SUBMITTED BY – SHUBHAM SUBMITTED TO – MR. S. KR.

JHA DATE OF SUBMISSION – 25 oct 2010

Properties IV. Uses 3. Occurrence III. ALLOY I.1.What is non-metal II. Introduction II. Types of metal V. Physical properties III. Effect of adding element to a metal III. Properties IV. METAL I. COPPER I. WIRE BENDING EXERCISE 6. Uses 5. Uses 4. Uses 2. What is metal II. Chemical properties IV. What is alloy II. Properties III. LATHE MACHINE METAL TURNING EXERCISE??? . NON METAL I.

 Tensile Strength – The ability of a material to stretch without breaking or snapping.  The solid thus produced is held by electrostatic interactions between the ions and the electron cloud.WHAT IS METAL???????  Physically. which is liquid ! Metals have every high melting point.The ability of a material to change shape (deform) usually by stretching along its length. nickel. Radium is one of these. carbonates. copper. a metal is an element. OCCURRENCE ????  Some metals are found in the pure state.  It forms cations and ionic bonds with non-metals.  In chemistry. Metals are usually strong & malleable so they can be hammered into shape. usually mixed with rock and earthy materials. which are called metallic bonds. and silicates. but most of them are found in combination with other elements. PROPERTIES ???? Metals are Solid at room temperature.The ability of a material to be change in shape permanently.  Some metals are so rare that tons of ore must be treated to get even a small amount of the pure metal. Metals are shiny when they cut.  In a metal. Metals are good conductors of heat and electricity.  Ductility . compound. a metal is a substance that has a bright luster and is a good conductor of heat and electricity. or alloy characterized by high electrical conductivity.  Plasticity . and mercury. Elasticity . oxides. returning to its original position. iron. except mercury.  Some of the common metals found in combination in ores are lead. which are responsible for the conductivity. Those ions are surrounded by delocalized electrons. chromium.The ability of a material to absorb force and flex in different directions. zinc.       .  These metals arc in the form of sulphides. atoms readily lose electrons to form positive ions (cations).

6.silver. which has extensive uses in making transformer cores. Ag. Non. Fe. 2. This is used everywhere in industries as well as in homes. steel etc. etc.  Hardness – The ability of a material to resist scratching.A characteristic of a material that does not break or shatter when receiving a blow or under a sudden shock. Ni are used to make various types of stainless steel. 9. E.g. Ferrous alloys :. aluminium.copper. metals. E. Fe. 10. Al pure metals in the form of wires are used for carrying electrical currents. lid . 7.gold. Cu metals are used to make utensils used for cooking. wear and tear & indentation. It has also two parts i. Hg is used in thermometers. These are also used to make useful equipments for factories. Toughness . Thin foils of Ag and Au are used to decorate food items.g.A mixture of metal & small amount of other substance. 8. They are also used for plating items for decorative purposes. .Containing iron & almost all are magnetic. Fe is used extensively for making magnets. 3) ALLOY :. Metals such as Al. TYPES OF METAL ???? 1) FERROUS METAL :.Ferrous :. tin etc. Cu in a foil form are used for packaging materials.Brass ( COPPER + ZINC) USES ????? 1. Al. 2) NON-FERROUS METAL :. 4.Don’t contain iron. 3.stainless steel (STEEL + CHROMIUM) ii. mild-steel. Cr and Ni are used for electroplating equipments. Cu. Cr. castiron. Zn is used for galvanizing iron to protect Fe from rusting. 5. Au and Pt are used to make jewellery.

 Non-metals may also share electrons with other non-metal elements to complete their outer shell. Hydrogen (H). and so try to gain enough electrons to fill them. oxygen (O). and radioactive radon (Rn). nitrogen (N). and the noble gases (rare gases).Non-metals are very brittle. krypton (Kr). although xenon does react under certain conditions. argon (Ar).  The exceptions are the chemically unreactive noble gases (rare gases). They are electronegative in character. this type of bonding is known as covalent bonding. fluorine (F). and the rest are solids. and cannot be rolled into wires or pounded into sheets.  Non-metals are electronegative.  The noble gases do not react because they already have complete outer electron shells.  Nature :. xenon (Xe). These have no metallic lustre.  Non-metals are the chemical opposites of metals. neon (Ne). chlorine (Cl). are gases.They are poor conductors of heat and electricity. Only bromine (Br) is a liquid at room temperature. PROPERTIES????  Most of the non-metals exist in two of the three states of matter at room temperature: gases (oxygen) and solids (carbon). . helium (He).Non-metals have a tendency to gain or share electrons with other atoms. In structure the non-metals are very diverse.  Electronegative Character :. the non-metal elements have incomplete outer electron shells.  The type of bonding where ions are formed is known as ionic bonding.  Reactivity :.  Non-metals form negatively charged ions or anions.  Conduction :. and do not reflect light.They generally form acidic or neutral oxides with oxygen.  Apart from the noble gases. which means that they are able to gain electrons when bonding with metals.

Non metal[ phosphorus] is used in crackers 5.USES ???? Uses of non metals: 1. Non metal is used in ointments. . 4.non metal[ oxygen] helps in respiration.used in water purification process[chlorine] 2. Non metals are used in fertilizers 3.

A regularly packed solid has a higher melting point than an irregularly packed solid. whereas an alloy like Inconel (made from Nickel. with an irregular structure. Thus pure metals have good malleability and ductility.  It is composed of two or more elements.  An alloy like Stainless Steel is designed for corrosion resistance. . and how much of each element is present. less malleable and less ductile. An Alloys is a homogenous (uniform) mixture with metallic properties. Alloy → atoms of another element added  The addition of these different-sized atoms distorts the original regular structure. and Brass has a melting point lower than pure copper. Effect of adding another element to a metal???  In a pure metal. Lower melting point PROPERTIES OF ALLOY????  Alloys all have different properties depending on the different elements they are composed of. As a result. of which at least one is a metal. all the atoms are of the same size. For example.  The melting point of a solid depends very much on the packing of atoms. Chromium. stronger.  When an external force is applied. slipping of layers now becomes difficult.  One property that almost all alloys have is that their melting point is lower than the pure form of their base metal. They are arranged regularly in layers. usually has a lower melting point than the metals from which it is made. and small amounts of several other elements) is designed to be able to operate at high temperatures. Stainless Steel has a melting point that is lower than pure iron. the layers will slip over one another quite easily. An alloy. harder.

nuclear power systems and widely used in chemical and petrochemical industries.  Copper alloys are less expensive than gold or platinum that is why largely utilized in odontological restorations.  Due to high strength. . medicine. Uses of Nickel Alloys  Whether in the form of element or alloy with other metals.  Copper alloy is used in hermetic seals. Uses of Stainless steel Alloys  In order to reduce corrosion losses.  Stainless alloys used for making tubes intended for placement on the bottom of the sea.  Nickel alloys have good corrosion resistance and heat resistance.  The huge array of quality Aluminium is used in various applications like transport.  Nickel alloys are used for a wide variety of applications like aircraft gas turbines. electrical and thermal conductivity copper alloys are used in the manufacture of all types of electrical equipment.  Aluminium alloys are extensively used in the production of automotive engine parts. Uses of Copper Alloys : Copper alloys have excellent electrical and thermal performance.  Many stainless steel alloys has improved weldability and corrosion resistance. high ductility and relatively low cost. and construction of homes and furniture.  Several nickel alloys are used in control equipments to determine and control electrical characteristics. Nickel materials have made significant contributions to present-day society.  The high altitude flying is not possible without the huge pressures and stresses involved in the strong aluminium alloys. packaging. in automotive heat exchangers and copper tin alloys are primarily used for sleeve bearings due to its stronger and more ductility property. cutlery etc. there are extensive uses of stainless steels.  Stainless steel alloys are used for many commercial applications such as watch straps. electrical application.USES OF ALLOY???? Uses of Aluminium Alloys : Aluminium when combined with other metals gives strength and specific characteristics for a particular use. good corrosion resistance.

chimneys and many others. conveyors. containers. Uses of Titanium Alloys : Titanium alloys have high melting point than stainless steels.  Stainless steel grades are used for handling bulk wet materials. . road and rail industries. many titanium alloys are used in aerospace structures and other high-performance applications.  Titanium alloys are used for different spacecraft parts. petrochemical and biomaterial applications.  It corrosion resistance allow its uses in chemical. toughness and stiffness. Stainless Alloys are also widely used in the electronic.  Due to high strength. jet engines and airframe to save weight and improve aircraft efficiency. agricultural. tanks.

 Human body absorbs copper in small quantities because it is one of the essential minerals required for the proper functioning of the vital organs. Copper is a reddish metal with a face-centered cubic crystalline structure. this coating protects the metal from being eroding.  It is called as "patina". 0. due to its band structure.Who discovered copper gives an insight into the discovery of copper in pre-historic times.55 Electronic configuration: [Ar] 3d10 4s1 Atomic radius (nm). and an extremely good conductor of both heat and electricity.  Copper absorbs moisture and a green layer is formed on top of it. together with silver and gold. which is also a good conductor of heat and electricity.  In moist air it slowly forms a greenish surface film called patina.72 Density (g/cc): 8. ductile.118 1st ionization potential (eV): 7. copper is found in group Ib that includes transition metal elements such as silver and gold.  When polished copper glows and looks bright.  It is malleable.  It reflects red and orange light and absorbs other frequencies in the visible spectrum.  In the periodic table.  It is found in group Ib of the periodic table. this coating protects the metal from further attack. CHEMICAL PROPERTIES????         Atomic number: 29 Atomic weight: 63. but harder than zinc. PHYSICAL PROPERTIES????  Copper is a malleable and ductile metal.96 Melting T (C): 1083 Boiling T (C): 2595 .  This element is softer than iron.  Copper has low chemical reactivity. so it as a nice reddish colour.  It is softer than iron but harder than zinc and can be polished to a bright finish.

. if they are made from electroplated Nickel silver.USES ????? Industrial Uses of Copper  It is alloyed with nickel and used in form of cupronicklel and monel for shipbuilding. etc. motors. to provide electricity through out the country. . roofing and cladding.  The Watt's steam engine firebox is made from copper due to its high heat dissipation.  Copper in liquid form is used as a wood preservative. safely and efficiently.  The main function of copper in the body is to act as a co-factor in various enzymes and copper based pigments.  Copper is an essential nutrient to all higher plants and animal life.  Copper is used for plumbing. The European Union. it is used in wiring and contacts for PC. liver. Electrical Uses of Copper  About 65% of copper that is produced is used for electrical applications.  It has anti-microbial properties that helps in providing hygienic surfaces in hospitals and other healthcare facilities. TV. mobile phones and in the circuitry.  It is the main component of coins for many countries.  Copper is a light and durable metal that helps build maintenance free structures.  It is also used in copper water heating cylinders.  In case of electrical equipments. bushbars. Everyday Uses of Copper  Copper uses also include frying pans. Australia and New Zealand use coins containing copper. muscles and bone. United Kingdom. copper bath tubs.  In animals and humans it is present in tissues.  The main uses of copper are in the construction industry.  It is used in transformers. United States. use in power generation and transmission of electricity. knives. The important uses of copper include. forks and spoons that contain some copper. copper sinks and copper counters.  Copper in form of metal and as a pigmented salt is used to make decorative art like statutes and sculptures. It helps in restoration of original structures that are damaged due to dry rot. generators.

etc. trains. etc. lorries. WIRE BENDING EXERCISE  We had given an assignment in which we had to bend copper wire in different shapes as per given in the given paper that contain 8 different diagram.  This process can be used to make decorative items.  With the help of pilar we can hold the wire and give it different shapes.  Material and tools required for this is copper wire and pilar. jewelry etc. satellite navigation systems. central locking.Transportation Uses of Copper  The important uses of copper in the transportation industry include building of trams. .  High purity copper wire harness system is used to carry the current from the battery through out the vehicle.  The current is carried to the lights. on-board computers. cars.

etc. which is then moved against the workpiece using handwheel . .LATHE MACHINE METAL TURNING EXERCISE??? In a metalworking lathe. worm gears. or for cutting threads. These (cutting) tools come in a wide range of sizes and shapes depending upon their application. The toolpost is operated by leadscrews that can accurately position the tool in a variety of planes. This enables different thread pitches to be cut. either a toolpost or a turret. The toolpost may be driven manually or automatically to produce the roughing and finishing cuts required to turn the workpiece to the desired shape and dimensions. which is usually fixed to a solid moveable mounting. metal is removed from the workpiece using a hardened cutting tool. Manually controlled metalworking lathes are commonly provided with a variable ratio gear train to drive the main leadscrew.

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