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MEANING & DEFINITION: Simply put, Human Resources Management (HRM) is management functions that helps managers recruit, select, train & develop members for an organization. Obviously, HRM is concerned with the peoples dimension in organizations. We quote three definitions of HRM. But before quoting the definitions, it is useful to point out the essentials which must find their place in any definition. The core points are: 1. Organizations are not mere bricks, mortar, machineries or inventories. They are people. It is the people who staff & manage organizations. 2. HRM involves the application of management functions & principles. The functions & principles are applied to acquisitioning, developing, maintaining & remunerating employees in organizations. 3. Decisions relating to employee must be integrated. Decisions on different aspects of employees must be consistent with other human resource (HR) decisions. 4. Decision made must influence the effectiveness of an organization. Effectiveness of an organization must result in betterment of services to customers in form of high quality products supplied at reasonable costs. 5. HRM functions are not confined to business establishment only. They are applicable to non-business organizations, too, such as education, health care, recreation & the like. The following three definitions collectively cover all the five core point: 1. A series of integrated decisions that form the employment relationship; their quality contributes to the ability of the organizations & the employees to achieve their objectives. 2. Its concerned with the people dimension in the management. science every organization is made up of people, acquiring their services, maintain their commitment to the organization are developing their skills, essential to achieving motivating them to higher level of performance & ensuring that they continue to organizational objectives. This is true regardless of the type of organization government, education, business, health, recreation or social action. 3. management is the planning, organizing, directing & controlling of the procurement, development, compensation, resource to the end that accomplished. integration, maintenance individual, organizational & separation of human & social objectives are

Thus, HRM refers to set of programmes, functions & activity designed & carried out in order to maximize both employee as well as organizational effectiveness.


We follow the model for discussing the subject HRM in this project. As seen in the figure, the model contains all HR activities. When these activities are discharged effectively, they will result in a competent & willing workforce who will help realize organization goals. There is another variable in the model environment. It may be state that the HR function does not operate in vacuum. It is influenced by several external & internal forces like economical, technological, political, legal, organizational & professional conditions as will be explained in the next chapter.

Nature of HRM Human Resource Planning Job Analysis Recruitment Selection Placement Training & Development Remunaration Motivation Participative Management Communication Safety & health Welfare Promotions, etc. Industrial Relations Trade Unionism Disputes & their Settlement Future of HRM Ethical issues in HRM International HRM Compet ent & Willing Work force

Organizat ional Goals

E nv ir on m en t

MEANING & DEFINITIONS Successful candidates placed on the jobs need training to perform their duties effectively. Workers must be trained to operate machines, reduce scrap and avoid accidents. It is not only workers who need training. Supervisors, managers and executives also need to be developed in order to enable them to grow and acquire maturity of thought and action. Training constitutes on going process in any organization.

Training plays an important role in man-power development even at the level of industrial unit. Training comes next to recruitment and selection. It is necessary, useful and productive for all categories of workers and supervisory staff. Training is practical in nature and is useful in order to create sense of confidence in the minds of the newly recruited workers. It is for developing skills among workers. Training is necessary due to technological changes rapidly taking place in the industrial field. Expenditure on training is a profitable investment to the employer. Training is, now, common in all industrial units. It is an internal aspect of personality development. Every organization needs to have well trained and experienced people to perform the activities that have to be done. If the current or potential job occupant can meet this requirement, training is not important. But when this is not the case, it is necessary to raise the skill levels and increase the versatility and adaptability of employees. As the jobs become more complex, the importance of employee training also increases. In a rapidly changing environment, employee training is not only an activity that is desirable but also an activity that an organization must commit resources to if; it is to maintain a viable and knowledgeable work force. METHODS OF TRAINING There are many different training and development methods used in an organization. On-thejob training, informal training, classroom training, internal training courses, external training courses, on-the-job coaching, life-coaching, mentoring, training assignments and tasks, skills training, product training, technical training, behavioral development training, attitudinal training and development, accredited training and learning, distance learning - all part of the training menu, available to use and apply according to individual training needs and organizational training needs. ON-THE-JOB TRAINING It is delivered to employees while they perform their regular jobs. In this way, they do not lose time while they are learning. After a plan is developed for what should be taught, employees should be informed of the details. A timetable should be established with periodic evaluations to inform employees about their progress. On-the-job techniques include orientations, job instruction training, apprenticeships, internships and assistantships, job rotation and coaching. OFF-THE-JOB TECHNIQUES

It include lectures, special study, films, television conferences or discussions, case studies, role playing, simulation, programmed instruction and laboratory training. Most of these techniques can be used by small businesses although, some may be too costly. ORIENTATIONS They are for new employees. The first several days on the job are crucial in the success of new employees. This point is illustrated by the fact that 60 percent of all employees who quit do so in the first ten days. Orientation training should emphasize the following topics: The company's history and mission. The key members in the organization. The key members in the department, and how the department helps fulfill the mission of the company. Personnel rules and regulations.

Some companies use verbal presentations while others have written presentations. Many small businesses convey these topics in one-on-one orientations. No matter what method is used, it is important that the newcomer understand his or her new place of employment. LECTURES The present training material verbally and are used when the goal is to present a great deal of material to many people. It is more cost effective to lecture to a group than to train people individually. Lecturing is one-way communication and as such may not be the most effective way to train. Also, it is hard to ensure that the entire audience understands a topic on the same level; by targeting the average attendee you may under train some and lose others. Despite these drawbacks, lecturing is the most cost-effective way of reaching large audiences. ROLE PLAYING AND SIMULATION They are training techniques that attempt to bring realistic decision making situations to the trainee. Likely problems and alternative solutions are presented for discussion. The adage there is no better trainer than experience is exemplified with this type of training. Experienced employees can describe real world experiences, and can help in and learn from developing the solutions to these simulations. This method is cost effective and is used in marketing and management training.

AUDIOVISUAL METHODS Such as television, videotapes and films are the most effective means of providing real world conditions and situations in a short time. One advantage is that the presentation is the same no matter how many times it's played. This is not true with lectures, which can change as the speaker is changed or can be influenced by outside constraints. The major flaw with the audiovisual method is that it does not allow for questions and interactions with the speaker, nor does it allow for changes in the presentation for different audiences. JOB ROTATION It involves moving an employee through a series of jobs so he or she can get a good feel for the tasks that are associated with different jobs. It is usually used in training for supervisory positions. The employee learns a little about everything. This is a good strategy for small businesses because of the many jobs an employee may be asked to do. APPRENTICESHIPS It develops employees who can do many different tasks. They usually involve several related groups of skills that allow the apprentice to practice a particular trade, and they take place over a long period of time in which the apprentice works for, and with, the senior skilled worker. Apprenticeships are especially appropriate for jobs requiring production skills. Internships and assistantships are usually a combination of classroom and on-the-job training. They are often used to train prospective managers or marketing personnel. PROGRAMMED LEARNING, Computer-aided instruction and interactive video all have one thing in common: they allow the trainee to learn at his or her own pace. Also, they allow material already learned to be bypassed in favor of material with which a trainee is having difficulty. After the introductory period, the instructor need not be present, and the trainee can learn as his or her time allows. These methods sound good, but may be beyond the resources of some small businesses. LABORATORY TRAINING It is conducted for groups by skilled trainers. It usually is conducted at a neutral site and is used by upper- and middle management trainees to develop a spirit of teamwork and an increased ability to deal with management and peers. It can be costly and usually is offered by larger small businesses.

All supervisors and managers need to able to provide training and development for their people - training develops people, it improves performance, raises morale and increases the health of the business. The leader's ethics and behavior set the standard for their people's, which determines how productively they use their skills and knowledge. Training is nothing without the motivation to apply it effectively. A strong capability to plan and manage skills training, the acquisition of knowledge, and the development of motivation and attitude, largely determines how well people perform in their jobs. It's important that as a manager you understand yourself well before you train others - your own skills (do you need training in any important areas necessary to train others?) - Your own style (how you communicate, how you approach tasks, your motives - they all affect the way you see the role and the person you are training). And it's vital you understand the other person's style and personality too - how they prefer to learn - do they like to read and absorb a lot of detail, do they prefer to be shown, to experience themselves by trial and error? Knowing the other person's preferred learning style helps you deliver the training in the most relevant and helpful way. It helps you design activities and tasks that the other person will be more be more comfortable doing, which ensures a better result, quicker. Various models and tests are available to help understand learning styles - look at the Kolb model below:

ACTIVITY-MENTORING TRAINING 'Activity-mentoring' training is a highly productive and effective new method of training people in organizations - especially in teams and departments. The activity-mentoring approach uses several new integrated techniques which produce more reliable and relevant training outputs, in terms of individual skills, attitudinal development, and direct job and organizational performance improvement. The approach is facilitative rather than prescriptive, and broadly features: strategic assessment of organizational and department priorities and 'high-yield' training needs interpreted discussion with line-managers of training delegates and strategic managers of the organization pre-training skills/behavioral needs-analysis - all training delegates - and pre-training preparatory work small groups - practical workshops - short sessions - highly participative and situation/solution-based focused on practical job issues, individual personality/learning style and organizational priorities individually agreed tasks and assignments - focused on practical priorities and individual needs (SMART and WIIFM factors) follow-up coaching and mentoring one-to-one support - giving high accountability and reliable deliverables ongoing feedback and review with line-managers and strategic managers coaching/task notes for line managers The process works on several different levels: individual, team, task, organizational and strategic. Activity mentoring also gives strong outputs in skills, behavior and job priority areas, as well as being strongly motivational and where necessary resolving conflict and attitudinal issues. For advice about activity-mentoring training please get in touch. MENTORING COST ANALYSIS AND JUSTIFICATION Mentoring can be provided in various ways and programmes take a variety of shapes. Mentoring can be external, where the mentoring is essentially provided by external people, or an internal activity, using mentors within the organization. Due to the newness of mentoring as an organized process, and because mentoring programs are so varied, statistics as to

general costs and returns across industry are not easy to find. Here however are general cost indicators for a program essentially delivered by internally appointed mentors. The main elements of a mentoring program that carry quantifiable cost would be: Training of mentor(s) - comfortably achievable for 1000,000/head - it's not rocket science, but selection of suitable mentor is absolutely critical - good ones need little training; poor ones are beyond any amount of training. Mentor time away from normal activities - needs to be a minimum of an hour a month one-to-one or nothing can usefully be achieved, up to at most a couple of hours a week one-to-one, which would be intensive almost to the point of overloading the mentoree. That said, there may be occasions when the one-to-one would necessarily involve a whole day out for the mentor, for instance client or supplier visits. Say on average a day a month including the associated administration work. Overseeing the program, evaluating and monitoring activity, progress and outputs depends on the size of the program, i.e. number of mentors an number of mentorees if the mentoring is limited to just a single one-to-one relationship then it's largely selfmanaging - if it's a program involving several mentors an mentorees then I'd estimate an hour per quarter (3 months) per one-to-one mentoring relationship - probably the responsibility of an HR or training manager. If this person with the overview/monitoring responsibility needs external advice you'd need to add on two or three days consultancy costs. (Mentoree time away from normal activities - effective mentoring should ideally integrate with the mentoree's normal activities, and enhance productivity, effectiveness, etc., so this is arguably a credit not a debit.) Having said all this, unless the training aim is simply to impart knowledge, for which conventional classroom training and course work are very appropriate, I'd go for mentoring every time, especially if the aim is to truly develop people and organizational effectiveness. If you'd like help establishing a mentoring program, internal or external, or assessing feasibility and providing justification please contact us for advice.


Reasons for emphasizing the growth and development of personnel include

Creating a pool of readily available and adequate replacements for personnel who may leave or move up in the organization. Enhancing the company's ability to adopt and use advances in technology because of a sufficiently knowledgeable staff. Building a more efficient, effective and highly motivated team, which enhances the company's competitive position and improves employee morale. Ensuring adequate human resources for expansion into new programs.

Employees frequently develop a greater sense of self-worth, dignity and well-being as they become more valuable to the firm and to society. Generally they will receive a greater share of the material gains that result from their increased productivity. These factors give them a sense of satisfaction through the achievement of personal and company goals. The need for training of employees would be clear from the observations made by the different authorities.

TO INCREASE PRODUCTIVITY: Instruction can help employees increase their level of

performance on their present assignment. Increased human performance often directly leads to increased operational productivity, & increased company profit. Again, increased performance & productivity, because of training, are most evident on the part of new employees who are not yet fully aware of the most efficient & effective ways of performing their jobs.

TO IMPROVEMENT QUALITY: Better informed workers are less likely to make

operational mistakes. Quality increase may be in relationship to a company product or service, or in reference to the intangible organizational employment atmosphere.

a good internal educational programme will have to make less drastic manpower changes & adjustments in the event of sudden personnel alterations. When the need arises, organizational vacancies can more easily be staffed from internal sources if a company initiates & maintains an adequate instructional programme for both its nonsupervisory & managerial employees.

TO IMPROVE ORGANIZATIONAL CLIMATE: An endless chain of positive reactions results

from a well-planned training programme. Production & product quality may improve; financial incentives may then be increased, internal promotions become stressed, less supervisory pressure ensure & base pay rate increases result. Increased morale may be due to many factors, but one of the most important of these is the current state of an organizations educational endeavor.


TO IMPROVE HEALTH & SAFETY: Proper training can help prevent industrial accidents.
A safer work environment leads to more stable mental attitudes on the part of employees. Managerial mental state would also improve if supervisors know that they can better themselves through company-designed development programmes.

OBSOLESCENCE PREVENTION: Training & development programmes foster the

initiative & creativity of employees and help to manpower obsolescence, which may be due to age, temperament or motivation, or the inability of a person to adapt him to technological changes.

PERSONAL GROWTH: Employees on a personal basis gain individually from their

exposure to educational experiences. Again management development programmes seems to give participants a wider awareness, an enlarged skill, & enlightened altruistic philosophy, & make enhanced personal growth possible. It may be observed that the need for training arises from more than one reason. I. An increased use of technology in production; II. Labor turnover arising from normal separations due to death or physical incapacity, for accidents, disease, superannuation, voluntary retirement, promotion within the organization & change of occupation or job. III. Need for additional hand to cope with an increased production of goods & service; IV. Old employees need refresher training to enable them to keep abreast of the changing methods, techniques & use of sophisticated tools & equipment. V. Need for enabling employees to the work in more effective way, to reduce learning time, reduce supervision time, and reduce waste & spoilage of raw material. VI. Need for reducing grievances & minimizing accidents rates; VII. Need for maintaining the validity of an organization as a whole and raising the morale of its employees. A programme of training becomes essential for the purpose of meeting the specific problems of a particular organization arising out of the introduction of new lines of production, changes in design, the demand of competition & economy, quality of material processed, individual adjustments, promotions, career development job & personal changes & changes in the volume of business. Collectively, these purpose directly relate to & comprise the ultimate purpose of organizational training programmes to enhance overall organizational effectiveness.



HOW TRAINING BENEFITS THE ORGANIZATION Leads to improved profitability &/or more positive attitude towards profit orientation Improve the job knowledge & skills at levels of the organization Improves the morale of the workforce Helps people identify with organizational goals Helps create a better corporate image Fosters authenticity, openness & trust Improves relationship between the boss & subordinate Aids in organizational development Learns from the trainee Helps prepare guidelines for work Aids in understanding & carrying out organizational policies Provides information for future needs in all areas of organization Organization get more effective decision making & problem solving skills Aids in development for promotion from within Aids in developing leadership skills, motivation, loyalty, better attitude & other aspects that successful workers & manager usually display Reduces outside consulting cost by utilizing competent internal consultation Stimulates preventive management as opposed to putting out fires Eliminates suboptimal behavior (such as hiding tools) Creates an appropriate climate for growth, communication Aids in improving organizational communication Helps employees adjust to change Aids in handling conflicts, there by helping to prevent stress & tension

BENEFITS TO THE INDIVIDUAL WHICH IN TURN ULTIMATELY SHOULD BENEFIT THE ORGANIZATION Helps the individual in making better decision & effective problem solving Through training & development, motivational variables of recognition, achievement, growth, responsibility & advancement are internalized and operationalised Aids in encouraging & achieving self development & self confidence Helps a person handle stress, tension, frustration & conflict Provides information for improving leadership, knowledge, communication skills& attitude Increase job satisfaction & recognition


Move a person towards personal goals while improving interactive skills Satisfies personal needs of trainers (and trainee) Provides the trainee an avenue for growth & a say his/her own future Develop a sense of growth in learning Helps a person develop speaking & listening skills; also writing skills when exercise are required Helps eliminate fear in attempting new task

BENEFITS IN PERSONNEL & HUMAN RELATIONS, INTRAGROUP & INTERGROUP RELATIONS & POLICY IMPLEMENTATION Improve communication between groups & individuals Aids in orientation for new employee & those taking new jobs through transfer or promotion Provides information on equal opportunity & affirmative action Provides information on other government laws & administrative policies Improves interpersonal skills & Improves morale Builds cohesiveness in groups

THE TRAINING PROCESS/ STEPS IN TRAINING PROGRAMME Your business should have a clearly defined strategy and set of objectives that direct and drive all the decisions made especially for training decisions. Firms that plan their training process are more successful than those that do not. Most business owners want to succeed, but do not engage in training designs that promise to improve their chances of success. Why? The five reasons most often identified are: TIME - Small businesses managers find that time demands do not allow them to train employees. GETTING STARTED - Most small business managers have not practiced training employees. The training process is unfamiliar. BROAD EXPERTISE - Managers tend to have broad expertise rather than the specialized skills needed for training and development activities.


LACK OF TRUST AND OPENNESS - Many managers prefer to keep information to themselves. By doing so they keep information from subordinates and others who could be useful in the training and development process. SKEPTICISM AS TO THE VALUE OF THE TRAINING - Some small business owners believe the future cannot be predicted or controlled and their efforts, therefore, are best centered on current activities i.e., making money today. A well-conceived training program can help your firm succeed. A program structured with the company's strategy and objectives in mind has a high probability of improving productivity and other goals that are set in the training mission. Training programmes are a costly affair, & a time consuming process. Therefore they need to be drafted very care fully. Usually in the organization of training programmes,

High Impact training Model Above mentioned is a high impact training model contains six phase process. This focuses on providing effective, targeting training. We follow this model, to make our training efforts have positive impact on our organization. Each step of this model move our training project forward. To make the model effectively done, we should complete each phase order. The product of each phase is the raw material for the next phase.

The Following Table Illustrate Our Activities In Each Phase. Phase 1.Identify Training Needs 2.Map the Approach 3.Produce Learning Tools 4. Training Techniques Apply Deliver the training as designed to ensure successful result Define What needs to be learned to improve job performance. choose the appropriate training approach Create the actual training material Action Gather & analyze appropriate information Product A description of the specific training needed to improve job performance Detailed objective for the

training program. A design plan for the training program Training manuals, Facilitators guide, Audiovisual aids, Job Aids, etc. Instructor-led on-One coaching, etc.


Computer-based training, One-


5.Calculate Measurable Results 6. Through Track

Assess whether your training/coaching accomplished actual performance improvement; the result & redesign Ensure that the impact of training does not diminish




redesigned course, if needed Ongoing suggestions& ideas

Ongoing Follow-

that support the training.

Phase 1: Identify Training Needs Needs assessment diagnoses present problems and future challenges to be met through training and development. Organizations spend vast sums of money on training and development. Organizational objective are also to be judge before opting for any assessments of Human Resources. We should opt for the assessment of organizational goals. This phase uncovers the specific training needed to improve job performance. You investigate the reasons the training is needed & describe the training you must develop to answer the need. Phase 2: Map the Training Approach After identifying the training needed, you are ready to develop measurable objective for the training & map out a design plan. The objective defines exactly what the training should accomplish & provide a means of measuring its success. To develop the design plan, you use the objective for guidance and prepare an outline for the training that will meet the objectives. The questions arising here would be: Who are the trainees? Who are the trainers? What methods and techniques? What should be the level of training? What principals of learning? Where to conduct the program?

Phase 3: Produce Effective Learning Tool This phase involves the actual development of the specific training approach you have chosen. It might include a training manual or material to support on-the-job training, or it might be an instructor led course, or it might be something completely different. You may develop the needed materials yourself or work with others to develop them. This step consists of: In putting the learner at ease Instating the importance and ingredients of the job, and its relationship to workflow In explaining why he is being taught In creating interest and encouraging questions, finding out what the learner already knows about his job or other jobs


In explaining the why of the whole job and relating it to some job the worker already knows In placing the learner as close to his normal working procedure as possible In familiarizing him with equipment, material, tools and trade terms.

Phase 4: Apply successful Training Techniques This is the most important step in training program. The trainer should clearly tell show, illustrate and questions in order to put over the new knowledge and operations. The learner should be told of the sequence of the entire job, and why each step in its performance is necessary. In this phase you deliver the training to those who need it. If it is an instructor led course, you actually run the course with students. If you develop job aid to use on the job then in this phase you try then out with those who will use them. Phase 5: Calculate Measurable Results Under this, the trainee is asked to go through the job several times slowly, explaining him each step. Mistakes are corrected, and if necessary, some complicated steps are done for the trainee for the first time. The trainee is asked to do the job, gradually building up speed and skills. In this phase, you review the objective developed in phase 2 & determine weather the training is achieving them. Now you see why measurable objective are so important. You can now look at specific measure for success that you identified in phase 2 & see if they have been achieved. Phase 6: Track Ongoing Follow-Through If phase 5 confirms that you have created a successful training effort, dont rest on your laurels. You have a responsibility to ensure that the training continues to be effective. Change is constant in organizations, & you must respond to changes that affect your training efforts by continuing to implement suggestions & ideas that support the existing training material & programs. This step is undertaken with a view to testing the effectiveness of training efforts. This consists in: Putting the trainee on his own Checking frequently to be sure that he has followed instructions Tapering off extra supervision and close follow-up until he is qualified to work with normal supervision. It is worth remembering that if the learner hasnt learnt, the teacher hasnt taught. Training should be evaluated several times during the process. Determine these milestones when you develop the training. Employees should be evaluated by comparing their newly


acquired skills with the skills defined by the goals of the training program. Any discrepancies should be noted and adjustments made to the training program to enable it to meet specified goals. Many training programs fall short of their expectations simply because the administrator failed to evaluate its progress until it was too late. Timely evaluation will prevent the training from straying from its goals. IMPEDIMENTS TO EFFECTIVE TRAINING There are many impediments which can make a training program ineffective. Following are the major hindrance: MANAGEMENT COMMITMENTS ARE LACKING AND UNEVEN Most companies do not spend money on training. Those that tend to concentrate on managers, technicians, and professionals. The rank-and-file workers are ignored. This must change, for, as a result of rapid technology change, combined with new approaches to organizational design and production management, worker are required to learn three types of new skills: 1. the ability to use technology, 2. the ability to maintain it, and 3. The ability to diagnose system problems. In an increasingly competitive environment, the ability to implement rapid change in products and technology is often essential for economic viability. AGGREGATE SPENDING ON TRAINING IS INADEQUATE Companies spend minuscule proportions of their revenues on training. Worse still, budget allocation on training is the first item to be cut when a company faces a financial crunch. EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS AWARDS DEGREES BUT GRADUATES LACK SKILLS This is the reason why business must spend vast sum of money to train workers in basic skills. Organizations also need to train employees in multiple skills. Managers, particularly at middle level, need to be retained in team playing skills, entrepreneurship skill, leadership skills, and customer orientation skills.

LARGE-SCALE POACHING OF TRAINED WORKERS Trained workforce is in great demand. Unlike Germany, where local business groups pressure companies not to poach on another companys employees, there is no such system in our country. Companies in our country, however, insist on employees to sign bonds of tenure


before sending them for training, particularly before deputing them to undergo training in foreign countries. Such bonds are not effective as the employees or the poachers are prepared to pay the stipulate amounts as compensation when the bonds are breached. NO HELP TO WORKERS DISPLACED BECAUSE OF DOWNSIZING Organizations are downsizing and de-layering in order to trim their work forces. The government should set apart certain funds from the National Renewal Fund for the purpose of retaining and rehabilitating displaced workers. ORGANIZED LABOR CAN HELP Organized labor can play positive role in imparting training to workers. Major trade unions in our country seem to be busy in attending to mundane issues such as bonus, wage revision, settlement of disputes, and the like. They have little time in imparting training to their members. Some highlighting points would be: The benefits of training are not clear to the top management. Top management hardly rewards supervisors for carrying out effective training. Top management rarely plans and budgets systematically for training. The middle management, without proper incentive from top management, does not account for training in production scheduling. Without proper scheduling from above, first line supervisor have difficulty in production norms if employees are attending training programs. Behavior objectives are often imprecise. Training external to employing unit sometime teaches techniques on methods contrary to practices of the participants organization. Timely information about external programs may be difficult to obtain. Trainers provide limited counseling and consulting service to the rest of the organization.



Training needs can be assessed by analyzing three major human resource areas: the organization as a whole, the job characteristics and the needs of the individuals. This analysis will provide answers to the following questions: Where is training needed? What specifically must an employee learn in order to be more productive? Who needs to be trained?

Begin by assessing the current status of the company how it does what it does best and the abilities of your employees to do these tasks. This analysis will provide some benchmarks against which the effectiveness of a training program can be evaluated. Your firm should know where it wants to be in five years from its long-range strategic plan. What you need is a training program to take your firm from here to there. Second, consider whether the organization is financially committed to supporting the training efforts. If not, any attempt to develop a solid training program will fail. Next, determine exactly where training is needed. It is foolish to implement a companywide training effort without concentrating resources where they are needed most. An internal audit will help point out areas that may benefit from training. Also, a skills inventory can help determine the skills possessed by the employees in general. This inventory will help the organization determine what skills are available now and what skills are needed for future development. Also, in today's market-driven economy, you would be remiss not to ask your customers what they like about your business and what areas they think should be improved. In summary, the analysis should focus on the total organization and should tell you (1) where training is needed and (2) where it will work within the organization. Once you have determined where training is needed, concentrate on the content of the program. Analyze the characteristics of the job based on its description, the written narrative of what the employee actually does. Training based on job descriptions should go into detail about how the job is performed on a task-by-task basis. Actually doing the job will enable you to get a better feel for what is done. Individual employees can be evaluated by comparing their current skill levels or performance to the organization's performance standards or anticipated needs. Any discrepancies between actual and anticipated skill levels identify a training need.


WHAT IS TRAINING NEEDS ASSESSMENT? A tool utilized to identify what educational courses or activities should be provided to employees to improve their work productivity. Focus should be placed on needs as opposed to desires. For example, training dollars would be better spent on a new employee in the accounting department who needs to learn Microsoft Excel for their job duties as opposed to learning Microsoft Publisher which the employees wants but does not need. IT TELLS YOU WHERE THE TARGET IS: you may suspect that the problem exists within your area, but a needs analysis might indicate that the problem extends beyond your group. For example, if you are having difficulty improving your cycle-time for a product, the issue might include your manufacture process; but it might also include the engineering or packaging & shipping department as well. Needs analysis expands your view & helps you pinpoint all targets. IT TELLS YOU HOW LARGE THE TARGET IS: Maybe the process improvement challenges are the result of people not knowing how to properly run a new machine, or maybe the challenge is an organization wide quality issue. It will tell you how big the solution needs to be. IT TELLS YOU HOW FAR AWAY THE TARGET IS: Perhaps theres only need to teach the group better telephone skills to address the problem or maybe theres need a more sophisticated telephone system to handle the increased demand. Your needs analysis will give you these answers. IT TELLS YOU WHAT KIND OF ARROWS TO USE: Training comes in several different shapes & sizes. needs analysis will help you determine whether you need to do coaching, small group training, large group training, computer based training, or any combination of these & other options. IT TELLS YOU WHO SHOULD SHOOT THE ARROWS: Once you determine the training need, you consider the best way to meet it. For instance, if you need to do team-building, it might be best to use internal line managers as trainers because they are part of the team. You might also want to consider using the training departments instructors. In some cases, an external resource would best suit your needs. The information you gather for needs analysis helps you make this decision.


IT TELLS YOU WHEN TO SHOOT: Timing is everything. Some training is best given immediately, such as new employee safety procedures. Other training, such as learning a new computer system, may best be given just before the new system is installed or perhaps immediately after it is installed so training participants can practice as they learn. Training linked to company initiative may best be presented in a package with other company issues. needs analysis can give you vital information about the best time to present the training. IT WARNS YOU ABOUT CROSSCURRENTS: Office politics is the wind share of any organizational effort. If you expect to hit the target after you identify it, you have to be knowledgeable about how these crosscurrents will affect your arrows trajectory. Then you can adjust your stance, your equipment, or your attitude to compensate. You should also keep a weather-eye out for entrenched opinions about your group or other groups. If turf issues exit, you can bet they will surface just as you are thinking aim. You need to deal with these situations as part of your needs analysis work. Clear the air so that nothing stands between you and a successful hit on the target. WHY CONDUCT A TRAINING NEEDS ASSESSMENT? The most important reason for doing needs analysis is to assure that youre training addresses your situation. It is both costly and embarrassing to recommend a direction that has no impact on the issue. Even an informal need analysis saves a lot of time, money, & face. The main reason behind a needs analysis is: To pinpoint if training will make a difference in productivity and the bottom line. To decide what specific training each employee needs and what will improve their job performance. To differentiate between the need for training and organizational issues. HOW IS A TRAINING NEEDS ASSESSMENT PERFORMED? There are several techniques that can be utilized individually or in combination with each other. More than one tool should be considered to get a better view of the big picture, however, which tools are used should be left up to company. PLANNING YOUR NEEDS ANALYSIS You know that there is a logical process for doing an entire training project, if properly executed, ensures a successful training impact. In skipping the first phase, that is identifying targeted training needs, one may leaped to a solution without determining the real issue. In


fact, the solution to his problem was just as much a mystery to him at the end of his process as it was at the beginning. When you do needs analysis to target your training needs, you become a detective solving a mystery: which target is right one? There are plenty of targets out there you could hit with your solution, but the idea is to identify & then hit the right target. Every great detective has a modus operandi; a way of working that simplifies the task to be accomplished & keeps the detective on the right trail. Our modus operandi for identifying targeted training needs would be the needs analysis process. Using the Six Step of Needs Analysis Process The Needs Analysis Process summarizes the actions necessary to complete the first phase of training process. Like training process, the needs Analysis process has six actions to create six related products. These six steps are: o o o o o o Assess your current situation Envision your future Gather information Sort your information Share your results Decide your next step

DEVELOPING A STRATEGY FOR SUCCESS Although the six actions of needs analysis process are sequential, it may be helpful to look at the process as a target.



Next Step Sharing your Results Sorting your information Gathering Information Envisioning Your Future Assessing Your Current Situation


Each ring of the target represents an action that move closer to the solution. Notice that base of this target is labeled Strategy. Without strategy, to support it, target would fall flat & be extremely difficult to hit. With an effective strategy, target is: Visible, to you & to others in the organization Solid, braced by clear thinking & logical planning Achievable, with a steady aim An effective training strategy involves three elements: Establish a partnership with others Consider the larger picture Serve the customer


Needs Assessment Process

ASSESSING YOUR CURRENT SITUATION In a needs analysis, assessing your current situation provides a clear definition of the problem. All off your other actions in the need analysis depend on your making this assessment accurately. It is very important first step. To get a complete picture of your current situation, you can ask yourself these 3 questions: Where are we now? Why do we think we need training? What organization issues are driving the need for training?

ENVISIONING YOUR FUTURE Envisioning your future is defining & understanding what your group will look like after the training has been accomplished. When you think about how the future would look if your training efforts were successful, you often discover aspect of your vision that have nothing to do with training but are critical to the success of your efforts. It is important to uncover these elements early in the needs analysis so that they can be full address as well. To create your vision, ask yourself these 3 questions: Where do we want to be? What would success look like? Do we have the whole picture?

GATHERING INFORMATION The first two actions of your needs analysis: Assessing the current situation Envisioning the future

Helped you to establish a good stance for identifying & targeting your training needs. With one foot planted in the present & one foot pointed towards the future, you are in a good position to take steady aim at the target. But before you shoot, you have to know where you are aiming. The next three steps in the needs analysis process: Gathering information, Sorting your information, and Sharing your results


Help you define what you are aiming at. In the information gathering step, you are collecting information to better understand what needs to be done to reach your future state. You are investigating to discover: The need & perception of others What barriers must be overcome Your groups current skill, knowledge,& attitudes What skills, knowledge, & attitude are needed for the future What needs to be done & how to do it

The information gathering step is an opportunity for you to collect raw data from whatever source you feel would be helpful. Three concern of gathering information are: Whom to ask What to ask How to ask

SORTING YOUR INFORMATION After gathering information you have to interpret the information to find out what it really tells you about your current situation and the challenges you face in moving to your future state. When you finish this step, you should have a document identifying the major training issues to be address and your recommendations for addressing them. If you used a computerized information-gathering method, you can review the information quickly by providing it in form you want. If you dont have computer to assist you, you will have to organize and sort the material yourself. Consider using a small team to independently review the information and identify issues. You can then meet and pool your findings. A team gives you a more objective analysis. IDENTIFYING THE ISSUES Sorting the information into categories helps you manage it and identify themes & issues that must be addressed to reach your vision of the future. When you sort your information into categories, you are looking for consistencies & connections between individual pieces of information. It may help you if you read through all your information once; then as you begin to see comments repeated you can jot down some possible categories to put them in some people like to highlight comments in different colors, with each color representing a different category. Then they can pick out all the yellow comments, for instance, group them together, & analyze their significance. PRIORITIZING THE ISSUES


Once you have organized the information into categories and looked at a significance of each contribution, you can begin to prioritize the issues. How you prioritize them depends on your specific situation. You might want to start with a category with the most comments, or you might to start with positive categories & then list the negative ones. Depending on your situation, it might be best to address the organization themes first & the team themes or individual needs. If you are analyzing numbers, you might prioritize the results by looking at the highest rated item or the most frequent response. PREPARING THE INFORMATION TO SHARE WITH OTHERS You have sifted through the information, identified major categories, and considered your recommendations for moving ahead. Before you actually call a meeting or write a report to present your findings, you should spend more time preparing your presentation. Your goal in presenting the information it to have it acted upon, and a little preparation ahead of time will help you more easily achieve that goal. As you think about developing your presentation, consider these 2 major design elements: Strategy Structure Strategy You have been strategy throughout your needs analysis to involve others, consider the larger picture, and serve the customer. You can continue to do this here by inviting the key players to your feedback meeting & making sure the issues address both the larger picture and your internal and external customers needs. Another good strategy is to include positive statements about the current situation at the beginning of the presentation. People generally do the best they can, and you need to acknowledge that before you make recommendations to change the way things are done. You may also have among your key players a few people who constructed the method you now need to change. Structure The order in which you present your material and the topic you choose to present are also important to your success. Plan to explain your method for doing the needs analysis. This can be very brief if those present have been involved in the process from the beginning. If the issues one intends to present are complex, consider developing an example to use with them to help clarify the information. An important part of your presentation will be your recommendations. Keep them as open as possible, allowing for contribution from those present at the meeting. Vital information can come out in the feedback meeting. SHARING YOUR RESULTS


When you share your results with others, your goal is to present the information in a way that will moveyou forward. Your assessment should be positive and encouraging. Offer hope for action to address needs, and be prepared with recommendations to share as well.

G.E.T Waters Solutions Private Limited

BACKGROUND To provide complete solutions for all water related problems by completing the latest techological advancements available. In place like India where potable water is a rare commodity, treating dififerent types of water available from Turbid to Hard to Saline is a great challenge . It requires expertise to provide solution. The need is large but solutions are few. GET Specialises in providing complete solutions for all water-related problems in both Water Treatment and Water Handling. With a very experienced and motivated Team (with over 14 years experience) in designing, execution of all types of Water Treatment Plants and Hydropneumatic systems. GET is fully geared up to meet all the challenges that come its way in achieving their goal. Customers can benefit from GET'Ss Wide range of products for industrial, Domestic and Institutions Highly experienced Technical Team Very prompt and Efficient Service back up. Knowledge base in using the latest Technology. Aesthetically pleasing and very efficiently designed and installed plants.

GET's very efficient and highly trained Service Support Team is always available to attend to all your service calls solve all the problems in the plants.

Our Service Team trains your personal on all the operating and maintenance procedures of the plants and also undertakes Operation & Maintenance, Annual Maintenance Contracts to ensure all the plants amaintained properly. PRODUCTS SAND Filters Activated CARBON Filters SOFTNERS Micron Filteration Ultra & Nano Filteration


Reverse Osmosis Hydropneumatic Systems

HUMAN RESOURCES Human resources philosophy is based on dignity of work, forecasting a culture of learning, meritocracy sans bias of any kind & commitment to highest standards of safety at the workplace. Modern business demand quickness of mind and action. System by them does not deliver, people do, as do people led skills & initiatives. We have always invested in people & believe in creating an environment where people are valued as individuals & clear HR practices, participative management, excellent welfare activities have made the company one of the most preferred employers in the steel industry. The role of HR in GET is to be a Change Agent of the organization in order to align people & possesses to the companys strategic objectives. The steel industry not only in India but also the world over continues to face tumultuous times, where change is the only constant. The HR focus is to make change seamless & to ensure CHANGE, BEFORE CHANGE CHANGES YOU. We believe that people hold the key to achieving organizational excellence. Our Human Resources function is the process owner for constantly upgrading people skills, realizing their potential and helping them lead purposeful lives. GET has deployed comprehensive systems of Recruitment, Performance Management and Training and Development. The HR function of the company caters to the needs of nearly 828 employees. MAJOR INITIATIVES: GET's guiding principles (Code of conduct) were adopted with an objective to integrate values and ethics in all transactions. Job Swaps: The organisation has done job swaps at the top management level to develop cross-functional competencies. Depending upon the skills and aspirations of the employees and the organisational needs, job rotations are done at all levels. One of the key HR initiatives last year was BRACE (Business Results Achievement through Competence & Ethics), an in-house executive development programme, for our young managers. Spanning over three


months, it offered latest insights in managerial skills. Managers undergoing this programme were released from their daily operational responsibilities to enable them to focus on the programme. A SWOT analysis is being carried out for the entire management staff, to help them better understand their potential and prepare their individual development plan. Action Oriented Leadership programs are being initiated for senior level management, developing cross-functional areas, to keep them intuned with the changing environment. In the point of Appraisals o The organisation aims to reward merit. This is achieved by having in place, a structured performance appraisal system, which is upgraded keeping in abreast with the latest developments. The key components of our performance appraisal system are: a) quarterly reviews, b) Measurement against goals, skill employment and potential to take up higher responsibilities.

c) For the year 2010, Peer Appraisal has been introduced for senior level management.

The process of mentoring is being developed in-house to guide young talent. Employees have been sent abroad for benchmarking studies. Life-enrichment series are organised to focus on how to tackle challenges on business and personal fronts. TRAINING & DEVELOPMENT:

HRD Centre, a large training facility at Chennai is the focal point of training in the company. Faculty includes HR staff, line / functional Managers and external experts. Training in technical areas is supplemented with managerial and behavioral training.



The organization aims to reward merit. This is achieved by having in place, a structured performance appraisal system. The key components of our performance appraisal system are a) Quarterly reviews, b) Measurement against goals, skill employed and potential to take up higher responsibilities.


The work done by me at GET was to identify the training needs of the employees there. This included different of employees from Site Level Employee to Middle Level Management level. I have started the work as directed by my guide & HR manager at GET, the steps taken by be are mentioned below. TRAINING PROCESS 1. TRAINING NEEDS IDENTIFICATION: Training in the company is aimed at the systematic development of knowledge, skills & attitude. The superiors have to look at their subordinates development as a key target area. The development of an individuals performance skills leads to an improvement in performance & in turn adds value to the organization. Objective To get access to a broad spectrum of the practical knowledge relating to training. To identify the training needs of employees from Engineer to Middle Level To find out which training need is required by most of employees.

Management and to categorize them as per department.

Primary data: For purpose of collecting primary data, I worked with my guide, who helped me in getting aware of the process of training followed by GET. Secondary data:


As for the secondary data, I went through many books, magazines, files and folders provided by company and my college library. And quite deliberately, I have tried to present it with more of graphs to make it easily understandable to readers. Identification of Training Needs Training will be imparted on the basis of: A. Needs identified from the performance review on yearly basis at the individual level. B. Needs identified at the division/departmental level by the division/departmental head on areas which are specific to his division/departmental. C. Needs identified at functional level by functional head like Marketing/Human Resources/Purchase/Finance. D. Organizational level training programs such as programs on Total Quality Management, Supervisory Development, Cost Improvement, etc. Based on the number of people & the identified need, the programs would be held within the organization (internal training programs) or the employees will be nominated to various institutes of repute (external training programs). The first step in whole of training procedure is the identification of training needs of employees. Need assessment diagnoses present problems and future challenges to be met through training. Organizations spend vast sum of money on training. Before committing such huge resources, organization would do well to assess the training needs of their employees. Organization that implements training programs without conducting needs assessment may be making errors. For example, a need assessment exercise might reveal that less costly interventions (e.g. selection, compensation package, and job redesign) could be used instead of training. As identification of training needs is important, we followed step by step procedure: 1. Creating database: We were required to identify training needs of employees from

Engineer to Middle Level Management .So, we prepared database of these employees. Database included employees name, Emp no., designation, total experience etc. 2. Preparing Questionnaire: We then prepared questionnaire that contained questions related to survey. A specimen of the Questionnaire is showed on the annexure 1. All the personal details of the employees mentioned in the questionnaire, were filled by us from the database already created.



Appraisal forms: The next step was to analyze appraisal form of each and every

employee. Appraisal forms of GET included many details like past performance, past training identified, past training given, goals met etc, which served as the input for our project. 4. Meeting with Head of departments: We finally interviewed Head of the Departments, who provided us with specific training needs (behavioral & technical) as identified by them for the employees in their departments. We also asked them to give appropriate weightage (in percentage terms) to these identified training needs in order to categorize them in High, Middle and Low priority. High priority 65 to 100 % Middle priority Low priority 5. 30 to 65 % 1 to 29 %

This would be a sound base while actually designing the training programmes. Analysis of questionnaire: The last step was to analyze the collected data and compile it. In order to make it more useful and easily understandable, we showed important findings with the help of graphical representation of the compiled data. Some of the graphics of our project have been shown after specimen questionnaire. 6. Record of Personal Attributes: Along side in order to keep a record of the strengths and Areas of Improvements of the employees, we thus asked HODs about their comments on employees personal attributes which became a part of our compiled data. We were given the task to identify the behavioral training needed top the employees & hence according to that all the above information was compiled and we finally prepared graphs (annexure 3). Consisting of the training need require by employees at different department & with their priorities. To make you understand the abbreviation mentioned in the graph we have also provided the list of training needs in (annexure 2) 2. PROCEDURE FOR NOMINATION: The concerned HOD has to nominate in the prescribed format in line with the training needs identified at the beginning of the year also in line with the training plan to the Human Resource Department who will obtain the necessary approvals. Internal employee will facilitate most of the programs. In case external faculties are approached for conducting certain sessions, prior approval of Head-HR has to be taken for the payment of professional fees & the course content. The concerned coordinator will also organize to collect an evaluation feedback form, which will be handed over to the location Human Resource Department for analysis & future reference.


3. INTERNAL TRAINING If the number of people identified with a specific need is large, then the programs will be held within the organization using the available resources like people with professional expertise, in-house venues like HRD centre. The annual training plan will be drawn by Human Resource Department based on the identified needs. This will circulate every year during the month of July, along with all details regarding the programs. 4. EXTERNAL TRAINING In the event of number of employees being identified with a specific area of improvement being few, then the division/department head will communicate to Human Resource Department the need for identifying institutes where they can be deputed. The training calendar from various institutes will be available with the Human Resource Department, for helping managers to take the necessary decision. The immediate superior will initiate the nomination after discussion with the concerned employee. The nomination form is then sent to the Human Resource Department, justifying the needs of employee to attend the program & the action plan, which would be drawn up after the completion of the course. Human Resource Department will process the nomination & make necessary payments to the institutes/agencies. In case the program duration is 2 days or mare & the course fees is more than Rs.5000/-, approval from the Director has to be obtained before the nomination is processed. The Human Resource Department will also ensure to get the feedback form from the employee after his completion of the course. A half day session by the employee for a few managers to transfer the learning should be organized by the Human Resource Department, within 15 days of the return of the concerned manager. The employee shall submit the course material to the Human Resource Department for the purpose of maintaining the library & if so required retain a copy of the same. 5. TRAINING FEEDBACK This forms an integral part of the entire training process. Evaluation/Feedback from the training indicates appropriate changes that have to be made in the program design/content, which will improve the effectiveness of the program. The feedback will also consist of an action plan by the concerned employee with a specific time frame to implement the learning to the actual performance. The feedback forms are available with the Human Resource Departments. It is the responsibility of the head of the


department & the Human Resource Department to work together to assess the effectiveness of the training attended by the employee. This will also help in updating the training records of the individuals & in conducting an analysis of various training programs.

All is well that ends well. The entire project proved to be of immense help in my learning process. I came across the various practicalities existing in the Performance appraisal system. During the study of the project I got to know various aspects of the training & development such as how it helps to get a insight into the strong and weak areas of the employees in terms of the effective performance of roles, activities, styles, traits, qualities, competencies (knowledge, attitude and skills), impact on others etc. It also helps in performance management system and preparing action plans accordingly to enhance the performance of individual or group of individuals. Hence I would like to conclude by mentioning, that the corporate experience which I got in G.E.T Waters Solutions Pvt Lt regarding my project on IDENTIFICATION OF TRAINING NEEDS shows how much importance is given to the training & development of employees in GET and other companies for enhancing the employees skills and knowing their development


needs by the top management and their commitment play a very important role in the successful implementation and use of the system. GET go with OFF THE JOB Training Model This project in GET helped me a lot in gaining industrial experience which some time related or unrelated to what we are studying presently in are books. While doing this project i came to know about the real situations held in the company & the reactions given to them by different departments & the people at different grades.

While doing this project i noticed that there are different training needs of employees at different department. E.g. the staff at purchase dept needs the training related to Communicatopn skills to have a sound buyer supplier relationship.

There is much such need which is common among maximum of employees. E.g. communication skills. Different people whom i went for reference of their dept took it differently. Some gave overwhelming response & also helped us gave some knowledge on how continue on it. Some ignored it & perceived it as useless as it was done by students. So this also gave us chance to know about industrial environment.

This project gives me a clear idea of what are training requirements of the employees at GET. Working at each & every department from Site Employee to middle level management.

ANNEXURE QUESTIONNNIRE FOR IDENTIFICATION OF TRAINING NEEDS Emp NO. ___________ 1. EMPLOYEE NAME: ___________________________________________________ 2. DEPARTMENT: ___________________ 3. YRS OF SERVICE: ___________

4. DESIGATION & GRADE: _______________________________________________ 5. EDUCATIONAL QUALIFICATION: ______________________________________ 6. KEY PERFORMANCE AREAS:


A. _____________________________________________________ B. ______________________________________________________ C. ______________________________________________________ 7. PAST TRAINNG NEEDS IDENTIFIED: A. ______________________________________________________ B. ______________________________________________________ 8. NEEDS AS PER APPRAISAL FORM: A. ______________________________________________________ B. ______________________________________________________ C. ______________________________________________________ -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------9. NEEDS IDENTIFIED BY THE HEAD OF THE DEPARTMENT: Weightage (in %) A. ______________________________________________________ B. ______________________________________________________ C. ______________________________________________________ 10. PERSONAL ATTRIBUTES: STRENGH AREAS OF IMPROVEMENT _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________

LIST OF CODES FOR BEHAVIORAL TRAINING NEEDS Sr. No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Training Needs Communication Skills Team Building Leadership Skills Presentation Skills Time Management Personality Development Emotional Intelligence Interpersonal Skills Change Management Cod es CS TB LS PS TM PD EI IS CM


10 11 12 13 14 15

Subordinate Development Performance Enhancement Self Development Effective Supervision Positive Attitude Managerial Skills





8 7

No. of employees

6 5 4 3 2 1 0 1 M.S 2 T.B 2 1 C.S T.M 7

High Priority Middle Priority Low priority

1 1 1 L.S P.S 3 1 1 P.D 1 S.C.M 2 Tech(M.M) 2 Tech(E.M) 3 1 1 I /E R.A (Purch) 2 IMS / EMS 1 1 F. Tax 1 E- Procr

Type of Training

Tech(M.M) Technical training in relation to Mechanical Maintenance Tech(E.M) - Technical training in relation to Electrical Maintenance


No.of Employees

6 5 4 3 2 1 0
3 3 3 1

High Priority Middle Priority Low priority

3 1

T.T L.Laws




K.of Revenue Acts

Type of Training



300 250



High Priority Middle Priority Low Priority

No of Employees

200 150 100 50 0 BEHAVIOURAL TECHNICAL Type of Training


42 10



The Books Referred Are:

Human Resource & Personnel Management text & cases By K. Aswathappa, 3rd Edition, Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Limited. Identifying Targeted Training Needs By Sally Sparhawk published in 1995 by Kogan Page Ltd.