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Topic 2

Composite v-i characteristics •

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**The concept of a v-i characteristic need not be confined to an individual element.
**

A group of elements connected together can be described by a single equation (characteristic curve) that relates the voltage and current variables at any one port. Such a port can be considered as a single element with a specific v-i characteristic. The composite characteristics of series- or parallel-connected elements can be obtained by the method of graphical addition, except that we need to take into account the reference directions of unilateral elements when drawing their characteristics.

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Finding the Composite v-i Characteristics of Series-Connected Elements Consider the circuit shown in Figure 1 where two two-terminal elements are connected in series at node B. Nodes A and C are connected to the measuring circuit comprising a variable voltage source, an ammeter, and a voltmeter.

i A #1 Circuit element 1

v1 Variable voltage source

v

v2

B

#2 Circuit element 2

C

Figure 1

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The one-port, consisting of elements 1 and 2, whose terminals are nodes A and C, is called the series connection of elements 1 and 2. The two elements #1 and #2 are specified by their characteristics, which are assumed known.

A #1 Circuit element 1 B v2 #2 Circuit element 2 1-port netwok formed by series connection of elements #1 and #2.

v1

C

Figure 2

To find the composite characteristic of the series connected elements, we note that the same current i flows through both elements. The terminal voltage v is given by the sum of voltage drops v1 and v2. That is, i = i1 = i2 and A v = v1 + v2

v1 v v2 B Circuit element 2 Circuit element 1

C

Figure 3

the composite characteristic can be obtained as follows: Step 1.Thus. Add the two curves on a point-by-point basis at each selected values of current. Step 2. The result is a combined curve for the two elements. . Select suitable values of current on the the i-v characteristic curve of each element and draw horizontal lines passing through these selected current values to intersect the i-v curve.

which consist of a linear resistor connected in series with an ideal diode (a unilateral circuit element).Example Obtain the composite characteristics of the one-port network shown in Figure 4. i 1Ω v Ideal diode Figure 4 .

Define the reference directions of the terminal voltage and terminal current of each circuit element. i. For series-connected elements. ii. i v1 i 1Ω v1 v v2 1Ω Figure 5 i Ideal diode v2 Ideal diode . use the reference direction of the input current to define the reference direction of the terminal current of each element. place the positive and negative signs of the terminal voltage of each circuit element such that they are on the same side as that of the input voltage.Solution Step 1.

Draw on the same graph the i-v characteristic curve of each circuit element based on their reference directions defined in Step 1.Solution (continued) Step 2. i Ideal diode 1A 0 1V 1-Ω resistor v Figure 6 .

i 1A 0 1V Composite characteristic curve v Figure 7 . Step 4. the composite i-v characteristic curve of the one-port using the pairs of values of terminal current and terminal voltage obtained in Step 3. Figure 7 shows a plot of the composite characteristic curve for the one-port circuit based on the above steps. the corresponding terminal voltage of each circuit element.Solution (continued) Step 3. Draw on a graph of i versus v. Add. at suitably selected values of terminal current.

Example Obtain the composite characteristics of the one-port network shown in Figure 8. which consist of an resistor (a linear resistor) connected in series with an ideal diode (a unilateral circuit element). i 1Ω v Ideal diode Figure 8 .

i. ii. For series-connected elements. place the positive and negative signs of the terminal voltage of each circuit element such that they are on the same side as that of the input voltage. i v1 i 1Ω v1 v v2 1Ω i Ideal diode v2 Ideal diode Figure 9 .Solution Step 1. Define the reference directions for the terminal voltage and terminal current of each circuit element. use the reference direction of the input current to define the reference direction of the terminal current of each element.

Solution (continued) Step 2. Draw on the same graph the i-v characteristic curve of each circuit element based on their reference directions defined in Step 1. i 1A 0 1V 1-Ω resistor v Ideal diode Figure 10 .

Figure x shows a plot of the composite characteristic curve for the one-port circuit based on the above steps. the corresponding terminal voltage of each circuit element. Add. Draw on a graph of i versus v. at suitably selected values of terminal current. the composite i-v characteristic curve of the one-port using the pairs of values of terminal current and terminal voltage obtained in Step 3.Solution (continued) Step 3. i 1A 0 -1 V Composite characteristic curve -1A 1V v Figure 11 . Step 4.

Example 3 Obtain the composite characteristics of the one-port network shown in Figure 12. i 1Ω v Ideal diode 2V Figure 12 .

Define the reference directions for the terminal voltage and terminal current of each circuit element. For series-connected elements.Solution Step 1. . ii. use the reference direction of the input current to define the reference direction of the terminal current of each element. i. place the positive and negative signs of the terminal voltage of each circuit element such that they are on the same side as that of the input voltage.

i i v1 v1 1Ω 1Ω i v2 Ideal diode i v v2 v3 1V v3 1V Figure 13 .

Draw on the same graph the i-v characteristic curve of each circuit element based on their reference directions defined in Step 1.Solution (continued) Step 2. i 1A Ideal diode 0 1-Ω resistor v 1 V battery Figure 14 .

the corresponding terminal voltage of each circuit element. i 1A Composite characteristic curve v 1V -1A 2V 0 Figure 15 . Step 4. Draw on a graph of i versus v. Figure 15 shows a plot of the composite characteristic curve for the one-port circuit based on the above steps. Add.Solution (continued) Step 3. at suitably selected values of terminal current. the composite i-v characteristic curve of the one-port using the pairs of values of terminal current and terminal voltage obtained in Step 3.

4 V Figure 16 . i ZD1 Ideal zener diode VZK = 5.Example 4 Obtain the composite characteristics of the one-port network shown in Figure 16.6 V v ZD2 Ideal zener diode VZK = 9.

ii. Define the reference directions of the terminal voltage and terminal current of each circuit element. use the reference direction of the input current to define the reference direction of the terminal current of each element. . i.Solution Step 1. place the positive and negative signs of the terminal voltage of each circuit element such that they are on the same side as that of the input voltage. For series-connected elements.

6 V i v2 ZD2 VZK = 9.6 V v v2 ZD2 VZK = 9.i i v1 v1 ZD1 VZK = 5.4 V ZD1 VZK = 5.4 V Figure 17 .

i ZD1 -5.Solution (continued) Step 2. Draw on the same graph the i-v characteristic curve of each circuit element based on their reference directions defined in Step 1.6 V 0 v Figure 18 .

i ZD2 0 9.4 V v Figure 18 .Solution (continued) Step 2. Draw on the same graph the i-v characteristic curve of each circuit element based on their reference directions defined in Step 1.

4 V v Figure 19 . at suitably selected values of terminal current.Solution (continued) Step 3. the composite i-v characteristic curve of the one-port using the pairs of values of terminal current and terminal voltage obtained in Step 3. Add. Figure x shows a plot of the composite characteristic curve for the one-port circuit based on the above steps. i Composite characteristic curve -5. the corresponding terminal voltages of each circuit element. Step 4. Draw on a graph of i versus v.6 V 0 9.

The other terminal of each element is connected to another common node.Finding the Composite characteristic curve of parallel-connected elements Any two elements are called in parallel if and only if: i. it follows that the voltage across one is identical to the voltage across the other. One terminal of each element is connected to a common node ii. i i = i1 + i2 v = v1 = v2 A i1 v v1 #1 v2 #2 i2 B Figure 20 . When any two elements are connected in parallel. Also. the total current of the combination is equal to the sum of the two individual elements.

The solar cells are identical and their i-v characteristic is shown in Figure 21b. Determine its maximum output voltage and maximum output current.Worked Example Draw the composite characteristics for the parallel-connected solar cells shown in Figure 21a. i i i v λ 1V v λ λ λ λ v 0 (a) -10 mA (b) Figure 21 .

that is i = i1 + i2 + i3 + i4 At v = 0 V. i1(max) = i2(max) = i3(max) = i4(max) = 10 mA Hence. i(max) = 40 mA . the terminal current is the sum of the currents contributed by each cell. at v = 0 V i(max) = i1(max) + i2(max) + i3(max) + i4(max) = 10 mA + 10 mA + 10 mA + 10 mA Therefore.Solution For the parallel connected solar cells.

i λ λ λ λ v (a) i 40 mA (b) 1V 0 v Figure 22 .Solution (continued) The composite i-v characteristic is as shown in Figure 22b.

i A v 2Ω 3Ω B Figure 23 .Drill Exercise Draw the composite characteristics for the circuit shown in Figure 23.

and parallelconnected elements can be found in a few steps by replacing each parallel and series-connected elements with their circuit equivalents. A #1 #2 Figure 24 C #3 B .Composite characteristic of series-parallel elements The composite characteristic of a 1-port comprising of series.

A i i1 va v1 #1 i2 A v2 #2 #A C C .

A A #1 #2 va v C v3 C Circuit element 3 Circuit element A #3 B B .

A i i1 i2 v2 #2 v1 #1 v i3 v3 #3 B .

i (A) 10 i R1 = 1 Ω i v L1 L2 v 5 0 0 10 20 v (V) . obtain by graphical method the driving point characteristic of the circuit.Example Using the circuit of Figure xa and the incandescent lamp characteristic shown in Figure xb. Assume the two incandescent lamps have identical i-v chacteristics.

Solution The incandescent lamps are bilateral devices and their voltage and current reference directions are immaterial in this problem. Step 1. i i = i1 + i2 v = v1 = v2 A i1 v v1 #1 v2 #2 i2 B . we can simply proceed to do graphical addition in a straight-forward manner. Use graphical addition of parallel-connected elements to find the equivalent i-v characteristic of the parallel-connected lamps. Thus.

6 V i v2 ZD2 VZK = 9.Step 3. i i v1 v1 ZD1 VZK = 5.6 V v v2 ZD2 VZK = 9. Use graphical addition of series-connected elements to obtain the composite characteristic.4 V ZD1 VZK = 5.4 V .

Using the graphic method only.Example Consider the one-port network shown in Figure x. find the driving point characteristic of the one-port network. i 1 kΩ v RL = 1 kΩ i i v -5V v . The zener diode is modeled by a three-segment piecewise-linear characteristic shown in Figure xb.

Drill Exercise Assuming an ideal zener diode characteristic with VZ = 5 V. 1 kΩ i E = 10 V v . find by using the graphical method the driving point characteristic of the one-port N shown in Figure x.

Draw the driving point characteristics for the circuit shown in Figure x. i A 3Ω v 3 volts B . The following examples illustrates the idea. it is possible to obtain the i-v characteristic entirely by analytical method. Worked Example Figure x show a one-port network consisting of two linear elements connected in series.Composite characteristic of linear One-Port networks For linear one port networks.

i A v 2Ω 1A B .Example Figure x show a one-port network consisting of two linear elements connected in parallel. Derive the equation describing the following oneport in terms of the port voltage and port current and plot it graphically in the i-v plane.

67 V v (V) 5 6 7 8 .i (ma) 10 8 6 4 2 0 1 2 3 4 i-v characteristic of the 1-port network 6.

i (ma) 10 8 6 4 2 0 1 2 3 4 i-v characteristic of the 1-port network 6.67 V v (V) 5 6 7 8 .

derive the equation describing the one-port in terms of the port voltage and the port current. Plot the i-v characteristic in the i-v plane. ii. i 1kΩ 2kΩ A 10 V v B . i.Example For the circuits shown in Figure S2.

Derive the circuit’s current equation by applying KCL at node A.Solution Step 1. i i1 i2 Step 3. E v 10 v i1 R1 1000 v v i2 R2 2000 . Label all branch currents. Apply Ohm’s law to the 2 kΩ and 1 kΩ resistors. i1 1kΩ 2kΩ i2 v i A 10 V B Step 2.

Substitute Eqs. 10 v v i i1 i2 1000 2000 Step 5. we obtain the required i-v characteristic equation of the one-port as follows: 3 20 i v 2000 2000 . Upon simplifying Eq.Step 4.().(). Simplify expression.() and () into Eq.

(). Coordinates of the x-intercept is obtained by setting v = 0 in Eq. Plot the i-v characteristic equation in the i-v plane.() represents that of a straight line. Thus. coordinates of the y-intercept is obtained by setting i = 0 in Eq. v i 0 20 6. Thus.().Step 6.67 V 3 . We note that since Eq. we can easily plot the characteristic equation by simply finding its x. i v 0 20 10 mA 2000 Similarly.and yintercepts and then connecting the two points on the graph with a straight line.

i (ma) 10 8 6 4 2 0 1 2 3 4 i-v characteristic of the 1-port network 6.A plot of the i-v characteristic of the one-port is shown in Figure x.67 V v (V) 5 6 7 8 .

Plot the i-v characteristic in the i-v plane. 1 kΩ i vs(t) = 10sin 10t v . Derive the i-v characteristic of the network for the given voltage and current reference directions.Example The one-port network shown in Figure x contains both ac and dc voltage sources. ii. i.

Solution Step 1. . Plot the i-v characteristic in the i-v plane. Apply KVL to the circuit to obtain an equation that relates the terminal voltage and the terminal current to the circuit elements. v 10 sin 10t 5i 0 or 1 i v 10 sin 10t 5 Step 2. We note that Eq() is that of a straight line with slope -5 and a y-intercept that is a function of time.

0 20 40 60 .(i) At t = 0. 1 i v 5 i (A) 10 8 6 4 2 v (V) -40 -20 -2 -4 -6 -8 -10 i-v characteristic of the 1-port network at t = 3π/20 s.

1 i v 10 5 i (A) 10 8 6 4 2 v (V) i-v characteristic of the 1-port network at t = π/20 s.(ii) At t = π/20. -40 -20 -2 -4 -6 -8 -10 0 20 40 60 .

(iii) At t = 3π/20. 1 i v 10 5 i (A) 10 8 6 4 2 v (V) -40 -20 -2 -4 -6 -8 -10 0 20 40 60 i-v characteristic of the 1-port network at t = 3π/20 s. .

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