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# 1.Briefly driscribe GSM Architecture with appropriate diagram?

## 2.What are the interfaces between the nodes below;

a)BTS-BSC-Abis
b)BSC-TC-Ater
c)BSC MSC - A
State the interfaces and the implication of its unavailability/Failure?

3.Which
of the nodes
in aboveto
controls
Handover?-Handover
by thetoBS
4.A community
was predicted
have 1500
subscriber by Julydecision
2012,Celetec
decides
r
subscribers.
a)Given
a frequency band of 890-895 in uplink and 915-920 in the DL, Draw a 4/12 Freq
Band.
Note:GSM900:
GSM1800:

## =890.2+ (n-1)*0.2 MHz ........ 890.2+(n-1)*0.2=890 ......

f2 (n) =f1 (n) +45 MHz N.B;Frequency planning is done on
=1710.2 + (n-512) * 0.2 MHz
f2 (n) =f1 (n) +95 MHz

Dividing the allocated 5MHz by carrier spacing of 0.2 we have 25 available frequency
(Frequencies) and use the remaning one as a guard band (Seperator from the next ope
planning is a very important stage.A well planned frequency brings an healthy network
b)For a given site that is to carry 1500 subscriber, Using a GOS of 0.02erl,How many TR

A site will be assumed to carry 1500 subscribers .From the erlang B table using 0.02 GO
subscriber
x erl =1500 subs
x=30erl
30 erl = 39 trx
IHaving
can now
decide to uses111
s222has
in order
toof
cater
for expansion
in the
nearest
In
a configuration
a total
18 trx(8,2
for logical
channels
,6 future
traffic but
chann
distributed.I can use s121 or s211 or s112(All has a total of 34 Trx) so if you have any o
are
correct.
c)Draw
the Dimensioning of the TRX above and show the logical channels required in ea
diagram below.(42 Trx)

## 5)Explain the following TERMS below;

a)Dual Band site -has 900 & 1800 bands
b)Triband site-has 900,1800&2100 bands
c)Dual Band antenna -has 900 & 1800 antenna on one physical antenna(i.e one antenna
d)Antenna Diversity-This is a technique used to combat multipath fading(Two Rx antenn
sector 1 has 2 Rx antenne).Receive diversity provides an effective technique for both o
channel and increasing the received signal to interference ratio.
e)Multipath fading-This is a phenomena where signal gets to the reciever in different ti
and the direct signal with no obstruction)all the signals arrived at the reciever at differ
like Equalization,antena diversity,Maximum ratio combining are used to mitigate this ef
reciever
end byTransmission(DTX)-It
these techniques.
f)Discontinous
reduces interference and saves battery life.one wa
transmission when a channel is not in use.
g)Interference-Distortion of signal resulting to reduction of signal quality(Adjacent chan
channel(same frequency),External sources(from Radio stations,HF sources),Hardware in
planning,reuse
pattern,MAIO/HSN
and Hopping
frequency
planning.
this ,signal isallocation
in order
to compensate
for transmis
receiving end.

i)What is a combiner and Diplexer used for in site configuration? A combiner is an hardw
in to one,the output is also fed intothe transmitting antenna(Tx Antenna only).But a Dip
from Reciever and transmitter,the output is also fed into the Tx/Rx antenna.As shown in

j)How many TRX does a site with configuration S232/S122 has considering the 900 and
sector. So S232/122 means for 900 band ,2 trx on sector 1,3 trx on sector 2,2 trx on sec
for sector 2 and 2 trx for sector 3.
6)What is the difference between Physical and Logical channels.Physical channel is a m
TRX) while Logical channel is the information carried on a physical channel(They are the
channels are embedded in the physical channel.

A1

B1

C1

D1

A2

B2

C2

D2

45

46

47

48

49

50

51

52

57

58

59

60

61

62

63

64

A3

B3

C3

D3

53

54

55

56

65

66

67

68

## BLOCKING PROBABILITY IN [%]

NO OF
CHANNELS

0.01

0.05

0.1

0.5

10

0.01

0.01

0.02

0.05

0.11

0.01

0.03

0.05

0.11

0.15

0.22

0.38

0.6

0.09

0.15

0.19

0.35

0.46

0.6

0.9

1.27

0.23

0.36

0.44

0.7

0.87

1.09

1.53

2.05

0.45

0.65

0.76

1.13

1.36

1.66

2.22

2.88

0.73

1.15

1.62

1.91

2.28

2.96

3.76

1.05

1.39

1.58

2.16

2.5

2.94

3.74

4.67

1.42

1.83

2.05

2.73

3.13

3.63

4.54

5.6

1.83

2.3

2.56

3.33

3.78

4.35

5.37

6.55

10

2.26

2.8

3.09

3.96

4.46

5.08

6.22

7.51

11

2.72

3.33

3.65

4.61

5.16

5.84

7.08

8.49

12

3.21

3.88

4.23

5.28

5.88

6.62

7.95

9.47

13

3.71

4.45

4.83

5.96

6.61

7.4

8.84

10.47

14

4.24

5.03

5.45

6.66

7.35

8.2

9.73

11.47

15

4.78

5.63

6.08

7.38

8.11

9.01

10.63

12.48

16

5.34

6.25

6.72

8.1

8.88

9.83

11.54

13.5

17

5.91

6.88

7.38

8.83

9.65

10.66

12.46

14.52

18

6.5

7.52

8.05

9.58

10.44

11.49

13.39

15.55

19

7.09

8.17

8.72

10.33

11.23

12.33

14.32

16.58

20

7.7

8.83

9.41

11.09

12.03

13.18

15.25

17.61

21

8.32

9.5

10.11

11.86

12.84

14.04

16.19

18.65

22

8.95

10.18

10.81

12.64

13.65

14.9

17.13

19.69

23

9.58

10.87

11.52

13.42

14.47

15.76

18.08

20.74

24

10.23

11.56

12.24

14.2

15.3

16.63

19.03

21.78

25

10.88

12.26

12.97

15

16.13

17.51

19.99

22.83

26

11.54

12.97

13.7

15.8

16.96

18.38

20.94

23.89

27

12.21

13.69

14.44

16.6

17.8

19.27

21.9

24.94

28

12.88

14.41

15.18

17.41

18.64

20.15

22.87

26

29

13.56

15.13

15.93

18.22

19.49

21.04

23.83

27.05

30

14.25

15.86

16.68

19.03

20.34

21.93

24.8

28.11

31

14.94

16.6

17.44

19.85

21.19

22.83

25.77

29.17

32

15.63

17.34

18.21

20.68

22.05

23.73

26.75

30.24

33

16.34

18.09

18.97

21.51

22.91

24.63

27.72

31.3

34

17.04

18.84

19.74

22.34

23.77

25.53

28.7

32.37

35

17.75

19.59

20.52

23.17

24.64

26.44

29.68

33.43

36

18.47

20.35

21.3

24.01

25.51

27.34

30.66

34.5

37

19.19

21.11

22.08

24.85

26.38

28.25

31.64

35.57

38

19.91

21.87

22.86

25.69

27.25

29.17

32.62

36.64

39

20.64

22.64

23.65

26.53

28.13

30.08

33.61

37.72

40

21.37

23.41

24.44

27.38

29.01

31

34.6

38.79

41

22.11

24.19

25.24

28.23

29.89

31.92

35.58

39.86

42

22.85

24.97

26.04

29.09

30.77

32.84

36.57

40.94

43

23.59

25.75

26.84

29.94

31.66

33.76

37.57

42.01

44

24.33

26.53

45

25.08

27.32

27.64

30.8

32.54

34.68

38.56

43.09

28.45

31.66

33.43

35.61

39.55

44.17

46

25.83

47

26.59

28.11

29.26

32.52

34.32

36.53

40.55

45.24

28.9

30.07

33.38

35.22

37.46

41.54

46.32

48
49

27.34

29.7

30.88

34.25

36.11

38.39

42.54

47.4

28.1

30.49

31.69

35.11

37

39.32

43.53

48.48

50

28.87

31.29

32.51

35.98

37.9

40.26

44.53

49.56

51

29.63

32.09

33.33

36.85

38.8

41.19

45.53

50.64

52

30.4

32.9

34.15

37.72

39.7

42.12

46.53

51.73

53

31.17

33.7

34.98

38.6

40.6

43.06

47.53

52.81

54

31.94

34.51

35.8

39.47

41.51

44

48.54

53.89

55

32.72

35.32

36.63

40.35

42.41

44.94

49.54

54.98

56

33.49

36.13

37.46

41.23

43.32

45.88

50.54

56.06

57

34.27

36.95

38.29

42.11

44.22

46.82

51.55

57.14

58

35.05

37.76

39.12

42.99

45.13

47.76

52.55

58.23

59

35.84

38.58

39.96

43.87

46.04

48.7

53.56

59.32

60

36.62

39.4

40.8

44.76

46.95

49.64

54.57

60.4

61

37.41

40.22

41.63

45.64

47.86

50.59

55.57

61.49

62

38.2

41.05

42.47

46.53

48.77

51.53

56.58

62.58

63

38.99

41.87

43.31

47.42

49.69

52.48

57.59

63.66

64

39.78

42.7

44.16

48.31

50.6

53.43

58.6

64.75

65

40.58

43.52

45

49.2

51.52

54.38

59.61

65.84

66

41.38

44.35

45.85

50.09

52.44

55.33

60.62

66.93

67

42.17

45.18

46.69

50.98

53.35

56.28

61.63

68.02

68

42.97

46.02

47.54

51.87

54.27

57.23

62.64

69.11

69

43.77

46.85

48.39

52.77

55.19

58.18

63.65

70.2

70

44.58

47.68

49.24

53.66

56.11

59.13

64.67

71.29

71

45.38

48.52

50.09

54.56

57.03

60.08

65.68

72.38

72

46.19

49.36

50.94

55.46

57.96

61.04

66.69

73.47

73

47

50.2

51.8

56.35

58.88

61.99

67.71

74.56

74

47.81

51.04

52.65

57.25

59.8

62.95

68.72

75.65

75

48.62

51.88

53.51

58.15

60.73

63.9

69.74

76.74

76

49.43

52.72

54.37

59.05

61.65

64.86

70.75

77.83

77

50.24

53.56

55.23

59.96

62.58

65.81

71.77

78.93

78

51.05

54.41

56.09

60.86

63.51

66.77

72.79

80.02

79

51.87

55.25

56.95

61.76

64.43

67.73

73.8

81.11

80

52.69

56.1

57.81

62.67

65.36

68.69

74.82

82.2

81

53.51

56.95

58.67

63.57

66.29

69.65

75.84

83.3

82

54.33

57.8

59.54

64.48

67.22

70.61

76.86

84.39

83

55.15

58.65

60.4

65.39

68.15

71.57

77.87

85.48

84

55.97

59.5

61.27

66.29

69.08

72.53

78.89

86.58

85

56.79

60.35

62.14

67.2

70.02

73.49

79.91

87.67

86

57.62

61.21

63

68.11

70.95

74.45

80.93

88.77

87

58.44

62.06

63.87

69.02

71.88

75.42

81.95

89.86

88

59.27

62.92

64.74

69.93

72.82

76.38

82.97

90.96

89

60.1

63.77

65.61

70.84

73.75

77.34

83.99

92.05

90

60.92

64.63

66.48

71.76

74.68

78.31

85.01

93.15

91

61.75

65.49

67.36

72.67

75.62

79.27

86.04

94.24

92

62.58

66.35

68.23

73.58

76.56

80.24

87.06

95.34

93

63.42

67.21

69.1

74.5

77.49

81.2

88.08

96.43

94

64.25

68.07

69.98

75.41

78.43

82.17

89.1

97.53

95

65.08

68.93

70.85

76.33

79.37

83.13

90.12

98.63

96

65.92

69.79

71.73

77.24

80.31

84.1

91.15

99.72

97

66.75

70.65

72.61

78.16

81.25

85.07

92.17

100.8

98

67.59

71.52

73.48

79.07

82.18

86.04

93.19

101.9

99

68.43

72.38

74.36

79.99

83.12

87

94.22

103

100

69.27

73.25

75.24

80.91

84.06

87.97

95.24

104.1

LE

ND NUMBER OF TIMESLOTS

[%]
15

20

30

40

0.18

0.25

0.43

0.67

0.8

1.45

1.6

1.93

2.63

3.48

2.5

2.95

3.89

5.02

3.45

4.01

5.19

6.6

4.45

5.11

6.51

8.19

5.46

6.23

7.86

9.8

6.5

7.37

9.21

11.42

7.55

8.52

10.58

13.05

8.62

9.69

11.95

14.68

9.69

10.86

13.33

16.31

10.78

12.04

14.72

17.95

11.87

13.22

16.11

19.6

12.97

14.41

17.5

21.24

14.07

15.61

18.9

22.89

15.18

16.81

20.3

24.54

16.29

18.01

21.7

26.19

17.41

19.22

23.1

27.84

18.53

20.42

24.51

29.5

19.65

21.64

25.92

31.15

20.77

22.85

27.33

32.81

21.9

24.06

28.74

34.46

23.03

25.28

30.15

36.12

24.16

26.5

31.56

37.78

25.3

27.72

32.97

39.44

26.43

28.94

34.39

41.1

27.57

30.16

35.8

42.76

28.71

31.39

37.21

44.41

29.85

32.61

38.63

46.07

31

33.84

40.05

47.74

32.14

35.07

41.46

49.4

33.28

36.3

42.88

51.06

34.43

37.52

44.3

52.72

35.58

38.75

45.72

54.38

36.72

39.99

47.14

56.04

37.87

41.22

48.56

57.7

39.02

42.45

49.98

59.37

40.17

43.68

51.4

61.03

41.32

44.91

52.82

62.69

42.48

46.15

54.24

64.35

43.63

47.38

55.66

66.02

44.78

48.62

57.08

67.68

45.94

49.85

58.5

69.34

47.09

51.09

59.92

71.01

48.25

52.32

61.35

72.67

49.4

53.56

62.77

74.33

50.56

54.8

64.19

76

51.71

56.03

65.61

77.66

52.87

57.27

67.04

79.32

54.03

58.51

68.46

80.99

55.19

59.75

69.88

82.65

56.35

60.99

71.31

84.32

57.5

62.22

72.73

85.98

58.66

63.46

74.15

87.65

59.82

64.7

75.58

89.31

60.98

65.94

77

90.97

62.14

67.18

78.43

92.64

63.31

68.42

79.85

94.3

64.47

69.66

81.27

95.97

65.63

70.9

82.7

97.63

66.79

72.14

84.12

99.3

67.95

73.38

85.55

101

69.11

74.63

86.97

102.6

70.28

75.87

88.4

104.3

71.44

77.11

89.82

106

72.6

78.35

91.25

107.6

73.77

79.59

92.67

109.3

74.93

80.83

94.1

111

76.09

82.08

95.52

112.6

77.26

83.32

96.95

114.3

78.42

84.56

98.37

116

79.59

85.8

99.8

117.6

80.75

87.05

101.2

119.3

81.92

88.29

102.7

120.9

83.08

89.53

104.1

122.6

84.25

90.78

105.5

124.3

85.41

92.02

106.9

125.9

86.58

93.26

108.4

127.6

87.74

94.51

109.8

129.3

88.91

95.75

111.2

130.9

90.08

96.99

112.6

132.6

91.24

98.24

114.1

134.3

92.41

99.48

115.5

135.9

93.58

100.7

116.9

137.6

94.74

102

118.3

139.3

95.91

103.2

119.8

140.9

97.08

104.5

121.2

142.6

98.25

105.7

122.6

144.3

99.41

107

124

145.9

100.6

108.2

125.5

147.6

101.8

109.4

126.9

149.3

102.9

110.7

128.3

150.9

104.1

111.9

129.8

152.6

105.3

113.2

131.2

154.3

106.4

114.4

132.6

155.9

2.2

107.6

115.7

134

157.6

108.8

116.9

135.5

159.3

109.9

118.2

136.9

160.9

111.1

119.4

138.3

162.6

112.3

120.6

139.7

164.3