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Unit: Tourism Theories and Practices SOY 0411 Unit No: SOY 00411 Student name: Darby Brown

Student No: 21275122 Assignment One: How students and professionals gain knowledge about whole tourism systems

Due date: 8 May 2006 How students and professionals gain knowledge about whole tourism systems: Erudition of a specific nature concerning whole tourism systems requires examination of appropriate subject matter using a heuristic approach through the utilisation and perspective of various sources. This process involves comparing, describing, discussing, evaluating, and the summation of knowledge in a critical manner leading the layperson or academic scholar to an informed position from which hypotheses can be prepared. Students and professionals can gain knowledge of whole tourism systems by: a) perusal of various sources of information including newspapers, texts books, research journals, internet sites, government policy documents and through personal observations and experience; b) distinguishing between and applying in theory various definitions for key terms; tourist, tourism, tourism systems, tourism industry and; c) examination of interactions with social, cultural, economic, physical, political and technical environments; d) analysis of different approaches currently being utilised by educators of tourism. Research Journals/Text Books Research journals and text books can be of immense value throughout the learning process of gaining knowledge, understanding, and applying concepts in relation to the study of tourism provided that those who peruse them, read widely, are selective in their choice, and realise the purpose of, and the context in which, such publications are written. An extensive array of periodicals including Annals of Tourism Research, International Journal of Tourism Research, Journal of Tourism Studies and Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing, amongst a wealth of others, provides a gamut of information including original and empirical research, theoretical concepts, statistical data, research techniques and methodological articles encompassing most aspects related to the field of tourism.

There is an abundance of exceptional literature devoted to a range of academic interests concerning tourism. Examples include Encyclopedia of Tourism, Jafari (2000: XVII), a reference guide to the vast range of definitions, themes, concepts, issues, perspectives and institutions embraced by tourism with contributions from over 300 academics and tourism professionals. Tourism Management, Leiper (2004: V), designed for students studying and individuals interested in expanding and developing their knowledge of tourism, delivers a substantial contribution to management theories and practices. Man On Earth A Celebration of Mankind authored by British anthropologist John Reader, which provides a captivating narrative of the fundamentals of human ecology from a contemporary viewpoint. Methodological Approaches to the Study of Tourism Examination of the various methodology espoused by tourism educators as a suitable and comprehensive curriculum is, a contentious issue among pedagogues with a range of different techniques and theories as to how to develop and attain a complete and thorough tourism education policy framework (Bodewes 1981; Jafari 2000; Jafari and Ritchie 1981; Leiper 1981, 2004; Meeth 1978, cited by Jafari and Ritchie 1981:24, Stear 1987). This is indicative of the complex nature of tourism and the difficulty faced by educators in identifying and refining effective methods of education.

Reducing a systems complexity through the use of general systems theory, (Bertalanffy 1972, cited by Jafari 2000: 570), (Leiper 2004: 48), is a process through which any complicated or intricate matter can be clarified by identifying the system to be considered then by determining its elements and discovering how they are arranged and interrelated. In order to achieve a broad understanding of the elements of a system, it is useful to recognise the different contexts in which those elements are viewed and the various ways in which they can be applied. (Leiper 2004: 29-36) explains the concept when defining three contexts of the meaning for tourist. Popular meanings, used in everyday conversation and mass media that are imprecise, have a wide variation of meanings with no definitions required form one category. Technical definitions used for statistical purposes by corporations such as the World Tourism Organisation (WTO) for measuring economic growth/international 3

tourist arrivals, traveller generating regions (TGRs) and tourist destination regions (TDRs) where precision is desirable form a second category. Heuristic concepts and definitions used by students and professionals researching tourists activities and other aspects of their behaviour form a third category. Using the same logic and depending on what purpose and in what context the definition is used, tourism can be defined as: the theories and practices of tourists (Leiper 2004: 44), the science, art and business off attracting and transporting visitors, accommodating them and catering to their needs (Mcintosh and Goeldner 1977, cited by Leiper 2004: 42), study of man away from his usual habitat, of the industry which responds to his needs, and of the various impacts he and the industry have on the host socio-cultural, economic, and physical environments (Jafari 1977, cited by Jafari and Ritchie 1981: 15). Tourism industry can be defined as a collection of business firms, organisations and other resources- which support the activities of tourists, including central services of transport, attractions, accommodation, catering; peripheral private services - travel insurance, tour wholesalers, banking, and peripheral public services regional tourist organisations public ports/airport services, visa and passport offices (Jafari 2000: 306), (Gilbert 1991: 6-7). By comparing and understanding the different contexts in which definitions are used and through the application of systems theory, whole systems can be identified and models expounding those systems can be utilised for learning and teaching purposes. A wide variety of whole tourism system models have, over time, evolved and been advocated as being beneficial to the study and understanding of tourism. Several examples are noteworthy contributions. (Jararis 1989: 437-442) model based on his springboard metaphor, figure 1.0, emphasises six phases, corporation, emancipation, animation, repatriation, incorporation and omission, which he considers as elementary components of tourists behaviour and movement through the contexts of the ordinary world (routine) and the non-ordinary world (during trips). Jararis model is particularly useful when considering the motivating factors and emotional stages one experiences

throughout the process of expectation, revelation and reflection as part of the touristic experience.













FIGURE 1.0 Leipers systematic model illustrating a whole system, interdisciplinary approach for Jafaris tourism model based on the springboard metaphor. Source: Jafari, J. The Structure Of Tourism, in - as an elementary component, three geographical Marketing studying tourism consists of tourists Tourism &Management Handbook (1989) Prentice Hall, London, pp.437-442. elements: traveller generating regions - where a tourists journey begins and normally ends; transit routes (TR) places where a tourists main travelling activity occurs; Leipers (2004) systematic model illustrating a whole system, interdisciplinary approach for studying tourism consists of tourists as an elementary component; traveller generating regions where a tourists journey begins and normally ends; transit routes places where a tourists main travelling activity occurs; tourist destination regions places where a tourists main visiting activity occurs, and tourism industries as organisational elements i.e. collections of organisations that support tourism. This model promotes a cohesive and holistic understanding of the multifaceted nature of tourism. However, an apparent weakness is that the procedures for integrating the interdisciplinary strands are not vigorous and as such those strands may become obscure (Leiper 2004: 51, 54, 60).

(Jafaris 1977 model, Jafari and Ritchie 1981: 23), portraying sixteen disciplines around the rim of wheel in which the hub is termed centre of tourism studies advocates a multidisciplinary approach to the study of tourism. This method is beneficial to students as it delivers a wide expanse of knowledge of tourisms many facets by drawing on the multiple perspectives of a range of disciplines. However, this approach can lead to excessive discipline subjectivity, which leads students to believe they should be developing their knowledge of a particular discipline whilst their main objective is to augment their comprehension of tourism. In addition, there is a risk that contributions from certain disciplines will be overemphasised diluted or distorted (Jafari 2000: 179-182).

A possible method for overcoming or at least reducing the disadvantages associated with Leipers interdisciplinary and Jafaris multidisciplinary approaches, is to join the two models resulting in the consciousness of a unified approach to the study of tourism, figure 1.1. Leipers model becomes the hub of the wheel, providing the foundation concepts in the delivery of tourism education becoming a recognised discipline in its own right. Jafaris model continues to provide a multidisciplinary perspective with the added benefit of a more holistic approach. An alternative technique in delivering this approach would see the various disciplines from Jafaris model become condensed, with educators delivering a general rather than specific knowledge and thus diminishing the possibility of discipline subjectivity. Postgraduates would then undertake an exhaustive analysis of disciplines previously reviewed.

Personal Observations During 1997 2000 the author undertook a journey of the East Coast of Australia, The Nullarbor Plain and the South West corner of Western Australia. The journey was broken into three legs: 1997-1998: Sydney, N.S.W. (TGR) via train (TR1) to Brisbane, Q.L.D. (TDR1) via train (TR2) to Townsville, Q.L.D. (TDR2) and via train (TR3) to Cairns, Q.L.D. (TDR3). The second leg of the journey: 1998 2000 can be described as: 6

Cairns (TDR3) via motor vehicle (TR4) to Lamington National Park, Q.L.D. (TDR4) via motor vehicle (TR5) to Broken Hill, N.S.W. (TDR5) via motor vehicle (TR6) to Streaky Bay S.A. (TDR6) across the Nullarbor Plain via motor vehicle (TR7) to Cocklebiddy Caves W.A (TDR7) via motor vehicle (TR8) to Esperance W.A. (TDR8) via motor vehicle (TR9) to Perth (TDR9). The homeward journey, the third leg, across the Nullarbor Plain to Sydney whilst involving different (TDRs) involved the same mode of transport. Organisations components of tourism industries utilised by the author before and during the first leg of the journey included: Katmandu Camping and Apparel; Mountain

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Figure 1.1.

Whole Tourism Systems Model incorporating Leiper s 2004 systematic model and Jafaris 1977 multidisciplinary model resulting in the consciousness of a unified approach towards the development of a comprehensive tourism educational policy fr amework. Leiper , N. 2004, Tourism management, pp58

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Design Climbing Equipment; N.S.W. Country Rail; Brisbane Transit Centre; Queensland Rail; Brisbane Youth Hostels Australia (YHA); Magnetic Island Ferries, Coconuts Backpacker Resort, Magnetic Island; Townsville Tourist Information Centre; Great Barrier Reef Marine Authority; Cairns Tourist Information Centre; Rainbow Forest Retreat and Cairns City Nightclub. The second leg of the journey involved the utilisation of services including: revive and survive rest stops, service stations, tourist information centres, Woolworths Fresh Food, Broken Hill Caravan Park, Great Australian Bight Cultural Information Centre, Streaky Bay Caravan Park, Esperance Caravan Park and numerous National Parks. Whilst the authors decision to undertake the journey was tinged with sadness due to the result of personal tragic circumstances, as time progressed and more miles were covered, the desire for emancipation and total freedom from restraint grew and by the second leg of the journey, the actual fact of being emancipated helped in the grieving process. Primitivism in the form of sleeping in a tent, in particular at Cocklebiddy Caves a massive underground network of river systems 11 kilometres west of Cocklebiddy and 5 kilometres east of the highway corridor linking South and Western Australia proved to be a highlight of the journey. Indeed it was whilst camping on The Hampton Tableland that the author experienced a similar experience to that described by (Barth 1964, cited by Chatwin, B. 1989: 220), a religious catharsis, revolutionary in the strictest sense in that each pitching and breaking of camp represents a new beginning.

Internet Sites

The Internet is a public communications system, created by an interconnecting network of computers that spans the terrestrial globe. The World Wide Web (WWW) is an information service that integrates information that is stored on different computers the world over with the ability to combine texts, graphics, sounds, movie clips and numerous other multimedia components (Jafari 2000: 327, 316). In terms of educational and research value the very nature of the (WWW) provides access to the most extensive database of electronically stored information in the world. 9

Secondary data are data collected and recorded by someone else prior to, and for purposes other than, the prevailing needs of the researcher. Secondary data are usually historical and do not require access to subjects or respondents. The primary advantage of secondary data is that it is almost always less expensive to obtain than primary data. An innate disadvantage of secondary data is that such data was not designed to meet the researchers needs. Researchers must consider and evaluate the pertinence of secondary data, figure 1.2, and verify data accuracy wherever possible by crosschecks of data from multiple to determine the similarity of independent projects. When data is found not to be consistent, researchers should attempt to identify reasons for the differences and/or determine which data are most likely to be correct Zikmund (1997, 144-146).

The Australian Tourism Export Council (ATEC) is the national peak body of the $17 billion tourism export industry. With over 30 years experience (ATEC) has developed a favourable reputation for delivering professional business services, industry development initiatives and government lobbying in order to optimise the business success of its members so that the resulting economic and social impact of tourism exports for Australians is maximised. As Australias tourism export industry grows it is reasonable to expect that ATECs position within the industry and wider business community will consolidate and that the organisation will continue to grow in terms of membership and as a powerbase in terms of influence and ability in petitioning government in relation to industry issues.

Tourism Australia, ( established on 1 July 2004, comprising four separate organisations: the Australian Tourist Commission; See Australia; the Bureau of Tourism Research and the Tourism Forecasting Council, is the Federal Government statutory authority responsible for International and domestic


tourism marketing and the delivery of research and forecasts for the tourism sector. The key objectives of Tourism Australia are to:

Influence people to travel to Australia; Influence people who travel to Australia throughout Australia; Influence Australians to travel throughout Australia, including for events; Help foster a sustainable tourism industry in Australia; and


Do the data help to answer questions set out in the problem definition? Yes Do the data apply to the time period of interest? Yes Applicability to the Project Objectives Do the data apply the Do the data apply to to population of interest? population of interest? Yes Do other terms and variable classifications presented apply? Yes Are the units of measurement comparable? Yes If possible, go to the original source of the data. Yes





Can the data be reworked? No If yes, continue No


No Is the cost of data acquisition worth it? Yes Accuracy of the Data Is there a possibility of bias? No Is using the data worth the risk? No Stop No Yes Can the accuracy of data collection be verified? No (Inaccurate or unsure) Yes Stop Stop


Yes (accurate) Use Data

FIGURE 1.2 Evaluating Secondary Data Source: Zikmund, W.G. Business Research Methods (5th ed.), 1997, The Dryden Press, Fort Worth. P.147


Help increase the economic benefits to Australia from tourism.

Tourism Australia actively markets to consumers and industry in over 21 countries around the world with the overall objective of increasing international tourist visitation and economic growth to Australia. Specific markets have been prioritised to achieve this aim including Asia China, Hong Kong, India, Korea, Malaysia, Singapore, Taiwan and Thailand; Europe France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Netherlands, Scandinavia, Switzerland and the United Kingdom, Japan, and the Americas Canada and the United States. The World Tourism Organisation ( is the foremost global authority on tourism related agenda and exists primarily to aid all countries in maximising the positive impacts of tourism and minimising the negative environmental and sociocultural impacts. The (WTO) operations revolve around and are facilitated by six departments, The Human Resource Development department education and training, The Statistics, Economic Analysis and Market Research department tourism statistics and data, The Environment, Planning and Finance department tourism development and natural/cultural environments, The Cooperation for Development department tourism knowledge and assistance for developing countries, The Quality of Tourism Development department quality, competitiveness and sustainable development of member destinations and Market Intelligence and Promotion department industry awareness, tourism trends/forecasting and publishing. Newspapers Newspapers are printed publications usually issued daily or weekly, which most commonly contain: domestic and international news; business financial, commercial and trade items; editorial comment; travel and entertainment features and advertisements. When evaluating content value of newspapers, readers should consider whether articles are objective existing independent of the thinking subject, or subjective, biased thought resulting from a mental construct. Articles related to tourism in the business section of newspapers often refer to infrastructure development, financial position and proposed initiatives of national carriers, and government diplomatic efforts working in alliance with private industry to secure trade with other countries. General news sections of newspapers 13

at times refer to environmental impacts of tourism and details of new industry venture whilst editorial comment often ask questions as well as purporting a particular point of view. Travel sections of newspapers contain feature articles espousing the merits of tourist destinations. Newspapers regularly contain information about social, cultural, physical, economic, political and technical environments that interact with whole tourism systems. (McCullough, J. 2006 pp. 15,16.) reports the Queensland, Beattie Labour Government has launched a concerted effort to muster support within the Q.L.D. cruise port industry with plans for cruise terminals in Brisbane, the Gold Coast, Townsville and Cairns. Support for the plans have been expressed by the executive director of the Infrastructure Association of Queensland, Paul Clauson, who says the strategy would enhance the economic base of the state and CEO of the Queensland Tourism Industry Council, Daniel Gschwind, who says cruising has made a very strong comeback over the past decade as a modern attractive way to see the world. Expressions of interest have already been lodged from no less than ten consortium and construction groups. (Easdown, G. 2006a p.31) reported QANTAS has announced the likelihood of massive job cuts in a drive to slash costs as it seeks to offset a 58 per cent rise in fuel prices that left a $37.8 million hole in the airlines first half profit. Managing director Geoff Nixon said that all business initiatives were focused on enabling QANTAS to meet future expenditure commitments and profit projections. The news saw QANTAS shares slide 2 per cent to $3.96. The Federal Government will send a senior bureaucrat to Washington to negotiate an agreement for Virgin Blue to operate back-to-back daily services between Australia and the US it was revealed today (Easdown, G. 2006b p.39). Last month the Australian Government blocked Singapore Airlines bid to fly the route leaving the door open for Virgin Blue to compete with QANTAS as long-haul operators on the trans-Pacific route. An international survey completed by accounting firm Grant Thornton has found Australian business owners are taking fewer holidays than their overseas counterparts. Australians are beginning to emulate the high stress, low holidays culture of Asian economies. French business owners took an average of 27 days leave a year, Australians 14

took 13 days of leave a year while Thais averaged four days a year. The survey indicated stress levels for Australians had increased by 48 per cent since the previous year (Molina, L. 2006 p.37). (Hodge, A. 2006 p.5) writes, Tourism, once viewed as an economic saviour of many rural towns was taking its toll as councils struggled to maintain services on small budgets. The National Seachange taskforce chief executive Alan Stokes said Its not just an environmental or planning issue. A whole of government approach is required is required because it impacts on every area you can imagine. Protecting the environment, building infrastructure and maintaining community cohesion need to be considered as well as providing healthcare, education, public transport and employment. (Daily Mail cited by Weekend Courier Mail 2006 p.19) reports the 300 million ($705 million) Queen Victoria is set to become the shiniest jewel in shipping company Cunards crown. She will boast a three story grand lobby, a museum, conservatory and 6000 book library. The 90,000-tonne liner, being built at the Fincantieri yard in Venice, will be able to carry more than 2000 passengers and about 900 crew. The 300m-long vessel will be capable of speeds of more than 23 knots, using up to 10 tonnes of fuel an hour. Fares will range from 999 to 8679 per person. Editorial comment (Australian 2006 p.17) acknowledging Australias current $18 billion international tourist trade is set to grow to $32 billion by 2014 according to the Tourism Forecasting Committee doubts the logic of the Federal Governments $360 million, taxpayer financed advertising campaign designed to entice overseas visitors to Australia with the catchphrase Where the bloody hell are you?. According to a Productivity Commission report released in 2005, total federal, state and local assistance to tourism has averaged in recent years between $900 million and $1.1 billion. Tourism is a multi-billion dollar industry capable of promoting itself without the help of a government-run single desk. Travel feature (Chester, R. 2006 p.1) describes the 80km six day adventure of Tasmanian wilderness between Cradle Mountain and Lake St Clair as one of Australias greatest walks. With three options of how to traverse the Overland Track: do it yourself staying in your own tent or the public huts found along the track; travel with a guided 15

group, where someone else carries the tents and you stay in the public huts if the weather turns bad or trek along with Cradle Mountain Huts & Bay of Fire Walks which has private huts along the track and was recently voted the countrys best Eco/Wilderness Adventure Experience. Conclusion The complex nature of tourism is best understood through the concept of whole tourism systems. There are several fundamental topics in the study of tourism including: tourists - as an elementary component; places traveller generating regions, where a tourists journey begins and usually ends, tourist destination regions, where a tourists main visiting activity occurs; transit routes where a tourists main travelling activity occurs; organisations which support the activities and provide services to tourists, together which form whole tourism systems. To understand the effects of tourism it is necessary to examine social, cultural, economic, physical, political and technical environments that interact with whole tourism systems. Sources of knowledge in relation to the study of tourism include research journals, internet sites, newspapers and personal observations.


Better Bloody Work: Why Does The Tourism Industry Need Taxpayer Help? [Opinion]. 2006, February 24. The Australian, p.17. Bodewes, T. 1981, Development off Advanced Tourism Studies in Holland, Annals of Tourism Research, VIII(1):35-51. Chatwin, B. 1989, What am I Doing Here, in Nomad Invasions, Jonathon Cape, London, p. 220. Easdown, G. 2006a, Feburary 17. QANTAS to Wield Jobs Axe. Courier Mail, p.31. Easdown, G. 2006b, March 11-12. Virgin Bids for US Air Rights. Weekend Edition Courier Mail, p.39. Gilbert, D.C. 1991, Conceptual Isues in the Meaning of Tourism, in Progress in Tourism, Recreation and Hospitality Management, C.P. Cooper (ed.), vol.2. pp.4-27. Hodge, A. 2006, January 24. Seachangers See An Area, Then They Change It. The Australian, p.5 Jafari, J. 1989, The Structure Of Tourism, in Tourism Marketing & Management Handbook, S.F. Wit & LL. Moutinho, eds, Prentice Hall, London, pp.437-442. Jafari, J. 2000, The Encyclopedia of Tourism, Routledge, London, pp.327, 629,631 Jafari, J. & Ritchie, J.R. Brent. 1981, Towards a Framework for Tourism Education: Problems and Prospects, Annals of Tourism Research, VIII(1):13-34. Leiper, N. 1981, Towards A Cohesive Curriculum in Tourism: The Case for a Distinct Discipline, Annals of Tourism Research, VIII(1):69-84. Leiper, N. 2004, Tourism nagement, pp. 58-60, 160. Leiper, N. 2004, Four Foundation Concepts and Other Introductory Themes in 17

SOY OO411 Topic one readings, 2006. Southern Cross University, Lismore. McCullough, J. 2006, Feburary 13, Beattie in Big Push for Cruise Ports. Courier Mail, pp. 15, 16. Molina, L. 2006, Feburary 18, High Stress Culture Catching on Here. Weekend Edition Courier Mail, p.37. Stear, L. 1987, Essential Elements of an Australian-based Tourism Curriculum, in Education For Tourism, David McSwan, ed, James Cook University, pp. 81-85.

The Australian Tourism Export Council (ATEC). 2005 [Home page of ATEC]. [Online]. Available: [2006, April 10].

Tourism Australia 2004 [Home page of Tourism Australia]. [Online]. Available: [2006, April 10].

Tribe, J. 1997, The Indiscipline of Tourism, Annals of Tourism Research, vol.24, No3: 638-657. World Tourism Organisation (WTO) 2005 [Home page of World Tourism Organisation]. [Online]. Available: [ 2006, March 30]. Zikmund, W.G. 1997, Business Research Methods, pp. 144-147.