You are on page 1of 11

Copyright 2008 Apple Inc.

All rights reserved

Pgina 1 de 11

ESD Precautions

Getting Started
Welcome to the ESD Precautions course. In this course, you will review how electrostatic discharge (ESD) can damage equipment. In addition, you will be shown work practices that can guard against such damage. Please note that the topics covered in this course are the basis for the ESD sections of both ACMT Certification and Recertification Exams. Those sections MUST be passed in order to pass those exams. If you do not pass an ESD section, even a perfect score on the remainder of the exam will still result in a failed exam.

Target Audience
This training module is intended for technicians who support and service Apple products.

Prerequisites
You review these courses before reviewing this one: Basic Computer Theory and Terms Underlying Technologies References Diagnostics Troubleshooting Theory

Time Required
It will take about twenty minutes to complete this course.

Training Course Objectives


After reviewing this course you should be able to:

http://service.info.apple.com/service_training/en/008/esd/printer.php

01/07/2010

Copyright 2008 Apple Inc. All rights reserved

Pgina 2 de 11

Explain how electrostatic discharge (ESD) causes damage. List guidelines used to reduce the risk of ESD damage. Describe several common myths about ESD and why they are not true. Describe the importance of each of the four essentials components of an ESD prevention compliant workspace. Explain ESD preventive steps to be taken when working on-site. A Course Exercise is provided with this module. You may answer the questions at any time during your learning. Return to top Next: Course Exercise

Course Exercise
Open this page separately and keep it open while you review the course. As you go through the course, answer each of the exercise questions. 1. What does ESD stand for? A. electronic surveillance device B. electric shock damage C. electrostatic discharge D. electronic software distribution 2. ESD can damage a computer by: A. decalibrating the CRT B. damaging sensitive chips C. starting a fire in the enclosure D. damaging the laser in the optical drive 3. Which THREE of the following should you keep away from an ESD-safe workbench? A. plastics B. polyester clothing C. foam rubber D. Styrofoam E. ion generator F. alligator clips 4. Do NOT wear a grounded wrist strap when you: A. discharge a CRT B. handle a logic board C. open a computer case D. work at a customer site

http://service.info.apple.com/service_training/en/008/esd/printer.php

01/07/2010

Copyright 2008 Apple Inc. All rights reserved

Pgina 3 de 11

5. To reduce the risk of ESD damage, handle all circuit boards by the _________________. A. pins B. body C. edges D. connectors E. exposed circuitry 6. To reduce the risk of ESD damage, A. ground yourself B. make sure the equipment is on C. keep the equipment on a metal surface D. touch the equipment to plastic 7. To reduce the risk of ESD damage, do not touch anyone who is working on: A. a CRT B. an expansion bay C. a photo conductor assembly D. a circuit board 8. To reduce the risk of ESD damage, use static-shielding _____. A. mats B. bags C. clips D. straps 9. There are four basic pieces of equipment needed to reduce the risk of damage from ESD. Which one of the following is NOT one of the four? A. grounded mat B. wrist strap C. plastic storage bags D. ground cord with alligator clips E. ground polarity tester 10. ESD-preventive equipment reduces the risk of damage from ESD by: A. eliminating electrostatic charge B. storing electrostatic charge C. dispersing electrostatic charge D. increasing electrostatic charge Back to top

Next: ESD Damage

ESD Damage
What Is ESD? ESD Risks ESD Solutions

http://service.info.apple.com/service_training/en/008/esd/printer.php

01/07/2010

Copyright 2008 Apple Inc. All rights reserved

Pgina 4 de 11

What Is ESD?
Static electricity, a normal and natural phenomenon, builds up on your body as you walk around. In fact, static electricity is created any time that two dissimilar materials rub against each other (such as shoes and carpet) and then pull apart. The word 'static' simply means that the electrical charge builds up on one of the two materials because it has nowhere to go. That is, until the charged material (this could even be your body) comes close to another material that has a different charge, or no charge at all. Then, like water trying to seek its own level, this accumulated electrical charge immediately discharges between the two materials in a tiny spark. This is what is known as Electro-Static Discharge (ESD). You experience an electrostatic discharge (ESD) when you touch an object and feel a spark.

ESD Risks
The discharge of static electricity near active electronic systems can cause memory corruption or temporary failure of systems. It can cause irreparable damage to sensitive chips and printed circuitry of electronic components. Such damage is basically a hole blasted in the integrated circuit by the ESD. It can be a very small hole but can result in hard-to-trace behaviors in the system. While only a few volts of static electricity can damage an integrated circuit, you can pick up a static charge of several hundreds of volts by simply walking across a room. The movement of you, your clothing, and the surrounding air combine to make this accumulation of charge possible. The nasty aspect of such damage is that it may not be readily detectable under conventional testing or use. Plastic utensils, polystyrene products, polyester clothing, and even the ungrounded touch of your hand can carry sufficient electrostatic charges to damage electronic components. The act of damaging electronic components with ESD (even if accidental) obviously works directly against your service goals, which are: to properly and quickly repair a customer's computer to minimize repeat repairs (especially those due to latent component failures)

ESD Solutions
ESD guidelines are described in detail on the following pages, but the basic premise of these guidelines is to electrically connect the equipment being serviced, your body, and the workbench

http://service.info.apple.com/service_training/en/008/esd/printer.php

01/07/2010

Copyright 2008 Apple Inc. All rights reserved

Pgina 5 de 11

together to a good Earth ground, in a particular way, so that it is virtually impossible for any one of these materials to build up a static electrical charge relative to the others. Please be aware of the dangers of ESD damage and follow these steps you every time you work with the ESD-sensitive components inside Macs. Handle all components by edges Ground yourself...except when the unit is plugged in Don't place components on metal surfaces Don't touch anyone while grounded Use static-shielded bags for storing components Keep non-conductors (polyester, vinyl, styrofoam) away from components 70-90% humidity is good Use ion generator if possible Clean ESD mats regularly Back to top Next: ESD Myths

ESD MYTHS
Some popular misconceptions: I don't use ESD precautions and have never had a problem. How would you know? You may be damaging parts in ways that do not show up immediately via system performance or diagnostic routines. Apple has tested for ESD damage and consistently found that mishandling components and systems creates IC damage. I don't have time to be tied down with wrist straps and mats. Mishandling components creates DOA parts that slow down repairs and drive customer dissatisfaction. In addition, you can set up work areas using heel straps instead of wrist straps. This leaves your hands free. If Apple was really serious about ESD precautions, it would not tell customers to just touch metal before replacing DIY parts. Customers replace far fewer parts than service technicians. Since it is difficult to train customers in the best ESD techniques, Apple asks them to practice a less effective procedure that they can readily do. Only RAM and logic boards require ESD precautions. Everything else is shielded Not true. Most components have some circuitry. In addition, replacing a component such as a cable may require handling many other components that contain ICs. It is far wiser to

http://service.info.apple.com/service_training/en/008/esd/printer.php

01/07/2010

Copyright 2008 Apple Inc. All rights reserved

Pgina 6 de 11

take ESD precautions whenever you have to open up a system. You do not have to be hardwired to ground to practice correct ESD precautions. There are some products which claim to ground you without the use of direct connections to ground. Such "wireless" solutions have not been proven. Use a grounded wrist strap or heel strap. Those work. Next: ESD Guidelines

ESD Guidelines
Steps for ESD Guidelines

Steps for ESD Guidelines


Follow these guidelines to reduce the risk of ESD damage: 1. Handle ALL circuit boards, such as logic boards, video cards, memory DIMMs, hard drives assemblies, optical drive assemblies, etc. by the board's or assembly's edges only. Treat any and all internal assemblies with circuit boards on them as ESD sensitive; this includes hard disk drive and optical drive assemblies. Avoid touching any edge connectors on any circuit boards and assemblies. Avoid touching or handling any components on the surfaces of these boards and assemblies. Never handle or pick up any circuit board by its components, such as a heat sink, because of the risk of damaging or destroying the board by accidentally pulling off components this way. 2. Before working on any circuit board or assembly containing ESD-sensitive circuits, ground yourself and the equipment you are working on to an earth or building ground. Use a grounded conductive workbench mat and a grounding wrist strap, and ground the equipment to the mat.

ESD Mat and snap fastener with lead to ground (shown disconnected):

http://service.info.apple.com/service_training/en/008/esd/printer.php

01/07/2010

Copyright 2008 Apple Inc. All rights reserved

Pgina 7 de 11

3. Make sure you are NOT grounded when: - you work on plugged-in equipment - you discharge a cathode-ray tube (CRT) - you work on an unplugged CRT that has not been discharged - you are performing live adjustments 4. Never place components on any metal surface. Metal surfaces can hold a static charge that will damage sensitive electronic parts. Use antistatic, conductive, or foam rubber mats. 5. Do not touch anyone who is working on ESD-sensitive circuits or circuit boards of any kind. If you touch someone who is properly grounded, your "zap" or body charge may not cause any damage, but just to be safe, keep your own body charge away from other technicians. 6. Use static-shielding storage bags for boards and assemblies with circuit boards on them. Before you leave your bench to take a board to a storage place, put the board in a static-shielding bag. Leave all Apple replacement modules in their ESD-safe packaging until you need them.

Static-Shielding Bag 7. Do not wear polyester clothing or bring plastic, vinyl, or Styrofoam into the work environment. The electrostatic field that surrounds these nonconductors cannot be totally removed. 8. If possible, keep the humidity in the service area between 70% and 90%, and use an ion generator. Charge levels are reduced (but not eliminated) in high-humidity environments. 9. Using an ion-generator helps neutralize the charge surrounding nonconductors. However, this type of device can't provide total protection because the static charges often cause ESD damage before the neutralizing process eliminates the charge. 10. If you have ESD mats in your service area, it is important to clean them at least once a week. To clean them you need to use a cleaner that is specifically designed for ESD mats. Otherwise the mats will not ground equipment placed on them. Back to top

Next: Essential Components

http://service.info.apple.com/service_training/en/008/esd/printer.php

01/07/2010

Copyright 2008 Apple Inc. All rights reserved

Pgina 8 de 11

Essential Components
What You Need

What You Need


An ESD-compliant workstation is one that has equipment and materials designed to prevent ESD damage. This is detailed below:

1. a conductive workbench mat and ground cord. When properly grounded, the workbench mat provides a safe place on which to set sensitive components and equipment. Such a mat consists of the following elements: Layer of conductive mesh sandwiched between rubber layers. 1 Meg Ohm resistor in grounding connector on mat. "Soapy" film on surface of mat allows charge to drain away. NOTE: Cleaners for ESD mats restores the "soapy" film. Do not use solvent cleaners on ESD mats. 2. a wrist strap with a built-in 1-megohm resistor and ground cord. The wrist strap grounds you so that you can safely touch sensitive components without "zapping" them. 3. an equipment ground cord with alligator clips. This cord grounds the equipment so that static charges cannot build up; the ground cord is especially important when you are working on CRTs, which can build up static charges even when they are not plugged in. 4. a ground polarity tester. The ground polarity tester verifies proper grounding of power outlets.

http://service.info.apple.com/service_training/en/008/esd/printer.php

01/07/2010

Copyright 2008 Apple Inc. All rights reserved

Pgina 9 de 11

IMPORTANT: When you work at a customer site, you must take the same precautions to avoid ESD damage. Take time to make the work area ESD-safe. Use a workbench mat and a wrist strap. (For travel convenience, you may want to use mats that fold up.) Be sure everything is properly grounded. Never set parts on the floor. Back to top Next: Summary

Summary
In Conclusion

In Conclusion
To summarize what you have learned: Ground yourself and the equipment you are working on. Do not touch anyone who is working on ESD-sensitive circuits or circuit boards of any kind" Use static-shielding storage bags for boards and ICs. Handle all ICs by the edges. Do not wear polyester clothing or bring plastic, vinyl, or Styrofoam into the work environment. Never place components on a metal surface. Do NOT wear a wrist strap when discharging a CRT. Keep the humidity between 70% and 90%. Remove all ESD hazards from your person and work area. Use the ground polarity tester to verify proper grounding of the power outlet. Lay out and ground the conductive workbench mat. Fasten and connect the wrist strap to your wrist and connect it to the workbench.

Next: Exercise Answer Key

Course Exercise Answer Key


Compare your answers to those shown here. Correct answers are in bold.

http://service.info.apple.com/service_training/en/008/esd/printer.php

01/07/2010

Copyright 2008 Apple Inc. All rights reserved

Pgina 10 de 11

1. What does ESD stand for? A. electronic surveillance device B. electric shock damage C. electrostatic discharge D. electronic software distribution 2. ESD can damage a computer by: A. decalibrating the CRT B. damaging sensitive chips C. starting a fire in the enclosure D. damaging the laser in the optical drive 3. Which THREE of the following should you keep away from an ESD-safe workbench? A. plastics B. polyester clothing C. foam rubber D. Styrofoam E. ion generator F. alligator clips 4. Do NOT wear a grounded wrist strap when you: A. discharge a CRT B. handle a logic board C. open a computer case D. work at a customer site 5. To reduce the risk of ESD damage, handle all circuit boards by the _________________. A. pins B. body C. edges D. connectors E. exposed circuitry 6. To reduce the risk of ESD damage, A. ground yourself B. make sure the equipment is on C. keep the equipment on a metal surface D. touch the equipment to plastic 7. To reduce the risk of ESD damage, do not touch anyone who is working on: A. a CRT B. an expansion bay C. a photo conductor assembly D. a circuit board 8. To reduce the risk of ESD damage, use static-shielding _____. A. mats B. bags C. clips

http://service.info.apple.com/service_training/en/008/esd/printer.php

01/07/2010

Copyright 2008 Apple Inc. All rights reserved

Pgina 11 de 11

D. straps 9. There are four basic pieces of equipment needed to reduce the risk of damage from ESD. Which one of the following is NOT one of the four? A. grounded mat B. wrist strap C. plastic storage bags D. ground cord with alligator clips E. ground polarity tester 10. ESD-preventive equipment reduces the risk of damage from ESD by: A. eliminating electrostatic charge B. storing electrostatic charge C. dispersing electrostatic charge D. increasing electrostatic charge Next: This concludes the ESD Precautions course. APPLE NEED-TO-KNOW CONFIDENTIAL: Do NOT forward, copy, or otherwise replicate or disseminate verbally, electronically, or in hardcopy (except to those individuals within your organization who have a legitimate business need to know the information, and who have agreed in writing, to keep it confidential), unless Apple has given prior written authorization. Copyright 2010 Apple Inc. All rights reserved.

http://service.info.apple.com/service_training/en/008/esd/printer.php

01/07/2010