Short note on expansion of Masjid e Nabvi S.A.W.W Masjid-Al-Nabvi Masjid-al-Nabvi (also known as Mosque of the Prophet ) is a mosque situated in the city of Madina. As the final resting place of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, it is considered the second holiest site in Islam by Muslims (the first being the Masjid-al Haram in Mecca) and is one of the largest mosques in the world. The mosque is under the control of the Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques. It is the second mosque built in history. Restoration and Expansion of the Mosque With all restorations, the border of the Mosque s Qibla wall has been kept unchanged as was built by the Prophet (S.A.W.W.) himself, except for some minor repairs and renovations. Major restoration projects can be described, in chronological order, as follows:  First Expansion Project: The first expansion project was in the year 628 AD right after the Khaibar war. The mosque was expanded in three directions (excepting the Qibla side) and made square-shaped. The top portion was then covered with the branches and leaves of date trees, which were located on 9 columns. This way it was protected rain and hot weather.  The Reign of Hazrat Omar (R.A): When the mosque was no longer large enough during the reign of Hazrat Omar (R.A) it was expanded again. After the nearby houses were expropriated, the number of entrances reached to 6.  The Reign of Ottoman: The Mosque of the Prophet was later expanded and restored during the reign of Ottoman. With this expansion, the mosque s area became 5061 sq.m. The material used composed Page 1 mainly of chipped stone and lime. Also, the number of columns reached twelve, which were made up of stones with ornaments.  Another Restoration Project: When the mosque was damaged due to earthquakes and fires during 460-654 (1068-1256), a major restoration project was initiated which could not be completed until the reign of Mamluks. It was then re-initiated by the Mamluk sultan Malik Mansur Nureddin Ali.  First Dome: The first (wood) dome was built by Sultan Kalavun. In 881 (1476) Sultan Kayitbay renovated this dome and made some new arrangements in the mosque. The most comprehensive renovation has been done by the Ottoman Sultan Abdulmecid. Sultan sent a team of workers headed by a special engineer to Medina for the renovation of the Mosque of the Prophet which had not been repaired for four centuries. With this renovation, the area of the mosque reached 10,939 sq.m. The number of columns in the front section of the mosque and in the porches of the courtyard reached 327. The number of porches on the Qibla side became 12, and the ground of the mosque was covered with marble. The top portions of columns were covered by gold, and the Qibla wall by Ottoman Chinas.  Saudi expansion of the Mosque: The latest renovations took place under King Fahad and have greatly increased the size of the mosque, allowing it to hold a large number of worshipers and pilgrims and adding modern comforts like air conditioning.  Plan of Majid-Al-Nabvi: As it stands today, the mosque has a rectangular plan on two floors with the Ottoman prayer hall projecting to the south. The main prayer hall occupies the entire first floor. The mosque enclosure is 100 times bigger than the first mosque built by Muhammad and can accommodate more than half a million worshippers. The mosque has a flat paved roof topped with 27 domes on square bases. Holes pierced into the base of each dome illuminate the interior. The paved area around the mosque is also used for prayer, equipped with umbrella tents. Page 2 The north facade has three evenly spaced porticos, while the east, west and south facades have two. The walls are composed of a series of windows topped by pointed arches with black and white voussoirs. There are six peripheral minarets attached to the new extension, and four others frame the Ottoman structure. The mosque is lavishly decorated with polychrome marble and stones. The columns are of white marble with brass capitals supporting slightly pointed arches, built of black and white stones. The column pedestals have ventilation grills that regulate the temperature inside the prayer hall. The open courtyard of the mosque can be shaded by folded, umbrella-like canopies, designed by Bodo Rash and Buro Happold. Page 3 Canopies Older Mosque: This new mosque contains the older mosque within it. The two sections can be easily distinguished: the older section has many colorful decorations and numerous small pillars; the new section is in gleaming white marble and is completely air-conditioned. Page 4 Masji-Al-Nabvi Interior view of the new mosque Page 5