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HighHigh--StrengthStrength Bolts:Bolts: TheThe BasicsBasics

FundamentalsFundamentals andand BehaviorBehavior SpecificationSpecification RequirementsRequirements (AISC)(AISC)

Fundamentals and and Behavior Behavior • • Specification Specification Requirements Requirements (AISC) (AISC)

ASTMASTM A307A307 BoltsBolts

oftenoften aa goodgood choicechoice whenwhen loadsloads areare staticstatic

strengthstrength levellevel inferiorinferior toto highhigh-- strengthstrength boltsbolts ((6060 ksiksi tensiletensile ult.)ult.)

pretensionpretension indeterminateindeterminate

ASTMASTM A490A490 BoltsBolts

TypesTypes 11 oror TypeType 33 (weathering(weathering steel)steel)

MinimumMinimum tensiletensile strength:strength: 150150 ksi,ksi,

(maximum(maximum 170170 ksi)ksi)

ASTM ASTM Spec. Spec.

170 170 ksi) ksi) • • ASTM ASTM Spec. Spec. RCSC RCSC Spec. Spec. • •

RCSC RCSC Spec. Spec.

PretensionPretension cancan bebe inducedinduced ifif desireddesired

RoleRole ofof thethe StructuralStructural EngineerEngineer

SelectionSelection ofof suitablesuitable boltbolt typestypes andand gradesgrades

DesignDesign ofof thethe fastenersfasteners

ResponsibilityResponsibility forfor installationinstallation

ResponsibilityResponsibility forfor inspectioninspection

Responsibility for for installation installation Responsibility Responsibility for for inspection inspection

ASTMASTM A325A325 BoltsBolts

TypeType 11 oror TypeType 33 (weathering(weathering steel)steel)

ASTM ASTM Spec. Spec.

(weathering steel) steel) • • ASTM ASTM Spec. Spec. RCSC RCSC Spec. Spec. • • Minimum

RCSC RCSC Spec. Spec.

MinimumMinimum tensiletensile strength:strength: 120120 ksiksi

PretensionPretension cancan bebe inducedinduced ifif desireddesired

bolt

tension

kips

ComparisonComparison ofof Bolts:Bolts: DirectDirect TensionTension 7/87/8 in.in. dia.dia. A490A490 boltbolt 80 60
ComparisonComparison ofof Bolts:Bolts: DirectDirect TensionTension
7/87/8 in.in. dia.dia. A490A490 boltbolt
80
60
7/87/8 in.in. dia.dia. A325A325 boltbolt
40
7/87/8 in.in. dia.dia. A307A307 boltbolt
20
0.05
0.10
0.15
0.20

elongation (inches)

CommentsComments

Note:Note: wewe quotequote thethe ultimateultimate tensiletensile strengthstrength ofof thethe boltbolt

thisthis isis thethe benchmarkbenchmark forfor strengthstrength statementsstatements (e.g.(e.g. shearshear strengthstrength isis somesome fractionfraction ofof ultimateultimate tensiletensile strength)strength)

WhatWhat aboutabout yieldyield strength?strength?

WhatWhat isis proofproof loadload

LoadingLoading ofof BoltsBolts

ShearShear

loadload transfertransfer byby shearshear inin boltbolt andand bearingbearing inin connectedconnected materialmaterial OROR

loadload transfertransfer byby frictionfriction (followed(followed byby shearshear andand bearing)bearing)

TensionTension

CombinedCombined TensionTension andand ShearShear

BoltsBolts LoadedLoaded inin TensionTension

Bolts Bolts Loaded Loaded in in Tension Tension bolts bolts in in tension tension these bolts

boltsbolts inin tensiontension

these

bolts in

shear

Bolts Bolts Loaded Loaded in in Tension Tension bolts bolts in in tension tension these bolts

commentscomments contcontdd

Nuts:Nuts: ASTMASTM A563A563

Washers:Washers: ifif needed,needed, ASTMASTM F436F436

BoltBolt nutnut washerwasher setssets impliedimplied soso far,far, butbut otherother configurationsconfigurations availableavailable

ShearShear LoadingLoading

Shear Shear Loading Loading Truss Truss Joint Joint

TrussTruss JointJoint

BoltsBolts inin TensionTension pryingprying

Bolts Bolts in in Tension Tension – – prying prying BBoolltt ffoorrccee PryingPrying forceforce AApppplliieedd
BBoolltt ffoorrccee PryingPrying forceforce AApppplliieedd ffoorrccee
BBoolltt ffoorrccee
PryingPrying forceforce
AApppplliieedd ffoorrccee

HighHigh--strengthstrength boltsbolts inin tensiontension cancan bebe aa sourcesource ofof problems!problems!

BoltsBolts inin combinedcombined tensiontension andand shearshear

boltsbolts inin shearshear
boltsbolts inin shearshear

boltsbolts inin

combinedcombined

shearshear andand

tensiontension

PP

{ PP FreeFree bodybody ofof boltbolt
{
PP
FreeFree bodybody
ofof boltbolt
PP andand associatedassociated ττ == shearshear stressstress AA PP {{ aa bearingbearing forceforce PP
PP
andand associatedassociated
ττ ==
shearshear stressstress
AA
PP {{ aa bearingbearing forceforce
PP

InIn thethe example,example, wewe identifiedidentified

forceforce inin thethe boltbolt (a(a shearshear force)force)

forceforce thatthat thethe boltbolt imposedimposed onon thethe plateplate (a(a bearingbearing force)force)

forceforce inin thethe plateplate itselfitself (a(a tensiletensile force)force)

forceforce transfertransfer couldcould alsoalso bebe byby frictionfriction::

notnot includedincluded inin thisthis illustrationillustration

ConsiderConsider aa simplesimple jointjoint

PP PP
PP
PP

Finally Finally

dd P/2P/2 tt PP P/2P/2
dd
P/2P/2
tt
PP
P/2P/2

notenote thatthat thisthis forceforce isis equalequal andand oppositeopposite toto thethe bearingbearing forceforce shownshown previouslypreviously

AISCAISC StandardStandard 20052005

Parallel LRFD and ASD rules

LRFD uses a resistance factor, Ø

ASD uses a safety factor,

Loads as appropriate:

factored loads for LRFD non-factored loads for ASD

AISCAISC StandardStandard contcontdd

LRFD:

req’d strength LRFD ≤ φ R n

req’d strength LRFD φ R n

ASD:

req’d strength ASD

R n
R n

/ Ω

BehaviorBehavior ofof aa largelarge jointjoint (shear(shear splice)splice)

averageaverage

boltbolt

shearshear

MPa

splice) splice) — — average average bolt bolt shear shear MPa deformation deformation over over α

deformationdeformation overover α , mm

SlipSlip inin boltedbolted jointsjoints

CanCan bebe asas muchmuch asas twotwo holehole clearancesclearances

SomeSome boltsbolts willwill alreadyalready bebe inin bearingbearing atat startstart ofof loadingloading

BothBoth laboratorylaboratory teststests andand fieldfield measurementsmeasurements indicateindicate thatthat slipslip isis moremore likelike 1/21/2 holehole clearanceclearance

InstallationInstallation

SnugSnug--tighttight onlyonly

PretensionedPretensioned

CalibratedCalibrated wrenchwrench

TurnTurn--ofof--nutnut

OtherOther means:means:

TensionTension controlcontrol boltsbolts

LoadLoad--indicatorindicator washerswashers

Other means: means: Tension Tension control control bolts bolts Load Load - - indicator indicator washers

BoltsBolts inin Shear:Shear: IssuesIssues

ShearShear strengthstrength ofof boltbolt (single(single shearshear oror doubledouble shear,shear, threadsthreads inin shearshear plane?)plane?)

BearingBearing capacitycapacity ofof boltbolt (never(never governs)governs)

BearingBearing capacitycapacity ofof plateplate

TensileTensile (comp.)(comp.) capacitycapacity ofof plateplate

BoltsBolts inin shearshear--typetype connection:connection:

SpecificationsSpecifications distinguishdistinguish betweenbetween::

bearingbearing typetype connectionsconnections

slipslip--criticalcritical connectionsconnections

Note:Note: aa slipslip--criticalcritical jointjoint (service(service loads)loads) mustmust alsoalso bebe checkedchecked asas aa bearingbearing jointjoint (factored(factored loads)loads)

BearingBearing--typetype connections:connections:

IssuesIssues

boltbolt shearshear strengthstrength bearingbearing capacitycapacity connectedconnected materialmaterial membermember strengthstrength

ShearShear strengthstrength ofof boltsbolts isis notnot dependentdependent onon presencepresence oror absenceabsence ofof pretension.pretension (How(How come?)come?)

BoltBolt ShearShear StrengthStrength

BoltBolt shearshear strengthstrength 62%62% ofof boltbolt ultimateultimate tensiletensile strengthstrength ((theorytheory ++ teststests))

DesignDesign rulerule takestakes 80%80% ofof thisthis valuevalue

ThreadsThreads inin shearshear plane?plane?

LongLong jointjoint effect:effect: anotheranother discountdiscount applied.applied.

PhysicalPhysical testtest

Physical Physical test test — —
Physical Physical test test — —

BoltsBolts inin bearingbearing--typetype connectionsconnections

RegionRegion ofof bearingbearing-- typetype behaviorbehavior deformationdeformation loadload
RegionRegion ofof bearingbearing--
typetype behaviorbehavior
deformationdeformation
loadload

IndividualIndividual boltbolt inin shearshear

Individual Individual bolt bolt in in shear shear

UnevenUneven loadingloading ofof boltsbolts

(End(End fourfour boltsbolts ofof 13)13)

Uneven Uneven loading loading of of bolts bolts – – (End (End four four bolts bolts

BoltBolt PretensionPretension v.v. ShearShear

The bolt pretension is attained as a result of small axial elongations introduced as nut is turned on

These small elongations are relieved as shear deformations and shear yielding take place

Confirmed by both bolt tension measurements and shear strength tests

So, bolt shear strength NOT dependent on pretension in the bolt.

BoltsBolts inin ShearShear AISCAISC

φ R = φ F A n v b φ R = design shear strength
φ R
= φ
F
A
n
v
b
φ
R
=
design shear strength
n
F
nominal shear strength, ksi
v =

ThusThus

A325 bolts : F

v

v

= 0.50

×

120 ksi

=

60 ksi

A490 bolts : F

= 0.50

×

150 ksi

=

75 ksi

thesethese areare thethe valuesvalues givengiven inin TableTable J3.2J3.2 ofof thethe SpecificationSpecification forfor thethe threadthread excludedexcluded case.case. ForFor threadsthreads includedincluded,, thethe tabulatedtabulated valuesvalues areare 80%80% ofof thethe aboveabove

BackBack toto boltbolt inin shearshear

Shear strength of single bolt (tests) —

τ = 0.62 σ

bolt bolt in in shear shear — — Shear strength of single bolt (tests) — τ

Shear deformation

bolt bolt in in shear shear — — Shear strength of single bolt (tests) — τ

u bolt

nominalnominal shearshear strengthstrength …… φ = 0.75 = 80% (0.62 × F ) = 0.50
nominalnominal shearshear strengthstrength ……
φ = 0.75
= 80% (0.62
×
F
)
=
0.50 F
F v
u
u

CommentsComments

TheThe discountdiscount forfor lengthlength (use(use ofof 80%)80%) isis conservativeconservative

IfIf jointjoint lengthlength >> 5050 in.,in., aa furtherfurther 20%20% reductionreduction

TheThe øø valuevalue usedused forfor thisthis casecase (0.75)(0.75) isis alsoalso conservative.conservative.

LetLetss returnreturn nownow toto slipslip--criticalcritical connectionsconnections

Let Let ’ ’ s s return return now now to to slip slip - -

BoltsBolts inin slipslip--criticalcritical connectionsconnections

regionregion ofof slipslip--criticalcritical jointjoint behaviorbehavior loadload
regionregion ofof slipslip--criticalcritical
jointjoint behaviorbehavior
loadload

deformationdeformation

SlipSlip--criticalcritical criteria:criteria:

Choice:Choice:

aa serviceabilityserviceability limitlimit statestate (no(no slipslip underunder

thethe serviceservice loads)loads)

OROR

aa strengthstrength limitlimit statestate (no(no slipslip underunder thethe factoredfactored loads).loads). Note:Note: AISCAISC 20052005 differsdiffers fromfrom 1999.1999.

SlipSlip--CriticalCritical ConnectionConnection

ClampingClamping forceforce fromfrom boltsbolts (bolt(bolt pretension)pretension)

from from bolts bolts (bolt (bolt pretension) pretension) Load Load at at which which slip slip

LoadLoad atat whichwhich slipslip takestakes placeplace willwill bebe aa functionfunction ofof ??

SlipSlip--criticalcritical jointsjoints specifiedspecified whenwhen

LoadLoad isis repetitiverepetitive andand changeschanges fromfrom tensiontension toto compressioncompression (fatigue(fatigue byby frettingfretting couldcould occur.)occur.)

ChangeChange inin geometrygeometry ofof structurestructure wouldwould affectaffect itsits performance.performance.

CertainCertain otherother cases.cases.

CommentComment:: forfor buildings,buildings, slipslip-- criticalcritical jointsjoints shouldshould bebe thethe exception,exception, notnot thethe rulerule (but,(but, seesee alsoalso seismicseismic rules)rules)

the exception, exception, not not the the rule rule (but, (but, see see also also seismic

WhichWhich oneone dodo wewe use?use?

NoNo slipslip atat serviceservice loads:loads: e.g.e.g. fatiguefatigue loadingloading

NoNo slipslip atat factoredfactored loads:loads: e.g.e.g. longlong-- spanspan flatflat roofroof trusstruss (ponding(ponding couldcould resultresult asas factoredfactored loadsloads attained)attained)

FirstFirst principles,principles, slipslip resistanceresistance isis

P = k

s

n ΣT

i

k s = slip coefficient (µ)

n = number of slip planes (usually 1 or 2)

T i = clamping force (i.e., bolt pretension)

andand thethe modifiersmodifiers

h sc

=

modifier re hole condition

e.g., oversize hole, slotted hole etc.

D u =

tension to specified minimum bolt tension

1.13, ratio of installed bolt

φ = resistance factor

=

1.0

no slip at service loads (

β =

1.4)

=

0.85

no slip at factored loads (

β =

1.5)

BoltsBolts inin TensionTension somesome commentscomments

Preference:Preference: avoidavoid jointsjoints thatthat putput boltsbolts intointo tension,tension, especiallyespecially ifif fatiguefatigue isis anan issueissue

UseUse A325A325 boltsbolts ratherrather thanthan A490A490 boltsbolts

MinimizeMinimize thethe pryingprying actionaction

DesignDesign slipslip resistance,resistance, AISCAISC

φ R

n = μ D

u

h T N sc b s no.no. slipslip planesplanes clampingclamping forceforce
h
T
N
sc
b
s
no.no. slipslip planesplanes
clampingclamping forceforce
s no.no. slipslip planesplanes clampingclamping forceforce slip slip coefficient coefficient …terms φ, h s c

slipslip coefficientcoefficient

…terms φ, h sc and D u need to be defined

BoltsBolts inin TensionTension

Bolts Bolts in in Tension Tension • • Capacity Capacity ofof aa boltbolt inin tension:tension: productproduct

CapacityCapacity ofof aa boltbolt inin tension:tension: productproduct ofof thethe ultimateultimate tensiletensile strengthstrength ofof thethe boltbolt andand thethe tensiletensile stressstress areaarea ofof thethe boltbolt (i.e.(i.e. FF uu AA stst ))

SpecificationsSpecifications directlydirectly reflectreflect thisthis calculatedcalculated capacitycapacity ((……toto come)come)

ForceForce inin boltbolt mustmust reflectreflect anyany pryingprying actionaction affectaffect

QuestionQuestion

Question Question … … • • pretensioned pretensioned bolt bolt in in a a connection connection

pretensionedpretensioned boltbolt inin aa connectionconnection

applyapply externalexternal tensiontension forceforce toto thethe connectionconnection

dodo thethe boltbolt pretensionpretension andand thethe externalexternal tensiontension add?add?

BoltBolt tensiontension ++ externalexternal tensiontension

1.1. PretensionPretension thethe boltbolt

tensiontension inin

thethe bolt,bolt, compressioncompression inin thethe platesplates

2.2. AddAdd externalexternal tensiontension forceforce onon connectionconnection

BoltBolt tensiontension increasesincreases

CompressionCompression betweenbetween platesplates decreasesdecreases

ExamineExamine equilibriumequilibrium andand compatibilitycompatibility

AISC rule, bolts in tension—

φ R n = φ φ R
φ R
n = φ
φ
R
AISC rule, bolts in tension— φ R n = φ φ R b bolt area for

b

bolt area for nominal diameter

F

nt

A

φ R n = φ φ R b bolt area for nominal diameter F nt A

nominal tensile strength

n

=

design tensile strength

So,So, thethe AISCAISC rulerule forfor boltsbolts inin tensiontension

φ R

n

= φ

F

n

t A

b

wherewhere FF ntnt == 0.750.75 FF uu asas tabulatedtabulated inin thethe SpecificationSpecification

AsAs wewe nownow know,know, thethe 0.750.75 reallyreally hashas nothingnothing toto dodo withwith FF uu

AndAnd thethe resultresult isis

The bolt force does increase, but not by very much (7%)

This increase is accommodated within the design rule.

{

WhatWhat isis nominalnominal tensiletensile strength,strength, FF ntnt ??

tensile strength, strength, F F n t n t ? ? P ult = F u
tensile strength, strength, F F n t n t ? ? P ult = F u
tensile strength, strength, F F n t n t ? ? P ult = F u
tensile strength, strength, F F n t n t ? ? P ult = F u
tensile strength, strength, F F n t n t ? ? P ult = F u
tensile strength, strength, F F n t n t ? ? P ult = F u

P

ult

=

F

u

A

st

=

F

u

(0.75A )

b

 
 

or,

P

ult

=

0.75 F

u

A

b

AdjustedAdjusted areaarea

CallCall thisthis FF nn tt

  or, P ult = 0.75 F u A b Adjusted Adjusted area area Call Call

ReturningReturning toto shearshear splicesplice joints,joints, wewe stillstill havehave toto dealdeal withwith thethe bearingbearing capacitycapacity ofof thethe connectedconnected material.material.

P/2P/2

dd tt PP
dd
tt
PP

P/2P/2

BearingBearing capacitycapacity (of(of connectedconnected material)material)

capacity (of (of connected connected material) material) Shear Shear - - out out of of a

ShearShear--outout ofof aa blockblock ofof materialmaterial oror yieldingyielding

ShearShear--outout rulerule

Shear - out is

2 (

σ

u

×

L

c

×

t)

or, R

n

= 2 ( 0.75

×

L

c

×

t)
t)

andand AISCAISC rulerule is:is: RR nn == 1.51.5 FF uu LL cc tt

PlatePlate bearingbearing

MakingMaking thethe substitutionsubstitution andand usingusing

F u

≡ σ

pl

u

R n

= 3 d t F

u

bearing … … Making Making the the substitution substitution and and using using F u ≡
BearingBearing stressesstresses atat boltbolt holesholes…… ss LL e Needed:Needed: 1.1. shearshear--outout
BearingBearing stressesstresses atat boltbolt holesholes……
ss
LL e
Needed:Needed:
1.1.
shearshear--outout rulerule
LL cc
tt 11
2.2.
yieldyield rulerule
tt 22
(deformation)(deformation)
dd
Plate bearing…
σ
b
L e
fromfrom tests:tests:
=
pl
σ
d
u
⎛ L
pl
e
and, some arithmetic gives
R
= σ
d t
= σ
⎟ d t
n
b
u
d
valid for L
3 d
e ≥
Finally,Finally, thethe AISCAISC rulerule forfor plateplate bearingbearing capacitycapacity isis … R n =1.5 F L
Finally,Finally, thethe AISCAISC rulerule forfor
plateplate bearingbearing capacitycapacity isis …
R
n =1.5 F
L
t
3.0 d t F
u
c
u
(with(with aa φφ--valuevalue stillstill toto bebe inserted)inserted)
FurtherFurther notenote rere bearingbearing…… WhenWhen deformationdeformation aa consideration,consideration, useuse
FurtherFurther notenote rere bearingbearing……
WhenWhen deformationdeformation aa consideration,consideration,
useuse
R
n =1.2 F
L
t
≤ 2.4 d t F
u
c
u
WhyWhy thisthis difference,difference, andand whenwhen dodo wewe
useuse thethe latter?latter?

FailureFailure (ult.(ult. load)load) isis byby tensiletensile fracturefracture atat locationlocation shown,shown, regardlessregardless ofof geometricgeometric proportions.proportions.

ShearShear yieldyield alongalong verticalvertical planes.planes.

FailureFailure isis controlledcontrolled byby ductilityductility notnot strengthstrength

planes. Failure Failure is is controlled controlled by by ductility ductility – – not not strength

AnAn exampleexample ofof shearshear ++ tensiontension failurefailure inin aa copedcoped beambeam

An example example of of shear shear + + tension tension failure failure in in a
Block Block shear shear rupture rupture

BlockBlock shearshear

rupturerupture

Block Block shear shear rupture rupture

BasicsBasics

= net area in tension

= gross area in shear

where A nt and A gv
where A
nt
and
A
gv

tension fracture

gross area in shear where A nt and A gv tension fracture shear yield There There

shear yield

ThereThere areare somesome otherother requirements,requirements, includingincluding specificspecific casecase ofof copedcoped beams.beams.

T

r

+ V

r

= φ

A

nt

F

u

+

0.60

φ

A

gv

F

y

BackBack toto installationinstallation

Back Back to to installation installation … …

BearingBearing--TypeType ConnectionsConnectionsInstallationInstallation ofof BoltsBolts

BoltsBolts cancan bebe installedinstalled toto snugsnug--tighttight

conditioncondition ordinaryordinary efforteffort ofof workerworker usingusing

aa spudspud wrench.wrench. (Pretension(Pretension unknown,unknown, butbut

usuallyusually small)small)

CalibratedCalibrated WrenchWrench InstallationInstallation

ReliableReliable relationshiprelationship betweenbetween torquetorque andand resultantresultant boltbolt tension?tension?

NONO !! (and(and isis forbiddenforbidden byby RCSC)RCSC)

EstablishEstablish relationshiprelationship byby calibrationcalibration ofof thethe installinginstalling wrench.wrench.

CalibratedCalibrated wrench,wrench, contcontdd

AdjustAdjust wrenchwrench toto stallstall oror cutcut outout atat desireddesired levellevel ofof boltbolt pretensionpretension TargetTarget valuevalue ofof pretensionpretension (RCSC)(RCSC) isis 1.051.05 timestimes specifiedspecified min.min. valuevalue CalibrateCalibrate usingusing atat leastleast threethree boltsbolts CalibrationCalibration isis uniqueunique toto boltbolt lot,lot, length,length, diameter,diameter, gradegrade ofof boltbolt WashersWashers mustmust bebe usedused

InstallationInstallation

Installation Installation — — – – bring bring parts parts together, together, continue continue turning
Installation Installation — — – – bring bring parts parts together, together, continue continue turning

bringbring partsparts together,together, continuecontinue turningturning nut,nut, boltbolt elongates,elongates, tensiontension developsdevelops inin bolt,bolt, andand clampedclamped partsparts compresscompress

Hydraulic calibrator –

Hydraulic calibrator –

TurnTurn--ofof--NutNut InstallationInstallation

RunRun nutnut down,down, bringbring partsparts intointo closeclose contactcontact

WorkWork fromfrom stifferstiffer regionsregions toto edgesedges

EstablishEstablish snugsnug--tighttightconditioncondition (first(first impactimpact ofof impactimpact wrenchwrench oror fullfull efforteffort ofof workerworker usingusing aa spudspud wrench)wrench)

ApplyApply additionaladditional oneone--halfhalf turnturn (or(or otherother value,value, dependingdepending onon boltbolt length)length)

DoesDoes thisthis definitiondefinition ofof snugsnug--tighttight seemseem aa littlelittle vague?vague?

of of snug snug - - tight tight seem seem a a little little vague? vague?
of of snug snug - - tight tight seem seem a a little little vague? vague?

How influential is “snug-tight?”

bolt

tension

(kips)

6060

4040

2020

Bolt TensionTension byby TurningTurning thethe NutNut specified specified minimum minimum tensiontension 0.020.02
Bolt TensionTension byby TurningTurning thethe NutNut
specified specified minimum minimum
tensiontension
0.020.02
0.040.04
bolt elongation (in.)

bolt elongation at one-half turn

InspectionInspection ofof InstallationInstallation

IsIs boltbolt tensiontension required?required? ifif not,not, whywhy inspectinspect forfor itit !!

KnowKnow whatwhat calibrationcalibration processprocess isis requiredrequired andand monitormonitor itit onon thethe jobjob sitesite

ObserveObserve thethe workwork inin progressprogress onon aa regularregular basisbasis

Bolt TensionTension byby TurningTurning thethe NutNut 6060 bolt specifiedspecified minimumminimum 4040 tension
Bolt TensionTension byby TurningTurning thethe NutNut
6060
bolt
specifiedspecified minimumminimum
4040
tension
tensiontension
(kips)
2020
0.020.02 0.040.04 0.060.06
0.080.08
range of bolt
elongations
at snug
bolt elongation (in.)

bolt elongation at one-half turn

InspectionInspection ofof InstallationInstallation

Principles:Principles:

DeterminationDetermination ofof thethe boltbolt pretensionpretension afterafter installationinstallation isis notnot practicalpractical

UnderstandUnderstand thethe requirementsrequirements e.g.,e.g., areare pretensionedpretensioned boltsbolts required?required?

MonitorMonitor thethe installationinstallation onon thethe sitesite

ProperProper storagestorage ofof boltsbolts isis requiredrequired

InspectionInspection ofof installation:installation:

ConsiderConsider thethe followingfollowing AISCAISC casescases

1.1. BoltsBolts needneed bebe snugsnug--tighttight onlyonly

2.2. BoltsBolts areare pretensionedpretensioned (but(but notnot aa slipslip-- criticalcritical joint)joint)

3.3. SlipSlip--criticalcritical jointjoint

Snug tight only….

Bearing-type connections

Bolts in tension (A325 only)

only when no fatigue or vibration (bolt could loosen)

Inspection:Inspection: ifif pretensionedpretensioned boltsbolts requiredrequired

AllAll ofof requirementsrequirements forfor snugsnug--tighttight casecase

ObserveObserve thethe prepre--installationinstallation verificationverification processprocess

turnturn ofof nut,nut, or;or;

calibratedcalibrated wrench,wrench, or;or;

otherother (direct(direct tensiontension washers,washers, tensiontension--controlcontrol bolts)bolts)

CalibrationCalibration processprocess donedone minimumminimum onceonce perper dayday

CalibrationCalibration processprocess donedone anyany timetime conditionsconditions changechange

AnAn inspectedinspected jointjoint (turn(turn--ofof--nut)nut)

An An inspected inspected joint joint (turn (turn - - of of - - nut) nut)

InspectionInspection snugsnug tighttight

Bolts,Bolts, nuts,nuts, andand washerswashers (if(if any)any) mustmust meetmeet thethe requirementsrequirements ofof thethe specificationsspecifications

HoleHole typestypes (e.g.,(e.g., slotted,slotted, oversize)oversize) mustmust meetmeet specifiedspecified requirementsrequirements

ContactContact surfacessurfaces areare reasonablyreasonably cleanclean

PartsParts areare inin closeclose contactcontact afterafter boltsbolts snuggedsnugged

AllAll materialmaterial withinwithin boltbolt gripgrip mustmust bebe steelsteel

Inspection:Inspection: forfor slipslip--criticalcritical jointsjoints

All of the above, plus

Condition of faying surfaces, holes, etc.

InIn additionaddition toto observingobserving thethe calibrationcalibration process,process, thethe inspectioninspection mustmust ensureensure thatthat thethe samesame processprocess isis appliedapplied toto thethe fieldfield jointsjoints

andand somesome otherother commentscomments

Pretension values greater than those specified are not cause for rejection.

Rotation tests are useful for short-grip bolts or coated fasteners (requirement is in ASTM A325 spec. and is for galvanized bolts)

Actual pretensions, cont’d • A325, ½ turn-of-nut: 35% increase • A490, ½ turn-of-nut: 26% increase

Actual pretensions, cont’d

A325, ½ turn-of-nut: 35% increase

A490, ½ turn-of-nut: 26% increase

A325 and A490, calibrated wrench: 13% increase

etc. for other cases

Note: these increased pretensions are embodied in the specification rules

TensionTension ControlControl BoltsBolts

Tension Tension Control Control Bolts Bolts region of constant torque groove groove at at which which
region of constant torque
region of
constant torque

groovegroove atat whichwhich shearshear willwill taketake placeplace

ASTMASTM F1852,F1852,

F2280F2280

ASTM ASTM F1852, F1852, F2280 F2280
ASTM ASTM F1852, F1852, F2280 F2280

ActualActual pretensions,pretensions, contcontdd

For A325 bolts, turn-of-nut:

Average tensile strength exceeds spec. min. tensile by about 1.18

Average pretension force is 80% of actual tensile

Result is that actual bolt tension is about 35% greater than specified bolt tension

SomeSome otherother optionsoptions forfor boltsbolts

Some Some other other options options for for bolts bolts — —

Tension control bolts….

NOTE:NOTE: evidenceevidence thatthat tipstips havehave shearedsheared offoff isis notnot inin itselfitself evidenceevidence thatthat desireddesired pretensionpretension isis presentpresent

ConsiderConsider limits:limits:

FrictionFriction conditionsconditions areare veryvery highhigh

FrictionFriction conditionsconditions areare veryvery lowlow

Hence,Hence, calibrationcalibration isis essential!essential!

TensionTension--ControlControl BoltsBolts

AdvantagesAdvantages

Installation is from one side

Electric wrench is used

Installation is quiet

DisadvantagesDisadvantages

More expensive

Pre-installation calibration required

DirectDirect TensionTension IndicatorsIndicators

ProtrusionsProtrusions formedformed inin specialspecial washerwasher ProtrusionsProtrusions compresscompress asas forceforce inin boltbolt isis developeddeveloped UseUse feelerfeeler gagegage toto measuremeasure gapgap (or(or refusal)refusal) UserUser mustmust verifyverify thethe processprocess (like(like calibratedcalibrated wrench)wrench)

must must verify verify the the process process (like (like calibrated calibrated wrench) wrench) ASTM ASTM

ASTMASTM 959959

SomeSome additionaladditional topicstopics

Details,Details, otherother topicstopics

washerswashers (but(but notnot today!)today!) slottedslotted oror oversizeoversize holesholes (but(but notnot today!)today!) seismicseismic designdesign

DirectDirect tensiontension indicatorsindicators

Direct Direct tension tension indicators indicators — —

ReliabilityReliability ofof these these

CalibrationCalibration requiredrequired

ReliabilityReliability samesame asas calibratedcalibrated wrenchwrench