Howard by Hans Holbein the Younger, 1540.

Henry wished to annul the marriage so he could marry another. The Duke of Cleves had become engaged in a dispute with the Holy Roman Emperor, with whom Henry had no desire to quarrel. Queen Anne was intelligent enough not to impede Henry’s quest for an annulment. Upon the question of marital sex, she testified that her marriage had never been consummated. Henry was said to have come into the room each night and merely kissed his new bride on the forehead before retiring. All impediments to an annulment were thus removed.

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001st Cousin 14x Removed Henry VIII 'King of England' Tudor — Biography The marriage was subsequently dissolved and Anne received the title of “The King’s Sister”, and was granted Hever Castle, the former residence of the Boleyn family. Cromwell, meanwhile, fell out of favour for his role in arranging the marriage and was subsequently attainted and beheaded. The office of Vicegerent in Spirituals, which had been specifically created for him, was not filled. On 28 July 1540 (the same day Cromwell was executed), Henry married the young Catherine Howard, Anne Boleyn’s first cousin and a lady-in-waiting of Anne’s.[55] He was absolutely delighted with his new queen. Soon after her marriage, however, Queen Catherine had an affair with the courtier Thomas Culpeper. She employed Francis Dereham, who was previously informally engaged to her and had an affair with her prior to her marriage, as her secretary. Thomas Cranmer, who was opposed to the powerful Roman Catholic Howard family, brought evidence of Queen Catherine’s activities to the king’s notice. Though Henry originally refused to believe the allegations, he allowed Cranmer to conduct an investigation, which resulted in Queen Catherine’s implication. When questioned, the queen could have admitted a prior contract to marry Dereham, which would have made her subsequent marriage to Henry invalid, but she instead claimed that Dereham had forced her to enter into an adulterous relationship. Dereham, Catherine Parr, Henry’s sixth and last wife. meanwhile, exposed Queen Catherine’s relationship with Thomas Culpeper. Catherine was executed on 13 February 1542. She was aged between 17 and 22 when she died (opinions differ as to her year of birth). That same year, England’s remaining monasteries were all dissolved, and their property transferred to the Crown. Abbots and priors lost their seats in the House of Lords; only archbishops and bishops came to comprise the ecclesiastical element of the body. The Lords Spiritual, as members of the clergy with seats in the House of Lords were known, were for the first time outnumbered by the Lords Temporal. Henry married his last wife, the wealthy widow Catherine Parr, in 1543. She argued with Henry over religion; she was a reformer, but Henry remained a conservative. This behaviour nearly proved her undoing, but she saved herself by a show of submissiveness. She helped reconcile Henry with his first two daughters, the Lady Mary and the Lady Elizabeth. In 1544, an Act of Parliament put the daughters back in the line of succession after Edward, Prince of Wales, though they were still deemed illegitimate. The same act allowed Henry to determine further succession to the throne in his will. A wave of political executions that commenced with Edmund de la Pole, Duke of Suffolk in 1513 ended with Henry Earl of Surrey in January, 1547. Although some sources claim that, according to Holinshed, the number of executions in this reign amounted to 72,000, the figure referred to “great thieves, petty thieves, and rogues,” and the source is not Holinshed but the English clergyman William Harrison. This inflated figure came from Gerolamo Cardano who in turn got it from the Roman Catholic Bishop of Lisieux.[56]

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001st Cousin 14x Removed Henry VIII 'King of England' Tudor — Biography Death And Succession Late in life, Henry became obese (with a waist measurement of 54 inches/137 cm) and had to be moved about with the help of mechanical inventions. He was covered with painful, pus-filled boils and possibly suffered from gout. His obesity and other medical problems can be traced from a jousting accident in 1536 in which he suffered a leg wound. The accident actually re-opened and aggravated a previous leg wound he had sustained years earlier, to the extent that his doctors found it difficult (if not impossible) to treat it. The wound festered for the remainder of his life and became ulcerated, thus preventing him from maintaining the same level of physical activity and daily exercise that he had previously enjoyed. The jousting accident is believed to have caused in Henry mood swings, which may have had a dramatic effect on his personality and temperament.[57] Concurrently, Henry developed a bingeeating habit, consisting of a diet of mainly fatty red meats and few vegetables. It is believed that this habit was used as a coping mechanism for stress. Henry’s obesity undoubtedly hastened his death at the age of 55, which occurred on 28 January 1547 in the Palace of Whitehall, on what would have been his father’s 90th birthday. He expired soon after allegedly uttering these last words: “Monks! Monks! Monks!”[58]

Henry’s appearance in his later years (1646 engraving based on a 1548 engraving)

The theory that Henry suffered from syphilis has been dismissed by most serious historians.[59] Syphilis was a well-known disease in Henry’s time, and although his contemporary Francis I of France was treated for it, the notes left from Henry’s physicians do not indicate that King Henry VIII died in the Palace of Whitehall in 1547. the English king was. A more recent and credible theory suggests that Henry’s medical symptoms, and those of his older sister Margaret Tudor, are characteristic of untreated Type II diabetes. According to research published in March 2011, his wives’ pattern of pregnancies and his mental deterioration suggests that the king may have been Kell positive and suffered from McLeod syndrome.[60][61] Henry VIII was Interred in St George’s Chapel in Windsor Castle, next to his wife Jane Seymour.[62] Over a hundred years later Charles I was buried in the same vault. Within a little more than a decade after his death, all three of his royal heirs sat on the English throne, but none of the three left any descendants. Under the Act of Succession 1543, Henry’s only surviving legitimate son, Edward, inherited the Crown, becoming Edward VI. Since Edward was only nine years old at the time, he could not exercise actual power. Henry’s will designated 16 executors to serve on a council of regency until Edward reached the age of 18. The executors chose Edward Seymour, 1st Earl of Hertford, Jane Seymour’s elder brother, to be Lord Protector of the Realm. In default of heirs to Edward, the throne was to pass to Henry VIII’s daughter by Catherine of Aragon, the Princess Mary, and her heirs. If Mary’s issue failed, the crown was to go to Henry’s daughter by Anne Boleyn, Princess Elizabeth, and her heirs. Finally, if Elizabeth’s line became extinct, the crown was to be inherited by the descendants of Henry VIII’s deceased younger sister, Mary. The descendants of Henry’s sister Margaret Tudor—the royal family of Scotland—were therefore excluded from succession according to this act. This final

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001st Cousin 14x Removed Henry VIII 'King of England' Tudor — Biography provision failed when James VI of Scotland subsequently became James I of England upon Elizabeth death. Elizabeth’s Public Image And Memory Henry worked hard to present an imag of unchallengeable image authority and irresistible power. He executed at will, beheading, often in public, more English notables than any monarch before or since. The roll of heads included two wives, twenty peers, four leading public servants, and six of the king’s close attendants and friends, not to mention one cardinal and various heads of monasteries. In addition Cardinal Wolsey died en route to his treason trial.

Meeting of Henry VIII and Maximilian II, Holy Roman Emperor. Emperor

A big, strong man (over six feet tall and broad in proportion , he excelled at jousting and hunting. More over proportion), than pastimes, they were political devices that served multiple goals, from enhancing his athletic royal image to impressing foreign emissaries and rulers, to conveying Henry s ability to suppress any rebellion. Henry’s Thus he arranged a jousting tournament at Greenwich in 1517, where he wore gilded armour, gilded horse urnament trappings, and outfits of velvet, satin and cloth of gold dripping with pearls and jewels. It suitably impressed foreign ambassadors, one of whom wrote home that, “The wealth and civilisation of the world lisation are here, and those who call the English barbarians appear to me to render themselves such. Henry such.” finally retired from the lists in 1536 after a heavy fall from his horse left him unconscious for two hours, but he continued to sponsor two lavish tournaments a year.[63] He then started adding weight and lost that r trim athletic look that had made him so handsome; Henry s courtiers began dressing in heavily padded Henry’s clothes to emulate—and flatter—their increasingly stout monarch. Towards the end of his reign his health their rapidly declined due to unhealthy eating. Henry was an intellectual. The first English king with a modern humanist education, who read a wrote and English, French, Latin and was thoroughly at home in his well stocked library; he personally annotated well-stocked many books and wrote and published his own book. He is also said to have written Helas madam. He founded Christ Church Cathedral School, Oxford, in 1546. To promote the public support for the School, reformation of the church, Henry had numerous pamphlets and lectures prepared. For example, Richard Sampson’s Oratio (1534) was a legalistic argument for absolute obedience to the temporal power as vested in divine law and Christian love (“obey my commandments”). Sampson cited historical precedents . hist (now known to be spurious) to support his claim that the English church had always been independent from Rome.[64] At the popular level theatre and minstrel troupes funded by the crown travelled around the land to promote the new religious practices and ridicule the old. In the polemical plays they presented, the pope and Catholic priests and monks were mocked as foreign devils, while the glorious king was hailed foreign [65] as a brave and heroic defender of the true faith. Henry VIII was an avid gambler and dice player. He was an accomplished musician, author, and poet; his best known piece of music is “Pastime with Good Company (“The Kynges Ballade”). He is often Pastime Company“ es Ballade reputed to have written “Greensleeves but probably did not. The King was involved in the original Greensleeves“ construction and improvement of several significant bui buildings, including Nonsuch Palace, King’s College Palace Chapel, Cambridge and Westminster Abbey in London. Many of the existing buildings Henry improved were properties confiscated from Wolsey, such as Christ Church, Oxford, Hampton Court Palace, the Palace Palace of Whitehall, and Trinity College, Cambridge Cambridge. The only surviving piece of clothing worn by Henry VIII is a cap of maintenance awarded to the Mayor of Waterford, along with a bearing sword, in 1536. It currently resides i the Waterford Museum of , in Treasures. A suit of Henry’s armour is on display in the Tower of London. In the centuries since his s death, Henry has inspired or been mentioned in numerous artistic and cultural works. ired

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001st Cousin 14x Removed Henry VIII 'King of England' Tudor — Biography Royal Finances Henry inherited a vast fortune from his father Henry VII who had, in contrast to his son, been frugal and careful with money. This fortune was estimated to £1,250,000 (£375 million by today’s standards).[28]:13 Much of this wealth was spent by Henry on maintaining his court and household, including many of the building works he undertook on royal palaces. Tudor monarchs had to fund all the expenses of government out of their own income. This income came from the Crown lands that Henry owned as well as from customs duties like tonnage and poundage, granted by parliament to the king for life. During Henry’s reign the revenues of the Crown remained constant (around £100,000),[28]:64 but were eroded by inflation and rising prices brought about by war. Indeed it was war and Henry’s dynastic ambitions in Europe that meant that the surplus he had inherited from his father was exhausted by the mid-1520s. Whereas Henry VII had not involved Parliament in his affairs very much, Henry VIII had to turn to Parliament during his reign for money, in particular for grants of subsidies to fund his wars. The Dissolution of the Monasteries provided a means to replenish the treasury and as a result the Crown took possession of monastic lands worth £120,000 (£36 million) a year.[28]:393 But Henry had to debase the coinage in 1526 and 1539 in order to solve his financial problems, and despite his ministers efforts to reduce costs and waste at court, Henry died in debt. Legacy Though mainly motivated by dynastic and personal concerns, and despite never really abandoning the fundamentals of the Catholic Church, Henry ensured that the greatest act of his reign would be one of the most radical and decisive of any English monarch. His break with Rome in 1533–34 was an act with enormous consequences for the subsequent course of English history beyond the Tudor dynasty. Not only in making possible the transformation of England into a powerful (albeit very distinctive) nation; but in the seizing of economic and political power from the Church by the aristocracy, chiefly through the acquisition of monastic lands and assets – a short-term strategy with long-term social consequences. Henry’s decision to entrust the regency of his son Edward’s minor years to a decidedly reform-oriented regency council, dominated by Edward Seymour, most likely for the simple tactical reason that Seymour seemed likely to provide the strongest leadership for the kingdom, ensured that the English Reformation would be consolidated and even furthered during his son’s reign. Such ironies marked other aspects of his legacy. He fostered humanist learning and yet was responsible for the deaths of several outstanding English humanists. Obsessed with securing the succession to the throne, he left as his only heirs a young son (who died before his 16th birthday) and two daughters adhering to different religions. The power of the state was magnified. Henry worked with some success to make England once again a major player on the European scene but depleted his treasury in the course of doing so, a legacy that has remained an issue for English monarchs ever since.

Silver groat of Henry VIII, minted c. 1540. The reverse depicts the quartered arms of England and France.

Scarisbrick (1968) concludes that Henry was a formidable, captivating man who “wore regality with a splendid conviction.” But unpredictably his overpowering charm could turn into anger and shouting, for he was high-strung and unstable; hypochondriac and possessed of a strong streak of cruelty. Smith (1971) considered him an egotistical border-line neurotic given to great fits of temper and deep and dangerous suspicions, with a mechanical and conventional, but deeply held piety, having at best “a mediocre intellect” to hold these contradictory forces in harness.

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001st Cousin 14x Removed Henry VIII 'King of England' Tudor — Biography English Navy See also: Tudor navy , Together with Alfred the Great and Charles II, Henry is traditionally cited as one of the founders of the Royal Navy. His reign featured some naval warfare and, more significantly, large royal investment in . shipbuilding (including a few spectacular great ships such as Mary Rose), dockyards (such as HMNB including , Portsmouth) and naval innovations (such as the use of cannon on board ship – although archers were still aval deployed on medieval-style forecastles and bowcastles as the ship’s primary armament on large ships, or s co-armament where cannon were used . However, in some ways this is a misconception since Henry did armament used). not bequeath to his immediate successors a navy in the sense of a formalised organisation with structures, ranks, and formalised munitioning structures but only in the sense of a set of ships. Elizabeth I still had to cobble together a set of privately owned ships to fight off the Spanish Armada (which consisted of about which 130 warships and converted merchant ships and in the former, formal sense the modern British navy, the rchant ships) Royal Navy, is largely a product of the Anglo Dutch naval rivalry of the 17th century. Still, Henry’s reign , Anglo-Dutch Henry marked the birth of English naval power and was a key factor in England s later victory over the Spanish ked England’s Armada. s large-scale Henry’s break with Rome incurred the threat of a large scale French or Spanish invasion. To guard against this he strengthened existing coastal de defence fortresses such as Dover Castle and, at Dover, Moat Bulwark and Archcliffe Fort, which he personally visited for a few months to supervise. He built a chain visited of new ‘castles’ (in fact, large bastioned and garrisoned gun batteries along Britain’s southern and in batteries) Britain eastern coasts from East Anglia to Cornwall, largely built of material gained from the demolition of the , monasteries. These were known as Henry VIII Device Forts. . VIII’s Style And Arms English Royalty House of Tudor Many changes were made to the royal style during his reign. Henry originally used the style “Henry the Eighth, by the Grace of God, King of Henry England France and Lord of Ireland“. In 1521, pursuant to a grant from England, . Pope Leo X rewarding a book by Henry, the Defence of the Seven Sacraments, attacking Martin Luther, the royal style became “Henry the Sacraments, Eighth, by the Grace of God, King of England and Fran Defender of France, the Faith and Lord of Ireland”. Following Henry’s excommunication, s Pope Paul III rescinded the grant of the title “Defender of the Faith”, but Defender Faith an Act of Parliament declared that it remained valid; and it continues in royal usage to the present day.

In 1535, Henry added the “supremacy phrase” to the royal style, which became “Henry the Eighth, by the Grace of God, King of England and Henry France, Defender of the Faith, Lord of Ireland and of the Church of England in Earth Supreme Head”. In 1536, the phrase “of the Church of England” changed to “of the . Church of England and also of Ireland Ireland“.

Royal Coat of Arms Henry VIII Henry, Duke of Cornwall, Mary I, Elizabeth I, Edward VI

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001st Cousin 14x Removed Henry VIII 'King of England' Tudor — Biography In 1541, Henry had the Irish Parliament change the title “Lord of Ireland” to “King of Ireland” with the King Ireland Crown of Ireland Act 1542, after being advised that many Irish people regarded the Pope as the true head of their country, with the Lord acting as a mere representative. The reason the Irish regarded the Pope as their overlord was that Ireland had originally been given to the King Henry II of England by Pope Adrian IV in the 12th century as a feudal territory under papal overlordship. The meeting of Irish Parliament that proclaimed Henry VIII as King of Ireland was the first meeting attended by the Gaelic Irish chieftains as well as the Anglo-Irish aristocrats. The style “Henry the Eighth, by the Grace of God, King of Henry England, France and Ireland, Defender of the Faith and of the Church of England and also of Ireland in Earth Supr Supreme Head” remained in use until the end of Henry’s reign. Henry’s shield as the Duke of
York. Henry’s motto was “Coeur Loyal (“true heart”) and he had this Coeur Loyal” embroidered on his clothes in the form of a heart symbol and with the word “loyal”. His emblem was the . Tudor rose and the Beaufort portcullis.

As Duke of York, Henry used the arms of his father (i.e. those of the kingdom), differenced by a label of , three points ermine. As king, Henry arms were the same as those used by his predecessors since Henry . Henry’s IV: Quarterly, Azure three fleurs-de de-lys Or (for France) and Gules three lions passant guardant in pale Or (for England).

Coat of Arms as Prince of Wales

Coat of arms of King Henry VIII (early reign)

Coat of arms of King Henry VIII (later reign) later reign

500th Anniversary Of Coronation – Celebrations An exhibition called Henry VIII: Man and Monarch curated by David Starkey,[66] was held at the British Monarch, Library in 2009. In 2009, Henry’s 500th year anniversary of his coronation was celebrated in his favourite s palaces along the River Thames.

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001st Cousin 14x Removed Henry VIII 'King of England' Tudor — Biography Marriages And Issue See also: Wives of Henry VIII Name Birth Death Notes

By Catherine Of Aragon (Married Greenwich Palace 11 June 1509; Annulled 23 May 1533) Unnamed Daughter Henry, Duke of Cornwall Henry, Duke of Cornwall Queen Mary I Unnamed Daughter 31 January 1510 1 January 1511 December 1514 18 February 1516 November 1518 2 February 1510 22 February 1511 died within one month of birth 17 November 1558 died within one week of birth married 1554, Philip II of Spain; no issue

By Anne Boleyn (Married Westminster Abbey 25 January 1533; Annulled 17 May 1536) Beheaded On 19 May 1536 Queen Elizabeth I King Edward VI No Issue By Catherine Howard (Married Oatlands Palace 28 July 1540; Annulled 23 November 1541) Beheaded On 13 February 1542 No Issue By Catherine Parr (Married Hampton Court Palace 12 July 1543; Henry VIII Died 28 January 1547) No Issue By Elizabeth Blount Henry FitzRoy, 1st Duke of Richmond and Somerset By Mary Boleyn Paternity Is Debated By Historians. Catherine Carey, Lady Knollys Henry Carey, 1st Baron Hunsdon C. 1524 4 March 1526 15 January 1569 23 July 1596 married Sir Francis Knollys; had issue married 1545, Ann Morgan; had issue 15 June 1519 23 July 1536 illegitimate; married 1533, the Lady Mary Howard; no issue 7 September 1533 12 October 1537 24 March 1603 6 July 1553 never married; no issue unmarried; no issue By Jane Seymour (Married York Place 30 May 1536; Jane Seymour Died 24 October 1537) By Anne Of Cleves (Married Greenwich Palace 6 January 1540; Annulled 9 July 1540)

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001st Cousin 14x Removed Henry VIII 'King of England' Tudor — Biography List Of Popes During The Reign Of Henry VIII Pontificate Julius II 31 October 1503 – 21 February 1513 Henry VIII Between Ages Of 12 And 21. Henry And The Pope Close Allies. Leo X 9 March 1513 – 1 December 1521 Henry VIII Between Ages Of 21 And 30. Henry And The Pope Close Allies. Adrian VI 9 January 1522 – 14 September 1523 Henry VIII Between Ages Of 30 And 32. Short Pontificate. Clement VII 26 November 1523 – 25 September 1534 Henry VIII Between Ages Of 32 And 42. Henry Formed Anglican Church Paul III 13 October 1534 – 10 November 1549 Henry VIII Between Ages Of 42 And Death. Final Break From Pope. Catherine Of Aragon Died 15 Months After His Election. On 17 December 1538, Four Years Into His Pontificate, Paul III Excommunicated Henry VIII. Denied Henry VIII His Request For Divorce In 1527.[67] Granted Henry VIII The Title Of Defender Of The Faith In The Last Week Of His Life. Excommunicated Martin Luther. Granted The Dispensation For Henry To Marry The Widow Of His Brother. Julius Was The Warrior Pope. In 1511 The Holy League Was Formed For The Purpose Of Delivering Italy From French Rule. England Joined The League On 17 November 1511. Portrait Involvement With Henry VIII

Only Dutch Pope. Pontificate Lasted Only 613 Days.

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001st Cousin 14x Removed Henry VIII 'King of England' Tudor — Biography Depictions In Literature And Popular Culture Main article: Cultural depictions of Henry VIII of England See also
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Cestui que Inventory of Henry VIII of England Sebastian Giustinian The Rough Wooing ^ Fraser, Antonia (1994). The Wives of Henry VIII. Vintage Books. ISBN 9780679730019. http://books.google.com/?id=24UKxUPB5goC. ^ Fraser, Antonia (1994). The Wives of Henry VIII. Vintage Books. ISBN 9780679730019. http://books.google.com/?id=24UKxUPB5goC. ^ J. J. Scarisbrick, Henry VIII, p. 361. ^ Robert M. Adams, The land and literature of England (1986) pp. 111–12. ^ Wilkinson, Josephine. Mary Boleyn: The True Story of Henry VIII’s Favourite Mistress p.70. Amberley Publishing, 2009 ^ Eric Ives, “Will the Real Henry VIII Please Stand Up?” History Today 2006 56(2): 28–36. ^ Crofton, p.128 ^ Crofton, p.129 ^ Churchill, p.29 ^ Crofton, p.126 ^ Crofton p,128 ^ Hall, Edward, The Triumphant Reign of Henry VIII, p. 17. ^ Crofton, p.129 ^ Guicciardini, History of Italy, 280. ^ Elton (1977) ^ MacCulloch (1995) ^ Simon Thurley, “Palaces for a nouveau riche king.” History Today, (June 1991), Vol. 41, No. 6 in Academic Search Premier ^ Thomas, Andrea, Princelie Majestie, Birlinn (2005), 79–80 citing Simon Thurley, The Royal Palaces of Tudor England, 222-4. ^ Jonathan Davies, “‘We Do Fynde in Our Countre Great Lack of Bowes and Arrows’: Tudor Military Archery and the Inventory of King Henry VIII,” Journal of the Society for Army Historical Research 2005 83(333): 11–29. Issn: 0037-9700 ^ G. R. Elton, The Tudor Revolution in Government: Administrative Changes in the Reign of Henry VIII (1962) online edition; Elton, Reform and Reformation: England, 1509–1558 (1977) is sharply hostile toward the king—an “ego-centric monstrosity,” whose reign “owed its successes and virtues to better and greater men about him; most of its horrors and failures sprang more directly from himself.” p. 43

References 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19.

20.

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001st Cousin 14x Removed Henry VIII 'King of England' Tudor — Biography 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. ^ A. F. Pollard, Henry VIII (1905 provides the classic statement of the Henrician position, esp. pp 1905) 230–38. Pollard argues that that Spain and France stayed loyal because they controlled the papacy. 38. ^ G. W. Bernard, The King’s Reformation: Henry VIII and the Remaking of the English Church s (2005) ^ Richard Rex, “The Crisis of Obedience: God Word and Henry’s Reformation.” Historical The God’s s Reformation. Journal 1996 39(4): 863–894. Issn: 0018 894. 0018-246x in Jstor ^ Meyer, pp.254–6 ^ Meyer, pp.269–72 ^ ML Bush, “The Tudor Polity and the Pilgrimage of Grace. Historical Research 2007 80(207): The Grace.” 47–72. ISSN 0950-3471. Fulltext: Ebsco; Geoffrey Moorhouse, The Pilgrimage of Grace: The 3471. Rebellion That Shook Henry VIII Throne (2003) excerpt and text search VIII’s ^ Fraser considers that only three named mistresses are definitely known: Bessie Blount, Mary Boleyn and Madge Shelton, but even the last is now disputed. Fraser p. 220 ^ a b c d e Weir, Alison (2002). Henry VIII: The King and His Court. Random House. ISBN . . 9780345437082. ^ Hart, Kelly (1 June 2009). The Mistresses of Henry VIII (First ed.). The History Press. p. 27. . ISBN 0752448358. http://books.google.com/?id=r6HGPAAACAAJ http://books.google.com/?id=r6HGPAAACAAJ. ^ PRO, E36/215 f.449 ^ Fraser, Antonia (1994). The Wives of Henry VIII Vintage Books. p. Page 220. ISBN VIII. 9780679730019. http://books.google.com/?id=24UKxUPB5goC http://books.google.com/?id=24UKxUPB5goC. ^ Lacey, p. 70. ^ Scarisbrick, p. 154. ^abc ”Henry VIII“ in the 1913 Catholic Encyclopedia. ^ Brigden, p. 114. ^ Morris, p. 166. ^ Christopher Haigh p.92f ^ab ”Clement VII“ in the 1913 Catholic Encyclopedia. ^ Williams, p.136 ^ Williams, p.123 ^ Starkey, pp. 462–4. ^ Williams, p.124 ^ Williams, pp.128–31 ^ Historians disagree on the exact date of the excommunication; according to Winston Churchill‘s Churchill ‘History of the English Speaking Peoples , the bull of 1533 was a draft with penalties left blank and History Peoples’, was not made official until 1535. Others say Henry was not officially excommunicated until 1538, by Pope Paul III, brother of Cardinal Franklin de la Thomas. ^ According to J. J. Scarisbrick, Henry VIII, p.361, Pope Paul promulgated the Bull of , Excommunication on 17 December 1538 ^ Lehmberg.

27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44.

45. 46.

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001st Cousin 14x Removed Henry VIII 'King of England' Tudor — Biography 47. 48. 49. 50. 51. 52. 53. 54. 55. 56. ^ Williams, p.138 ^ Williams, p.141 ^ Ashley, p. 240. ^ Williams, p.c4 ^ Williams, p.142 ^ Williams, pp.143–4 ^ Hibbert, pp.54–5 ^ Hibbert, p.60 ^ Farquhar, Michael (2001). A Treasure of Royal Scandals, p.75. Penguin Books, New York. ISBN 0739420259. ^ Harrison, William; Georges Edelen The Description of England: Classic Contemporary Account of Tudor Social Life’ Dover Publications Inc.; New edition edition (Feb 1995) originally published 1557 ISBN 978-0486282756 p.193 ^ “The jousting accident that turned Henry VIII into a tyrant – This Britain, UK”. The Independent (UK). 18 April 2009. http://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/this-britain/the-jousting-accident-thatturned-henry-viii-into-a-tyrant-1670421.html. Retrieved 25 August 2010. ^ Davies, p. 687. ^ Hays, J. N. (2010). The burdens of disease: epidemics and human response in western history. Rutgers University Press. p. 68. ISBN 9780813546131. http://books.google.com/?id=AJReBNnOoL8C&pg=PA68&dq=syphilis+henry+viii#v=onepage&q =syphilis%20henry%20viii&f=false. ^ Sohn, Emily (11 March 2011). “King Henry VIII’s Madness Explained”. discovery.com. http://news.discovery.com/history/henry-viii-blood-disorder-110311.html. Retrieved 25 March 2011. ^ “Solving the Puzzle of Henry VIII”. sciencedaily.com. 3 March 2011. http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2011/03/110303153114.htm. Retrieved 25 March 2011. ^ ‘Early Tudor Tombs and the Rise and Fall of Anglo-Italian Relations’, in The evolution of the grand tour:Anglo-Italian cultural relations since the Renaissance by Edward Chaney (Routledge 2000). ^ Steven Gunn, “Tournaments and early Tudor chivalry,” History Today, (June 1991), Vol. 41, No. 6 in Academic Search Premier; James Williams, “Hunting and the Royal Image of Henry VIII” Sport in History 2005 25(1): 41–59. Issn: 1746-0263 ^ Andrew A. Chibi, “Richard Sampson, His Oratio, and Henry VIII’s Royal Supremacy.” Journal of Church and State 1997 39(3): 543–560. Issn: 0021-969x Fulltext: Ebsco ^ See Thomas Betteridge, “The Henrician Reformation and Mid-Tudor Culture.” Journal of Medieval and Early Modern Studies 2005 35(1): 91–109. Issn: 1082-9636 Fulltext: Ebsco. Original documents are collected by the Centre for Research in Early English Drama at Victoria University, Toronto ^ “Henry VIII: Man and Monarch”. http://www.bl.uk/henry. Retrieved 3 July 2009. ^ McKim, Donald K., The Cambridge companion to John Calvin, (Cambridge University Press, 2004), 247.

57.

58. 59.

60.

61. 62.

63.

64. 65.

66. 67.

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001st Cousin 14x Removed Henry VIII 'King of England' Tudor — Biography Sources
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The New World by Winston Churchill (1966). The Reformation Parliament, 1529–1536 by Stanford E. Lehmberg (1970). Henry VIII and his Court by Neville Williams (1971). The Life and Times of Henry VIII by Robert Lacey (1972). The Six Wives of Henry VIII by Alison Weir (1991) ISBN 0802136834. English Reformations by Christopher Haigh (1993). Europe: A history by Norman Davies (1998) ISBN 978-0060974688. Europe and England in the Sixteenth Century by T. A. Morris (1998). New Worlds, Lost Worlds by Susan Brigden (2000). Henry VIII: The King and His Court by Alison Weir (2001). British Kings & Queens by Mike Ashley (2002) ISBN 0-7867-1104-3. Henry VIII: The King and His Court by Alison Weir (2002) ISBN 034543708X. Six Wives: The Queens of Henry VIII by David Starkey (2003) ISBN 0060005505. The Kings and Queens of England by Ian Crofton (2006).

Bibliography Biographical
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Bowle, John. Henry VIII: a Study of Power in Action. Little, Brown, 1964. Erickson, Carolly. Mistress Anne: the Exceptional Life of Anne Boleyn. (1984) 464 pp. popular biography Cressy, David. “Spectacle and Power: Apollo and Solomon at the Court of Henry VIII.” History Today 1982 32(oct): 16–22. ISSN: 0018-2753 Fulltext: Ebsco Traces the transition of Henry from Renaissance monarch (the youthful Apollo) to Reformation patriarch (the ageing Solomon) using the graphics and visual images displayed in his court, festivals, and kingdom. Gardner, James. “Henry VIII” in Cambridge Modern History vol 2 (1903), a brief political history online edition Graves, Michael. Henry VIII (2003) 217 pp, topical coverage Ives, E. W. “Henry VIII (1491–1547)”, in The Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (2004), online at OUP, a good starting point Pollard, A. F. Henry VIII (1905) 470 pp; the first modern biography, accurate and still valuable online edition Rex, Richard. Henry VIII and the English Reformation. (1993). 205 pp. Ridley, Jasper. Henry VIII. (1985). 473 pp. popular biography Scarisbrick, J. J. Henry VIII (1968) 592 pp, a favourable scholarly biography Smith, Lacey Baldwin. Henry VIII: the Mask of Royalty (1971), a leading scholar writes a psychobiography online edition Starkey, David. Six Wives: the Queens of Henry VIII (2003) excerpt and text search Starkey, David. The Reign of Henry VIII: Personalities and Politics (1986). 174 pp Starkey, David, and Susan Doran. Henry VIII: Man and Monarch (2009) 288 pp Tytler, Patrick Fraser (1836). Life of King Henry the Eighth. Edinburgh: Oliver & Boyd (published 1837). http://books.google.com/?id=lWUDAAAAQAAJ. Retrieved 17 August 2008 Weir, Alison. Henry VIII, King and Court (2001). 640 pp, a flattering portrait excerpt and text search

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001st Cousin 14x Removed Henry VIII 'King of England' Tudor — Biography Weir, Alison. The Children of Henry VIII. (1996). 400 pp. Bernard, G. W. The King’s Reformation: Henry VIII and the Remaking of the English Church. (2005). 712 pp. excerpts and text search Bernard, G. W. “The Making of Religious Policy, 1533–1546: Henry VIII and the Search for the Middle Way.” Historical Journal 1998 41(2): 321–349. Issn: 0018-246x Fulltext: in Jstor Bernard, G. W. War, Taxation, and Rebellion in Early Tudor England: Henry VIII, Wolsey, and the Amicable Grant of 1525. (1986). 164 pp Elton, G. R. The Tudor Revolution in Government: Administrative Changes in the Reign of Henry VIII (1953; revised 1962), major interpretation online edition Coleman, Christoper, and David Starkey, eds. Revolution Reassessed: Revision in the History of Tudor Government and Administration (1986), evaluates Elton thesis Elton, G. R. Reform and Reformation: England, 1509–1558 (1977), hostile to Henry Fielder, Martha Anne. “Iconographic Themes in Portraits of Henry VIII.” PhD dissertation Texas Christian U. 1985. 232 pp. DAI 1985 46(6): 1424-A. DA8517256 Fulltext: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Fox, Alistair, and John Guy, eds. Reassessing the Henrician Age: Humanism, Politics and Reform 1500–1550 (1986), 242pp; advanced essays by scholars Head, David M. “Henry VIII’s Scottish Policy: a Reassessment.” Scottish Historical Review 1982 61(1): 1–24. Issn: 0036-9241 Argues that if Henry intended to take over Scotland then his 1542 victory at Solway Moss was the opportune moment, for the French were unable to intervene, the Scottish nobility was in disarray, and the infant Mary was in line for Scotland’s throne. Instead, Henry adopted a policy similar to that in Ireland, since he could not afford outright conquest or the luxury of diplomacy. Lindsey, Karen. Divorced, Beheaded, Survived: A Feminist Reinterpretation of the Wives of Henry VIII (1995) online edition Loades, David. Henry VIII: Court, Church and Conflict (2007) 248pp; by a leading scholar excerpt and text search MacCulloch, Diarmaid, ed. The Reign of Henry VIII: Politics, Policy, and Piety. (1995). 313 pp. essays by scholars Marshall, Peter. “(Re)defining the English Reformation,” Journal of British Studies July 2009, Vol. 48 Issue 3, pp 564–85, Mackie, J. D. The Earlier Tudors, 1485–1558 (1952), a political survey of the era online edition Moorhouse, Geoffrey. Great Harry’s Navy: How Henry VIII Gave England Seapower (2007) Moorhouse, Geoffrey. The Last Divine Office: Henry VIII and the Dissolution of the Monasteries (2009) Slavin, Arthur J., ed. Henry VIII and the English Reformation (1968), readings by historians. online edition Smith, H. Maynard. Henry VIII and the Reformation (1948) online edition Wagner, John A. Bosworth Field to Bloody Mary: An Encyclopedia of the Early Tudors (2003). ISBN 1-57356-540-7.

Scholarly Studies
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001st Cousin 14x Removed Henry VIII 'King of England' Tudor — Biography Walker, Greg. Writing under Tyranny: English Literature and the Henrician Reformation. (2005). 556 pp. Head, David M. “‘If a Lion Knew His Own Strength’: the Image of Henry VIII and His Historians.” International Social Science Review 1997 72(3–4): 94–109. Issn: 0278-2308 Fulltext: Ebsco Hoak, Dale. “Politics, Religion and the English Reformation, 1533–1547: Some Problems and Issues.” History Compass 2005 3 (Britain and Ireland): 7 pp Issn: 1478-0542 Fulltext: Blackwell Synergy Ives, Eric. “Will the Real Henry VIII Please Stand Up?” History Today 2006 56(2): 28–36. Issn: 0018-2753 Fulltext: Ebsco Rankin, Mark. ‘Imagining Henry VIII: Cultural Memory and the Tudor King, 1535–1625’. PhD Dissrertation, Ohio State. U. Dissertation Abstracts International 2007 68(5): 1987-A. DA3264565, 403p. Williams, C. M. A. H. English Historical Documents, 1485–1558 (1996) online sources Letters and papers, foreign and domestic, of the reign of Henry VIII: preserved in the Public Record Office, the British Museum and elsewhere, Volume 1 edited by John S. Brewer, Robert H. Brodie, James Gairdner. (1862), full text online vol 1; full text vol 3
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Historiography And Memory
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Primary Sources
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see James Gairdner for more detail

External links Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Henry VIII of England Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Henry VIII of England Wikisource has original text related to this article: Author:Henry VIII Wikisource has original text related to this article: Persecutions of Protestants by Henry VIII, in Foxe’s Book of Martyrs
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Henry VIII at the Open Directory Project Tudor bio Jokinen, A. (2004). Henry VIII (1491–1547). Eakins, L. E. (2004). “The Six Wives of Henry VIII”. Public Broadcasting Service. (2003). “The Six Wives of Henry VIII”. Vallieres, S. (1999). “Tudor Succession Problems” Ask About Ireland: Waterford Museum of Treasures Collection: Cap of Maintenance Luminarium: King Henry VIII Life, works, essays, study resources Henry VIII Podcast Show Henry VIII and his wives Buehler, Edward. (2004). “Tudor Portraits: Henry VIII”. Stevens, Garry. (2003). “Henry VIII: Intrigue in the Tudor Court”

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001st Cousin 14x Removed Henry VIII 'King of England' Tudor — Biography Martin Luther to Henry VIII, 1 September 1525 Henry VIII to Martin Luther. August, 1526 Henry VIII to Frederic, John, and George, Dukes of Saxony. January. 20, 1523 re: Luther. “Henry VIII Revealed”, Walker Art Gallery, Liverpool, 2003. – A discussion of the Holbein’s 1536 portrait of Henry VIII and related portraits Free scores by Henry VIII of England in the Werner Icking Music Archive (WIMA) Free scores by Henry VIII of England in the Choral Public Domain Library (ChoralWiki) Henry VIII Of England House Of Tudor Born: 28 June 1491 Died: 28 January 1547 Regnal Titles Lord Of Ireland Declared King By An Act 21 April 1509 – 28 January 1547 Of The Irish Parliament Succeeded By King Of England 21 April 1509 – 28 January 1547 Edward VI King Of Ireland 1541–1547 Political Offices Lord Warden Of The Cinque Ports 1493–1509 Peerage Of England Prince Of Wales 1502–1509 Duke Of Cornwall 1502–1509

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Preceded By Henry VII

Vacant Title Last Held By Ruaidrí Ua Conchobair Preceded By Sir William Scott Vacant Title Last Held By Arthur Preceded By Arthur

Succeeded By Sir Edward Poyning Vacant Title Next Held By Edward Vacant Title Next Held By Henry

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1st Cousin, 15x Removed – George Boleyn — Biography

George Boleyn, Viscount Rochford
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Born: c. April 1504, Blickling Hall, Aylsham Died: 17th May 1536 (aged 31–32), Beheaded, Tower Hill, London, England Title: Viscount Rochford Spouse: Jane Parker Parents Thomas Boleyn, 1st Earl of Wiltshire Lady Elizabeth Howard George Boleyn, Viscount Rochford (c.1503[1] /c. April 1504;[2] 17 May 1536) was an English courtier and nobleman, and the brother of queen consort Anne Boleyn. This made him the brother-in-law of King Henry VIII and the maternal uncle of Queen Elizabeth I of England. A prominent figure in the politics of the early 1530s, he was convicted of incest with Anne during the period of her trial for high treason. They were both executed as a result. Early Years And Family George was the only surviving son of the courtier and ambassador Sir Thomas Boleyn and his wife, Lady Elizabeth Howard, daughter of the 2nd Duke of Norfolk. Thomas and Elizabeth had a number of children, including two sons named Thomas and Henry who failed to reach adulthood. Three children survived: George, Mary and Anne. There has been much debate over the centuries as to the age of the three Boleyn siblings, but there is general agreement that George was born c.1504. This stems from a number of different sources. George Cavendish says in a poem that George was about twenty-seven when he gained a place on the Privy Council in 1529. Cavendish gives this as a maximum age in order to make his tortuous verses more rhythmic (such as “thrice nine”). In addition to Cavendish’s verses, foreign diplomats believed George was too young to be appointed as Ambassador to France in October 1529. Mary’s date of birth is again generally accepted as being c.1500 but there is some disagreement as to Anne’s date of birth with arguments for 1501 and others for 1507.[3] However, following the executions of Anne and George in 1536 their father wrote to Cromwell and in his letter he stated that upon his marriage his wife gave him a child every year.[4] As Thomas and Elizabeth were married between 1498 and 1499, if Thomas is to be believed this indicates that all five Boleyn children, including the two who failed to reach adulthood, were born between 1500 and 1504, and if we accept as the evidence suggests that George was born in 1504 this is persuasive evidence for suggesting he was the youngest Boleyn child. This is the current thinking of the vast majority of modern historians with only one notable exception.[5] George and his sisters were probably born in Norfolk at his family’s home of Blickling Hall. However, they spent most of their childhood at another of the family’s homes, Hever Castle in Kent, which became their chief residence in 1505 when Thomas inherited the property from his father. Like his father, it was understood that George would have a career as a courtier, politician and diplomat. The monarchy was the font of all patronage and potential wealth and it was only through service to the Royal Family that a family could hope to achieve or protect their greatness and social position. With this in mind, George was introduced to Henry VIII’s court at the age of ten, when he attended the Christmas festivities of 1514–15. He attended an indoor melee with his father and acted in a mummery with his father, and the likes of the much older Charles Brandon and Nicholas Carew, who would later prove to be such enemies of the little boy (Brandon sat on the jury which tried him and Carew helped coach Jane

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1st Cousin, 15x Removed – George Boleyn — Biography Seymour on how best to win the king’s heart).[6] Thanks to his family’s influence and the fact he obviously impressed Henry at an early age, he became one of the King’s pageboys shortly afterwards. Since learning was highly praised at Court and essential for a career as a diplomat, George received an excellent education, speaking fluent French together with some Italian and Latin. Although his two sisters were educated abroad (Mary from 1514 to 1519, Anne from the spring of 1513 to late 1521), George remained in England throughout his formative years. George’s earliest biographer suggests that George may have spent time in France as a child when his father was on embassy from January 1519, and suggests this as a reason how George could speak such perfect French from a young age and as an explanation as to how Anne and George remained so close during their formative years.[7] However, this is pure speculation. Whatever the case, there is a long-standing tradition that George attended the University of Oxford when he was not in attendance at Court, although he does not appear in any of the university’s record — a relatively frequent occurrence in the period before the English Civil War, when few of the aristocrats who attended either technically matriculated or graduated. Personal Life There is less known about George’s personal life than his celebrated court career, but what is known is that he married Jane Parker sometime during 1525. They were certainly married by January 1526 because a note of that date in Wolsey’s hand confirms that an extra £20 a year had been awarded to “young Boleyn for him and his wife to live on”.[8] There has always been much speculation as to whether the marriage of George and Jane was a happy one, but there is no way of knowing for certain, as the state papers are virtually silent with regard to Jane. There is no mention of the couple having any children, which as the brother and sister-in-law to the King of England, there surely would have been if such a child existed. It had been thought that George Boleyn, dean of Lichfield, may have been their son; but it is more likely that he was a distant cousin. There is no record of the couple having a child, and Jane makes no mention of a child for whom she is responsible when she wrote a begging letter to Cromwell following George’s death.[9] Whether or not the marriage of George and Jane was happy, George had a reputation as a womaniser. George Cavendish, Gentleman Usher to Cardinal Wolsey, in his poetry entitled Metrical Visions lambastes the young man for his womanising, saying: I forced widows, maidens I did deflower. All was one to me, I spared none at all, My appetite was all women to devour My study was both day and hour. Yet in the same poem Cavendish, who, as a staunch Catholic, hated the Boleyns and all they stood for, cannot help himself from acknowledging George’s good looks and intelligence, saying: God gave me grace, dame nature did her part, Endowed me with gifts of natural qualities: Dame eloquence also taught me the art In meter and verse to make pleasant ditties.[10] Likewise Thomas Wyatt in his poetry also recognises George’s “Great wit” (although wit in the 16th century could suggest that a person was witty and charming, it mainly meant intelligence, and it is George’s intelligence that Cavendish and Wyatt were referring to.) Wyatt’s verse with respect to George reads: Some say, ‘Rochford, haddest thou not been so proud For thou great wit each man would thee bemoan Since it is so, many cry aloud it is a great loss that thou art dead and gone.[11]

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1st Cousin, 15x Removed – George Boleyn — Biography Historian David Starkey recognised George’s intellect when he referred to him as having “many of Anne’s talents and all of her pride”.[12] For all George’s good looks and talent, as can be seen from the above verse, Wyatt, who was a friend of the Boleyns’, also says that George was too proud. Although Wyatt’s poem is often used to suggest George was hated due to his arrogance there is nothing to support this. Despite George’s pride Wyatt acknowledges that at his death many cried out loud that his death was a great loss. It may also be that the allegations of George’s womanising are exaggerated, because there was no scandal surrounding the Boleyns’ marriage and no other Boleyn enemy felt that George’s behaviour towards women was base enough to comment on. Likewise neither Cavendish nor the Imperial Ambassador, Eustace Chapuys, who was actively looking for faults in order to demonise the Boleyns, make any mention of him being particularly arrogant. Chapuys only complaint was that George could not resist entering into Lutheran discussion whenever he was being entertained by him.[13] One modern historian, Retha Warnicke, believes that the men accused of being Anne’s lovers were chosen because of ambiguity over their sexuality. This has led to an increasingly enduring myth that the men were charged with sodomy as well as treason. This is incorrect as none of them were charged with sodomy and there were no extant rumours of homosexuality relating to any of them.[14] This theory was put forth in a 1989 biography of Anne Boleyn by American academic, Professor Retha Warnicke, but it has been criticised by many other historians due to there being no evidence to substantiate it.[15] However, recently Alison Weir has resurrected the theory regarding George’s sexuality by using the same arguments that Warnicke used twenty years previously.[16] In addition to this Weir also suggests that by his use of the phrase forced widows, Cavendish was insinuating that George was a rapist. As with the theory of George’s sexuality there is no evidence to support the notion that he was a rapist. If he had been guilty of the criminal offences of rape, buggery and/or homosexuality, and if Cavendish knew about it, then so did the rest of the court. Yet no one ever commented on George’s supposed bisexuality or even hinted at it, not even enemies of the Boleyns, such as Chapuys.[original research?] Metrical Visions are Cavendish’s interpretation of George’s scaffold speech when George said he was “a wretched sinner deserving of death”.[17] Despite the current vogue for believing Cavendish was speaking of homosexuality, his 16th century interpretation was that George was apologising for his promiscuity, which he may or may not have been. To use Metrical Visions and George’s scaffold speech as the sole pieces of evidence to support an argument for homosexual activity is problematic in that it creates a paradox. The verses in metrical visions are on the basis of Cavendish’s interpretation of George’s scaffold speech, and now, nearly five hundred years later, Warnicke and Weir re-interpret George’s scaffold speech on the basis of Cavendish’s metrical visions; hence the paradox.[original research?] Appointments And Career George is first mentioned as an adult in 1522 when he and his father received a joint grant of various manor houses in Kent. The grant was made in April, suggesting that George was born in April 1504 and that this grant was an eighteenth birthday gift.[18] He received the first grant in his sole name in 1524, when at the age of twenty he received from the King a country mansion, Grimston Manor.[19] It is supposed that this was an early wedding present made to a young man who was rapidly coming into favour. He was a firm favourite of the King and is regularly mentioned in the Privy Purse expenses as playing the King at bowls, tennis, card games and archery. He also hunted with the King and bet large sums of money with him. He won huge sums off the King but probably lost just as much, if not more. Gambling was one of the European aristocracy’s favourite pastimes in the period.[20] In 1525, George was appointed gentleman of the Privy Chamber, functioning as the male equivalent to the King of what a lady-in-waiting was to the Queen. As part of a reorganisation of the Court structure, known as the Eltham Ordinance, Cardinal Wolsey, an opponent of the Boleyns, ensured that George lost this position six months later when he halved the number of gentlemen in the Privy Chamber. Wolsey

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1st Cousin, 15x Removed – George Boleyn — Biography used the reorganisation to get rid of those whom he perceived as a threat, which was something of a backhanded compliment to the 21 year old Boleyn boy whose court prominence was already being acknowledged. As compensation, George was appointed Royal Cupbearer in January 1526 in addition to his award of an additional £20 a year for him and his wife to live on.[21] Following her return to England in 1519, Mary Boleyn became Henry VIII’s mistress. It is not known when that relationship started or when it ended or indeed for how long it lasted. It was certainly over by 1526 when the King’s eyes turned to another Boleyn sibling, Anne, and by 1527 he was seeking to marry her. Much of George Boleyn’s career was in furtherance to the King’s desire for a divorce from his first wife to enable him to have Anne. In June 1528, George contracted the disease known as sweating sickness whilst with the King and Catherine of Aragon at Waltham Abbey. In a letter to Anne, who also contracted the disease while at Hever Castle, Henry told her of her brother’s illness and recovery.[22] Later that year, George was appointed Esquire to the Body and Master of the King’s Buckhounds in 1528.[23] Throughout the late 1520s grants continued to be bestowed upon him. On 15 November 1528 he became keeper of the Palace of Beaulieu and on 1 February 1529 was appointed chief steward of Beaulieu (later in October 1533 he would be granted a life interest in the Palace).[24] On 29 July 1529 he was appointed Governor of Bethlehem Hospital (Bedlam), which was a profitable sinecure.[25] George’s diplomatic career took off in late 1529 when he was knighted and regained his former position as a member of the Privy chamber. It was also in December 1529 that he was ennobled as George, Viscount Rochford, and undertook his first assignment as a diplomat to France as Ambassador. Because of his youth, (he was only 25), it is believed that Anne’s influence secured him this post, although there is no evidence that he lacked the ability to undertake the role. The French ambassador, Jean du Bellay, commented that George was considerably younger than many of the other foreign diplomats and that the appointment of a boy barely out of his teens would cause amusement. But he also goes on to say that George should be shown more honour than was ordinarily necessary, and that his reception would be well weighted.[26] Irrespective of his age, George quickly established a good relationship with the King of France and did well in his first embassy. George attended a total of six foreign embassies to France. The first was between late October 1529 and late February 1530. George attended with John Stokesley, the Dean of the Chapel Royal.[27] Their mission was to encourage the universities of France to support Henry VIII’s divorce from Catherine of Aragon. The universities’ response was initially negative, but George encouraged King Francis to write a strong letter in favour of the divorce, which was later used to reverse the universities’ decision.[28] The second was in March 1533 when he informed the King of France of his sister’s marriage to the King of England. George was also instructed to encourage Francis into giving Henry more support, and following a lengthy debate George succeeded in obtaining a letter from Francis asking the Pope to concede to Henry’s wishes.[29] Not everyone was happy with George’s success. The Bishop of Rome, who had found George’s youth so amusing, described him as “the most unreasonable young man who ever crossed the sea”. Yet despite the criticism Du Bellay grudgingly gave praise for the respect George Boleyn inspired at the meeting and the strength with which he argued the case.[30] George’s third embassy was between May and August 1533 when he travelled to France with his Uncle the Duke of Norfolk to be present at a proposed meeting between the King of France and the Pope. It was during this mission that news reached them that the Pope had excommunicated Henry. It was George who returned to England to inform Henry of the Pope’s actions.[31] On 10 September 1533, George carried the canopy over his royal niece the Princess Elizabeth (later Queen Elizabeth 1) at her christening, along with his uncles Lord Thomas Howard and William Howard, 1st Baron Howard of Effingham as well as John Hussey, 1st Baron Hussey of Sleaford.

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1st Cousin, 15x Removed – George Boleyn — Biography His fourth embassy was in April 1534 when George was again appointed to encourage the French King to give more support to Henry’s cause, to pass similar legislation against the Pope as had been passed in England, and to arrange a meeting between the two Kings and Anne.[32] In July 1534, George once again attended the French court, this time to rearrange the meeting that had been arranged between the kings due to Anne’s pregnancy (she later miscarried). In George’s instructions is a passage stating he is one who the King “specially loveth and trustith”.[33] George’s final embassy was in May 1535 when he and his uncle were appointed by the King to negotiate a marriage contract between the King of France’s third son and the baby Princess Elizabeth, George’s niece.[34] When George was not abroad, he often escorted foreign diplomats and ambassadors into the King’s presence. Chapuys in particular regularly refers in his dispatches to meeting “the ladies brother”. In October 1529, immediately prior to George’s first embassy abroad, he was instructed to escort Chapuys on his first audience with the King. Chapuys refers to meeting “a civil gentleman named Bollen”. Ironically, Chapuys had liked George, before he became aware who he was.[35] In addition to his diplomatic career, George was an acknowledged court poet of considerable merit, and was also much admired as a talented linguist and translator. He was passionate about religious reform and translated from French into English two magnificent religious texts as presents for his sister Anne, which he dedicates “To the right honourable lady, the Lady Marchiness of Pembroke, her most loving and friendly brother sendeth greetings.”[36] The translations codify the Lutheran doctrine which both Anne and George were so immersed in, and emphasise the joint commitment of both siblings to reform of the Church. When Anne was sent a religious pamphlet by Simon Fish, “A Supplication for the Beggars”, it was George, according to Fish’s wife, who encouraged Anne to show it to the King.[37] In matters of religion Anne and George Boleyn were very much a team. Though Anne had far greater influence due to the King’s infatuation with her, her brother clearly identified both of them with the new religious ideas.[38] George’s own religious views resulted in him having an influential role in the Reformation Parliament between its conception in late 1529 and his death in 1536. Both siblings were gifted debaters on the issues of religious philosophy and it was George whom Henry chose in 1531 to argue the case for royal supremacy over the Church, before the Church’s advisory body, Convocation.[39] On 5 February 1533, George was formally called to Parliament and his attendance rate was higher than any other Lord despite his other onerous duties, clearly indicating his commitment.[40] He obviously voted in favour of the statutes which brought to an end the Pope’s powers in England, and his commitment to religious reform earned him many enemies who held true to the Catholic faith. Various peers who were opposed to the legislation were excused attendance provided they appoint a proxy. George twice held the proxy vote of Lord LaWarr, an adherent to the old religion. Unfortunately for George, LaWarr later sat on the jury which tried him.[41] George also used his fine talent, intellect and religious fervour for a less savory purpose. In 1535 he was one of the special commissioners at the trial of Sir Thomas More and at the trial of three Carthusian Monks, all of whom, because of their religious convictions, had been unable to swear allegiance to the Acts of Succession and Supremacy which had been passed the previous year. George, his father, the King’s illegitimate son Henry Fitzroy and all other courtiers of rank were present at the monks’ brutal executions which took place on 4 May 1535.[42] In his scaffold speech at his own execution George said, “Truly and diligently did I read the Gospel of Jesus Christ, but I turned not to profit that which I did read; the which had I done, of a surety I would not have fallen into such great errors”. His religious dogmatism had led him into errors rather than saved him from them. That may or may not be true, but from the contents of his scaffold speech, it was certainly something George believed. In June 1534, George was appointed Lord Warden of the Cinque Ports and Constable of Dover Castle.[43] These were the highest appointments in the realm and, as usual, he committed to them with zeal. He is

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1st Cousin, 15x Removed – George Boleyn — Biography regularly referred to in the State Papers in his position as Warden sitting at the Warden’s court at Dover. From Thomas Cromwell’s point of view, George’s influence as Lord Warden was a thorn in his side. On 26 November 1534, George wrote to Cromwell expressing fury that Cromwell had undermined one of his orders made as Lord Warden.[44] Trial And Execution In 1536, Anne Boleyn miscarried a son. Her failure to provide Henry with a male heir coincided with Henry’s infatuation with Jane Seymour, one of his wife’s maids-of-honour. To rid himself of her, Henry and his chief advisor, Thomas Cromwell, devised a plot whereby Anne was accused of adultery with five men, one of whom was her brother, George. George was charged with incest with the Queen and plotting with Anne to kill the King. During a conversation with Chapuys following the Boleyns’ deaths, Cromwell boasted that he had gone to a great deal of trouble arranging the plot, suggesting he did so in order to assist an alliance with Spain. Yet despite his boasts, during the same conversation he greatly praised both Anne and her brother for their sense, wit and courage.[45] On 23 April 1536 George was expected to be chosen to receive the Order of the Garter, but the honour went to a known opponent of the Boleyns.[46] The following day Henry gave instructions to Cromwell to set up a special commission looking into various treasons. Anne and George were arrested on 2 May 1536 the day after the May Day joust at which George was one of the principal jousters. The four commoners implicated in the plot, Sir Henry Norris, Sir Francis Weston, Sir William Brereton and Mark Smeaton were tried on Friday 12 May. Only Smeaton confessed, probably due to torture but certainly emotional pressure. Despite lack of evidence all four men were found guilty. Thomas Boleyn sat on the jury and effectively condemned his own daughter by finding the men guilty. Anne was pre-judged due to the earlier convictions of the men found guilty of adultery with her, therefore she stood trial before her brother. George stood trial a few hours after Anne on Monday 15 May. As Anne had been found guilty before George had stood trial he too was pre-judged because he could hardly be acquitted when his sister had already been found guilty of incest. The order of the trials had been very cleverly arranged to ensure the difficult case against George could not realistically fail. Everyone who witnessed George’s trial, including the Imperial Ambassador Eustace Chapuys, confirmed that he put up a magnificent defence and many thought he would be acquitted. Chapuys confirmed that those watching were betting 10 to 1 that he would be acquitted and the court chronicler Charles Wriothesley said that his evidence was a marvel to hear.[47] There was no evidence of incest save that on one occasion he had spent a long time alone with Anne. Chapuys says he was convicted merely on a presumption. George’s wife has throughout history been accused of providing evidence to support the incest charge, but this is unlikely to be correct. None of the evidence relating to the trials makes any mention of George’s wife as providing evidence save for the fact that she told in a letter that Anne had told her Henry was impotent.[48] This in itself was damning because it provided a potential motive for Anne’s behaviour. Yet whatever Jane Rochford may or may not have said, it seems that the majority of the courtiers believed in his innocence, as can be seen from the wagers they were making in favour of acquittal. Irrespective of what those at court thought, he was unanimously found guilty and the sentence of the court was that he be hanged, drawn and quartered (the sentence was later commuted to beheading). He asked for his debts be paid out of his confiscated assets so that no one would suffer from his death, and he continued to be distressed about his debts whilst awaiting death. In fact his distress was so acute that the Constable of the Tower, William Kingston wrote to Cromwell twice begging him to help ease George’s conscience.[49]

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1st Cousin, 15x Removed – George Boleyn — Biography George Boleyn and the other four men were beheaded on Tower Hill on the morning of 17 May 1536. George’s scaffold speech was extremely long and exemplified the orator’s linguistic skills. For it to have been recorded in as much detail as it was, the vast crowd who witnessed the executions must have been virtually silent, and there could have been little booing or jeering as with normal state executions.[50] His scaffold speech was primarily concerned with defending his religious beliefs and his passion for reform. It was not the honourable thing to deny guilt once a guilty verdict had been given in a court of law, and therefore he followed the conventions of the day by admitting he was a sinner deserving of death. He begged forgiveness of anyone he may have offended and begged for God’s forgiveness. He came close to denying his guilt by declaring, beware, trust not in the vanity of the world or the flatterys of the court, or the favour and treacheries of fortune. He said he would be alive if he had not done so. By blaming fortune for his fall he came as close as he dared to denying his guilt (i.e., he was dying because luck had been against him, not because he was guilty). He then went on to speak of his religious convictions before calmly submitting his neck to the axe. Anne was beheaded two days later. Titles
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George Boleyn (1504–1529) Sir George Boleyn (c. October 1529) Viscount Rochford (by courtesy until 5th February 1533) (8 December 1529– May 1536)[51]

In Popular Culture George Boleyn is portrayed by Michael Johnson in the 1969 film “Anne of the Thousand Days“ and by Jonathan Newth in the 1970 television series The Six Wives of Henry VIII; by Steven MacKintosh in the 2003 television film The Other Boleyn Girl (based on the novel The Other Boleyn Girl by Philippa Gregory); by Jim Sturgess in the 2008 film The Other Boleyn Girl (also based on the novel by Gregory). Gregory chose to incorporate into her novel Warnicke’s discredited theories, and therefore portrayed George Boleyn as bisexual. She also strongly hinted that Anne and George were actually guilty of the crimes for which they were condemned. Although the film adaptation of the book does not portray George as bisexual or incestuous, it does portray him and Anne contemplating incest, which in the 16th century would have amounted to treason by intent, and it also portrays him as a somewhat weak and ineffectual young man who dies on the scaffold as a coward. George is portrayed by Padraic Delaney in the television series The Tudors. The writers of The Tudors also chose to portray George as bisexual, but in addition to this they showed him as a cruel rapist who raped his young wife on their wedding night. As with the depictions of homosexuality, there is no extant evidence to support the notion that George Boleyn was a violent man. Footnotes 1. 2. 3. ^ Karen Lindsey, xv, Divorced, Beheaded, Survived, Perseus Books, 1995 ^ Eric Ives, ‘Life and Death of Anne Boleyn’ ^ The current academic debate on Queen Anne’s birth is focused on two very different dates: 1501 and 1507. See Ives, E.W. The Life and Death of Anne Boleyn (2004) for the arguments favouring the earlier date and Warnicke, R.M. The Rise and Fall of Anne Boleyn (1989) for arguments favouring 1507. ^ L&P (Letters and Papers of Henry VIII), xi. 17. ^ For arguments favouring George as the youngest child, see Fox, Julia. The Infamous Lady Rochford (2008); Fraser, Antonia. The Wives of Henry VIII (1993); Ives, Eric. The Life and Death of Anne Boleyn (2004); Starkey, David. Six Wives: The Queens of Henry VIII (2003); Weir, Alison. The Six Wives of Henry VIII (1993); Denny, Joanna. Anne Boleyn (2004). For arguments favouring Anne as the youngest child see Warnicke, Retha. The Rise and Fall of Anne Boleyn (1989).

4. 5.

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1st Cousin, 15x Removed – George Boleyn — Biography 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. ^ L&P, ii. pp. 1500–2 confirms George’s attendance at the mummery ^ See Edmond Bapst, Deux Gentilhommes-Poetes de la Cour de Henry VIII (1891) ^ L&P, iv. 1939 (12)) ^ Jane’s letter is at Ellis Letters, vol ii, pp. 67-68 ^ Metrical Visions, pp. 20–24 ^ Wyatt Poems, CXLIX. ^ Starkey, David. The Reign of Henry VIII, Personality and Politics, p. 79. ^ L&P, x. 699. ^ A schedule of the charges against the four commoners and the Boleyns are contained in the Bage de Secretis which can be found in Wriothesleyy’s Chronicles, pp. 189–226. ^ Warnicke. The Rise and fall of Anne Boleyn, 1989, pp. 214–19. ^ Weir. The Lady in the Tower. ^ See the footnote below for references to George’s scaffold speech ^ L&P iii. 2214 (29). ^ L&P, iv. 546 (2). ^ See Privy Purse Expenses of Henry VIII ^ L&P, iv. 1939 (12). ^ Letters of Henry VIII, ed T Coats (2001), p. 57. ^ L&P, iv. 4779 ^ L&P, iv. 6075 and 5248 and Calender of State Papers (Spanish), iv. 1137. ^ L&P, iv. 5815 (27). ^ Du Bellay Correspondence, i. 105. ^ George’s instructions are contained in L&P, iv. 6073. ^ The King of France’s letter is at L&P, iv. 6459 ^ Instructions at L&P, vi. 229, 230. ^ L&P, v. 882. ^ L&P, vi. 556, 692, 918, 954. ^ Instructions at L&P, vii. 470. ^ Instructions at L&P, vii. 958. ^ George’s attendance is referred to in L&P, viii. 663, 666, 726, 909. ^ L&P, iv. 6026. ^ MS 6561, fol. iv. MS 6561, fol. 2r. ^ Foxe, Acts and Monuments, vol iv, p. 657/ ^ For an overview of George’s influence see Carley in Illuminating the Book, ed M P Brown and S McKendrick (1998).

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1st Cousin, 15x Removed – George Boleyn — Biography 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50. ^ L&P, v. 1022. ^ Lehmberg. Reformation Parliament, p. 258. ^ Lehmberg. Reformation Parliament, pp. 57, 218. ^ George’s attendances are referred to in Calender of State Papers (Spanish), v(i), pp. 453, 474, L&P viii. 609, 666, 726, 974. ^ L&P, viii. 336 (16). ^ L&P, vii. 1478. ^ L&P, x. 1069 ^ L&P, x. 715, 752 ^ L&P, x.1036, Calender of State Papers (Spanish), 1536-38, pp. 126-8 ^ L&P, X, no.908 ^ Wolsey, ed. Singer, p. 459, L&P, x. 902 ^ There are many different versions of George’s scaffold speech, but they all follow the basic contents. It can be found in Wriothesley’s Chronicles at pages 39-40, Thomas, The Pilgrim, pages 116-17, Chronicles of Calais pages 46-7 and Constantine in Archaeologia 23 at pages 64-6. But the most detailed version of it is at Bentley, Excerpta Historia at pages 261-5 ^ The courtesy title was awarded to George on 8th December 1529 upon his father becoming Earl of Wiltshire. On 5th February 1533 George was formally summoned to Parliament, thereafter he became a peer in his own right. See LP, vi. 119, 123 ^ a b c d e f g h Lundy, Darryl. “thePeerage”. http://www.thepeerage.com/p11285.htm#i112843. Retrieved 26 October 2007 ^ a b c d e f Lundy, Darryl. “thePeerage”. http://www.thepeerage.com/p11285.htm#i112844. Retrieved 26 October 2007 ^ Lady Elizabeth Howard, Anne Boleyn’s mother, was the sister of Lord Edmund Howard, father of Catherine Howard (fifth wife of Henry VIII of England), making Anne Boleyn and Catherine Howard first cousins. ^ Lundy, Darryl. “thePeerage”. http://www.thepeerage.com/p338.htm#i3380. Retrieved 26 October 2007 ^ a b c Lundy, Darryl. “thePeerage”. http://www.thepeerage.com/p339.htm#i3381. Retrieved 26 October 2007 ^ Lundy, Darryl. “thePeerage”. http://www.thepeerage.com/p10298.htm#i102977. Retrieved 26 October 2007 ^ Elizabeth Tilney is the paternal grandmother of Catherine Howard. ^ a b c d e f Lundy, Darryl. “thePeerage”. http://www.thepeerage.com/p10299.htm#i102982. Retrieved 26 October 2007 Block, Joseph S. (2004). Boleyn, George, Viscount Rochford (c.1504–1536), courtier and diplomat. Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. http://www.oxforddnb.com/index/2/101002793/. Retrieved 17 March 2011.

51.

52. 53. 54.

55. 56. 57. 58. 59.

References

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1st Cousin, 15x Removed – George Boleyn — Biography Cokayne, George Edward (1945). The Complete Peerage, edited by H.A. Doubleday. X. London: St. Catherine Press. pp. 137–142. Cokayne, George Edward (1949). The Complete Peerage, edited by Geoffrey H. White. XI. London: St. Catherine Press. p. 51. Davies, Catherine (2008). Boleyn (née Parker), Jane, Viscountess Rochford (d. 1542), courtier. Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. http://www.oxforddnb.com/index/70/101070799/. Retrieved 17 March 2011. Head, David M. (2008). Howard, Thomas, second duke of Norfolk (1443–1524), magnate and soldier. Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. http://www.oxforddnb.com/index/13/101013939/. Retrieved 17 March 2011. Ives, E.W. (2004). Anne (Anne Boleyn) (c.1500–1536), queen of England, second consort of Henry VIII. Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. http://www.oxforddnb.com/index/0/101000557/. Retrieved 17 March 2011. Lindsey, Karen (1995). Divorced, Beheaded, Survived: A Feminist Reinterpretation of the Wives of Henry VIII. Reading, Maine: Perseus Books. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=6981860. Retrieved 8 March 2011. Richardson, Douglas (2004). Plantagenet Ancestry: A Study in Colonial and Medieval Families, ed. Kimball G. Everingham. Baltimore, Maryland: Genealogical Publishing Company Inc. Weir, Alison (1991). The Six Wives of Henry VIII. New York: Grove Weidenfeld. [[Deux gentilhommes-poètes de la cour de Henry VIII [1]

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Honorary Titles Preceded By Sir Edward Guilford Lord Warden Of The Cinque Ports 1534–1536 Succeeded By Sir Thomas Cheyney

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001st Cousin, 15x Removed – George Boleyn

2nd Cousin 14x Removed – Elizabeth I ‘Queen of England’ Tudor - Biography

Elizabeth I Of England
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Elizabeth I: Queen of England and Ireland (more...) Reign: 17 November 1558 – 24 March 1603 Coronation: 15 January 1559 Predecessors: Mary I and Philip Successor: James I House: House of Tudor Father: Henry VIII Mother: Anne Boleyn Born: 7 September 1533, Greenwich England Greenwich, Died: 24 March 1603 (aged 69) Richmond England Richmond, Burial: Westminster Abbey Signature

Elizabeth I (7 September 1533 – 24 March 1603) was queen regnant of England and Ireland from 17 November 1558 until her death. Sometimes called The Virgin Queen Gloriana, or Queen, Elizabeth I , “Darnley Portrait”, c. 1575 Darnley Portrait Good Queen Bess, Elizabeth was the fifth and last monarch of , the Tudor dynasty. The daughter of Henry VIII, she was born . a princess, but her mother, Anne Boleyn, was executed two and a half years after her birth, and Elizabeth Boleyn, was declared illegitimate. Her half-brother, Edward VI, bequeathed the crown to Lady Jane Grey, cutting Grey his half-sisters out of the succession. His will was set aside, Lady Jane Grey was executed, and in 1558 sisters Elizabeth succeeded the Catholic Mary I, during whose reign she had been imprisoned for nearly a year I, on suspicion of supporting Protestant rebels. Elizabeth set out to rule by good counsel,[1] and she depended heavily on a group of trusted advisers led le by William Cecil, Baron Burghley. One of her first moves as queen was the establishing of an English . Protestant church, of which she became the Supreme Governor. This Elizabethan Religious Settlement later evolved into today’s Church of England. It was expected that Elizabeth would marry and produce an England. heir so as to continue the Tudor line. She never did, however, despite numerous courtships. As she grew older, Elizabeth became famous for her virginity, and a cult grew up around her which was celebrated in the portraits, pageants, and literature of the day. In government, Elizabeth was more moderate than her father and half siblings had been.[2] One of her abeth half-siblings mottoes was “video et taceo” (“I see, and say nothing [3] In religion she was relatively tolerant, avoiding I nothing”). systematic persecution. After 1570, when the pope declared her illegitimate and released her subjects from obedience to her, several conspiracies threatened her life. All plots were defeated, however, with the er, help of her ministers’ secret service. Elizabeth was cautious in foreign affairs, moving between the major powers of France and Spain. She only half half-heartedly supported a number of ineffective, poorly resourced d military campaigns in the Netherlands, France and Ireland. In the mid 1580s, war with Spain could no mid-1580s, longer be avoided, and when Spain finally decided to invade and conquer England in 1588, the defeat of the Spanish Armada associated her with what is popularly viewed as one of the greatest victories in English history. Elizabeth’s reign is known as the Elizabethan era, famous above all for the flourishing of English drama, era, led by playwrights such as William Shakespeare and Christopher Marlowe, and for the seafaring prowess ,

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2nd Cousin 14x Removed – Elizabeth I ‘Queen of England’ Tudor - Biography of English adventurers such as Sir Francis Drake. Some historians are more reserved in their assessment. Drake. They depict Elizabeth as a short-tempered, sometimes indecisive ruler,[4] who enjoyed more than her tempered, share of luck. Towards the end of her reign, a series of economic and military problems weakened her popularity. Elizabeth is acknowledged as a charismatic performer and a dogged survivor, in an age when government was ramshackle and limited and when monarchs in neighbouring countries faced internal problems that jeopardised their thrones. Such was the case with Elizabeth rival, Mary, Queen of Scots, rones. Elizabeth’s Scots whom she imprisoned in 1568 and eventually had executed in 1587. After the short reigns of Eliz Elizabeth’s brother and sister, her 44 years on the throne provided welcome stability for the kingdom and helped forge a sense of national identity.[2] Early Life Elizabeth was born at Greenwich Palace and was named after both her grandmothers, Elizabeth of York and Elizabeth Howard.[5] She was the second child of Henry VIII of England born in wedlock to survive infancy. Her mother was Henry’s Henry second wife, Anne Boleyn. At birth, Elizabeth was the heiress . presumptive to the throne of England. Her older half-sister, h Mary, had lost her position as a legitimate heir when Henry , annulled his marriage to Mary’s mother, Catherine of Aragon, Aragon in order to marry Anne and sire a male heir to ensure the Tudor succession.[6][7] Elizabeth was baptised on 10 September; Archbishop Thomas Cranmer, the Marquess of Exeter, the Exeter Duchess of Norfolk and the Dowager Marchioness of Dorset stood as her four godparents.

Elizabeth was the only child of Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn, who did not bear a male , heir and was executed less than three n years after Elizabeth’s birth.

When Elizabeth was two years and eight months old her mother was executed on 19 May 1536.[8] executed Elizabeth was declared illegitimate and deprived of the title of Princess.[9] Eleven days after Anne Boleyn’s death, Henry married Jane Seymour, but she died shortly after the birth of their son, Prince Seymour, Edward, in 1537. Edward now became the undisputed heir to the throne. Elizabeth was placed in , Edward’s household and carried the chrisom, or baptismal cloth, , at his christening.[10] Bryant Elizabeth’s first Lady Mistress, Margaret, Lady Bryant, wrote that she was “as toward a child and as gentle of conditions as as ever I knew any in my life”.[11] By the autumn of 1537, Elizabeth was in the care of Blanche Herbert, Lady Troy who remained her Lady Mistress until her retirement in late 1545 or early 1546.[12] Catherine Champernowne, better known by her , later, married name of Catherine “Kat” Ashley, was appointed as Elizabeth’s governess in 1537, and she remained Elizabeth’s s Elizabeth friend until her death in 1565, when Blanche Parry succeeded her as Chief Gentlewoman of the Privy Chamber.[13] She clearly made a good job of Elizabeth’s early education: by the time s William Grindal became her tutor in 1544, Elizabeth could write English, Latin, and Italian. Under Grindal, a talented and skilful , tutor, she also progressed in French and Greek.[14] She is also reputed to have spoken Cornish.[15] After Grindal died in 1548, Elizabeth received her education under Roger Ascham, a Ascham The Lady Elizabeth in about 1546, by an sympathetic teacher who believed that learning should be unknown artist engaging.[16] By the time her formal education ended in 1550, she was one of the best educated women of her generation.[17]

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2nd Cousin 14x Removed – Elizabeth I ‘Queen of England’ Tudor - Biography Thomas Seymour Henry VIII died in 1547; Elizabeth’s half-brother, Edward VI became king at age 9. Catherine Parr, Henry’s widow, soon married Thomas Seymour of Sudeley, Edward VI’s uncle and the brother of the Lord Protector, Edward Seymour, Duke of Somerset. The couple took Elizabeth into their household at Chelsea. There Elizabeth experienced an emotional crisis that some historians believe affected her for the rest of her life.[19] Seymour, approaching age 40 but having charm and “a powerful sex appeal”,[19] engaged in romps and horseplay with the 14year-old Elizabeth. These included entering her bedroom in his nightgown, tickling her and slapping her on the buttocks. Catherine Parr, rather than confront her husband over his inappropriate activities, joined in. Twice she accompanied him in tickling Elizabeth, and once held her while he cut her black gown “into a thousand pieces.”[20] However, after Catherine Parr discovered the pair in an embrace, she ended this state of affairs.[21] In May 1548, Elizabeth was sent away. The Miroir or Glasse of the Seymour continued scheming to control the royal family and tried to Synneful Soul, a translation from the French, by Elizabeth, have himself appointed the governor of the King’s person.[22][23] When presented to Catherine Parr in Catherine Parr died after childbirth on 5 September 1548, he renewed his attentions towards Elizabeth, intent on marrying her.[24] The details 1544. The embroidered binding with the monogram KP for of his former behaviour towards Elizabeth emerged [25] and for his [26] “Katherine Parr” is believed to brother and the council, this was the last straw. In January 1549, have been worked by Seymour was arrested on suspicion of plotting to marry Elizabeth and Elizabeth.[18] overthrow his brother. Elizabeth, living at Hatfield House, would admit nothing. Her stubbornness exasperated her interrogator, Sir Robert Tyrwhitt, who reported, “I do see it in her face that she is guilty”.[26] Seymour was beheaded on 20 March 1549. Mary I’s Reign Edward VI died on 6 July 1553, aged 15. His will swept aside the Succession to the Crown Act 1543, excluded both Mary and Elizabeth from the succession, and instead declared as his heir Lady Jane Grey, granddaughter of Henry VIII’s sister Mary, Duchess of Suffolk. Lady Jane was proclaimed queen by the Privy Council, but her support quickly crumbled, and she was deposed after nine days. Mary rode triumphantly into London, with Elizabeth at her side.[27] The show of solidarity between the sisters did not last long. Mary, a devout Catholic, was determined to crush the Protestant faith in which Elizabeth had been educated, and she ordered that everyone attend Catholic Mass; Elizabeth had to outwardly conform. Mary’s initial popularity ebbed away in 1554 when she announced plans to marry Prince Philip of Spain, the son of Emperor Charles V and an active Catholic.[28] Discontent spread rapidly through the country, and many looked to Elizabeth as a focus for their opposition to Mary’s religious policies.

Mary I, by Anthonis Mor, 1554

In January and February 1554, Wyatt’s rebellion broke out; it was soon suppressed.[29] Elizabeth was brought to court, and interrogated regarding her role, and on 18 March, she was imprisoned in the Tower of London. Elizabeth fervently protested her innocence.[30] Though it is unlikely that she had plotted with the rebels, some of them were known to have approached

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2nd Cousin 14x Removed – Elizabeth I ‘Queen of England’ Tudor - Biography her. Mary’s closest confidant, Charles V’s ambassador Simon Renard, argued that her throne would never be safe while Elizabeth lived; and the Chancellor, Stephen Gardiner, worked to have Elizabeth put on trial.[31] Elizabeth’s supporters in the government, including Lord Paget, convinced Mary to spare her sister in the absence of hard evidence against her. Instead, on 22 May, Elizabeth was moved from the Tower to Woodstock, where she was to spend almost a year under house arrest in the charge of Sir Henry Bedingfield. Crowds cheered her all along the way.[32][33] King Philip had little role in England’s governance, but he did help protect Elizabeth. On 17 April 1555, Elizabeth was recalled to court to attend the final stages of Mary’s apparent pregnancy. If Mary and her child died, Elizabeth would become queen. If, on the other hand, Mary gave birth to a healthy child, Elizabeth’s chances of becoming queen would recede sharply. When it became clear that Mary was not pregnant, no one believed any longer that she could have a child.[34] Elizabeth’s succession seemed assured.[35] King Philip, who became King of Spain in 1556, acknowledged the new political reality and cultivated Elizabeth. She was a better ally than the chief alternative, Mary, Queen of Scots, who had grown up in France and was betrothed to the Dauphin of France.[36] When his wife Queen Mary fell ill in 1558, King Philip sent the Count of Feria to consult with Elizabeth.[37] This interview was conducted at Hatfield House, where she had returned to live in October 1555. By October 1558, Elizabeth was already making plans for her government. On 6 November, Mary recognised Elizabeth as her heir.[38] On 17 November 1558 Mary died and Elizabeth succeeded to the throne.
The remaining wing of the Old Palace, Hatfield House. It was here that Elizabeth was told of her sister’s death in November 1558.

Accession Elizabeth became queen at the age of 25, and Elizabeth declared her intentions to her Council and other peers who had come to Hatfield to swear allegiance. The speech contains the first record of her adoption of the mediaeval political theology of the sovereign’s “two bodies”: the body natural and the body politic:[39] My lords, the law of nature moves me to sorrow for my sister; the burden that is fallen upon me makes me amazed, and yet, considering I am God’s creature, ordained to obey His appointment, I will thereto yield, desiring from the bottom of my heart that I may have assistance of His grace to be the minister of His heavenly will in this office now committed to me. And as I am but one body naturally considered, though by His permission a body politic to govern, so shall I desire you all ... to be assistant to me, that I with my ruling and you with your service may make a good account to Almighty God and leave some comfort to our posterity on earth. I mean to direct all my actions by good advice and counsel.[40] As her triumphal progress wound through the city on the eve of the coronation ceremony, she was welcomed wholeheartedly by the citizens and greeted by orations and pageants, most with a strong Protestant flavour. Elizabeth’s open and gracious responses endeared her to the spectators, who were “wonderfully ravished”.[41] The following day, 15 January 1559, Elizabeth was crowned and anointed by Owen Oglethorpe, the Catholic bishop of Carlisle, at Westminster

Elizabeth I in her coronation robes, patterned with Tudor roses and trimmed with ermine.

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2nd Cousin 14x Removed – Elizabeth I ‘Queen of England’ Tudor - Biography Abbey. She was then presented for the people s acceptance, amidst a deafening noise of organs, fifes, people’s trumpets, drums, and bells.[42] Church Settlement Main article: Elizabethan Religious Settlement Elizabeth’s personal religious convictions have been much debated by scholars. She was a Protestant, but s kept Catholic symbols (such as the crucifix , and downplayed the role of sermons in defiance of a key such crucifix), Protestant belief.[43] In terms of public policy she favoured pragmatism in dealing with religious matters. The question of her legitimacy was a key concern: Although she was technically illegitimate under both Protestant and Catholic law, her retroactively declared illegitimacy under the English church was not a serious bar compared to having never been legitimate as the Catholics claimed she was. For this reason alone, it was red never in serious doubt that Elizabeth would embrace Protestantism. Elizabeth and her advisors perceived the threat of a Catholic crusade against heretical E England. Elizabeth therefore sought a Protestant solution that would not offend Catholics too greatly while addressing the desires of English Protestants; she would not tolerate the more radical Puritans though, who were pushing for far-reaching reforms.[44] As a result, the parliament of 1559 started to legislate for a church based on the Protestant settlement of Edward VI, with the monarch as its head, but with many Catholic elements, VI, such as priestly vestments.[45] The House of Commons backed the proposals strongly, but the bill of supremacy met opposition in the strongly, House of Lords, particularly from the bishops. Elizabeth was fortunate that many bishoprics were vacant , at the time, including the Archbishopric of Canterbury [46][47] This enabled supporters amongst peers to Canterbury. outvote the bishops and conservative peers. Nevertheless, Elizabeth was forced to accept the title of Supreme Governor of the Church of England rather than the more contentious title of Supreme Head, which many thought unacceptable for a woman to bear. The new Act of Supremacy became law on 8 ught May 1559. All public officials were to swear an oath of loyalty to the monarch as the supreme governor or risk disqualification from office; the heresy laws were repealed, to avoid a repeat of the persecution of oid dissenters practised by Mary. At the same time, a new Act of Uniformity was passed, which made attendance at church and the use of an adapted version of the 1552 Book of Common Prayer compulsory, 48] though the penalties for recusancy, or failure to attend and conform, were not extreme.[48 , Marriage Question From the start of Elizabeth’s reign, it was expected that she s would marry and the question arose whom. She never did, although she received many offers for her hand; the reasons for this are not clear. Historians have speculated that Thomas Seymour had put her off sexual relationships, or that she knew s, herself to be infertile.[50][51] She considered several suitors until she was about fifty. Her last courtship was with François, Duke of Anjou, 22 years her junior. While risking possible r loss of power like her sister, who played into the hands of King Phillip II of Spain, marriage offered the chance of an heir.[52] However, the choice of a husband might also provoke political instability or even insurrection.[53]

Elizabeth and her favourite, Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester, c. 1575. Pair of stamp , stampsized miniatures by Nicholas Hilliard [49] Hilliard. The Queen’s friendship with Dudley lasted y for over thirty years, until his death.

Lord Robert Dudley In the spring of 1559 it became evident that Elizabeth was in love with her childhood friend Lord Robert Dudley.[54] It was said that Amy Robsart his wife, was suffering from a “malady in one of her breasts”, Robsart, malady breasts and that the Queen would like to marry Lord Robert in case his wife should die.[55] By the autumn of 1559

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2nd Cousin 14x Removed – Elizabeth I ‘Queen of England’ Tudor - Biography several foreign suitors were vying for Elizabeth’s hand; their impatient envoys engaged in ever more scandalous talk and reported that a marriage with her favourite was not welcome in England:[56] “There is not a man who does not cry out on him and her with indignation ... she will marry none but the favoured Robert”.[57] Amy Dudley died in September 1560 from a fall from a flight of stairs and, despite the coroner’s inquest finding of accident, many people suspected Dudley to have arranged her death so that he could marry the queen.[58] Elizabeth seriously considered marrying Dudley for some time. However, William Cecil, Nicholas Throckmorton, and some conservative peers made their disapproval unmistakably clear.[59] There were even rumours that the nobility would rise if the marriage took place.[60] Despite several other marriage projects, Robert Dudley was regarded as a candidate for nearly another decade.[61] Elizabeth was extremely jealous of his affections, even when she no longer meant to marry him herself.[62] In 1564 Elizabeth created Dudley Earl of Leicester. He finally remarried in 1578, to which the queen reacted with repeated scenes of displeasure and lifelong hatred towards his wife.[63] Still, Dudley always “remained at the centre of [Elizabeth’s] emotional life”, as historian Susan Doran has described the situation.[64] He died shortly after the Armada, and after Elizabeth’s own death, a note from him was found among her most personal belongings, marked “his last letter” in her handwriting.[65] Political Aspects Marriage negotiations constituted a key element in Elizabeth’s foreign policy.[67] She turned down Philip II’s own hand in 1559, and negotiated for several years to marry his cousin Archduke Charles of Austria. By 1569, relations with the Habsburgs had deteriorated, and Elizabeth considered marriage to two French Valois princes in turn, first Henri, Duke of Anjou, and later, from 1572 to 1581, his brother François, Duke of Anjou, formerly Duke of Alençon.[68] This last proposal was tied to a planned alliance against Spanish control of the Southern Netherlands.[69] Elizabeth seems to have taken the courtship seriously for a time, and wore a frog-shaped earring that Anjou had sent her.[70] In 1563, Elizabeth told an imperial envoy: “If I follow the inclination of my nature, it is this: beggar-woman and single, far rather than queen François, Duke of Anjou, by and married”.[67] Later in the year, following Elizabeth’s illness with Nicholas Hilliard. Elizabeth called the duke her “frog”, finding smallpox, the succession question became a heated issue in Parliament. him “not so deformed” as she had They urged the queen to marry or nominate an heir, to prevent a civil been led to expect.[66] war upon her death. She refused to do either. In April she prorogued the Parliament, which did not reconvene until she needed its support to raise taxes in 1566. Having promised to marry previously, she told an unruly House: I will never break the word of a prince spoken in public place, for my honour’s sake. And therefore I say again, I will marry as soon as I can conveniently, if God take not him away with whom I mind to marry, or myself, or else some other great let happen.[71] By 1570, senior figures in the government privately accepted that Elizabeth would never marry or name a successor. William Cecil was already seeking solutions to the succession problem.[67] For her failure to marry, Elizabeth was often accused of irresponsibility.[72] Her silence, however, strengthened her own political security: she knew that if she named an heir, her throne would be vulnerable to a coup; she remembered that the way “a second person, as I have been” had been used as the focus of plots against her sister, Queen Mary.[73]

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2nd Cousin 14x Removed – Elizabeth I ‘Queen of England’ Tudor - Biography Elizabeth’s unmarried status inspired a cult of virginity. In poetry and portraiture, she was depicted as a virgin or a goddess or both, not as a normal woman.[75] At first, only Elizabeth made a virtue of her virginity: in 1559, she told the Commons, “And, in the end, this shall be for me sufficient, that a marble stone shall declare that a queen, having reigned such a time, lived and died a virgin”.[76] Later on, poets and writers took up the theme and turned it into an iconography that exalted Elizabeth. Public tributes to the Virgin by 1578 acted as a coded assertion of opposition to the queen’s marriage negotiations with the Duc d’Alençon.[77] Putting a positive spin on her marital status, Elizabeth insisted she was married to her kingdom and subjects, under divine protection. In 1599, Elizabeth spoke of “all my husbands, my good people”.[78] Mary, Queen Of Scots Elizabeth’s first policy toward Scotland was to oppose the French presence there.[79] She feared that the French planned to The “Hampden” portrait, by Steven van invade England and put Mary, Queen of Scots, who was der Meulen, ca. 1563. This is the earliest full-length portrait of the queen, made considered by many to be the heir to the English crown,[80] on before the emergence of symbolic the throne.[81] Elizabeth was persuaded to send a force into portraits representing the iconography of Scotland to aid the Protestant rebels, and though the campaign the “Virgin Queen”.[74] was inept, the resulting Treaty of Edinburgh of July 1560 removed the French threat in the north.[82] When Mary returned to Scotland in 1561 to take up the reins of power, the country had an established Protestant church and was run by a council of Protestant nobles supported by Elizabeth.[83] Mary refused to ratify the treaty.[84] In 1563 Elizabeth proposed her own suitor, Robert Dudley, as a husband for Mary, without asking either of the two people concerned. Both proved unenthusiastic,[85] and in 1565 Mary married Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley, who carried his own claim to the English throne. The marriage was the first of a series of errors of judgement by Mary that handed the victory to the Scottish Protestants and to Elizabeth. Darnley quickly became unpopular in Scotland and then infamous for presiding over the murder of Mary’s Italian secretary David Rizzio. In February 1567, Darnley was murdered by conspirators almost certainly led by James Hepburn, Earl of Bothwell. Shortly afterwards, on 15 May 1567, Mary married Bothwell, arousing suspicions that she had been party to the murder of her husband. Elizabeth wrote to her: How could a worse choice be made for your honour than in such haste to marry such a subject, who besides other and notorious lacks, public fame has charged with the murder of your late husband, besides the touching of yourself also in some part, though we trust in that behalf falsely.[86] These events led rapidly to Mary’s defeat and imprisonment in Loch Leven Castle. The Scottish lords forced her to abdicate in favour of her son James, who had been born in June 1566. James was taken to Stirling Castle to be raised as a Protestant. Mary escaped from Loch Leven in 1568 but after another defeat fled across the border into England, where she had once been assured of support from Elizabeth. Elizabeth’s first instinct was to restore her fellow monarch; but she and her council instead chose to play safe. Rather than risk returning Mary to Scotland with an English army or sending her to France and the Catholic enemies of England, they detained her in England, where she was imprisoned for the next nineteen years.[87]

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2nd Cousin 14x Removed – Elizabeth I ‘Queen of England’ Tudor - Biography Mary And The Catholic Cause Mary was soon the focus for rebellion. In 1569 there was a major Catholic rising in the North; the goal was to free Mary, marry her to Thomas Howard, Duke of Norfolk, and put her on the English throne.[88] After the rebels’ defeat, over 750 of them were executed on Elizabeth’s orders.[89] In the belief that the revolt had been successful, Pope Pius V issued a bull in 1570, titled Regnans in Excelsis, which declared “Elizabeth, the pretended Queen of England and the servant of crime” to be excommunicate and a heretic, releasing all her subjects from any allegiance to her.[90][91] Catholics who obeyed her orders were threatened with excommunication.[90] The papal bull provoked legislative initiatives against Catholics by Parliament, which were however mitigated by Elizabeth’s intervention.[92] In 1581, to convert English subjects to Catholicism with “the intent” to withdraw them from their allegiance to Elizabeth was made a treasonable offence, carrying the death penalty.[93] From the 1570s missionary priests from continental seminaries came to England secretly in the cause of the “reconversion of England”.[91] Many suffered execution, engendering a cult of martyrdom.[91]

Sir Francis Walsingham, Principal Secretary 1573–1590. Being Elizabeth’s spymaster, he uncovered several plots against her life.

Regnans in Excelsis gave English Catholics a strong incentive to look to Mary Stuart as the true sovereign of England. Mary may not have been told of every Catholic plot to put her on the English throne, but from the Ridolfi Plot of 1571 (which caused Mary’s suitor, the Duke of Norfolk, to lose his head) to the Babington Plot of 1586, Elizabeth’s spymaster Sir Francis Walsingham and the royal council keenly assembled a case against her.[94] At first, Elizabeth resisted calls for Mary’s death. By late 1586 she had been persuaded to sanction her trial and execution on the evidence of letters written during the Babington Plot.[95] Elizabeth’s proclamation of the sentence announced that “the said Mary, pretending title to the same Crown, had compassed and imagined within the same realm divers things tending to the hurt, death and destruction of our royal person.”[96] On 8 February 1587, Mary was beheaded at Fotheringhay Castle, Northamptonshire.[97] Wars And Overseas Trade Elizabeth’s foreign policy was largely defensive. The exception was the English occupation of Le Havre from October 1562 to June 1563, which ended in failure when Elizabeth’s Huguenot allies joined with the Catholics to retake the port. Elizabeth’s intention had been to exchange Le Havre for Calais, lost to France in January 1558.[98] Only through the activities of her fleets did Elizabeth pursue an aggressive policy. This paid off in the war against Spain, 80% of which was fought at sea.[99] She knighted Francis Drake after his circumnavigation of the globe from 1577 to 1580, and he won fame for his raids on Spanish ports and fleets. An element of piracy and self-enrichment drove Elizabethan seafarers, over which the queen had little control.[100][101] Netherlands Expedition After the occupation and loss of Le Havre in 1562–1563, Elizabeth avoided military expeditions on the continent until 1585, when she sent an English army to aid the Protestant Dutch rebels against Philip

Half Groat of Elizabeth I

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2nd Cousin 14x Removed – Elizabeth I ‘Queen of England’ Tudor - Biography II.[102] This followed the deaths in 1584 of the allies William the Silent, Prince of Orange, and François, Duke of Anjou, and the surrender of a series of Dutch towns to Alexander Farnese, Duke of Parma, Philip’s governor of the Spanish Netherlands. In December 1584, an alliance between Philip II and the French Catholic League at Joinville undermined the ability of Anjou’s brother, Henry III of France, to counter Spanish domination of the Netherlands. It also extended Spanish influence along the channel coast of France, where the Catholic League was strong, and exposed England to invasion.[102] The siege of Antwerp in the summer of 1585 by the Duke of Parma necessitated some reaction on the part of the English and the Dutch. The outcome was the Treaty of Nonsuch of August 1585, in which Elizabeth promised military support to the Dutch.[103] The treaty marked the beginning of the Anglo-Spanish War, which lasted until the Treaty of London in 1604. The expedition was led by her former suitor, Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester. Elizabeth from the start did not really back this course of action. Her strategy, to support the Dutch on the surface with an English army, while beginning secret peace talks with Spain within days of Leicester’s arrival in Holland,[104] had necessarily to be at odds with Leicester’s, who wanted and was expected by the Dutch to fight an active campaign. Elizabeth on the other hand, wanted him “to avoid at all costs any decisive action with the enemy”.[105] He enraged Elizabeth by accepting the post of Governor-General from the Dutch StatesGeneral. Elizabeth saw this as a Dutch ploy to force her to accept sovereignty over the Netherlands,[106] which so far she had always declined. She wrote to Leicester: We could never have imagined (had we not seen it fall out in experience) that a man raised up by ourself and extraordinarily favoured by us, above any other subject of this land, would have in so contemptible a sort broken our commandment in a cause that so greatly touches us in honour....And therefore our express pleasure and commandment is that, all delays and excuses laid apart, you do presently upon the duty of your allegiance obey and fulfill whatsoever the bearer hereof shall direct you to do in our name. Whereof fail you not, as you will answer the contrary at your utmost peril.[107] Elizabeth’s “commandment” was that her emissary read out her letters of disapproval publicly before the Dutch Council of State, Leicester having to stand nearby.[108] This public humiliation of her “LieutenantGeneral” combined with her continued talks for a separate peace with Spain,[109] irreversibly undermined his standing among the Dutch. The military campaign was severely hampered by Elizabeth’s repeated refusals to send promised funds for her starving soldiers. Her unwillingness to commit herself to the cause, Leicester’s own shortcomings as a political and military leader and the factionridden and chaotic situation of Dutch politics were reasons for the campaign’s failure.[110] Leicester finally resigned his command in December 1587. Spanish Armada Meanwhile, Sir Francis Drake had undertaken a major voyage against Spanish ports and ships to the Caribbean in 1585 and 1586, and in 1587 had made a successful raid on Cadiz, destroying the Spanish fleet of war ships intended for the Enterprise of England:[111] Philip II had decided to take the war to England.[112] On 12 July 1588, the Spanish Armada, a great fleet of ships, set sail for the channel, planning to ferry a Spanish invasion force under the Duke of Parma to the coast of southeast England from the misfortune, and an attack of English fire ships on 29

Portrait of Elizabeth to commemorate the defeat of the Spanish Armada (1588), depicted in the background. Elizabeth’s hand rests on the globe, symbolising her international power.

Netherlands. A combination of miscalculation,[113]

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2nd Cousin 14x Removed – Elizabeth I ‘Queen of England’ Tudor - Biography July off Gravelines which dispersed the Spanish ships to the northeast defeated the Armada.[114] The Armada straggled home to Spain in shattered remnants, after disastrous losses on the coast of Ireland (after some ships had tried to struggle back to Spain via the North Sea, and then back south past the west after , coast of Ireland).[115] Unaware of the Armada fate, English militias mustered to defend the country Armada’s under the Earl of Leicester’s command. He invited Elizabeth to inspect her troops at Tilbury in Essex on 8 s August. Wearing a silver breastplate over a white velvet dress, she addressed them in one of her most tplate famous speeches: My loving people, we have been persuaded by some that are careful of our safety, to take heed how we are commit ourself to armed multitudes for fear of treachery; but I assure you, I do not desire to live to distrust my faithful and loving people ... I know I have the body but of a weak and feeble woman, but I have the heart and stomach of a king, and of a King of England too, and think foul scorn that Parma or e Spain, or any Prince of Europe should dare to invade the borders of my realm.[116] When no invasion came, the nation rejoiced. Elizabeth s procession to a thanksgiving service at St Paul’s Elizabeth’s Cathedral rivalled that of her coronation as a spectacle.[115] The defeat of the armada was a potent propaganda victory, both for Elizabeth and for Protestant England. The English took their delivery as a symbol of God’s favour and of the nation inviolability under a virgin queen.[99] However, the victory s nation’s was not a turning point in the war which continued and often favoured Spain.[117] The Spanish still war, controlled the Netherlands, and the threat of invasion remained.[112] Sir Walter Raleigh claimed after her death that Elizabeth’s caution had impeded the war against Spain: s If the late queen would have believed her men of war as she did her scribes, we had in her time beaten ate that great empire in pieces and made their kings of figs and oranges as in old times. But her Majesty did all by halves, and by petty invasions taught the Spaniard how to defend himself, and to see his own Spaniard weakness.[118] Though some historians have criticised Elizabeth on similar grounds,[119] Raleigh’s verdict has more often s been judged unfair. Elizabeth had good reason not to place too much trust in her commanders, who once 120] in action tended, as she put it herself, “to be transported with an haviour of vainglory”.[120 Supporting Henry IV Of France When the Protestant Henry IV inherited the French throne in 1589, Elizabeth sent him military support. It was her first venture into h France since the retreat from Le Havre in 1563. Henry succession Henry’s was strongly contested by the Catholic League and by Philip II, and Elizabeth feared a Spanish takeover of the channel ports. The subsequent English campaigns in France, however, were disorganised and ineffective.[121] Lord Willoughby largely ignoring Willoughby, Elizabeth’s orders, roamed northern France to l s little effect, with an army of 4,000 men. He withdrew in disarray in December 1589, having lost half his troops. In 1591, the campaign of John Norreys, who led 3,000 men to Brittany, was even more of a disaster. As for , all such expeditions, Elizabeth was unwilling to invest in the supplies Coat of arms of Queen Elizabeth I, with her personal motto: “Semper and reinforcements requested by the commanders. Norreys left for eadem” or “always the same” always same London to plead in person for more support. In his absence, a n Catholic League army almost destroyed the remains of his army at Craon, north west France, in May north-west 1591. In July, Elizabeth sent out another force under Robert Devereux, Earl of Essex, to help Henry IV in , besieging Rouen. The result was just as dismal. Essex accomplished nothing and return home in . returned January 1592. Henry abandoned the siege in April.[122] As usual, Elizabeth lacked control over her commanders once they were abroad. “Where he is, or what he doth, or what he is to do,” she wrote of th, do, Essex, “we are ignorant”.[123]

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2nd Cousin 14x Removed – Elizabeth I ‘Queen of England’ Tudor - Biography Ireland Main article: Tudor conquest of Ireland Although Ireland was one of her two kingdoms, Elizabeth faced a hostile—and in places virtually autonomous[124]—Irish population that adhered to Catholicism and was willing to defy her authority and plot with her enemies. Her policy there was to grant land to her courtiers and prevent the rebels from giving Spain a base from which to attack England.[125] In the course of a series of uprisings, Crown forces pursued scorched-earth tactics, burning the land and slaughtering man, woman and child. During a revolt in Munster led by Gerald FitzGerald, Earl of Desmond, in 1582, an estimated 30,000 Irish people starved to death. The poet and colonist Edmund Spenser wrote that the victims “were brought to such wretchedness as that any stony heart would have rued the same”.[126] Elizabeth advised her commanders that the Irish, “that rude and barbarous nation”, be well treated; but she showed no remorse when force and bloodshed were deemed necessary.[127] Between 1594 and 1603, Elizabeth faced her most severe test in Ireland during the Nine Years War, a revolt that took place at the height of hostilities with Spain, who backed the rebel leader, Hugh O’Neill, Earl of Tyrone.[128] In spring 1599, Elizabeth sent Robert Devereux, 2nd Earl of Essex, to put the revolt down. To her frustration,[129] he made little progress and returned to England in defiance of her orders. He was replaced by Charles Blount, Lord Mountjoy, who took three years to defeat the rebels. O’Neill finally surrendered in 1603, a few days after Elizabeth’s death.[130] Soon after a peace treaty was signed between England and Spain. Russia Elizabeth continued to maintain the diplomatic relations with the Tsardom of Russia originally established by her deceased brother. She often wrote to its then ruler, Tsar Ivan IV, on amicable terms, though the Tsar was often annoyed by her focus on commerce rather than on the possibility of a military alliance. The Tsar even proposed to her once, and during his later reign, asked for a guarantee to be granted asylum in England should his rule be jeopardised. Upon Ivan’s death, he was succeeded by his simple-minded son Feodor. Unlike his father, Feodor had no enthusiasm in Ivan the Terrible shows his treasures to Elizabeth’s maintaining exclusive trading rights with England. ambassador. Painting by Alexander Litovchenko, 1875 Feodor declared his kingdom open to all foreigners, and dismissed the English ambassador Sir Jerome Bowes, whose pomposity had been tolerated by the new Tsar’s late father. Elizabeth sent a new ambassador, Dr. Giles Fletcher, to demand from the regent Boris Godunov that he convince the Tsar to reconsider. The negotiations failed, due to Fletcher addressing Feodor with two of his titles omitted. Elizabeth continued to appeal to Feodor in half appealing, half reproachful letters. She proposed an alliance, something which she had refused to do when offered one by Feodor’s father, but was turned down.[131]

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2nd Cousin 14x Removed – Elizabeth I ‘Queen of England’ Tudor - Biography Barbary States, Ottoman Empire Trade and diplomatic relations developed between England and the Barbary states during the rule of Elizabeth.[133][134] England established a trading relationship with Morocco in opposition to Spain, selling armour, ammunition, timber, and metal in exchange for Moroccan sugar, in spite of a Papal ban.[135] In 1600, Abd el-Ouahed ben Messaoud, the principal secretary to the Moroccan ruler Mulai Ahmad al-Mansur, visited England as an ambassador to the court of queen Elizabeth I,[136][137] in order to negotiate an Anglo-Moroccan alliance against Spain.[132][138] Elizabeth “agreed to sell munitions supplies to Morocco, and she and Mulai Ahmad al-Mansur talked on and off about mounting a joint operation against the Spanish”.[139] Discussions however remained inconclusive, and both rulers died within two years of the embassy.[140] Diplomatic relations were also established with the Ottoman Empire with the chartering of the Levant Company and the dispatch of the first English ambassador to the Porte, William Harborne, in 1578.[139] For the first time, a Treaty of Commerce was signed in 1580.[141] Numerous envoys were dispatched in both directions and epistolar exchanges occurred between Elizabeth and Sultan Murad III.[139] In one correspondence, Murad entertained the notion that Islam and Protestantism had “much more in common than either did with Roman Catholicism, as both rejected the worship of idols”, and argued for an alliance between England and the Ottoman Empire.[142] To the dismay of Catholic Europe, England exported tin and lead (for cannon-casting) and ammunitions to the Ottoman Empire, and Elizabeth seriously discussed joint military operations with Murad III during the outbreak of war with Spain in 1585, as Francis Walsingham was lobbying for a direct Ottoman military involvement against the common Spanish enemy.[143] Later Years The period after the defeat of the Spanish Armada in 1588 brought new difficulties for Elizabeth that lasted the fifteen years until the end of her reign.[117] The conflicts with Spain and in Ireland dragged on, the tax burden grew heavier, and the economy was hit by poor harvests and the cost of war. Prices rose and the standard of living fell.[144][145] During this time, repression of Catholics intensified, and Elizabeth authorised commissions in 1591 to interrogate and monitor Catholic householders.[146] To maintain the illusion of peace and prosperity, she increasingly relied on internal spies and propaganda.[144] In her last years, mounting criticism reflected a decline in the public’s affection for her.[147] One of the causes for this “second reign” of Elizabeth, as it is sometimes called,[148] was the different character of Elizabeth’s governing body, the privy council in the 1590s. A new generation was in power. With the exception of Lord Burghley, the most important politicians had died around 1590: The Earl of Leicester in 1588, Sir Francis Walsingham in 1590, Sir Christopher Hatton in 1591.[149] Factional strife in the government, which had not existed in a noteworthy form before the 1590s,[150] now became its hallmark.[151] A bitter
Abd el-Ouahed ben Messaoud, Moorish ambassador of the Barbary States to the Court of Queen Elizabeth I in 1600.[132]

Elizabeth I being carried in a procession, c. 1600

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2nd Cousin 14x Removed – Elizabeth I ‘Queen of England’ Tudor - Biography rivalry between the Earl of Essex and Robert Cecil, son of Lord Burghley, and their respective adherents, for the most powerful positions in the state marred politics.[152] The queen’s personal authority was lessening,[153] as is shown in the affair of Dr. Lopez, her trusted physician. When he was wrongly accused by the Earl of Essex of treason out of personal pique, she could not prevent his execution, although she had been angry about his arrest and seems not to have believed in his guilt (1594).[154] Elizabeth, during the last years of her reign, came to rely on granting monopolies as a cost-free system of patronage rather than ask Parliament for more subsidies in a time of war.[155] The practice soon led to price-fixing, the enrichment of courtiers at the public’s expense, and widespread resentment.[156] This culminated in agitation in the House of Commons during the parliament of 1601.[157] In her famous “Golden Speech“ of 30 November 1601, Elizabeth professed ignorance of the abuses and won the members over with promises and her usual appeal to the emotions:[158] Who keeps their sovereign from the lapse of error, in which, by ignorance and not by intent they might have fallen, what thank they deserve, we know, though you may guess. And as nothing is more dear to us than the loving conservation of our subjects’ hearts, what an undeserved doubt might we have incurred if the abusers of our liberality, the thrallers of our people, the wringers of the poor, had not been told us![159] This same period of economic and political uncertainty, however, produced an unsurpassed literary flowering in England.[160] The first signs of a new literary movement had appeared at the end of the second decade of Elizabeth’s reign, with John Lyly‘s Euphues and Edmund Spenser‘s The Shepheardes Calender in 1578. During the 1590s, some of the great names of English literature entered their maturity, including William Shakespeare and Christopher Marlowe. During this period and into the Jacobean era that followed, the English theatre reached its highest peaks.[161] The notion of a great Elizabethan age depends largely on the builders, dramatists, poets, and musicians who were active during Elizabeth’s reign. They owed little directly to the queen, who was never a major patron of the arts.[162] As Elizabeth aged her image gradually changed. She was portrayed as Belphoebe or Astraea, and after the Armada, as Gloriana, the eternally youthful Faerie Queene of Edmund Spenser‘s poem. Her painted portraits became less realistic and Robert Devereux, 2nd Earl of Essex, by more a set of enigmatic icons that made her look much younger William Segar, 1588 than she was. In fact, her skin had been scarred by smallpox in 1562, leaving her half bald and dependent on wigs and cosmetics.[163] Sir Walter Raleigh called her “a lady whom time had surprised”.[164] However, the more Elizabeth’s beauty faded, the more her courtiers praised it.[163] Elizabeth was happy to play the part,[165] but it is possible that in the last decade of her life she began to believe her own performance. She became fond and indulgent of the charming but petulant young Robert Devereux, Earl of Essex, who was Leicester’s stepson and took liberties with her for which she forgave him.[166] She repeatedly appointed him to military posts despite his growing record of irresponsibility. After Essex’s desertion of his command in Ireland in 1599, Elizabeth had him placed under house arrest and the following year deprived him of his monopolies.[167] In February 1601, the earl tried to raise a rebellion in London. He intended to seize the queen but few rallied to his support, and he was beheaded on 25 February. Elizabeth knew that her own misjudgements were partly to blame for this turn of events.

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2nd Cousin 14x Removed – Elizabeth I ‘Queen of England’ Tudor - Biography An observer reported in 1602 that “Her delight is to sit in the dark, and sometimes with shedding tears to bewail Essex”.[168] Death Elizabeth’s senior advisor, Burghley, died on 4 August 1598. His political mantle passed to his son, Robert Cecil, who soon became the leader of the government.[169] One task he addressed was to prepare the way for a smooth succession. Since Elizabeth would never name her successor, Cecil was obliged to proceed in secret.[170] He therefore entered into a coded negotiation with James VI of Scotland, who had a strong but unrecognised claim.[171] Cecil coached the impatient James to humour Elizabeth and “secure the heart of the highest, to whose sex and quality nothing is so improper as either needless expostulations or over much curiosity in her own actions”.[172] The advice worked. James’s tone delighted Elizabeth, who responded: “So trust I that you will not doubt but that your last letters are so acceptably taken as my thanks cannot be lacking for the same, but yield them to you in grateful sort”.[173] In historian J. E. Neale’s view, Elizabeth may not have declared her wishes openly to James, but she made them known with “unmistakable if veiled phrases”.[174] The Queen’s health remained fair until the autumn of 1602, when a series of deaths among her friends plunged her into a severe depression. In February 1603, the death of Catherine Howard, Countess of Nottingham, the niece of her cousin and close friend Catherine, Lady Knollys, came as a particular blow. In March, Elizabeth fell sick and remained in a “settled and unremovable melancholy”.[175] She died on 24 March 1603 at Richmond Palace, between two and three in the morning. A few hours later, Cecil and the council set their plans in motion and proclaimed James VI of Scotland as king of England.[176] Elizabeth’s coffin was carried downriver at night to Whitehall, on a barge lit with torches. At her funeral on 28 April, the coffin was taken to Westminster Abbey on a hearse drawn by four horses hung with black velvet. In the words of the chronicler John Stow: Westminster was surcharged with multitudes of all sorts of people in their streets, houses, windows, leads and gutters, that came out to see the obsequy, and when they beheld her statue lying upon the coffin, there was such a general sighing, groaning and weeping as the like hath not been seen or known in the memory of man.[177] Elizabeth was interred in Westminster Abbey in a tomb she shares with her half-sister, Mary. The Latin inscription on their tomb, “Regno consortes & urna, hic obdormimus Elizabetha et Maria sorores, in spe resurrectionis”, translates to “Consorts in realm and tomb, here we sleep, Elizabeth and Mary, sisters, in hope of resurrection”.[178] Legacy And Memory
Elizabeth I. The “Rainbow Portrait”, c. 1600, an allegorical representation of the Queen, become ageless in her old age

Elizabeth’s funeral cortège, 1603, with banners of her royal ancestors

Further information: Cultural depictions of Elizabeth I of England

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2nd Cousin 14x Removed – Elizabeth I ‘Queen of England’ Tudor - Biography Elizabeth was lamented by many of her subjects, but others were relieved at her death.[179] Expectations of King James started high but then declined, so by the 1620s there was a nostalgic revival of the cult of Elizabeth.[180] Elizabeth was praised as a heroine of the Protestant cause and the ruler of a golden age. James was depicted as a Catholic sympathiser, presiding over a corrupt court.[181] The triumphalist image that Elizabeth had cultivated towards the end of her reign, against a background of factionalism and military and economic difficulties,[182] was taken at face value and her reputation inflated. Godfrey Goodman, Bishop of Gloucester, recalled: “When we had experience of a Scottish government, the Queen did seem to revive. Then was her memory much magnified.”[183] Elizabeth’s reign became idealised as a time when crown, church and parliament had worked in constitutional balance.[184] The picture of Elizabeth painted by her Protestant admirers of the early 17th century has proved lasting and influential.[186] Her memory was also revived during the Napoleonic Wars, when the nation again found itself on the brink of invasion.[187] In the Victorian era, the Elizabethan legend was adapted to the imperial ideology of the day,[179][188] and in the mid-20th century, Elizabeth was a romantic symbol of the national resistance to foreign threat.[189][190] Historians of that period, such as J. E. Neale (1934) and A. L. Rowse (1950), interpreted Elizabeth’s reign as a golden age of progress.[191] Neale and Rowse also idealised the Queen personally: she always did everything right; her more unpleasant traits were ignored or explained as signs of stress.[192] Recent historians, however, have taken a more complicated view of Elizabeth.[193] Her reign is famous for the defeat of the Armada, and for successful raids against the Spanish, such as those on Cádiz in 1587 and 1596, but some historians point to military failures on land and at sea.[121] In Ireland, Elizabeth’s forces ultimately prevailed, but their tactics stain her record.[194] Rather than as a brave defender of the Protestant nations against Spain and the Habsburgs, she is more often regarded as cautious in her foreign policies. She offered very limited aid to foreign Protestants and failed to provide her commanders with the

Elizabeth I, painted after 1620, during the first revival of interest in her reign. Time sleeps on her right and Death looks over her left shoulder; two putti hold the crown above her head.[185]

funds to make a difference abroad.[195] Elizabeth established an English church that helped shape a national identity and remains in place today.[196][197][198] Those who praised her later as a Protestant heroine overlooked her refusal to drop all practices of Catholic origin from the Church of England.[199] Historians note that in her day, strict Protestants regarded the Acts of Settlement and Uniformity of 1559 as a compromise.[200][201] In fact, Elizabeth believed that faith was personal and did not wish, as Francis Bacon put it, to “make windows into men’s hearts and secret thoughts”.[202][203] Though Elizabeth followed a largely defensive foreign policy, her reign raised England’s status abroad. “She is only a woman, only mistress of half an island,” marvelled Pope Sixtus V, “and yet she makes herself feared by Spain, by France, by the Empire, by all”.[204] Under Elizabeth, the nation gained a new self-confidence and sense of sovereignty, as Christendom fragmented.[180][205][206] Elizabeth was the first Tudor to recognise that a monarch ruled by popular consent.[207] She therefore always worked with parliament and advisers she could trust to tell her the truth—a style of government that her Stuart successors failed to follow. Some historians have called her lucky;[204] she believed that God was protecting her.[208] Priding herself on being “mere English”,[209] Elizabeth trusted in God, honest advice, and the love of her subjects for the success of her rule.[210] In a prayer, she offered thanks to God that:

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2nd Cousin 14x Removed – Elizabeth I ‘Queen of England’ Tudor - Biography [At a time] when wars and seditions with grievous persecutions have vexed almost all kings and countries round about me, my reign hath been peacable, and my realm a receptacle to thy afflicted Church. The love of my people hath appeared firm, and the devices of my enemies frustrate.[204] See also
• • • • • • • •

Early modern Britain English Renaissance Portraiture of Elizabeth I of England Protestant Reformation Royal Arms of England Royal eponyms in Canada – Queen Elizabeth I Royal Standards of England Tudor period ^ “I mean to direct all my actions by good advice and counsel.” Elizabeth’s first speech as queen, Hatfield House, 20 November 1558. Loades, 35. ^ a b Starkey Elizabeth: Woman, 5. ^ Neale, 386. ^ Somerset, 729. ^ Somerset, 4. ^ Loades, 3–5 ^ Somerset, 4–5. ^ Loades, 6–7. ^ In the Act of July 1536, it was stated that Elizabeth was “illegitimate... and utterly foreclosed, excluded and banned to claim, challenge, or demand any inheritance as lawful heir...to [the King] by lineal descent”. Somerset, 10. ^ Loades, 7–8. ^ Somerset, 11. ^ Richardson, 39–46. ^ Richardson, 56, 75–82, 136 ^ Our knowledge of Elizabeth’s schooling and precocity comes largely from the memoirs of Roger Ascham, also the tutor of Prince Edward. Loades, 8–10. ^ “Maps of Cornwall (Kernow) showing a Celtic or Distinct Identity”. BBC. http://www.bbc.co.uk/dna/h2g2/A10686710. Retrieved 12 December 2010. ^ Somerset, 25. ^ Loades, 21. ^ Davenport, 32. ^ a b Loades, 11. ^ Starkey Elizabeth: Apprenticeship, p. 69 ^ Loades, 14.

Notes 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21.

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2nd Cousin 14x Removed – Elizabeth I ‘Queen of England’ Tudor - Biography 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. ^ Haigh, 8. ^ Neale, 32. ^ Williams Elizabeth, 24. ^ Loades, 14, 16. ^ a b Neale, 33. ^ Elizabeth had assembled 2,000 horsemen, “a remarkable tribute to the size of her affinity”. Loades 24-25. ^ Loades, 27. ^ Neale, 45. ^ Loades, 28. ^ Somerset, 51. ^ Loades, 29. ^ “The wives of Wycombe passed cake and wafers to her until her litter became so burdened that she had to beg them to stop.” Neale, 49. ^ Loades, 32. ^ Somerset, 66. ^ Neale, 53. ^ Loades, 33. ^ Neale, 59. ^ Kantorowicz, ix ^ Full document reproduced by Loades, 36–37. ^ Somerset, 89–90. The “Festival Book” account, from the British Library ^ Neale, 70. ^ Patrick Collinson, “Elizabeth I (1533–1603)” in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (2008) accessed 23 Aug 2011 ^ Lee, Christopher (1995, 1998). “Disc 1”. This Sceptred Isle 1547–1660. ISBN 0-563-55769-9. ^ Loades, 46. ^ “It was fortunate that ten out of twenty-six bishoprics were vacant, for of late there had been a high rate of mortality among the episcopate, and a fever had conveniently carried off Mary’s Archbishop of Canterbury, Reginald Pole, less than twenty-four hours after her own death”. Somerset, 98. ^ “There were no less than ten sees unrepresented through death or illness and the carelessness of ‘the accursed cardinal’ [Pole]”. Black, 10. ^ Somerset, 101–103. ^ “Stamp-sized Elizabeth I miniatures to fetch ₤80.000”, Daily Telegraph, 17 November 2009 Retrieved 16 May 2010 ^ Loades, 38.

47. 48. 49. 50.

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2nd Cousin 14x Removed – Elizabeth I ‘Queen of England’ Tudor - Biography 51. 52. 53. 54. 55. 56. 57. 58. ^ Haigh, 19. ^ Loades, 39. ^ Retha Warnicke, “Why Elizabeth I Never Married,” History Review, Sept 2010, Issue 67, pp 1520 ^ Loades, 42; Wilson, 95 ^ Wilson, 95 ^ Skidmore, 162, 165, 166–168 ^ Chamberlin, 118 ^ Somerset, 166–167. Most modern historians have considered murder unlikely; breast cancer and suicide being the most widely accepted explanations (Doran Monarchy, 44). The coroner‘s report, hitherto believed lost, came to light in The National Archives in the late 2000s and is compatible with a downstairs fall as well as other violence (Skidmore, 230–233). ^ Wilson, 126–128 ^ Doran Monarchy, 45 ^ Doran Monarchy, 212. ^ Adams, 384, 146. ^ Jenkins, 245, 247; Hammer, 46. ^ Doran Queen Elizabeth I, 61. ^ Wilson, 303. ^ Frieda, 397. ^ a b c Haigh, 17. ^ Loades, 53–54. ^ Loades, 54. ^ Somerset, 408. ^ Doran Monarchy, 87 ^ Haigh, 20–21. ^ Haigh, 22–23. ^ Anna Dowdeswell (28 November 2007). “Historic painting is sold for £2.6 million”. bucksherald.co.uk. http://www.bucksherald.co.uk/news/Historic-painting-is-sold-for.3532557.jp. Retrieved 17 December 2008.. ^ John N. King, “Queen Elizabeth I: Representations of the Virgin Queen,” Renaissance Quarterly Vol. 43, No. 1 (Spring, 1990), pp. 30-74 in JSTOR ^ Haigh, 23. ^ Susan Doran, “Juno Versus Diana: The Treatment of Elizabeth I’s Marriage in Plays and Entertainments, 1561-1581,” Historical Journal 38 (1995): 257-74 in JSTOR ^ Haigh, 24. ^ Haigh, 131.

59. 60. 61. 62. 63. 64. 65. 66. 67. 68. 69. 70. 71. 72. 73. 74.

75. 76. 77. 78. 79.

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2nd Cousin 14x Removed – Elizabeth I ‘Queen of England’ Tudor - Biography 80. ^ Mary’s position as heir derived from her great-grandfather Henry VII of England, through his daughter Margaret Tudor. In her own words, “I am the nearest kinswoman she hath, being both of us of one house and stock, the Queen my good sister coming of the brother, and I of the sister”. Guy, 115. ^ On Elizabeth’s accession, Mary’s Guise relatives had pronounced her Queen of England and had the English arms emblazoned with those of Scotland and France on her plate and furniture. Guy, 96–97. ^ By the terms of the treaty, both British and French troops withdrew from Scotland. Haigh, 132. ^ Loades, 67. ^ Loades, 68. ^ Simon Adams: “Dudley, Robert, earl of Leicester (1532/3–1588)” Oxford Dictionary of National Biography online edn. May 2008 (subscription required) Retrieved 3 April 2010 ^ Letter to Mary, Queen of Scots, 23 June 1567.” Quoted by Loades, 69–70. ^ Loades, 72–73. ^ Loades, 73 ^ Williams Norfolk, p. 174 ^ a b McGrath, 69 ^ a b c Collinson p. 67 ^ Collinson pp. 67–68 ^ Collinson p. 68 ^ Loades, 73. ^ Guy, 483–484. ^ Loades, 78–79. ^ Guy, 1–11. ^ Frieda, 191. ^ a b Loades, 61.

81.

82. 83. 84. 85. 86. 87. 88. 89. 90. 91. 92. 93. 94. 95. 96. 97. 98. 99.

100. ^ Flynn and Spence, 126–128. 101. ^ Somerset, 607–611. 102. ^ a b Haigh, 135. 103. ^ Strong and van Dorsten, 20–26 104. ^ Strong and van Dorsten, 43 105. ^ Strong and van Dorsten, 72 106. ^ Strong and van Dorsten, 50 107. ^ Letter to Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester, 10 February 1586, delivered by Sir Thomas Heneage. Loades, 94. 108. ^ Chamberlin, 263–264

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2nd Cousin 14x Removed – Elizabeth I ‘Queen of England’ Tudor - Biography 109. ^ Elizabeth’s ambassador in France was actively misleading her as to the true intentions of the Spanish king, who only tried to buy time for his great assault upon England: Parker, 193. 110. ^ Haynes, 15; Strong and van Dorsten, 72–79 111. ^ Parker, 193–194 112. ^ a b Haigh, 138. 113. ^ When the Spanish naval commander, the Duke of Medina Sidonia, reached the coast near Calais, he found the Duke of Parma’s troops unready and was forced to wait, giving the English the opportunity to launch their attack. Loades, 64. 114. ^ Black, 349. 115. ^ a b Neale, 300. 116. ^ Somerset, 591; Neale, 297–98. 117. ^ a b Black, 353. 118. ^ Haigh, 145. 119. ^ For example, C. H. Wilson castigates Elizabeth for half-heartedness in the war against Spain. Haigh, 183. 120. ^ Somerset, 655. 121. ^ a b Haigh, 142. 122. ^ Haigh, 143. 123. ^ Haigh, 143–144. 124. ^ One observer wrote that Ulster, for example, was “as unknown to the English here as the most inland part of Virginia”. Somerset, 667. 125. ^ Loades, 55 126. ^ Somerset, 668. 127. ^ Somerset, 668–669. 128. ^ Loades, 98. 129. ^ In a letter of 19 July 1599 to Essex, Elizabeth wrote: “For what can be more true (if things be rightly examined) than that your two month’s journey has brought in never a capital rebel against whom it had been worthy to have adventured one thousand men”. Loades, 98. 130. ^ Loades, 98–99. 131. ^ Russia and Britain by Crankshaw, Edward, published by Collins, 126 p. The Nations and Britain series 132. ^ a b Tate Gallery exhibition “East-West: Objects between cultures”, Tate.org.uk 133. ^ Vaughan, Performing Blackness on English Stages, 1500–1800 Cambridge University Press 2005 p.57 Google Books 134. ^ Nicoll, Shakespeare Survey. The Last Plays Cambridge University Press 2002, p.90 Google Books 135. ^ ‘‘Speaking of the Moor’’, Emily C. Bartels p.24. Google Books. http://books.google.com/books?id=S6Z9J0OJmmQC&pg=PA24. Retrieved 2 May 2010.

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2nd Cousin 14x Removed – Elizabeth I ‘Queen of England’ Tudor - Biography 136. ^ Vaughan, p.57. Google Books. http://books.google.com/books?id=19_SIlq3ZvsC&pg=PA57. Retrieved 2 May 2010. 137. ^ University of Birmingham Collections Mimsy.bham.ac.uk 138. ^ Vaughan, p.57 139. ^ a b c Kupperman, p. 39 140. ^ Nicoll, p.96 141. ^ The Encyclopedia of world history by Peter N. Stearns, p.353. Google Books. http://books.google.com/books?id=MziRd4ddZz4C&pg=PA353. Retrieved 2 May 2010. 142. ^ Kupperman, p.40 143. ^ Kupperman, p.41 144. ^ a b Haigh, 155. 145. ^ Black, 355–356. 146. ^ Black, 355. 147. ^ This criticism of Elizabeth was noted by Elizabeth’s early biographers William Camden and John Clapham. For a detailed account of such criticisms and of Elizabeth’s “government by illusion”, see chapter 8, “The Queen and the People”, Haigh, 149–169. 148. ^ Adams, 7; Hammer, 1; Collinson, 89 149. ^ Collinson, 89 150. ^ Doran Monarchy, 216 151. ^ Hammer, 1–2 152. ^ Hammer, 1, 9 153. ^ Hammer, 9–10 154. ^ Lacey, 117–120 155. ^ A Patent of Monopoly gave the holder control over an aspect of trade or manufacture. See Neale, 382. 156. ^ Williams Elizabeth, 208. 157. ^ Black, 192–194. 158. ^ She gave the speech at Whitehall Palace to a deputation of 140 members, who afterwards all kissed her hand. Neale, 383–384. 159. ^ Loades, 86. 160. ^ Black, 239. 161. ^ Black, 239–245. 162. ^ Haigh, 176. 163. ^ a b Loades, 92. 164. ^ Haigh, 171. 165. ^ “The metaphor of drama is an appropriate one for Elizabeth’s reign, for her power was an illusion—and an illusion was her power. Like Henry IV of France, she projected an image of

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2nd Cousin 14x Removed – Elizabeth I ‘Queen of England’ Tudor - Biography herself which brought stability and prestige to her country. By constant attention to the details of her total performance, she kept the rest of the cast on their toes and kept her own part as queen.” Haigh, 179. 166. ^ Loades, 93. 167. ^ Loades, 97. 168. ^ Black, 410. 169. ^ After Essex’s downfall, James VI of Scotland referred to Cecil as “king there in effect”. Croft, 48. 170. ^ Cecil wrote to James, “The subject itself is so perilous to touch amongst us as it setteth a mark upon his head forever that hatcheth such a bird”. Willson, 154. 171. ^ James VI of Scotland was a great-great-grandson of Henry VII of England, and thus Elizabeth’s first cousin twice removed since Henry VII was Elizabeth’s paternal grandfather. 172. ^ Willson, 154. 173. ^ Willson, 155. 174. ^ Neale, 385. 175. ^ Black, 411. 176. ^ Black, 410–411. 177. ^ Weir, 486. 178. ^ Stanley, Arthur Penrhyn (1868). “The royal tombs”. Historical memorials of Westminster Abbey. London: John Murray. p. 178. OCLC 24223816. 179. ^ a b Loades, 100–101. 180. ^ a b Somerset, 726. 181. ^ Strong, 164. 182. ^ Haigh, 170. 183. ^ Weir, 488. 184. ^ Dobson and Watson, 257. 185. ^ Strong, 163–164. 186. ^ Haigh, 175, 182. 187. ^ Dobson and Watson, 258. 188. ^ The age of Elizabeth was redrawn as one of chivalry, epitomised by courtly encounters between the queen and sea-dog “heroes” such as Drake and Raleigh. Some Victorian narratives, such as Raleigh laying his cloak before the queen or presenting her with a potato, remain part of the myth. Dobson and Watson, 258. 189. ^ Haigh, 175. 190. ^ In his preface to the 1952 reprint of Queen Elizabeth I, J. E. Neale observed: “The book was written before such words as “ideological”, “fifth column”, and “cold war” became current; and it is perhaps as well that they are not there. But the ideas are present, as is the idea of romantic leadership of a nation in peril, because they were present in Elizabethan times”.

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2nd Cousin 14x Removed – Elizabeth I ‘Queen of England’ Tudor - Biography 191. ^ Haigh, 182. 192. ^ Kenyon, 207 193. ^ Haigh, 183. 194. ^ Black, 408–409. 195. ^ Haigh, 142–147, 174–177. 196. ^ Loades, 46–50. 197. ^ Weir, 487. 198. ^ Hogge, 9–10. 199. ^ The new state religion was condemned at the time in such terms as “a cloaked papistry, or mingle mangle”. Somerset, 102. 200. ^ Haigh, 45–46, 177. 201. ^ Black, 14–15. 202. ^ Williams Elizabeth, 50. 203. ^ Haigh, 42. 204. ^ a b c Somerset, 727. 205. ^ Hogge, 9n. 206. ^ Loades, 1. 207. ^ As Elizabeth’s Lord Keeper, Sir Nicholas Bacon, put it on her behalf to parliament in 1559, the queen “is not, nor ever meaneth to be, so wedded to her own will and fantasy that for the satisfaction thereof she will do anything...to bring any bondage or servitude to her people, or give any just occasion to them of any inward grudge whereby any tumults or stirs might arise as hath done of late days”. Starkey Elizabeth: Woman, 7. 208. ^ Somerset, 75–76. 209. ^ Edwards, 205. 210. ^ Starkey Elizabeth: Woman, 6–7. References
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Adams, Simon (2002), Leicester and the Court: Essays in Elizabethan Politics, Manchester: Manchester University Press, ISBN 0-7190-5325-0. Black, J. B. (1945) [1936], The Reign of Elizabeth: 1558–1603, Oxford: Clarendon, OCLC 5077207. Chamberlin, Frederick (1939), Elizabeth and Leycester, Dodd, Mead & Co.. Collinson, Patrick. “Elizabeth I (1533–1603)” in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (2008) accessed 23 Aug 2011 Collinson, Patrick (2007), Elizabeth I, Oxford: Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-921356-6. Croft, Pauline (2003), King James, Basingstoke and New York: Palgrave Macmillan, ISBN 0-33361395-3. Davenport, Cyril (1899), Pollard, Alfred, ed., English Embroidered Bookbindings, London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trübner and Co., OCLC 705685.

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2nd Cousin 14x Removed – Elizabeth I ‘Queen of England’ Tudor - Biography Dobson, Michael & Watson, Nicola (2003), “Elizabeth’s Legacy”, in Doran, Susan, Elizabeth: The Exhibition at the National Maritime Museum, London: Chatto and Windus, ISBN 0-7011-7476-5. Doran, Susan (1996), Monarchy and Matrimony: The Courtships of Elizabeth I, London: Routledge, ISBN 0-415-11969-3. Doran, Susan (2003), Queen Elizabeth I, London: British Library, ISBN 0-7123-4802-6. Doran, Susan (2003), “The Queen’s Suitors and the Problem of the Succession”, in Doran, Susan, Elizabeth: The Exhibition at the National Maritime Museum, London: Chatto and Windus, ISBN 07011-7476-5. Edwards, Philip (2004), The Making of the Modern English State: 1460–1660, Basingstoke and New York: Palgrave Macmillan, ISBN 0-312-23614-X. Flynn, Sian & Spence, David (2003), “Elizabeth’s Adventurers”, in Doran, Susan, Elizabeth: The Exhibition at the National Maritime Museum, London: Chatto and Windus, ISBN 0-7011-7476-5. Frieda, Leonie (2005), Catherine de Medici, London: Phoenix, ISBN 0-7538-2039-0. Guy, John (2004), My Heart is My Own: The Life of Mary Queen of Scots, London and New York: Fourth Estate, ISBN 1-84115-752-X. Haigh, Christopher (2000), Elizabeth I (2nd ed.), Harlow (UK): Longman Pearson, ISBN 0-58243754-7. Hammer, P. E. J. (1999), The Polarisation of Elizabethan Politics: The Political Career of Robert Devereux, 2nd Earl of Essex, 1585–1597, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-01941-9. Haynes, Alan (1987), The White Bear: The Elizabethan Earl of Leicester, Peter Owen, ISBN 0720606721. Hogge, Alice (2005), God’s Secret Agents: Queen Elizabeth’s Forbidden Priests and the Hatching of the Gunpowder Plot, London: HarperCollins, ISBN 0-00-715637-5. Jenkins, Elizabeth (2002) [1961], Elizabeth and Leicester, The Phoenix Press, ISBN 1-84212-560-5. Kantorowicz, Ernst Hartwig (1997). The king’s two bodies: a study in mediaeval political theology (2 ed.). Princeton, N.J: Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-01704-2. Kenyon, John P. (1983), The History Men: The Historical Profession in England since the Renaissance, London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, ISBN 0-297-78254-1. Kupperman, Karen Ordahl (2007), The Jamestown Project, Harvard University Press, ISBN 0674024745. Lacey, Robert (1971), Robert Earl of Essex: An Elizabethan Icarus, London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, ISBN 0-297-00320-8. Loades, David (2003), Elizabeth I: The Golden Reign of Gloriana, London: The National Archives, ISBN 1-903365-43-0. McGrath, Patrick (1967), Papists and Puritans under Elizabeth I, London: Blandford Press. Neale, J. E. (1954) [1934], Queen Elizabeth I: A Biography (reprint ed.), London: Jonathan Cape, OCLC 220518. Parker, Geoffrey (2000), The Grand Strategy of Philip II, New Haven: Yale University Press, ISBN 0-300-08273-8. Richardson, Ruth Elizabeth (2007), Mistress Blanche: Queen Elizabeth I’s Confidante, Woonton: Logaston Press, ISBN 978-1-904396-86-4.

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2nd Cousin 14x Removed – Elizabeth I ‘Queen of England’ Tudor - Biography Rowse, A. L. (1950), The England of Elizabeth, London: Macmillan, OCLC 181656553. Skidmore, Chris (2010), Death and the Virgin: Elizabeth, Dudley and the Mysterious Fate of Amy Robsart, London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, ISBN 978-0-297-84650-5. Somerset, Anne (2003), Elizabeth I. (1st Anchor Books ed.), London: Anchor Books, ISBN 0-38572157-9. Starkey, David (2001), Elizabeth: Apprenticeship, London: Vintage, ISBN 0099286572. Starkey, David (2003), “Elizabeth: Woman, Monarch, Mission”, in Doran, Susan, Elizabeth: The Exhibition at the National Maritime Museum, London: Chatto and Windus, ISBN 0-7011-7476-5. Strong, Roy C. (2003) [1987], Gloriana: The Portraits of Queen Elizabeth I, London: Pimlico, ISBN 0-7126-0944-X. Strong, R. C. & van Dorsten, J. A. (1964), Leicester’s Triumph, Oxford University Press. Weir, Alison (1999), Elizabeth the Queen, London: Pimlico, ISBN 0-7126-7312-1. Williams, Neville (1964), Thomas Howard, Fourth Duke of Norfolk, London: Barrie & Rockliff. Williams, Neville (1972), The Life and Times of Elizabeth I, London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, ISBN 0-297-83168-2. Willson, David Harris (1963) [1956], King James VI & I, London: Jonathan Cape, ISBN 0-22460572-0. Wilson, Derek (1981), Sweet Robin: A Biography of Robert Dudley Earl of Leicester 1533–1588, London: Hamish Hamilton, ISBN 0-241-10149-2. Woodward, Jennifer (1997), The Theatre of Death: The Ritual Management of Royal Funerals in Renaissance England, 1570–1625, Boydell & Brewer, ISBN 978-0-85115-704-7 Beem, Charles. The Foreign Relations of Elizabeth I (2011) excerpt and text search Bridgen, Susan (2001). New Worlds, Lost Worlds: The Rule of the Tudors, 1485–1603. New York, NY: Viking Penguin. ISBN 9780670899852. Jones, Norman. The Birth of the Elizabethan Age: England in the 1560s (Blackwell, 1993) MacCaffrey Wallace T. Elizabeth I (1993), political biography summarizing his multivolume study:
o

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Further Reading
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MacCaffrey Wallace T. The Shaping of the Elizabethan Regime: Elizabethan Politics, 15581572 (1969) MacCaffrey Wallace T. Queen Elizabeth and the Making of Policy, 1572-1588 (1988) MacCaffrey Wallace T. Elizabeth I: War and Politics, 1588-1603 (1994)

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McLaren, A. N. Political Culture in the Reign of Elizabeth I: Queen and Commonwealth, 1558-1585 (Cambridge University Press, 1999) excerpt and text search Palliser, D. M. The Age of Elizabeth: England Under the Later Tudors, 1547-1603 (1983) survey of social and economic history Ridley, Jasper. Elizabeth I: The Shrewdness of Virtue. New York : Fromm International, 1989. ISBN 0-88064-110-X.

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2nd Cousin 14x Removed – Elizabeth I ‘Queen of England’ Tudor - Biography Primary Sources And Early Histories
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Elizabeth I: The Collected Works Leah S. Marcus, Mary Beth Rose & Janel Mueller (eds.). Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2002. ISBN 0-226-50465-4 excerpt and text search Susan M. Felch, ed. Elizabeth I and Her Age (Norton Critical Editions) (2009); 700pp; primary and secondary sources, with an emphasis on literature Camden, William. History of the Most Renowned and Victorious Princess Elizabeth. Wallace T. MacCaffrey (ed). Chicago: University of Chicago Press, selected chapters, 1970 edition. OCLC 59210072. William Camden. Annales Rerum Gestarum Angliae et Hiberniae Regnante Elizabetha. (1615 and 1625.) Hypertext edition, with English translation. Dana F. Sutton (ed.), 2000. Retrieved 7 December 2007. Clapham, John. Elizabeth of England. E. P. Read and Conyers Read (eds). Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1951. OCLC 1350639. Carlson, Eric Josef. “Teaching Elizabeth Tudor with Movies: Film, Historical Thinking, and the Classroom,” Sixteenth Century Journal, Summer 2007, Vol. 38 Issue 2, pp 419-440 Collinson, Patrick. “Elizabeth I and the verdicts of history,” Historical Research, Nov 2003, Vol. 76 Issue 194, pp 469-91 Doran, Susan, and Thomas S. Freeman, eds. The Myth of Elizabeth.(2003). 280 pp. Greaves, Richard L., ed. Elizabeth I, Queen of England (1974), excerpts from historians Haigh, Christopher, ed. The Reign of Elizabeth I (1984), essays by scholars Howard, Maurice. “Elizabeth I: A Sense Of Place In Stone, Print And Paint,” Transactions of the Royal Historical Society, Dec 2004, Vol. 14 Issue 1, pp 261-268 Hulme, Harold. “Elizabeth I and Her Parliaments: The Work of Sir John Neale,” Journal of Modern History Vol. 30, No. 3 (Sept. 1958), pp. 236-240 in JSTOR Montrose, Louis. The Subject of Elizabeth: Authority, Gender, and Representation. (2006). 341 pp. Watkins, John. Representing Elizabeth in Stuart England: Literature, History, Sovereignty (2002) 264pp Watson, Nicola J., and Michael Dobson. England’s Elizabeth: An Afterlife in Fame and Fantasy (2002) ISBN 0-19-818377-1. Woolf, D.R. “Two Elizabeths? James I and the Late Queen’s Famous Memory,” Canadian Journal of History, Aug 1985, Vol. 20 Issue 2, pp 167-91

Historiography And Memory
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External Links Wikisource has original works written by or about: Elizabeth I Wikisource has original text related to this article: Speech to the Troops at Tilbury Wikisource has original text related to this article: Elizabeth I’s Farewell Speech

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2nd Cousin 14x Removed – Elizabeth I ‘Queen of England’ Tudor - Biography

Quotations related to Elizabeth I of England at Wikiquote Wikimedia Commons
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Media related to Elizabeth I of England at

Tudor and Elizabeth Portraits. Tudor and Elizabethan portraits and other works of art, provided for research and education. Retrieved 15 December 2007. Archival material relating to Elizabeth I of England listed at the UK National Register of Archives al Works by or about Elizabeth I of England in libraries (WorldCat catalog) ks

Elizabeth I Of England House Of Tudor Born: 7 September 1533 Died: 24 March 1603 Regal Titles Preceded By Mary I And Philip Queen Of England And Ireland 17 November 1558 – 24 March 1603 Succeeded By James I

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