Whittle 1 Christopher R.

Whittle Professor Jill Anderson ART 111 Sec 01: A History of Art I December 16, 2010 Summary on The Gothic Enterprise: A Guide to Understanding the Medieval Cathedral; “The Religious Experience” unit by Robert A. Scott The people in the medieval period turned toward the Gothic cathedral to escape the harsh and brutal secular world that they resided in (Scott 152), where God was available in the sacred space and objects of the building (Scott 147). The chief object in the church was the high altar, the most sacred object, was the location of the celebration of Mass (Scott 149). The altar stone, or mensa, which is consecrated by a bishop, is placed on the altar with a least one relic of a saint, the minimum being for whom the church was dedicated to (Daily Missal). Side altars or shirnes also contained relics, and are named appropriately after the relic(s) of the saint in that particular altar. Pilgrims, or people travelling for religious piety, venerated these relics and offering votives (Scott 189). All medieval churches had saintly relics housed either in altars or reliquaries since this practice was (and still is) the teaching and discipline of the Roman Catholic Church (Scott 164). A first class relic is a physical relic of the saint’s body, a second class relic an article that the saint touched, and a third class relic is an item that touched a first or second class relic (Klein 433). “Tradition has made saints the protectors or patrons of various aspects of human life…” (Giorgi), where miracles were performed at these medieval shrines (Scott 199). In order to become a saint, you must meet the requirements for canonization, which include death, holiness, and the performance of

Whittle 2 two miracles while in heaven. When a case is opened, the person is a “Venerable Servant of God”. When he or she performs the first miracle, the person is “Blessed”. After the second and subsequent miracles, the person is canonized a “Saint” (Klein 432). Originally, only martyrs outside of the Bible could be canonized, but that is no longer the case (Scott 204). With the decree from Pope Innocent III during the Lateran IV Council in 1215, only the pope can canonize saints. Prior to that, individual bishops could do so (Scott 205). For the clergy in medieval times there were nine services that monasteries followed most indeed, with some cathedrals following suit. They were Lauds, Prime, Mass, Terce, Sext, None, Vespers, Compline, and Matins (Klein 316). Matins was the most difficult service to perform because it was said in the dark of night without any lights! (Scott 166). These services were said in the sanctuary, or presbytery, obstructed by the rood screen from the laity in the nave viewing the services (Scott 158). At that time there were 35 different versions of the Roman Missal (Scott 165), often times written by bishops for their cathedral, based on the architecture of the building. For example, the Sarum Rite (Use of Salisbury) processions on Palm Sunday and Corpus Christi used all parish grounds (Scott 169). Ordinary parts of the service were memorized the monks using iconographic memory and mnemonics, which is a major reason there are so many statues and artwork are in Catholic churches (Scott 174). The cathedral building projects, which in some cases lasted centuries, were paid for by bequeaths from parishioners (Scott 183), indulgences, and loans (Scott 191). As soon as the Soul Bell rang when the casket was brought to the church for the Requiem Mass (Klein 112), it was then the social responsibility of the widow to request Masses for the dead, and to pray for the repose for her husband’s soul (Scott 185).

Whittle 3 Works Cited Giorgi, Rosa. Saints: A Year in Faith and Art. New York: Abrams, 2006:7; Print. Klein, Peter. The Catholic Source Book, 3rd ed. Dubuque: Harcourt Religion Publishers, 2000; Print. Roman Catholic Daily Missal 1962. Kansas City: Angelus Press, 2004: 127; Print. Scott, Robert A. The Gothic Enterprise: A Guide to Understanding the Medieval Cathedral. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2003: 147-205; Print.

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