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1. Name four roles mitosis plays (use chapter 12).

2. Why do cells undergo meiosis? -Meiosis is the process of cell division that produces gametes (sex cells). 3. Explain the importance of meristems to plants. -Mertistems are important to plants because as long as theyre alive, a plant is capable of indeterminate growth because it has perpetually embryonic tissues. The pattern of plant growth depends on the locations of the meristems (apical meristems, lateral meristems) 4. Using a prepared slide of a root, where would you expect to see the most cells undergoing division?

5. Why is the whitefish blastula good to use in cell division studies? -The whitefish blastula is a tissue where there are many successive mitotic divisions. This allows one fixed slide of the tissue to exhibit the many stages of mitosis. These cells are also a good size for easy viewing. 6. What do you expect to see in cells in prophase? -The chromosomes begin to condense, and homologues, each consisting of two sister chromatids, pair up. A protein structure attaches the homologous chromosomes tightly together all along their lengths. When the synaptonemal complex disappears in late prophase, each chromosome pair becomes visible in the microscope as a tetrad, a cluster of four chromatids. The centrosomes move away from each other, and spindle microtubules form between them. The nuclear envoleope and nucleoli disperse. Finally, spindle microtubules capture the kinetochores that form on the chromosomes. 7. How will you know that cells are in prophase? - cell in prophase can be recognized by looking at the nucleus. A prophase cell will not have a nucleoli and instead of being a somewhat solid shape, the nucleus will look spotty and you will be able to see white areas in the nucleus. 8. How do cells look in metaphase? -In metaphase the chromosomes are aligned across the centre of the cell; they are in their most condensed state, & are therefore most easily identified through a microscope at this stage. 9. What do cells look like in anaphase?

10. How can you tell if cells are in telophase? -The separated chromosomes reach the opposite poles of the dividing cell and the nuclei of the daughter cells form around the two sets of chromosomes. 11. How is cytokinesis different in plants and animal cells? -Plant cell has a cell wall and the animal cell doesn't so the cell forms in a cell plate in the center of the cell and in the animal cell the plasma membrane pinches in from the outside. 12. a. If you count 90 cells and 30 of them are in prophase, what is the % of cells in prophase?

b. If that particular cell takes 60 minutes to undergo mitosis, then how much time do you expect that it would spend in prophase?

13. a. If you found 5 cells out of 100 cells undergoing metaphase, then what is the % of cells in metaphase?

b. If that cell type usually takes 120 minutes to undergo mitosis, then how long do you think it must take to undergo metaphase?

14. Use your textbook to find two things that are different between cell division in plant and animal cells.

15. Meiosis increases genetic variation in a population. Each diploid cell undergoing meiosis can produce 2n different chromosomal combinations where n is the haploid, or monoploid, number. If you have a diploid cell with 8 chromosomes, how many different chromosome combinations are possible even without crossover? Be sure to write the formula and show your work.

16. Humans have a haploid number of 23. What is the theoretical number of chromosome combinations possible each time one of our cells undergoes meiosis?

17. What are the big differences between mitosis and meiosis (use chapter 13, page 246)? -Mitosis refers to duplication of a non sex cell into two diploid cells and Meiosis refers to the
duplication of sex cells only; sperm and egg. Meiosis of one sex cell results in 4 haploid cells. Mitosis is the duplication of new cells in eukaryotes; cells that have membrane bound organelles. Mitosis strictly refers to the duplication of the DNA inside the nucleus. The term Mitotic phase refers to the entire cell division process.

18. How will crossing over be simulated in lab? -In this lab we will use cut out chromosomes with letters that represent the genes. The 4 chromosomes will then be cut in half and randomly put back together to represent an example of gene variation. 19. What is Sordaria fimicola? - Sordaria fimicola is a species of microscopic fungus. It is commonly found in
the feces of herbivores.

20. Draw and label the life cycle of Sordaria fimicola

21. If two genes cross over 20% of the time, then how many map units must separate the two genes?