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City of Bits Space, Place, and the Infobahn by William J. Mitchell
Dean of the School of Architecture and Planning at MIT. firstname.lastname@example.org
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First MIT Press paperback edition, 1996 © Copyright 1995-1997 Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Welcome and Synopsis p 3 City of Bits WWW Team p 4 1. Pulling Glass p 5 2. Electronic Agoras p 7 3. Cyborg Citizens p 18 4. Recombinant Architecture p 29 5. Soft Cities p 34 6. Bit Biz p 63 7. Getting to the Good Bits p 96 Surf Sites p 102 Acknowledgements p 120 Footnotes p 121 Media Reviews p 157 Metropolis Magazine p 160 Cities of Bits - published abroad p 162 Homer - Back to the future? Postscript by Mitchell in 1996 p 163 WELCOME from William J. Mitchell, Dean of the School of Architecture and Planning at MIT Welcome to City of Bits online! The printed version of this book - available from the MIT Press, your local bookseller, or from this web site - is designed to be inexpensive, portable, and easy to read anywhere. But its World Wide Web counterpart plays a different role. First, you will find that it contains hundreds of hot links to other sites with additional information on the topics discussed. So it serves as a convenient starting point for further exploration. (But take care! Since I do not control the content of these other sites, and since they are likely to change at any time, I cannot guarantee that the information to be found there is accurate, relevant, or useful.) Second, it provides places to enter your comments on the issues that the text raises, and to read the comments left by others. From time to time, I will surf in and add my own thoughts to the evolving discussion. I hope that a stimulating set of debates emerges, and I look forward to your contribution.
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Happy surfing, William J. Mitchell SYNOPSIS "My name is email@example.com (though I have many aliases), and I am an electronic flâneur . I hang out on the network." Entertaining, concise, and relentlessly probing, City of Bits is a comprehensive introduction to a new type of city, a largely invisible but increasingly important system of virtual spaces interconnected by the emerging information superhighway. William Mitchell makes extensive use of concrete, practical examples and illustrations in a technically well-grounded yet accessible examination of architecture and urbanism in the context of the digital telecommunications revolution, the ongoing miniaturization of electronics, the commodification of bits, and the growing domination of software over materialized form. In seven chapters - Pulling Glass, Electronic Agoras, Cyborg Citizens, Recombinant Architecture, Soft Cities, Bit Biz, and Getting to the Good Bits - Mitchell argues that the crucial issue before us is not one of putting in place the digital plumbing of telecommunications links and associated electronic appliances, nor even of producing content for electronic delivery, but rather one of creating electronically mediated environments for the kinds of lives that we want to lead. William J. Mitchell is Professor of Architecture and Media Arts and Sciences and Dean of the School of Architecture and Planning at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Among the books he has authored or coauthored are The Reconfigured Eye: Visual Truth in the Post-Photographic Era, The Logic of Architecture, The Poetics of Gardens, Digital Design Media, The Art of Computer Graphics Programming, and Computer-Aided Architectural Design . City of Bits WWW Team: Daniel C. Stevenson Daniel created and managed the City of Bits Web site as part of a UROP project. He wrote all the processing and parsing scripts that generate the HTML content, as well as the special interactive facilities. Dan is a graduate student at the MIT Media Lab. Teresa Ehling Terry was the project manager for City of Bits . She is the manager of the Digital Projects Lab at the Press. Jeffrey T. Kälin Jeff is the graphic designer for the site and established the overall graphic vocabulary. A graduate of the Rhode Island School of Design and Oxford University, and formerly a designer at the MIT Press, Jeff now has his own freelance design firm, KälinWerkDesign. Regina Schoonover Gina was the Webmistress and a Senior Staff Assistant in the School of Architecture and Planning at the time the City of Bits was being developed. Anne Beamish Anne is a Ph.D. candidate in the Department of Urban Studies and Planning at MIT and was responsible
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12/03/12 19:06 for the in-text links in the Surf Sites area. suguru+@andrew. digital telecommunications network. "Pulling glass. I did not have to set out every morning for the mine (as generations of my forebears had done).edu Chapter 1 Pulling Glass As the fin-de-K countdown cranked into the nineties. I simply carried a lightweight laptop computer that gave me access to the materials on which I was working. I became increasingly curious about the technicians I saw poking about in manholes. Suguru Ishizaki Suguru designed the jacket cover and home page image and animation for City of Bits while he was a doctoral student at the MIT Media Laboratory. silent. More and more of the instruments of human interaction. straight boulevards on the ancient tangle of Paris. my pocket-sized cellular telephone could do the job. Fordist factory. and (to most eyes) invisible. smokestacked. Moths to the Flames . She also designed the Press's second book site. dematerialized. I discovered-as did many othersthat I no longer had to go to work. or the office. Not that I suddenly became idle. Nor. and of production and consumption. evidently they were up to something quite different. it's just that the work now came to me.edu William J. She is a graduate of the MIT School of Architecture and Planning." was the usual reply. He is currently an assistant professor of Communication Design at Carnegie Mellon University. fragments of what was fast becoming a worldwide. They were not sewer or gas workers. nor in some sprawling. How was the laptop on which I am writing these words (in an airport lounge) designed and built? Neither by an old-fashioned craftsman. were being miniaturized. Increasingly. wjm@mit. They were stringing together some local. Its components and subassemblies were engineered and manufactured http://homepage.com/bogronlund/3_314_Upload_05_03/Mitchell_City%20of%20bits. 3 At about the same time. the tools that I required. lovingly contriving it like a Stradivarius violin. and cut loose from fixed locations. anneb@mit. the factory. and a Web consultant in private practice. 2 Yet their revolutionary intervention was swift.cmu. 1 Just as Baron Haussmann had imposed a bold spider's web of broad. these post-whatever construction crews were putting in place an infobahn -and thus reconfiguring space and time relationships in ways that promised to change our lives forever. and as nineteenth-century railroad workers had laid sleepers and steel to shrink the windy distances of the North American frontier.html Page 4 of 143 . the fields. broadband. I could just plug it in to the nearest telephone socket or to the RJ-11 connections that were beginning to appear on airplane seats. Dean of the School of Architecture and Planning at MIT. So I began to ask them what they were doing. did I have to go to the theater to be entertained.edu Katrin Silberberg Katrin revised the entrance graphics for the City of Bits site. and the necessary processing power. When I wanted to connect to the network. I found that I did not even need to be near an outlet.mac. Mitchell Author of City of Bits . in the age of the Walkman.
but by different members of an intricate international alliance. Massive and unstoppable changes are under way. sometimes to resist. or a laptop in a hotel room-to log into electronic mail. The various design. the information ecosystem is a ferociously Darwinian place that produces endless mutations and quickly weeds out those no longer able to adapt and compete. The texts that follow reimagine architecture and urbanism in the new context suggested by these observations-that of the digital telecommunications revolution. queries for me to answer.edu (though I have many aliases). a more powerful workstation in one of the offices or laboratories that I frequent. and product assembly tasks were performed not within a single industrial corporation. and to design. Neither handicraft of the sort so passionately defended by Ruskin and Morris. nor durable. Component fabrication and product assembly operations were geographically separated. industrial object of the kind that fascinated the early modernists.com/bogronlund/3_314_Upload_05_03/Mitchell_City%20of%20bits. drafts of papers. to legislate. soon it will be obsolete. and component deliveries were carefully paced and orchestrated to avoid both shortages and unnecessary stockpiling. Fordist factory. but we are not passive subjects powerless to shape our fates. the enaction of power. The finished product's software-which I chose and installed myself-is as crucial as the hardware. and industrial robots were used at every step. nor even of producing electronically deliverable "content. standardized. and I am an electronic flâneur. Its components and subassemblies were engineered and manufactured concurrently at locations scattered throughout the world-from Silicon Valley to Singapore. Now that this complex artifact is in my hands it is intensively used.html Page 5 of 143 . http://homepage. Chapter 2 Electronic Agoras My name is wjm@mit. and the experiences that give shape and texture to our daily routines. When it can no longer connect me to the electronic information environment as effectively as some competing product (even though it still works perfectly well). I click on an icon to open an "inbox" filled with messages from round the world-replies to technical questions. to organize. Each morning I turn to some nearby machine -my modest personal computer at home. to plan. but its useful life is short." but rather one of imagining and creating digitally mediated environments for the kinds of lives that we will want to lead and the sorts of communities that we will want to have. the commodification of bits. the ongoing miniaturization of electronics. component manufacture. If we understand what is happening. What does it matter? Why should we care about this new kind of architectural and urban design issue? It matters because the emerging civic structures and spatial arrangements of the digital era will profoundly affect our access to economic opportunities and public services. massproduced.12/03/12 19:06 smokestacked.mac. Computeraided design (CAD) systems. I shall simply transfer my software and data and throw the superseded carcass away. and if we can conceive and explore alternative futures. 1 The keyboard is my café. computer-controlled processes. my laptop is an emblematic product of the electronic information age. And they argue that the most crucial task before us is not one of putting in place the digital plumbing of broadband communications links and associated electronic appliances (which we will certainly get anyway). we can find opportunities to intervene. the forms of cultural activity. and the growing domination of software over materialized form. the character and content of public discourse. I hang out on the network. They adumbrate the emergent but still invisible cities of the twenty-first century.
you needed to go someplace to do this sort of thing-to the agora. the bar. the forum. This ritual is repeated whenever I have a spare moment during the day. I suppose it is in some back room at MIT. it is fundamentally and profoundly antispatial. bits of business. the mall. appointments. Thus. If I send you an e-mail message. displaces. the pub. the café. speech. 3 Spatial / Antispatial Now." Your own address is not pinned to a place. It is nothing like the Piazza Navona or Copley Square. I also check the wire services and a couple of specialized news services to which I subscribe. personal identity. your social position. the bathhouse. and you can send it your outbox for distribution. You cannot say where it is or describe its memorable shape and proportions or tell a stranger how to get there. but you will not know whether I transmitted it from my office or typed it in at home while sipping a glass of wine or entered it into my laptop on a trans-Pacific flight and then sent it from a public telephone at Narita airport. The categories are conflated due to the simultaneous redefinitions of space. with some associated storage space.html Page 6 of 143 . unlike telephone calls or fax transmissions. and subjectivity that are emerging as the network grows. you log in from wherever you physically happen to be. gossip. body language.mac. the office. The Net has a fundamentally different physical structure. but you might equally well (or equally inappositely) claim that it was my address. I http://homepage. the piazza. travel and meeting arrangements. reminders. you are executing an electronically mediated speech act that provides access -an "open sesame.nowhere in particular but everywhere at once. then glance at the latest weather report. In doing this you are not making a visit in the usual sense. or the club -and where you went pegged your peer group. by dialing in from any telephone via phone lines and a modem. community. tips. You can then ask the host to send you the accumulated contents of your inbox. and while the locations of the nodes and links can be plotted on plans to produce surprisingly Haussmann-like diagrams.) To get on the network you establish physical connection to your host machine (through a digital link. The Net is ambient -. While it does have a definite topology of computational nodes and radiating boulevards for bits. which link specific machines at identifiable locations (the telephone on your desk and the telephone on my desk. It will play as crucial a role in twenty-first-century urbanity as the centrally located. and I will come back to that later. 2 It also framed expectations about how you should represent yourself by your clothing. and behavior and about the interactions that were to take place. "Box" is a very loose metaphor. (Note the scare quotes. chitchat. Main Street. 4 Other users of the network hook into their host machines in the same way. spatially bounded. But the worldwide computer network-the electronic agora-subverts.12/03/12 19:06 submissions of student work. the college dining hall. architecturally celebrated agora did (according to Aristotle's Politics ) in the life of the Greek polis and in prototypical urban diagrams like that so lucidly traced out by the Milesians on their Ionian rock. jokes. You do not go to it.) If I have time before I finish gulping my coffee. I just said that wjm@mit. and it operates under quite different rules from those that organize the action in the public places of traditional cities. Traditionally. The Net negates geometry. an exchange of electronic mail (e-mail) links people at indeterminate locations. the beach.edu was my name. and scripts. Each familiar species of public place had its actors. provide the access code. and radically redefines our notions of gathering place. and give a password. greetings. it is simply an access code. (I have never laid eyes on the machine that gives me access to the network. then drop them into an "outbox. say). But you can find things in it without knowing where they are." from which they are forwarded automatically to the appropriate destinations. it will come tagged with my name/address. It does not matter much what sort of computer it is or where you might find it. to some computer located somewhere on the Net. and urban life.com/bogronlund/3_314_Upload_05_03/Mitchell_City%20of%20bits. costumes. the common room. or even via a cellular modem). I type replies immediately. complaints. There is no reason for me to seek it out. and your role. And I need not know where you are-your current street address and zip code or your telephone number. the gym. flirtation.
edu or that either one is the embodied William J. embodied subject by listing me as "William J. from Beacon Hill. researchers and scholars interested in certain topics. student dives. domains of the powerful or margins of the powerless. then select that alias as the recipient of their messages. A few establish a direct linkage to a unique." it is not trivial. and I can drop messages onto it for subsequent pickup.html Page 7 of 143 .) Geography is destiny. 5 Corporeal / Incorporeal The incorporeal world of the Net has its own mechanisms for coding and class construction. My Finger file on the Net supposedly establishes who I am IRL (in real life). gay bars. and death rows." This is a machine that functions like a numbered postbox or Swiss bank account. shopping malls.mac. and I can be sure that it will eventually end up at whatever machine you choose to log in from." for example. biker bars. from the Loop.edu is Dean@mit. find it natural to use the abbreviated and more intimate alias "Bill. there are financial districts for the pinstripe set. East Los Angeles. and faculty at MIT often address their messages to "Dean. the North Side. But the Net's despatialization of interaction destroys the geocode's key. or the South Side. transparently. There is no such thing as a better address. Students. Some network acquaintances know me merely by the neutral identifier "wjm@mit. where you are frequently tells who you are. class correlates with privilege. the North End. friends. but it is itself just a set of potentially opaque or misleading descriptor values. In the standard sort of spatial city. or Roxburyand everybody knows how to read this code." for instance. 6 Other correspondents address me implicitly rather than explicitly when they broadcast messages to groups defined by membership lists or by possession of specified characteristics-graduate students and instructors participating in particular seminars. (Membership of such groups separates the information-rich from the information-poor. places where you need a jacket and tie.) Proper names are not always necessary. teenage hangouts. Chinatown. staff. (If you are homeless. Mitchell! When names float around without precise. referential complexities abound. (And who you are will often determine where you are allowed to be. Here. combat zones. bit by bit. My family.edu. So the Net eliminates a traditional dimension of civic legibility. if somebody were to replace me in that role. If I wanted to be particularly careful about concealing my identity and location-perhaps because I intended to do something embarrassing like downloading pornography or illegal like grabbing pirated software copies-I could route my correspondence through an "anonymous remailer. alias by alias. golf clubs where you won't see any Jews or blacks. redneck bars. to say that wjm@mit. or Watts. as elsewhere. because that describes the role I play in their professional lives. but most prefer to address me by one or another of my many more meaningful aliases. and immediate staff. skid rows. and immediately be redirected. unambiguous attachment to unique things.) Or they might find me by searching a database to find somebody matching a given profile.) You may find yourself situated in gendered space or ungendered. it constructs representations of crisp and often brutal clarity.12/03/12 19:06 just direct my message to your network name/address. Somerville. known. though." (It is not an ambiguous one in the bounded context of our acquaintance. and you cannot attempt to define yourself by being seen in the right places in the right company. of course. who send me messages very frequently. their messages could automatically. or just friends who sometimes like to do things together.com/bogronlund/3_314_Upload_05_03/Mitchell_City%20of%20bits. http://homepage. 7 In this fashion. Cambridge. my disembodied electronic identity is constructed. from Beverly Hills. You may come from the right side of the tracks or the wrong side. and perhaps not even true. I can use it as an address that reveals nothing about me. But as Frege taught us in his famous analysis of "The Morning Star Is the Evening Star. Mitchell" in their personal directories of acquaintances. you are nobody. pretentious yuppie watering holes.
It follows that. 11 There are games of constructing electronic closets. and social circumstance. so the users of the Net will increasingly depend upon their programmed agents. 8 You can e-mail questions to the Oracle. for example. Whenever you submit a query. and thus may be unable to make the usual inferences from that. He actually does nothing more than randomly match supplicants to respondents.12/03/12 19:06 It may even be that something with a definite electronic identity has no physical embodiment at all. or falsely signal gender. of course. to plunder valuable information. (Different keystrokes for different folks.html Page 8 of 143 . or to replicate itself endlessly and choke the system. I can create as many network identities as I want for myself.) I can very easily conceal. Try deconstructing Invasion not as campy allegory on cold-war commies but as a resistant glimpse into a world of unstable identities. others who "know" me quite well may not realize how I look or how I present myself in person. My representation on the Net is not an inevitability of biology. http://homepage. age. need not stop here. I can. Yet another might continually scan the wire service news to pick out items likely to interest me. and he is just a fairly simple piece of software. and moments for coming out of them. A slightly smarter agent might automatically contact other agents to reconcile diaries and arrange needed meetings at convenient times. And a more maliciously conceived one might be programmed to roam the digital highways and byways looking for trouble-for opportunities to corrupt the files of my enemies. if I can somehow obtain somebody else's password. (My agent will call your agent. electronic cross-dressing is an easy and seductive game. buying and selling according to some programmed strategy. Yet he seems to have a personality and a characteristic sense of humor. body shape.com/bogronlund/3_314_Upload_05_03/Mitchell_City%20of%20bits.) It is a hacker's no-brainer. My software surrogates can potentially do much more than provide origins and destinations for messages. he will also send you another one and ask you to respond. ambiguously located intentions. extinguish that poor soul from the scene and falsely assume his or her identity. who resides in Indiana. but a highly manipulable. completely disembodied intellectual fabrication. for example. Fritz Lang got it wrong: the robots in our future are not metallic Madonnas clanking around Metropolis. but soft cyborgs slinking silently through the Net.) Footsy with gender and social marking. dislocating experience actually to meet somebody I have long known through network interactions and for whom I have. and it might have the capacity tointerrupt and alert me immediately when something really important shows up. like an Invasion of the Body Snatchers alien pod. Consider. to eliminate rival agents. and economic status. 13 (As the citizens of the polis relied upon their helots. and with the integrity of personal identity. and others will have no way of knowing that these softwareconjured zombies all belong to me. 9 (I am not inevitably subject to placement and displacement like Eliza Doolittle. birth.mac. and he will send you back answers.edu. and sorting the rest in priority order.) But the process of mutual construction usually gives very little away. when appropriately programmed. race. presumptively devised a persona. (That person could do the same to wjm@mit. they can serve as my semiautonomous agents by tirelessly performing standard tasks that I have delegated to them and even by making simple decisions on my behalf. throwing away junk items. to create a software receptionist-less politely known as a Bozo filter -that screens incoming electronic mail by checking the origin addresses. I have found that it can be a jarring. 12 On the Net I must present my password rather than my person whenever I want to identify myself-to show that it's really me. The neuromans of William Gibson are a lot closer to the mark. Focused / Fragmented While I present myself to others on the Net through the aliases and descriptors I choose and the connections these aliases and descriptors establish. leave carefully ambiguous.) Another might sleeplessly monitor the stock markets for me. 10 Conversely. by virtue of these interactions. I also construct those others and they simultaneously construct me. the Usenet Oracle. and concealed control. and it looks very prescient. Because communication takes place without my bodily presence or the sound of my voice.
to outlast our bodies? (William Gibson's cyberpunk antiheroes nonchalantly shuck their slow. In the familiar. you will probably like it better and trust it more. dignified butlers. Replies do not come immediately. to take a call. He thought that indistinguishability would demonstrate machine intelligence. or whatever personifications tickle your fancy. the humble home answering machine. and appears with a frown when it has bad news. you might almost as easily have digital movies of actors playing cute receptionists. but are repeated at some later point. at the right time. high-maintenance meat machines as they port their psychic software to newer generations of hardware. reports back with a smile when it has successfully completed some mission. cunning secret agents. 15 How do you know who or what stands behind the aliases and masks that present themselves? 16 Can you always tell whether you are dealing directly with real human beings or with their cleverly programmed agents? Was that politely phrased e-mail request for a meeting from wjm@mit. Where necessary. Answering machines and voice mail systems eliminate the frustration of telephone tag. You can attend to your e-mail whenever it is convenient to do so. controlled asynchrony may have its advantages.) But there is an alternative. Business people and academics have gratefully discovered that it is usually much easier to communicate between Boston and Tokyo by fax than it is to find convenient times at both ends for telephone conversations. We are discovering that strictly synchronous communication is really just a limit case of asynchronous communication. The telephone and talk radio have allowed conversants to be dispersed spatially but have not altered this condition of synchrony. the ancient Greeks used messengers for asynchronous communication. and the fancy corporate voice mail system are all more up-to-date devices for asynchronous communication and so-more significantly in this context-are the network's e-mail and bulletin board systems.com/bogronlund/3_314_Upload_05_03/Mitchell_City%20of%20bits. slick stockbrokers. (Until the introduction of the answering machine. The tilt toward electronic asynchrony will have increasingly dramatic effects upon urban life and urban form. there is a time and a place for everything. for well-defined http://homepage. and replies usually come immediately. spatial.) 17 Does resurrection reduce to restoration from backup? 18 Synchronous / Asynchronous A face-to-face human conversation-the sort for which dinner tables and traditional seminar and meeting rooms are designedis a spatially coherent. it can artificially embody these software go-betweens. and strictly synchronous event.edu originated by the flesh-and-blood William J. as when Pheidippides was dispatched to run from Athens to Sparta and back. to be a nuisance. you had to be by the phone. 19 In the asynchronous mode. It is a fairly straightforward matter of graphic interface design to represent an agent as an animated cartoon figure that appears at appropriate moments (like a well-trained waiter) to ask for instructions. responsive librarians. We usually find the laggardliness of the Postal Service's snail-mail.) Does the logic of network existence entail radical schizophrenia-a shattering of the integral subject into an assemblage of aliases and agents? Could we hack immortality by storing our aliases and agents permanently on disk. and people come together in them. We all know how inconvenient an unexpected demand for communication-a knock on the office door when one is deep in thought or a telephone call at the wrong time-can be. Mitchell or was it generated autonomously by one of his made-to-order minions? (That. not when you are unexpectedly and arbitrarily interrupted by a telephone ring. 20 Gathering spots like restaurants and cafés are open. The unity of the face-to-face conversation is fractured both spatially and temporally. synchronous style of city. we have seen that strict synchrony is not always desirable. of course. But it might equally well follow from a human being playing dumb or engaging in discourses that do not require any smarts. corporeal. the fax machine. If its "emotions" seem appropriate.mac. The letter and the postal system. its enforcement of slug's-pace asynchrony. words are not heard as they are spoken. though. As much more efficient asynchronous communications systems have become commonplace. everybody hears the words as they are spoken. was Turing's famous question.12/03/12 19:06 While the Net disembodies human subjects. 14 And if cartoon characters do not appeal. The participants are all present in the same place.html Page 9 of 143 . obsolescent.
ureDeamon broadband. Since the cost of a high-bandwidth cable connection grows with distance. location (as property pundits never tire of repeating). which concentrate powerful telecommunications equipment. Temporal rhythm turns to white noise. University campuses may connect their internal computer networks to long-distance telecommunications backbones. while rural communities languish at the ends of information dirt tracks and economically marginalized neighborhoods get redlined for telecommunications investment? bbleDeamon Broadcast bandwidth is another matter-one of radiation epicenters and transmitter power rather than of Deamon network topology and cable capacity. and university classes are slotted for particular times. weekly. Just as each city has its characteristic spatial organization.mac. The bondage of bandwidth is displacing the tyranny of distance. much as oases grow up around wells. and seasonal rhythms-very different for New York. But will the fast lanes of the information superhighway-the switched. Narrowband / Broadband The bandwidth-disadvantaged are the new have-nots. and people come together in them. "Smart" office buildings. Workers carry out their tasks during standard business hours. As there is prime real estate. where you cannot make so many connections. so there is prime time. and will seek like ancient despots to bring concentrations of population under their control. television programs. and unprofitable services were crosssubsidized by profitable ones. But now extrapolate to an entirely asynchronous city. if you cannot get bits on and off in sufficient quantity. owsing 6 Coupons information-rich communities.html Page 10 of 143 . and where interactions are less intense. And there are only so many geosynchronous satellite "parking spaces" in the Clark Circle. you cannot directly benefit from the Net. digital networks that will be required for the most advanced services-be deployed with the same lofty goal? lCrackerDeamon Or will they serve only the affluent and powerful. location. There is only so much electromagnetic spectrum. 21 When. so it has its own daily. but also to poor communities and to remote and sparsely kDeamon populated areas where the costs of providing service are high and the customers are few. increasingly contend for shares of the bit radiation business in localities dense with receivers. profitable markets for telecommunications services. and where do you show up for it? You cannot say. It's simple. Accessibility is redefined. so creating privileged. and a new economy of land use and transportation is emerging-an economy in which high-bandwidth connectivity is an increasingly crucial variable. telephone companies became regulated monopolies. http://homepage. Rome.com/bogronlund/3_314_Upload_05_03/Mitchell_City%20of%20bits. for example. The Net creates new opportunities. Delhi. As part of the package. The distinction between live events and arbitrarily time-shifted replays becomes difficult or impossible to draw (as it often is now on the television news). then the value of a network connection is determined by bandwidth. an outcast from cyberspace. Teleports. The discussion unfolds over an indefinite period. Buses and trains have schedules. for well-defined periods. through uncoordinated posting and receipt of e-mail messages. so it is a definitively fixed resource in a given broadcast area. among dispersed participants who log in and out at arbitrary moments. and there are predictable rush hours as they travel to and from their workplaces. bandwidth. 22 And telecottages may play similar roles in rural areas. 24 So powerful organizations will.12/03/12 19:06 Gathering spots like restaurants and cafés are open. where the flow of information reduces to a trickle. 23 So some very contentious public policy issues start to esoDeamon The American telephone system was set up to provide "universal service" reaching not only to pop up. information hotspots often develop around high-capacity data sources. may be built to serve industrial parks or financial districts. does an online forum take place. but a low baud-rate connection puts you out in the boonies. bandwidth. anything can happen at any moment. theatrical performances. may have their own dish antennas for satellite communications and fiber-optic links to the outside world. tapping directly into a broadband data highway is like being on Main Street. The consequences of this are brutally obvious. for example. and they provide internal broadband connections to these sources. no doubt. appointments and meetings are arranged for specific moments. and Tokyo. If the value of real estate in the traditional urban fabric is determined by location. 25 No network connection at all-zero bandwidth-makes you a digital hermit.
multisensory.12/03/12 19:06 but exclusion from it becomes a new form of marginalization. 26 Voyeurism / Engagement Since bandwidth costs money. Electronic interaction will become increasingly multimodal. 33 They reasonably concluded that it was not. and the like) will both sense gestures and serve as touch output devices by exerting controlled forces and pressures. Through head-mounted stereo displays (an old idea of Morton Heilig's. most people still have to be content with very limited bandwidth access. video participation in a Mass is reserved for the old.) Telemolesters will lurk. a participant. 27 (Hacker lore has it that burgeoning cyberspace romances progress through broadening bandwidth and multiplying modalities-from exchange of e-mail to phone and photo. 30 Network pimps will offer ways to do something sordid (but safe) with lubriciously programmed telehookers. 28 Robotic effectors combined with audio and video sensors will provide telepresence.html Page 11 of 143 . But what is the difference anyway? Just a few more bits. And this cannot. Today's rudimentary. robotic prostheses. the boundary that has traditionally been drawn by the edge of the computer screen will be eroded. http://homepage. intelligent second skins. And through video projection of computer displays onto real desktops. Intelligent exoskeletal devices (data gloves. only the most hopelessly nerded-out technogeeks could be persuaded to trade the joys of direct human 6 interaction for solitary play with their laptops in darkened rooms. which was first implemented by Ivan Sutherland in the 1960s and is now finally being popularized) or through holographic television (it's coming). narrowband video games will evolve into physically engaging telesports: remote arm wrestling. not merely a spectator. which will make machine-mediated conversation and companionship seem better bargains.com/bogronlund/3_314_Upload_05_03/Mitchell_City%20of%20bits. 29 Exercise machines increasingly incorporate computer-controlled motion and force feedback and will eventually become reactive robotic sports partners (at any level of strength and skill you may choose). you will be able to immerse yourself in simulated environments instead of just looking at them through a small rectangular window. Paul Virilio has reminded us that seventeenth-century theologians debated whether a Mass seen by means of a telescope was valid. You can find yourself on stage with the actors. Ivan Sutherland's original head-mounted stereo display used prisms to insert simulated three-dimensional objects into real scenes. But what about immersive. then climbing into bed. 32 This is a crucial difference: you become an inhabitant. the infirm. the proscenium dividing the "real" world from the "virtual" can be made to disappear. then taking the big step of going F2F. telepresence at Mass? In a virtual church? Once we have both a "real" three-dimensional world and computer-constructed "virtual" ones. and the disabled. With higher bandwidths. Telethugs will reach out and punch someone.mac. and still today.) With improvements in telecommunications technology we can expect growing availability of higher-bandwidth connections. of course. you will be able to initiate a business conversation by shaking hands at a distance or say goodnight to a child by transmitting a kiss across continents. the distinctions between these worlds can get fuzzed or lost. The distinction between voyeurism and engagement that arises here can be a particularly critical one in contexts that traditionally have demanded presence. virtual skiing and rock climbing. and more sophisticated input/output devices designed to take advantage of these capabilities. teleping-pong. or (as in some advanced military aircraft) through superimposition of computed stereo displays onto actual scenes. as when videoconferencing combines sound and vision. fully substitute for face-to-face (F2F) contact. data suits. trying to distinguish the scenery from the walls. ever-greater processing power. 31 (This is an obvious extrapolation of the telephone's transformation of the whorehouse into the call-girl operation.
or an umbrella in the rain. a three-dimensional virtual room. Places in the cyberspace 34 of the Net are software constructions. gallery. the participants must somehow greet and introduce themselves to one another. Bodies need not be in close proximity. Like architectural and urban places. Red Dragon Inn. or invaderis a symbolically. these have characteristic appearances. So it is on the Net. storehouse. Sharing a virtual place is not quite the same thing. or even an n -dimensional place in an abstract data structure. museum. or landscape. as sharing a physical place like a room. the "cards" of Hypercard. Starfleet Academy. trespasser. or virtual chat and conference rooms. as well. and turfs. multisensory virtual reality. and the "mailboxes" and "bulletin boards" of e-mail systems. So is the "drawing surface" or "three-dimensional modeling space" within which you produce and view graphic constructions on a CAD system. Gay and Lesbian. Born-Again Onliners. library. and follow some agreed convention for taking and relinquishing it. and you enter and exit places not by physical travel. and so on. Some virtual places. You can cruise them by scanning menus. of course. intruder. neighborhoods. and look in when they catch your interest. multiuser locations for joint activities-electronic calendars that can be updated by several staff members. being on your own turf and being on somebody else's. can be occupied by only one person at a time. virtual realms that you can potentially enter. and segmented into nested enclosures by fences and walls. At their simplest. inhabitants share the same two-dimensional graphic display or even the same immersive. They are subdivided into districts. a bed.mac. like streets and squares. visitor. and they need not be enclosed by the same architectural or natural boundaries. crossing a threshold and entering a defined place-as an owner. Thirtysomething. but to present yourself and to interact with others. The crucial thing is simultaneous electronic access to the same information. and legally freighted act. guest. Shared "rooms" on the Net often announce themselves by descriptive or allusive names (like the signs on bars and other hangouts)The Flirt's Nook. In more sophisticated places. but by simply establishing and breaking logical linkages. access to them is uncontrolled. and the interactions that unfold within them are controlled (often very rigidly) by local rules. tourist. The text window provided by a word processor is one such place. enjoying your privacy and appearing in public. Many of the places in cyberspace are public. http://homepage. socially. shared places are created by displaying the same scrolling text on multiple personal computer screens. have some way of signaling that they want the floor. There is always a big difference between being a local and being an alien. but are also elaborate structures for organizing and controlling access. as you might bar hop down a street. For the inhabitants. So are the "desktops" and "file folders" provided by operating systems. CAD files that can be accessed simultaneously by several participants in a design session. But others are designed to serve as shared-access. like hermits' huts. Within these places. Each piece of software running anywhere-on any machine or collection of machines in the Net-creates environments for interaction.html Page 12 of 143 .12/03/12 19:06 Contiguous / Connected Spatial cities. Pet Chat. A software "there" can be a one-dimensional place in a screen-displayed text.com/bogronlund/3_314_Upload_05_03/Mitchell_City%20of%20bits. a two-dimensional place to put things on a "desktop" surface. It can all be done simply by typing text or (if the available technology permits) by activating computer-animated body doubles. Romance Connection. are not only condensations of activity to maximize accessibility and promote face-to-face interaction. feeling at home and knowing that you are out of place. The point (as in more traditional meeting places) is not just to be there. but the game gets some new rules: structures of access and exclusion are reconstrued in entirely nonarchitectural terms (if we continue to define architecture as materially constructed form). legally partitioned by property lines and jurisdictional boundaries. of course. Teen Chat.
How shall we shape it? Who shall be our Hippodamos? Footnotes Chapter 3 Cyborg Citizens The sci-fi thriller The Lawnmower Man climaxes with a scene in which the fleshy body of the protagonist. the fabled Bulgarian virus factories. privacy can be violated. and they will be connected by logical linkages rather than by doors. Sometimes. so cyberspace already has its outlaw hackers and phreaks and posses of lawmen chasing them. (To get into my private electronic mailbox at MIT. is spread-eagled like Leonardo's Vitruvian Man in a whirling sphere. following the logical "paths" that relate machines. and you get back up a level by clicking on a corner of a window to close it-just as Dorothy clicked her heels to get back to Kansas. But software walls-once erected-can be breached. vast territory of the Net. as with movie theaters and hotel rooms. bumbling Keyboard Kops. you have to pay to get in. while his electronic avatar courses through the network. the places are nested to form a strict hierarchy: you go down a level in the hierarchy by clicking on a folder icon to open a "window" into a place. so long ago. Bit City The network is the urban site before us. But this new settlement will turn classical categories inside out and will reconstruct the discourse in which architects have engaged from classical times until now. I have to identify myself and present a correct password to a gatekeeper agent named Kerberos. passageways. click through cyberspace. and files.com/bogronlund/3_314_Upload_05_03/Mitchell_City%20of%20bits. This will be a city unrooted to any definite spot on the surface of the earth. directories. this is the new architectural promenade. its viruses and Trojan horses.12/03/12 19:06 Others are private. but this is not essential. and streets. a narrow peninsula beside the Maeander became the place for Miletos. Its places will be constructed virtually by software instead of physically from stones and timbers. and turf can be trespassed upon.) And sometimes.) To explore the whole. 36 Click. largely asynchronous in its operation. 35 You get from place to place in cyberspace by following logical links rather than physical paths. these allow you to poke around in other people's computers at will. Clifford Stoll (the electronic sleuth) and Officer Phrackr Trackr.html Page 13 of 143 . and you can enter only if you have the key or can demonstrate that you belong. like mailboxes and houses. and inhabited by disembodied and fragmented subjects who exist as collections of aliases and agents. locks can be broken. and you can wander at will through the resulting labyrinth. shaped by connectivity and bandwidth constraints rather than by accessibility and land values. so the fragmented figure of Jobe neatly suggests the incipient role of cities in the digital. As an ideally proportioned body inscribed in a circle evokes the humanist subject for which Renaissance cities and the buildings of Alberti and Bramante were made. (The symbols indicating these entry points may look like gateways or doors. and the great virus-induced Internet Crash. electronic era-to house and delight subjects who http://homepage. and its burgeoning mythology of transgression and retribution-those colorful tales of Acid Phreak and Phiber Optic. just as. the Pakistani Brain.mac. Alternatively. The camera cuts back and forth between the two conditions. for example. as in many hypermedia systems and adventure video games. the circulation system may be more freeform: each place provides clickable entry points to an arbitrary number of other places. Jobe Smith. you can use navigation programs like Gopher and Mosaic. an invitation to design and construct the City of Bits (capital of the twenty-first century). as for example in the graphical user interface provided by the Macintosh operating system.
your camera can get the information that it needs to time-stamp and date-stamp images. hypercellist. instrument. Immobilized flesh remains mute. Their bouncing bodies span different domains of existence. then software and silicon retrieve stored sounds. they have it two ways at once. Loran positioning system. their Walkman-augmented ears suck in signals from the virtual.html Page 14 of 143 . At the same time. radiomodem. cyborg. A computer translates the signals from these sensors into synthetic sound that a large audience hears through multiple speakers. 3 Architects and urban designers of the digital era must begin by retheorizing the body in space. the students can see and hear me. Stephen Hawking. and cello are all wired with special sensors. electronic jogging shoes that count your steps and flash warning signals at oncoming cars. conveniently located display with no internal time-keeping mechanism or adjustment buttons to push. The old body release-Monkeys 2. by connecting to the computer. smart spectacles. One central electronic clock takes the place of the three that would otherwise be needed. data glove. I adjust my tie in the video monitor-then realize with a start that I am not seeing a mirror but a picture of the picture that my audience views on the other side of the world. 4 Nervous System / Bodynet Imagine that your wristwatch communicates continuously with your pocket computer. computer. I teach a class in Singapore. Anticipate the moment at which all your personal electronic devices-headphone audio player. personal digital assistant (PDA). I display and use my body at a distance. We are all cyborgs now. Now extend the idea. fingers almost imperceptibly shift a joystick to select words from a displayed menu.com/bogronlund/3_314_Upload_05_03/Mitchell_City%20of%20bits. the users have been getting upgrade kits. cellular telephone. Speaks? Stricken limbs and the Voltrax allophone generator built into his wheelchair team up to produce electronically mediated utterances. plays on the stage at Tanglewood. In an almost unconscious gesture. calculator. and all three devices are kept perfectly synchronized. Similarly.12/03/12 19:06 neatly suggests the incipient role of cities in the digital. I am telepresent. Where are his/its boundaries? Without leaving my office at MIT. electronic era-to house and delight subjects who have become sites of intersection between physical space and cyberspace. part-electronic jogging Januses. dictaphone. Not the traditionally constituted body. pager. medical http://homepage. 2 His wrist. 1 I gaze from my window at the Nike-shod cyborgs on Memorial Drive. as I would a camera in my own hands. speaks. Vitruvian Man / Lawnmower Man Look around. so the watch reduces to a simple. and emit them from speakers. Like the cruelly immobilized physicist and the venturesome musician. I can control it from where I sit. VCR remote. The computer itself might grab information from the NIST atomic clock radio broadcast so that it never needs to be set. a window opens on my computer screen and a distant video camera temporarily becomes my eyes and ears. electronic stylus. Their meat feet slap the surface of the solid world. but a new sort of electrosomatic construction now becomes the site of practice and project. Yo-Yo Ma.0-no longer delivers what's needed. bow. assemble them into paragraphs. camcorder. I extend the limited affordances of my fleshy sensors and effectors through some ingenious electronic jiggery-pokery. the computer's electronic clock provides the time information. August 1991.mac. Performer. Part-human. and speaker system become one cybernetic organism.
or tattoos.12/03/12 19:06 electronic jogging shoes that count your steps and flash warning signals at oncoming cars. 6 They will become more like items of clothingsoft wearables that conform to the contours of your body. You will be able to use your PDA to program your VCR. there is intensive research into the possibility of implanted silicon retinas for the blind. and geographic coverage and as different types of electronic organs are connected into them.mac. By this point in the evolution of miniature electronic products. and anything else that you might habitually wear or occasionally carry-can seamlessly be linked in a wireless bodynet that allows them to function as an integrated system and connects them to the worldwide digital network. when wearable. between a laptop computer and a desktop model. Distinctions between self and other are open to reconstruction. some of your electronic organs may be built into your surroundings. Difference becomes provisional. This principle will be extended as digital networks grow in density of connection points. you will have acquired a collection of interchangeable. then have your Walkman give you directions back to your hotel. But you will not even have to own the electronic organs to which you connect. and implanted electronic organs connected by bodynets are as commonplace as cotton. you might record your route on your PDA. after all. And perhaps. reconfigurable. display coordinates from the Loran on your smart spectacles. nose rings. And where they bridge to the external digital world. 5 Where these electronic organs interface to your sensory receptors and your muscles. you will also begin to blend into the architecture. or hearing aids. will lose their traditional hard plastic carapaces. 8 Once you break the bounds of your bag of skin in this way. your intimate infrastructure connects you seamlessly to a planetful of bits. In other words. Smarty Pants. as the boundaries of the body and the limits of the nervous system become less definite. infinitely extensible cyborg. Consider plain old telephone service. electronic pacemakers and cochlear implants are now commonplace. http://homepage. You will have become a modular. So "inhabitation" will take on a new meaning-one that has less to do with parking your bones in architecturally defined space and more with connecting your nervous system to nearby electronic organs. download physiological data from an electronic exercise machine into your PDA. between a wristwatch and a clock on the wall. and you will become part of them. As you jog in a strange city. your nervous system will plug into the worldwide digital net. then. and that is of little importance in a wireless world where every electronic device has some built-in computation and telecommunications capacity. Microdevices may even be implanted surgically. you rent channels and access to remote devices as you require them. as they become ever smaller and more intimately connected to you. listen to pager messages through your Walkman.html Page 15 of 143 . do you know where your network extensions are tonight? For cyborgs. bandwidth. the border between interiority and exteriority is destabilized. Circuits may be woven into cloth. neuromuscular simulation systems seem a promising way to repair spinal cord damage. There is no great difference. and you have software in your underwear. fitted. contact lenses. and transmit the output from your camcorder to remote locations via your wireless modem.com/bogronlund/3_314_Upload_05_03/Mitchell_City%20of%20bits. It's eleven o'clock. medical monitoring system. and they will not have to be close by. you will have them fitted like shoes. Think of yourself on some evening in the not-so-distant future. 7 Some chips are tiny enough to be injectable and have already been used for tagging and tracking wildlife and identifying pets. Expect that electronic organs. and it is certainly not hard to imagine electronic ear studs. gloves. pacemaker (if you are so unfortunate). It is just a matter of what the organ is physically attached to. there will be continuous bit-spits across the carbon/silicon gap. Your room and your home will become part of you. You get the idea. or between a hearing aid fitted into your ear and a special public telephone for the hard-ofhearing in its little booth. We will all become mighty morphing cyborgs capable of reconfiguring ourselves by the minute-of renting extended nervous tissue and organ capacity and of redeploying our extensions in space as our needs change and as our resources allow. snap-in organs connected by exonerves.
html Page 16 of 143 . England. in 1926 John Logie Baird produced a television system that really worked. it moves to London. inverted panopticon. I sit at the desk of a Xerox PARC researcher. a window divided inside from outside. beyond the electronic window. then back to Atlanta. I can glimpse the sun setting over stone spires. through the window of that distant office. and there was no time difference across the glass. That old Punch cartoon flashes again into my mind. as the boundaries of the body and the limits of the nervous system become less definite. The electric camera obscura was soon. flat video screens. Cambridge. I am in the media space that has been constructed to weld two distant office buildings together by adding continuously open. in 1975 cable television operators begin to receive programming from communications satellites. An arrow on the bedside table points the prayerful to Mecca. calling from somewhere outside. Right now. Riyadh. In the world that we cyborgs inhabit. in fact. Ted Turner has succeeded in electronically organizing them all into a gigantic. Simultaneously. Seattle. the scenes that we see through the glass are rescaled and distant. but the satellite dish on the roof turns news junkies and insomniacs toward Georgia. An amplified muezzin. Late afternoon. the electronic retinas of our video cameras produce shifts and fragments. Some may want to argue that the seat of the cyborg soul-the postmodern pineal gland-is no longer to be sought just on the wet side of the carbon/silicon divide.mac. the place on the other side may change from moment to moment. And it can slide back in time as signals generated from video recordings (which have become visually indistinguishable from live camera output) are switched into the transmission. The interior wall panels are not what they seem. that same sun is visible rising over the ochre Palo Alto hills. space and time were continuous. through the electronic window before me. two-way. MIT. California. but activated they become electronic windows opening onto anything at all. and the action may be a replay. Rooms and buildings now have new kinds of apertures. through the grimy window to the street. A one-way electronic window opens onto the CNN newsroom in Atlanta. They turn out to be huge. then to Sydney.com/bogronlund/3_314_Upload_05_03/Mitchell_City%20of%20bits. Paterfamilias and materfamilias in Wilton Place were seen teleconferencing with their children in antipodean Ceylon. electronic windows at both ends. in 1939 at the New York World's Fair RCA unveiled its electronic. but the very same place was always there on the other side. Kresge Auditorium. Outside. Punch anticipated this in 1879: a cartoon showed the imagined "Edison's Telephonoscope (transmits light as well as sound)" opening up a video window above the bedroom mantelpiece of a comfortable Victorian villa. and the usual relationship of interior to exterior space is twisted into jawdropping paradox. the same window is open in thousands and thousands of similar hotel rooms spread around the world.12/03/12 19:06 And perhaps. the news anchor greets the top of the hour with a fast-paced rundown of the day's top stories. I see an empty office at Xerox PARC headquarters in Palo Alto. though. C-Span and CNN went on the air. Architectural solids and voids become fluidly interchangeable. 10 Fancy hotel room. 9 A century after the prescient Punch cartoon appeared. CRT-based television system. House of Microsoft mogul Bill Gates. And. In repose they simulate the surfaces of standard architectural materials. to Beijing. marks the moment for morning devotions. A conference is assembled in honor of artificial intelligence pioneer Marvin http://homepage. as we watch. But the antipanoptic center-the place that draws gazes from all the scattered cyborg cells-can be switched instantaneously. and from 1929 to 1937 the BBC used the Baird system to provide broadcast television service. Eyes / Television In the historic haunts of unaugmented humankind. metaphysicians will be tempted to reformulate the mind/body problem as the mind/network problem. a reality: in 1884 Paul Nipkow patented the Nipkow disk system for electromechanically converting pictures into electrical signals and then decoding them at a reception point.
) Producer Phil Ramone digitally assembles these disembodied vocals. To call the disk `Duets' seems a misnomer. Once. and the audience is abuzz with talk. when Alexander Graham Bell. Bell's very first telephone message was "Mr. and so on across the globe. unlike the delay with a satellite link. A New York Times critic harrumphs: "No matter how gratifying the results. And I am there in the old-fashioned way: in person. while strangers on the Net. however. And I can listen in only with the aid of my own artificial audio organs. traditional arrangement. The musicians and the audience are within easy sight and earshot of eachother in a public place.12/03/12 19:06 Minsky. Aretha Franklin from Detroit. Soon we will be able casually to create holes in space wherever and whenever we want them. is imperceptible. telecroon in their tracks over distortion-free fiber-optic lines-Tony Bennett doing "New York. a condition obviously not met by a recording of performers widely separated in time and space. Barnum "was loath to display the telephone. can they be called duets? A duet implies spontaneous interaction and mutual responsiveness between two performers in each other's presence. Not only have the configurations of our bodies changed-with their now endlessly multiplied. indeed. Watson-come here -I want to see you. if I tried to get within actual earshot of the performance. of the feverish rush to wire American communities for two-way. Professor of Vocal Physiology in the School of Oratory of Boston University. It's One More for My Baby and One More for the Information Superhighway. and fields questions from the audience. Arthur C. 12 But his ol' blue eyes don't see them. it extended and redefined the sphere of interaction and inhabitation. Without leaving his tropical home. Around the same time. recently invented digital device that places http://homepage. and the music holds us all in a face-to-face. interactive video. it created a new form of contact. New York" from Manhattan. no doubt. A trio sings and plays as I drink Montejo beer. Ears / Telephony Café Peôn Contreras.html Page 17 of 143 . Sinatra remains concealed in a Capitol Records studio in Hollywood. Clarke steps into view. time-zone-spanning optic nerve with electronic eyeballs at its endpoints. though. Frank Sinatra's fading voice croaks duets with a clutch of mostly unlikely partners. delivers the keynote. On stage is a hole in spacea video window into a book-lined study in Sri Lanka (the former British colony of Ceylon). Now familiar. The problematic Sinatra duets." 14 The Mérida trio performance takes place at a certain spot and has its particular evening hour. unplugged. But we video cyborgs see things differently. and time-shifted speech and hearing organs-but also their relationships to the city's spaces and temporal rhythms. places were bounded by walls and horizons. It's a familiar.mac." 15 Barnum's suckers would have been even more stupefied by the Convolvotron -a clever. Days were defined by sunrises and sunsets. are constructed in cyberspace by cyborgs of a species that began to emerge on March 10.com/bogronlund/3_314_Upload_05_03/Mitchell_City%20of%20bits. Liza Minelli from Brazil. Telephony did not replace face-to-face human contact. In 1993 this is still fairly unusual-a tour-de-force of jury-rigged electronics-but the business pages tell us. synchronized relationship for as long as the performance lasts. displaced. first successfully connected an electromechanical ear to an electromechanical voice box by an electric wire. I would most certainly find that there's no there there. 1876. this acoustic hyperextension once seemed spooky. and I finally hear the result on my rental car stereo-along with thousands of other commuters tuned to the same stationas I sit in morning traffic on the Bay Bridge to Oakland. far more than just a glance away." Rather. because he didn't wish to freak out his audience with this voiced partial limb. 11 Every place with a network connection will potentially have every other such place just outside the window. 13 (The time delay. Avital Ronell reminds us that the circus showman Phineas T. whereas limbless figures were still held to be digestible. Mérida. The Net has become a worldwide. and the audience doesn't assemble in his bodily presence.
And we meet in places that cannot be found on city maps. and there had been many such experiments. and the surgeon is hundreds of miles away. I'm playing around on a hydraulically actuated. this scene is a simulation. brain surgery on watermelons. We telephonic cyborgs are comfortably at home in a world of disembodied sounds-of speech displaced in space and time from its origins. a surgeon's scalpel moves precisely across the surface of an eyeball to make a delicate incision. diving flight through a fantastic three-dimensional environment. darkened room. But the scalpel is teleoperated. But we're different now. of performances that do not require stages or places to assemble audiences. you might wish to use a telescope without actually having to go to http://homepage.html Page 18 of 143 . I line up with the computer graphics geeks and off-duty demo-dollies to check out the Sega R360. and of conversations without the confrontation of bodies. Anaheim Convention Center. Muscles / Actuators Suddenly I feel the shock of a major earthquake. If you are an astronomer.12/03/12 19:06 even more stupefied by the Convolvotron -a clever. 20 Specialized telemanipulators were becoming an increasingly important part of the cyborg organ repertoire. Tissue removal had been practiced on chicken breasts. turning. or you might just want to stay well away from dangerous places like battlefields or the South Side of Chicago. 18 And there had been some successful practical applications of robotic devices to surgical tasks requiring positional certainty and rapid performance: in March 1991. grasping a forcefeedback device and watching the output from a medical imaging system on a video monitor. and the accelerations of our seats are precisely synchronized with the projected images to produce the corresponding g-forces and jolts. 19 and in November 1992 Robodoc-a specialized robotic arm-helped replace the arthritic hip of a sixty-four-year-old Sacramento man.com/bogronlund/3_314_Upload_05_03/Mitchell_City%20of%20bits. Along with other paying customers. computer-controlled shaking table-a device that is more normally used to test structural prototypes for seismic safety-and I'm experiencing a simulation generated from seismograph data. it's all in the cunning programming. but this one does 360-degree rotations.mac. twisting. Killer vestibulars! Physical movement and phenomenal motion can now be disconnected. The phenomenal motion is far greater than the actual motion. There are endless reasons for robotically extending your reach. Doug Trumbull's Luxor ride milks all of its thrills out of sliding motions along just two axes. The illusion of flying like Superman is complete. you might want to make your capabilities more widely available through use of remote manipulation techniques. Mechanical muscles move my body. But by the early 1990s robotic surgery and telesurgery had been active research topics for some time. 16 It can surround us with virtual cocktail parties of voices that seem to come from empty points in space. 17 A wide-angle screen before us presents a pilot's-eye view of a high-speed. and from beginning to end we don't leave the same small. but we never actually move more than a few feet. And I strap on a head-mounted display instead of watching a projection screen. It is a scary. stomach-churning roller coaster ride through a vast virtual landscape. Hands / Telemanipulators An operating table. and the scalpel is merely cutting into a grape. Actually. I strap myself into an even more advanced kind of motion simulator. the world's firstactive surgical robot was used to perform prostate surgery onalive patient. If you are a skilled surgeon. recently invented digital device that places electronically synthesized or recreated sounds in particular locations. Luxor hotel-casino. at Shaftesbury Hospital in London. we teleporting cyborgs have found loopholes in Newton's laws. but it doesn't bother me a bit. Las Vegas.
any device http://homepage. noisy. for example. 24 And if you are in your right mind. you might very understandably want to get a dangerous job done without having to put your flesh on the line. By the early nineteenth century there was much scientific speculation about the possibility of telegraphy-writing at a distance. A force-feedback arm provides the effectof running a nanoscaled hand across the displayed surfaces and pushing things around. then set to work on piezoelectric motorpowered ant robots about a millimeter across. employs a head-mounted stereo display to view data from a scanning-tunneling microscope in real time and makes use of the microscope probe tip as a manipulator. you will not want to get too cozy with infectious samples in a medical laboratory or with a nuclear power plant or hazardous chemical plant in an emergency situation. (Marconi's first transatlantic message was one of modernist minimalisma single pulse. Rodney Brooks contrived a cockroach-sized robot at MIT in 1988. you might wish to use a telescope without actually having to go to some distant. Just equip yourself with the right sorts of video eyes and electromechanical hands." By the 1890s William Crookes was imagining the "new and astonishing" possibility of wireless telegraphy. perhaps from a remote location. 30 All this is the outcome of an evolutionary process that began in the second half of the eighteenth century. you may simply have no way of getting your own body to the terrain that you want to explore. so cyborg soldiers equipped with teleoperated weapons can stay safely in the rear echelon and avoid the dangers of front-line combat. 27 Tiny telemanipulators and robots seem particularly well suited to laparoscopic surgery. 21 If you are a construction machinery operator.com/bogronlund/3_314_Upload_05_03/Mitchell_City%20of%20bits. 29 Ultra-Lilliputian nanorobots-whichhave at least been the subject of serious speculation-could submarine through veins and arteries and perform molecular-level surgery.) Now. you can go right down to the atomic scale and act in the world you find there. has suggested that minute electromechanical bugs could also act as miniature spies: "Imagine what you could do with an ant if you could control it. you might not want to climb down into an active crater to take a look. we might hope to create future warriors that we could send forward surrounded by protecting robots or remote control aircraft. if robotic devices are constructed at insect size. "In a physiological sense. and as the twentieth century dawned Guglielmo Marconi transmitted a wireless signal across the Atlantic.. and survey bomb damage. The 82nd Airborne used Pointer RPVs to patrol base perimeters. Conversely. Just as boxers with long arms stand less chance of getting belted in the jaw than opponents with shorter reaches. The UNC/UCLA nanomanipulator.html Page 19 of 143 . be used to crawl into arteries and unclog them. If you are a vulcanologist. 25 The sky was abuzz with Pioneer RPVs (remotely piloted vehicles)teleoperated. 23 If you are a planetary geologist. he suggested. when scientists began to play with the idea of accomplishing action at a distance by sending electricity through wires. inventor of a micromotor device. teleoperated weapons actually played a significant battlefield role. 31 Early experiments produced sparks or moved pith balls. just one bit of information." 26 Goliath is being reinvented." 28 By using a microscope instead of an ordinary video camera and a micromanipulator in place of a human-scaled telerobot. in which instruments and cameras are inserted through very small incisions in the body while the surgeon watches a video monitor. By 1843 Samuel Morse had successfully constructed a long-distance telegraph line between Washington and Baltimore. and opened it with the Morse-coded message "What hath God wrought. spot missile sites. In the future.mac. you might rather work from the comfort and safety of an air-conditioned site office than from a vertiginous. These might. If you are an astronomer. for the first time. search for mines. You could make it walk into CIA headquarters.12/03/12 19:06 Chicago. 22 If you are a cop or a bomb disposal specialist.. they can also be used to get closer than we otherwise could and thus to manipulate things that are too small to be grasped by the fingertips. and German mine sweepers deployed teleoperated patrol boats. Johannes Smits of Boston University. dusty cab. when needed. or skate across eyeballs to perform retinal surgery. isolated site. pilotless planes that were used to track Iraqi forces. the hand that holds the weapon may grow even longer: a 1987 Military Review article speculated. In the Gulf War. soldiers may actually appear to be three miles tall and twenty miles wide . reconnect severed neurons.
12/03/12 19:06 message was one of modernist minimalisma single pulse. or performing some other specialized task requiring information about passing buildings and their occupants. If you were driving a delivery truck. can do a lot more than display maps. 35 The task of the smart vehicle then becomes not just one of calculating the shortest or quickest path to a specified destination. For travelers it could deal with some immediately practical concerns -directing you to the nearest gas station or to the closest inexpensive Chinese restaurant." "You just made a wrong turn. the system continuously updates the display to reflect our current location-automatically rotating and recentering the map to keep the arrow just below the middle of the map and pointing straight ahead. looking at real estate. or finding you a bed for the night. A vehicle that knows where it is. and whatever information is available about current traffic conditions can be factored in. Our grasp has no limitsupper or lower." and so on. or census information. any device connected to the worldwide telecommunications network is potentially a site for action by anyone anywhere on that net. but it can almost as easily be output as a sequence of instructions from a robotic back-seat driver -"Next left. As usual in this huge and confusing metropolis. Integration of some simple speech-recognition capabilities can even allow the driver to ask "What now?" Not only may vehicles sense where they are in the road system. or the agricultural products of the area-and. 33 As we navigate the intricate route from Shinjuku to Asakusa. The real city that surrounds us and the video city that guides us are held in perfect coincidence. So virtual reality researcher Warren Robinett has extrapolated from the telegraph to bodily telepresence: "In a few years visual telepresence may be widely available. and indicates our position and direction with an arrow. So my companion casually punches a button on the dashboard of his car. But this is just the beginning. charges for the use of a road can.mac. but the road system may also be equipped with electronic sensors enabling it to detect where the vehicles are. It instantly grabs our coordinates from the global positioning satellite system. We have no fixed scale. travel through cities will involve continuous information exchange http://homepage." 32 Unlike Leonardo's Vitruvian Man. If. Finding the shortest path through a street network is a straightforward software task (though doing so efficiently can get a bit tricky when the network is large). Silicon-smart vehicles can also calculate efficient routes from their current locations to specified destinations. the system could supply it. and can pull information relevant to its location out of a database of geographically coded information. it might look up interesting facts in online guidebooks and read you a commentary on the passing scene. displays a detailed street map on a dashboard screen. most controllable devices are linked to the communications network.com/bogronlund/3_314_Upload_05_03/Mitchell_City%20of%20bits. And it could tell you what's on and what's open in your immediate neighborhood. just one bit of information. we telemanipulating cyborgs cannot be encircled by neat arcs swept through our outstretched limbs.In the future. I have absolutely no idea where I am.html Page 20 of 143 . like a knowledgeable and attentive companion. Brains / Artificial Intelligence An anonymous street in Tokyo. So the old ideas of the tollbooth and the on-ramp meter can be updated. then it will be possible for a person to project by virtual travel to a distant location and initiate actions there through the actuators available at that site. at that time. The chosen route might simply be displayed on a dashboard screen. it could learn what you particularly cared about-the highlights of local history. so that a person can move by virtual travel instantly to distant locations. be adjusted instantaneously according to the level of road congestion. 34 For example.) Now. and the latest Japanese consumer electronics wonder beeps into action. canvassing for a political cause. but of computing the cheapest path or of finding a reasonably quick route that does not cost too much. it could offer only observations likely to interest you. in principle. just as it is now possible with the telephone for hearing only. With slightly more sophisticated programming. perhaps.
not cost too much.In the future, travel through cities will involve continuous information exchange between smart vehicles and smart roadway systems. 36 As I contemplate all this, I recall Roy Rogers and Trigger-an all-terrain vehicle with abundant onboard intelligence. Trigger always knew where he was, could find his way home if necessary, and understood moment-by-moment what his master needed; horse and cowboy functioned as one. But when the horse vanished from everyday life, leaving behind the horseless carriage, the onboard intelligence went too; there was a technological gap to be filled. (Roy obviously didn't have quite the same relationship to his jeep.) Increasingly, now, electronics are doing the job. Soon, our automobiles will be at least as smart as Trigger, and the car-and-driver relationship will return to the cowpoke-and-horseflesh mode. And when they get smarter still, the horseless carriage may evolve into the driverless automobile. As a result, we are beginning to know and use cities in new ways. Long ago the urban theorist Kevin Lynch pointed out the fundamental relationship between human cognition and urban form-the importance of the learned mental maps that knowledgeable locals carry about inside their skulls. These mental maps, together with the landmarks and edges that provide orientation within the urban fabric, are what make a city seem familiar and comprehensible. But for us artificially intelligent cyborgs, the ability to navigate through the streets and gain access to a city's resources isn't all in our heads. Increasingly, we rely on our electronic extensions-smart vehicles and hand-held devices, together with the invisible landmarks provided by electronic positioning systems-to orient us in the urban fabric, to capture and process knowledge of our surroundings, and to get us to where we want to go. Being There For millennia architects have been concerned with the skin-bounded body and its immediate sensory environment-with providing shelter, warmth, and safety, with casting light on the surfaces that surround it, with creating conditions for conversation and music, with orchestrating the touch of hard and soft and rough and smooth materials, and with breezes and scents. Now they must contemplate electronically augmented, reconfigurable, virtual bodies that can sense and act at a distance but that also remain partially anchored in their immediate surroundings. (The Neuromancer fantasy of cyberspace that totally masks physical space-and so produces completely disembodied electronic existence -represents a theoretical limit, not a practical condition.) When you wear your Walkman on the bus, your feet are on the floor and your eyes see the physical enclosure, but an electronic audio environment masks the immediately surrounding one and your ears are in another place. When you don a head-mounted stereo display to play Dactyl Nightmare in a virtual reality arcade, the immediate visual environment is supplanted by virtual space, but your sense of touch reminds you that you still remain surrounded by now-invisible solid objects. When you juxtapose a videoconference window to a distant time zone with a glazed opening to the immediate surroundings, you can contrast night with day and winter with summer. Increasingly the architectures of physical space and cyberspace-of the specifically situated body and of its fluid electronic extensions-are superimposed, intertwined, and hybridized in complex ways. The classical unities of architectural space and experience have shatteredas the dramatic unities long ago fragmented on the stageand architects now need to design for this new condition. As we look back to previous eras, we multiply augmented cyborgs can recognize that we have much to be thankful for. But we should not forget our roots-the cultures of those long, pre-silicon centuries in which our ancestors had to do it all with protoplasm. They had little opportunity to extend their nervous systems or upgrade their bodies, so they made places for inhabitation-buildings and cities -that were carefully fitted to the scale and limitations of the original equipment and structured to promote constant face-toface, eye-to-eye, within earshot and within arm's length contact. Life in pre-cyborg places was a very different experience. You really had to be there. Footnotes
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Chapter 4 Recombinant Architecture
As our bodies morph into cyborgs, the buildings that house them are also transforming. Increasingly, telecommunication systems replace circulation systems, and the solvent of digital information decomposes traditional building types. One by one, the familiar forms vanish. Then the residue of recombinant fragments yields up mutants. Facade / Interface First, some historical perspective. Not so long ago, when the world seemed simpler, buildings corresponded one-to-one with institutions and rendered those institutions visible. Architecture played an indispensable representational role by providing occupations, organizations, and social groupings with their public faces. Firehouses were for firefighters, schoolhouses were for scholars, and jailhouses were for jailbirds. The monarch's palace at Versailles, like the For-bidden City of Beijing or the Red Fort in Delhi, housed the ruler and his court, and its in-your-face form unambiguously expressed established power; it was where the ruling got done, and it was what you tried to grab if you wanted to usurp. Everyone knew that the General Motors headquarters building in Detroit-with its boardroom on the topmost floor -was where cigar-sucking captains of industry ran the company and decided (so they thought) what was good for the country as well. Buildings were distinguished from one another by their differing uses, and the inventory of those uses represented social division and structure. The Roman theorist Vitruvius recognized this when he enunciated the principle of architectural decorumappropriateness of form to purpose and status. And when the French revolutionary architect Ledoux wanted to demonstrate the possibility of a new social order, he designed and drew the hardware of his utopia-architecture parlante, the buildings that were to accommodate and vividly illustrate its restructured institutions. Under this historically familiar condition, the internal organization of a building-its subdivision into parts, the interrelation of those parts by the circulation system, and the evident hierarchies of privacy and control-reflected the structure of the institution and physically diagrammed its pattern of activities. There was a complementarity of life and bricks and mortar, like that of snail and shell. If there was a mismatch, then the building had to be modified or the institution was forced to adapt. In his best Obi wan-Kenobi mode, remarking on the British Houses of Parliament, Winston Churchill cast this point into a muchquoted aphorism: we make our buildings and our buildings make us. 1 But now, increasingly, software beats hardware. In the early 1990s, for example, Columbia University scrapped plans to build a twentymillion-dollar addition to its law library and instead bought a Connection Machine (a state-of-the-art supercomputer) and embarked on a program of scanning and storing ten thousand deteriorating old books yearly. 2 Library users would no longer go to a card catalogue and then physically retrieve books from the stacks. Nor would they open books, look up topics of interest in the table of contents or the index, and then flip through the pages to get to what they wanted. At computer workstations, they would enter queries (in plain English), retrieve lists of stored documents in response, and search through those documents to find relevant passages. 3 The task of designing and implementing the library extension had been
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relevant passages. 3 The task of designing and implementing the library extension had been fundamentally redefined. It was no longer one of laying out and constructing a building, with storage and circulation areas, to house the shelf space required by an expanding collection. It became one of designing and programming the computer tools for storing, querying, retrieving, and displaying digitally encoded text. Henceforth, the library would be extensible and reconfigurable in software. Today, institutions generally are supported not only by buildings and their furnishings, but also by telecommunication systems and computer software. And the digital, electronic, virtual side is increasingly taking over from the physical. In many contexts, storage of bits is displacing storage of physical artifacts such as books, so that the need for built space is reduced. Electronic linkage is substituting for physical accessibility and for convenient connection by the internal circulation systems of buildings, so that access imperatives no longer play such powerful roles in clustering and organizing architectural spaces. And-as when an ATM screen rather than a door in a neoclassical edifice on Main Street provides access to a bank-computer-generated graphic displays are replacing built facades as the public faces of institutions. It is time to update Churchill's bon mot. Now we make our networks and our networks make us. Bookstores / Bitstores The most obvious epicenter of this shakeup is the information business. And it is particularly instructive to consider the fate of one of its most familiar architectural manifestations, the book shop. Where will we find twenty-first-century Pickwicks? The problem with printed books, magazines, and newspapers-Gutenberg's gotcha-is distribution. Paper documents can be mass produced rapidly at centralized locations, but they must then be warehoused, transported, stocked at retail outlets, and eventually hand carried to wherever they will be opened and read. There are built and specially equipped places for each of these activities: the publisher's office, the printing plant, the warehouse, the bookstore, the newspaper kiosk, lounges and waiting rooms stocked with magazines, and the easy chair beside the fire. These places are distributed at appropriate locations within the urban fabric and play important roles in differentiating that fabric and the activities unfolding within it. Harvard Square would not be the same without Out of Town News and its diverse collection of bookstores. Records and videos generate analogous places and spatial structures. The record store long ago took its place alongside the bookstore in downtown retail districts and shopping malls. Then, in the 1980s, video stores popped up everywhere-proliferating particularly in strips, shopping centers, and rural market centers, where they could easily be reached by car. Like the gas station and the fast-food outlet, video stores became a characteristic element of the suburban landscape. When we separate information from its usual paper and plastic substrates, though, stockpiling and transporting physical products become unnecessary. Consider, for example, a venture announced by Blockbuster Entertainment (a large video-rental and record store chain) and IBM in May 1993. 4 The idea was to store recordings, in digital format, on a central server and to distribute them via a computer network to kiosks in record stores. There, customers could select recordings from a menu, download them to the kiosk, and copy them to CDs on the spot. Bookstores could work the same way, by downloading texts and rapidly laser-printing them. Through such point-of-sale production, the producers and wholesalers save on inventory, warehouse, and transportation costs, the retailers save on shelf space, and the customer potentially gets access to a much wider selection. But inscription on to the substrate need not necessarily occur at this particular point along the information
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The Chicago Tribune. As I write this. and displays them in whatever format I may happen to prefer.html Page 24 of 143 . 6 Media biggie Rupert Murdoch began to buy into the Internet. as they might in a traditional newsstand-and also allowed convenient placement of subscription orders for print versions. (This can be integrated with a recycling strategy. It is immaterial rather than bonded to paper or plastic sheets. and newspapers to home computers. headlines become menu items to click. and it is potentially reprocessable at any reception point-thus shifting much of the editorial and formatting work and responsibility from the producer's centralized plant to the consumer's personal hardware and software. Even more importantly. I use software that picks out the items I want to see. telephone. record stores. Time Warner announced an ambitious test project to put inexpensive telecomputers in four thousand homes in Orlando. naturally enough. Florida. 7 Publishers were starting to evolve into organizations that pumped bits into the Net-the loading docks of the information superhighway system. It's a short step to the completely personalized newspaper produced by an interface agent that knows my interests and preferences. it is the point that most interests retailers. An electronic bookstore and sections for business publications and newsletters were soon added. videos to home televisions. with each one repeatedly broadcasting specialized programs. lending libraries. it is almost instantaneously transferable to any place that has a network connection or is within range of a bit radiation source. Even the ideas of a "daily paper" and a self-contained "story" are challenged.) Yet another strategy for text. The Internet's Electronic Newsstand pioneered the new publishing pattern of downloading on demand when it opened in July 1993. is to download books and magazines from online databases to home laser printers (successors to the crude fax machines of the 1980s and 1990s) and to download recordings to home stereos. digital distribution might carry all the way to homes or other points of consumption. widely distributed electronic boxes at the ends of cables. a newspaper can become an accumulating online database of news stories in which a current story is simply an entry point for tracing a topic back through previous stories. then. elimination of the need for access to printing presses and paper supplies has removed traditional barriers to entering the publishing http://homepage. With changes in modes of information distribution come changes in acts of consumption-even in the familiar ritual of reading a newspaper. Gutenberg's revolution created places where printed information was concentrated and controlled. By the mid-1990s a new pattern of information distribution was clearly emerging on the North American continent. 5 It provided online access to magazine articles-thus allowing customers to browse. digital information has a radically different spatial logic. and the Videoway network in Montreal was already offering a commercially successful interactive television system. music. and newspaper kiosks in urban centers would largely be replaced by millions of inconspicuous. but silently and immaterially-on my computer. and presentation software.12/03/12 19:06 But inscription on to the substrate need not necessarily occur at this particular point along the information distribution chain. The growing expectation was that bookstores. Or I can do keyword searches through databases of accumulated stories.mac. video stores. or video on demand is simply to provide hundreds or thousands of simultaneously available digital channels. the San Jose Mercury News.) Electronic. and many others show up as well. In 1993. (Though. Cable. processing hardware. less than a year later the list had grown to eighty. and computer companies were scrambling to form alliances that would provide homes and workplaces with inexpensive network connections. print on recycled paper and toss the printouts back into the recycling bin when their useful life is over. It was established with eight magazines. continually scans the incoming news stream to pick out items that match my interest profile. and the service was being accessed forty thousand times per day from all over the world. the New York Times and the Boston Globe -in the form of large lumps of reprocessed cellulose -land with thumps on my Cambridge doorstep each morning and must eventually find their way to the recycling bin.com/bogronlund/3_314_Upload_05_03/Mitchell_City%20of%20bits. Instead of turning their pages. for example. An alternative publishing strategy. But electronic.
very slow version of what computer technicians now know as a database server: you send requests. columnar facade functioned as an icon-signifier of an access point. as the ratio of book storage to reading space changed. But on the infobahn. when Sydney Smirke designed his rotunda for insertion into the older fabric of the British http://homepage. The likely result is a radical change in the sizes and locations of information supply points. rectangular block of gridded stack space with a grand public stair in the center and access stairs at the four corners. 8 In early libraries. Every day the news flowed in and the printed papers flowed out to the surrounding metropolis. Stacks / Servers The old British Museum reading room provided an architectural interface to the vast book stacks that lay beyond. it seemed logical to propose a huge.mac. 9 By the time that Karl Friedrich Schinkel produced his Berlin Staatsbibliothek project in 1835-36. with small numbers of volumes. the classical. anyone with an inexpensive computer and a network connection can now set up a server and pump out bits. (In later years. When the Chicago Tribune Tower was constructed. Library attendants would then retrieve volumes from the stacks for use at a reading table. books could be summoned up by the action of specifying a call number. This highly refined functional diagram was the outcome of a long evolutionary process.12/03/12 19:06 access to printing presses and paper supplies has removed traditional barriers to entering the publishing business. books had lined the walls of the reading room. where every node is potentially both a publication and consumption point. From outside. And in 1854-56. From within the circular. the whole thing was a very large. Later.html Page 25 of 143 . such centralized concentrations of activity will be supplanted by millions of dispersed fragments. the book stacks were separated from the reading rooms and increasingly became the dominant spatial element. tourists would come to look for the very table at which Karl Marx sat absorbing vast amounts of printed information and transforming it into a blueprint for revolution. and you get back items of stored information. domed reading room (which looks in plan like a sectored hard disk). the new type was clearly emerging in Leopoldo della Santa's 1816 theoretical project for a library.) The cycle would be completed by performing the task of reshelving the books until they were needed again.com/bogronlund/3_314_Upload_05_03/Mitchell_City%20of%20bits. Functionally. it stood as the proudly visible center of a vast collection and distribution system and an emblem of the power of the press.
The collection's existence would not be celebrated architecturally. Now extrapolate from this small-scale example and imagine a 10-million-volume. 10 (For comparison. 12 The facade is not to be constructed of stone and located on a street in Bloomsbury. software routines retrieve files from the disk. Those addicted to the look and feel of tree flakes encased in dead cow (and prepared to pay for it) would not have to kick the habit. the seats and carrels disperse. the book stacks became a huge. the British Library had about 12 million on a couple of hundred miles. Reading tables become display windows on screens. The task facing the designers of this soft library is a transformation (with some invariants. It will not be possible to tell tourists where some Marx of the next millennium sat. (It matters little where the digital volumes physically reside-just that they can be accessed efficiently-and they occupy little physical space anyway. The huge stacks shrink to almost negligible size. rather than by opening reading room doors. All that is solid melts in air. And the librarians could run backups (look what happened to the Library of Alexandria. separate iron structure. In response to user requests.12/03/12 19:06 1854-56. where they didn't have a way to do it!).com/bogronlund/3_314_Upload_05_03/Mitchell_City%20of%20bits. as the grandiose mass of Widener celebrates the accumulative power of Harvard. or in the limbo of the reshelving cart. and Harvard's Widener had about 3.mac. and there is nothing left to put a grand facade on. lost. Popular graphical user interfaces of personal computers function in much the same way as Smirke's careful architectural arrangements. Old volumes could live out their days in safe and dignified retirement in climate-controlled book museums. in somebody else's carrel. elegant physical volumes could automatically be generated on demand. display them on the screen for inspection and manipulation. the Library of Congress had nearly 15 million volumes on 550 miles of shelves in the early 1990s.) This library would never close.) 11 The catalogue would be available on the network. Nothing would ever be checked out. but many radical changes) of what faced the Smirke brothers and the librarian Panizzi as they evolved the design for the British Museum and Library. to make visible the available access points. but of pixels on thousands of screens scattered throughout the world. digital. like doorways along a street. Volumes or chapters might be downloaded to a scholar's personal workstation in a minute or two. and perhaps eventually rewrite them back to the disk.html Page 26 of 143 . Resources are made available to the public by allowing anyone to log in and by providing computer workstations in public places. online.5 million. Clicking on an icon (like knocking on a door) puts the user in a spacein this case a rectangular "window" on the screen-from which files of information can be requested. then displayed or laser-printed as required. humanities research library. Galleries / Virtual Museums http://homepage. Icons are arrayed on the screen. Organizing book stacks and providing access to them turns into a task of structuring a database and providing search and retrieval routines. when Sydney Smirke designed his rotunda for insertion into the older fabric of the British Museum.
In the painting galleries of the Altes Museum there was a carefully constructed progression of "quality. visitors would enter and orient themselves. to a circulation system that efficiently conducts visitors through the collection. In a virtual museum digital images of paintings. and ending with moderns like Canova. (At the brilliantly planned Pinakothek. And in the Pinakothek arrangement was by "schools" in roughly chronological order: Flemish. visitors take an elevator to the top and then descend along the ramped floor.12/03/12 19:06 Art galleries and museums arrange exhibits in carefully constructed viewing sequences. or by geographic origin. The great examples are Leo von Klenze's Glyptothek and Alte Pinakothek in Munich and Schinkel's Altes Museum in Berlin. and Italian. In the Glyptothek works of sculpture have traditionally been set out chronologically-beginning with Egypt. Spanish. central entrance halls.) But there are other alternatives: at the Guggenheim in New York. the long lines of visitors shuffle from one item to the next.html Page 27 of 143 . Frank Lloyd Wright twisted a single. parallel galleries are cross-connected so that visitors can depart from the perimeter circulation ring at will. At blockbuster shows. or three-dimensional simulations of sculptures and works of architecture (perhaps destroyed or unbuilt ones) stand in for http://homepage. continuous gallery into a helix wrapped around a skylit atrium. progressing through Greece and Rome. and eventually return to the starting point. German. Designing a great museum." leading up to the "perfection" of the High Renaissance. 13 Nineteenth-century neoclassicists typically solved the problem by symmetrically arranging long. with appropriate natural lighting. Though older museums and galleries were often designed to present unchanging collections in fixed sequences.mac. responding to different intellectual agendas.com/bogronlund/3_314_Upload_05_03/Mitchell_City%20of%20bits. this need not be the case. rectangular. the curatorial task is to order exhibits into meaningful sequences. Within such arrangements. circulate around the perimeter. French. usually arranged exhibits according to scientific principles-by taxonomic grouping. videos of living organisms. Here. skylit gallery spaces around grand. then. in evolutionary sequence. their more modern equivalents usually provide flexible spaces for installing temporary shows. Natural history museums. has traditionally been a task of relating wall or cabinet display space.
uk/local/museums/NationalGallery. Andrea Palladio's late-sixteenth-century Teatro Olimpico in Vicenza (among others of around the same time) brought the circles of seats in under a weather-tight roof and got very sophisticated about the sightlines. but the solutions to the problem are implemented in software instead of being built inflexibly and irrevocably into bricks-and-mortar constructions.html Page 28 of 143 . the seats were http://homepage. singers. containing computer workstations from which visitors can explore the entire collection in hypermedia form. As virtual museums develop. and the whole system was wrapped up into a neat architectural package. That's the crude analysis. 14 As they do so. in Giuseppe Piermarini's design for La Scala in Milan. It is not gallery capacity that matters.html">National Gallery. This yields tremendous spatial compression. The audience could see and hear the actors. Two centuries later. but server capability and network bandwidth.ac. the actors could see and hear the audience. directors. and viewers can be scattered at remote locations. Each item in the collection can have hyperlinks to other items that are related in some interesting way. Audiences consume it. An overlay of virtual space thus changes the use of the actual space.com/bogronlund/3_314_Upload_05_03/Mitchell_City%20of%20bits. and dancers produce it. Since an unaided actor's voice cannot carry very far. so that the virtual museum visitor can construct a particular path through the collection according to personal interest. spectators were packed in tight circles around the point of production. of course. Actors. these circles were raked. elegant distribution diagrams. exhibit by exhibit. Crowds become easy to handle. The exhibit material is kept on servers on a network. Theaters / Entertainment Infrastructure Entertainment is information. A virtual museum can offer far more choices for exploration than even the Pinakothek. Theaters distribute it. they will increasingly be seen as places for going back to the originals. on a personal computer or in a small video theater. Near the entrance there is a room called the Micro Gallery.ucl. visitors note items they will want to see in the original.12/03/12 19:06 simulations of sculptures and works of architecture (perhaps destroyed or unbuilt ones) stand in for physical objects. And.cs. since unobstructed lines of sight were essential. Ancient Greek and Roman theaters were compact. a huge collection can be viewed. Arrangement and sequencing of material remain crucial issues.mac. and a temporal sequence on the display plays the role of a spatial sequence along a circulation path. Sprawling gallery spaces become unnecessary. anyway. At the conclusion of the virtual tour. the role of actual museums will shift. The diagram is clear in the new Sainsbury wing of London's A HREF="http://www. they get a printed plan for a correspondingly personalized tour of the actual museum.
you could take control of some directorial functions by selecting viewpoints and operating a virtual camera. and there were a few experiments with larger-scale hypertext fictions on the Internet. gas. It's "video on demand. as 900 numbers. But the traditionally structured video does not have to be the unit that is retrieved and played. Since audiences grew huge. talk-show hosts. since performers could no longer hear their far-flung audiences laughing. couches. If you receive threedimensional models of a sporting event rather than a stream of two-dimensional video images. 16 Electronic enlargement of the spectator circles had an additional important consequence. or point-to-pointcan also become interactive. basketball courts. much like the water. the flow of information became almost entirely unidirectional. narrowcast. for example. skilled performers can easily overcome bandwidth and interface limitations. Competitive games will be reinvented for virtual arenas. It surely will not be very long before there are two-way video equivalents of talk radio. In 1993 the hackhttp://homepage. Transmission towers replaced stage towers. finergrained interactions with hypermedia entertainment productions also become possible. have a very literal kind of virtual auditorium in which the display screen functions as a stage and your remote has buttons for sending back applause and other codified responses. broadband. boom-box emplacements." as its promoters have dubbed it. there will be virtual 47th Streets and "combat zones" to provide an endless variety of private sexual performances on demand. cheering. heckling. and ear-to-ear spans of headphones. telephone call-ins. as Proust shrewdly described them.com/bogronlund/3_314_Upload_05_03/Mitchell_City%20of%20bits. they can be hooked up to large video servers that allow subscribers interactively to select videos from extensive menus. As switched broadband networks bring sufficient bandwidth into living rooms to allow interactive video. hissing. demagogues. and clapping. car seats. Early versions of these sorts of productions first became popular in the personal computer era. Most obviously. or football fields-while spectators watch from the sidelines. engulfing the ranch-house living rooms and cruising automobiles of a 1950s California town. muttering.12/03/12 19:06 sightlines. and operate a "virtual VCR" to control viewing conditions. in Giuseppe Piermarini's design for La Scala in Milan. The usual way to set up a game has been to bring small numbers of competitors together in precisely marked physical places-over chessboards. Minitel. interactive productions seem destined to become the norm rather than the exception. and X-rated chat rooms have amply demonstrated.mac. Two centuries later. two-way cable networks of the kind that were under development by the early 1990s-sophisticated bit-distribution utilities. 15 Broadcast media (radio and television) enlarged the spectator circles to encompass entire communities and shattered the once-unified audience space into thousands of scattered armchairs. broadcast studios became (as Frankfurt School commentators observed. with vivid anxiety about the consequences) favored platforms for big-time manipulators of public opinion-advertisers. And. You might. sewage. and electrical systems which have become so fundamental to modern cities-transform this condition. and televangelists. The traditional asymmetry of theatrical performance was vastly exaggerated. There was also some experimentation with "branching" movies in specially equipped theaters. Proust's drawing rooms now spun out of their fixed orbits. recall how the film American Graffiti evoked a soft theater centered on the local radio tower-a radiation field emanating from Wolfman Jack. groaning. and as home audiences become large enough to justify expensive productions. on tennis courts. play them whenever they want. to be replaced partially and unsatisfactorily (if at all) by expedients such as studio audiences.html Page 29 of 143 . and initially were distributed on floppy disk or CD. and Nielsen boxes. in the early 1990s there was an initial flurry of interest in branching hypertext novels with multithreaded narrative structures that could be followed in many different ways. Live performances-broadcast. Direct engagement of performers and audiences disappeared. and invisible circles of pulsing electromagnetic waves supplanted static arcs of spectator seating. no doubt. But switched. the seats were augmented (as had become customary in Europe) by vertically stacked circles of private boxes-a lot of little drawing rooms with the fourth walls removed.
html Page 30 of 143 . Established distinctions between producers and consumers of entertainment (reified by the forms of theater and stadium construction) are breaking down. cheering for your local team in the ballpark) that we associate with performance are coming unstuck. When you want to be a spectator. And by 1994 the videogame pioneer Nolan Bushnell was speculating about the possibility of network-supported. the costs of reaching and aggregating audiences should diminish sharply. all the world will be an electronic stage. The infobahn may become a vast. And when you want to be a game participant. Early "live" radio and television shows carefully preserved the theatrical convention of definite performance time. Speech. So the social superglue of necessary proximity between performers and audience is losing its old stickiness. the camera provides access to an audience and the entire network is potentially your auditorium. But as high-bandwidth networks proliferate. the network allows you to meet teammates and opponents on virtual turf. All this reshapes the rules of production and distribution. Under traditional arrangements.12/03/12 19:06 courts. With the development of networked interactive video.com/bogronlund/3_314_Upload_05_03/Mitchell_City%20of%20bits. Schoolhouses / Virtual Campuses http://homepage. physically coherent theatrical or competition space been subverted and eroded. so has that of performance time. So the entertainment industry has increasingly become a game for very big players who compete for mass audiences. scenes. The great house of the theater condenses into an electronic box with a screen and a video camera. and text can now be transmuted into bits and entered into the network almost anywhere. these reconfigurations and transformations completely rip apart the traditional architectural relationship between stage and auditorium. There will be opportunities to produce and distribute lowbudget entertainment for very small audiences and to identify and reach scattered audiences with the most specialized of interests and tastes. In 1993 the hackand-slash hit Doom effectively exploited the idea of putting networked participants together in virtual places to battle software monsters and to duel with each other. music. the bezel of the screen becomes your proscenium-framer of the action. 17 Carried to their logical conclusion. a show has to fill expensive theater seats or attract sufficient advertising to pay for production costs and air time. but programmers soon learned tricks of repeating and time-shifting recorded performances and of mixing live and recorded material. Soon. intercity competitive games involving tens of thousands of participants on each team.mac. Not only has the old idea of concentrated. and as network navigation software grows in sophistication. the show goes on anytime anybody wants it to. basketball courts. and the traditional architectural types and social conventions (going to the theater. or football fields-while spectators watch from the sidelines. These bits can be decoded to create a performance wherever and whenever a spectator chooses to plug in. When you want to become an actor. performers and audience. the cost of getting to an audience tends to be high. global Broadway lined with thousands of virtual theaters.
The underlying diagram of a school appears in its simplest and most beautiful form when disciples gather within earshot of a guru in a place made by the shade of a bo tree. so that the plan reads as an illustration of the dedicated scholarly life. old-fashioned mail service) created the possibility of Britain's Open University. the Industrial Revolution made correspondence schools possible. Of course there have always been alternatives to making such permanent. with his disciples keeping pace. and other specialized facilities. Residential institutions-like that planned by Thomas Jefferson at the University of Virginia-integrate rooms for scholars and provide hierarchies of informal and formal meeting places. and universities are spaces that exist primarily to bring students and teachers together so that this sharing of a corpus can take place. Today digital telecommunication is producing a powerful resurgence of this alternative tradition. http://homepage. The teacher has access to some corpus of knowledge. In the era of the Wilson government. Two-way radio allowed a teacher in Alice Springs to instruct children living on remote cattle stations scattered across the great Australian outback. Schools. as well. colleges. classroom schedules.html Page 31 of 143 . They provide multiple classrooms to allow different sorts of instruction to proceed simultaneously. and makes this corpus available to the students.mac.com/bogronlund/3_314_Upload_05_03/Mitchell_City%20of%20bits. Preindustrial societies had their itinerant teachers and holy men who spread the word wherever they could find audiences. The little red schoolhouse-appropriate to colder climatesputs the students in a box with the teacher in front. students listen and respond. laboratories. 18 The less sedentary Socrates strolled in a grove. they add libraries. beliefs. broadcast television and videotapes (in conjunction with reasonably good. art and design studios. and practices. 19 Modern schools. strict compliance with academic timetables. And these communities enforce. colleges. music practice rooms. The demand that colleges and universities typically make is to be "in residence"-to be part of the spatially defined community. and universities have greater spatial differentiation and far more complex plans. rigidly organized places of learning. and they link the pieces together with long cloisters or passageways (MIT's "infinite corridor" is emblematic). then circular tiers with seats for nine hundred boys. By providing printed books and efficient mail service. Jeremy Bentham's proposed "Chrestomathic" monitorial school-a variant on the panopticon-had a single master in the middle surrounded by a circle of six monitors to keep order. and calendars.12/03/12 19:06 A teacher speaks.
even the ivy-clad dorms in Harvard Yard had been hooked up. dorm room. 23 The HarvardSmithsonian Center for Astrophysics. Online conferences and bulletin boards began to challenge departmental common rooms and local hangouts as the best places to pick up the latest on specialized topics. has developed an astronomical system called MicroObservatory. any place where a student or faculty member may want to sit and work-an auditorium seat. Seminars might be conducted without seminar rooms. (When the Aga Khan gave MIT's commencement address in 1994.mac. Desktop-to-desktop. Lecturers might perform from distant places. for example. School and university libraries become less like document warehouses and dispensaries and more like online information-brokering services. Students might have office conferences with faculty members without leaving their dormitory rooms. but rather a modemequipped laptop computer and an MIT e-mail address. These long-distance links were hooked up to local networks. Reserve desks are supplanted by online document collections. the campus-wide Athena system pioneered the educational use of networked workstations with (by the standards of the time) high-bandwidth interconnections. By the 1990s many academics found that they simultaneously inhabited local scholarly communities. which disseminated access around the campuses themselves. 22 But that is just the beginning. Centralized reading rooms fragment into scattered information access points. switched video networks open the more radical possibility of teaching in virtual rather than traditional physical settings.) As the digital telecommunications era dawned. and virtual communities. library carrel. inexpensive channels for worldwide. and ultimately the Internet began to shake up the traditional. and slide libraries by huge image and video-on-demand servers. They now need to be set up for videoconferencing as well as for face-to-face discussions. Network connections quickly create new ways of sharing knowledge and enacting practices and so force changes in the characters of teaching spaces. some universities were very quick to begin exploring the potential role of campus networks. campus-to-campus interchange of text and data. which provided their offices and paid their salaries. Symposia might virtually assemble speakers from widely scattered locations. convenient. The master units of this system are networked computers in school classrooms. the podium is no longer a place for reading from a book or lecturing from written notes. Seminar rooms change too. At Dartmouth in the 1960s-way back in the era of time-sharing mainframes-a network of interactive terminals was put in place and heavily used. These http://homepage. At the same time (beginning in the 1970s). The tension was beginning to show. BITNET. Even laboratories can sometimes be broken up and scattered-and benefit from it. he was not given the traditional honorary degree to make him symbolically part of the community. but a spot for directing and interpreting a stream of bits. students use their laptop computers to capture and annotate these bits. a lecture theater now needs a computer workstation integrated with the podium and a computer-connected video projector to supplement the old blackboards and slide projectors.com/bogronlund/3_314_Upload_05_03/Mitchell_City%20of%20bits. 20 At MIT in the 1980s. ARPANET. and without the need to concentrate students in auditoriums. Scholars quickly found that electronic contact with distant correspondents could sometimes be more rewarding than conversation with colleagues from just down the hall. desk. with extensive support from IBM and Digital. such as MIT's Athena.html Page 32 of 143 . insular structures of colleges and universities by creating quick. or officeneeds a laptop hookup point. And instead of taking notes on paper. 21 By the 1990s campus networks were commonplace. At the very least.12/03/12 19:06 being online may soon become a more important mark of community membership than being in residence. which supplied much of their intellectual nourishment and made increasing demands on their time and loyalties.
pavilions have become a thing of the past. both Wren's early-eighteenth-century plan for the Royal Naval Hospital at Greenwich and Durand's ideal hospital plan of a century later are low. symmetrical accretions of ward pavilions. and fresh air as possible. the idea is to confine the sick to one place. as in hospitals for infectious diseases like Venice's island lazaretto and in asylums for the mentally ill like Bedlam and Charenton. pathology laboratories. Image-processing software is used to subtract out the sky so that observations can be made in the daytime. As the twentieth century draws to a close. 25 In early monastic hospitals the sick were confined so that they could be cared for by the monks and (perhaps more to the point. the sick are assembled in places where students can observe them. the idea of a virtual campus -paralleling or perhaps replacing the physical one-seems increasingly plausible. sprawling. artificially lit spaces packed closely together in deep. (In modern wards the centrally located altars are replaced by nursing stations. the sick have been confined to keep them away from the rest of society. confinement has been to places where skilled practitioners.12/03/12 19:06 are used to control motorized.html Page 33 of 143 . natural light. when Pasteur fingered bacteria (rather than foul air) as the agents of infection and Lister developed antiseptic medicine. and service system runs. enlightened hospital designers arranged long. medical records. Hospitals / Telemedicine The word "hospital" derives from the Latin hospes. and medical imaging installations) could be concentrated. and advanced facilities (such as surgical suites. An extended version of this system might incorporate hundreds of telescopes scattered around the world and allow students to make observations from anywhere there is a network connection. and immensely lengthy corridors. thus Filarete's famous plan for the Ospedale Maggiore in Milan consisted of immense cruciform wards with altars at the crossings and a chapel in the central courtyard. she might site it in cyberspace. 24 If a latter-day Jefferson were to lay out an ideal educational community for the third millennium. The hospital designer's task-much like the task of microprocessor chip layouthas been to arrange a lot of identical storage units http://homepage. So. meaning guest or host.com/bogronlund/3_314_Upload_05_03/Mitchell_City%20of%20bits. Twentieth-century hospitals consist mostly of air-conditioned. And in teaching hospitals. for example. patient movement. multistoried blocks to minimize staff. courtyards. digital-imaging telescopes mounted on rooftops and to view the telescope images remotely. considering the level of medical treatment that was available) so that they could conveniently be assembled for religious services and speeded on their way to heaven. 26 But since the 1870s.mac. narrow wards to provide as much external wall surface.) Sometimes. Before Pasteur. As medical expertise and increasingly sophisticated medical technology have developed in the twentieth century.
or even in the same country. head-mounted stereo displays. By the 1990s.com/bogronlund/3_314_Upload_05_03/Mitchell_City%20of%20bits. 30 It's not as good as a real visit. acute need will be able to get care without difficult and time-consuming travel. fetal ultrasound. numerous experiments in video-based telemedicine were under way." 28 The simplest and most obvious form of telemedicine is a straightforward teleconferencing. Smart air-conditioning systems and inquisitive toilets might automatically take samples and perform analyses. By combining electronic viewing and diagnostic devices with appropriate telemanipulators. and military hospital medics can examine far-off wounded. It brings advanced medical care to widely scattered populations and makes old-style assemblies of patients around specialized medical facilities less necessary. Implanted wireless devices might be used for remotely controlled release of precise amounts of medication. or computed tomography scan)-and potentially even touch-the physician need no longer be present in the same room. they can readily be adapted to provide their output remotely through network connections. monitoring the progress of anaesthesia. respiration rate. So stethoscopes. writing in The Lancet . temperature.mac. Noncontact. microwave vital-signs monitoring systems can measure heart rate. the resulting places have not been very pleasant. then. central processing facilities for the greatest possible circulation efficiency under statistically predicted patterns of use. Since modern diagnostic devices often produce streams of digital data. a pathologist examining tissue samples or body fluids under a microscope in order to render a diagnosis. this task can be performed remotely. when your baby has an earache. One promise of telemedicine is that the isolated. Houses seem destined to evolve into increasingly sophisticated components of health care systems. and holds force-reflecting pseudotools that control a surgical robot. and those in sudden. 32 And with fancier teleoperators. medical practitioners can begin to make themselves telepresent. and medical imaging machines can all now be used in remote examinations. Another is that family practitioners and paramedics who have direct contact with patients will be able to draw more effectively on specialized expertise and advanced medical technology as the traditional doctor's black bag mutates into a http://homepage. for example. As John McConnell.g. endoscopes. telesurgery becomes a serious possibility. 33 A typical telesurgery system consists of master and slave units: the remotely located surgeon wears a helmet (the audiovisual master) that controls a stereo video camera (audiovisual slave) observing the surgery. family practitioners might provide face-to-face patient contact while drawing on the expertise of distant specialists by video as needed. capacity can quickly be switched from other parts of the world. perhaps. as the patient or specimen. with a telepathology system consisting of a video camera mounted on a motorized microscope. otoscopes. Emergency room physicians can save precious time by examining patients in video-equipped ambulances. "For any procedure that involves vision or sound (e. 31 Consider.12/03/12 19:06 task-much like the task of microprocessor chip layouthas been to arrange a lot of identical storage units and a few specialized. Using video hookups. specialists at major medical centers can examine patients and provide advice to colleagues in remote rural locations. the immobilized. summarized. Basic models of health care delivery may even begin to change.) 35 Houses and beds can contain sensors for tracking the conditions of their occupants and telecommunications for transmitting the information to distant monitoring sites. and blood pressure. Where outbreaks of fighting or natural disasters create sudden demands for medical care. 29 But video is only the first step. 34 Continuous care-involving constant monitoring and regular medication might also be provided remotely. you might connect to a virtual clinic and put the otoscope in the baby's ear to let the practitioner on duty take a look. Telemedicine is emerging.html Page 34 of 143 . As homes get network connections. electrocardiography devices. but it's a lot better than a telephone call. (Many of the necessary technologies were originally developed for battlefield use but can readily be adapted for more peaceful purposes. domestic diagnostic and monitoring devices will begin to allow virtual house calls. bits are now beginning to transform hospital design as profoundly as bacteria once did. and sufficiently precise tactile feedback devices. Electronic scales can log body weight.. 27 Generally. or giving an opinion on a biopsy slide. With the development of advanced telecommunications.
But electronics can now perform many of a prison's traditional functions without cells and wallsdiscipline and punishment sans slammer. Under the Electronic Supervision Program. 36 And medieval castles were sometimes equipped with dungeons. Prisons / Electronic Supervision Programs Prisons. the digital telecommunications revolution of the late twentieth century creates possibilities for decentralization and more equitable dispersion. playgrounds and schools could have them for pedophiles. punish them for their misdeeds. A central monitoring station is automatically alerted whenever the wearer moves more than a specified distance from the modem-just as Fontana's unfortunate young detainees were confined to the vicinity of San Michele's altars. Stores could have detectors for convicted shoplifters. are places for involuntary. whereas the industrial. supervised confinement. cops can have "drive-by" units to check on the location of offenders.html Page 35 of 143 . he took the cell as his planning unit and provided rows of them on either side of a large central hall with altars at each end. or strung parallel blocks along lengthy circulation spines. Either way. some American offenders are sentenced to home detention and fitted with anklet transponders linked to telephone modems. antiseptic care. Later prisons of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries arranged cell blocks in radial or concentric patterns for ease of supervision and control.mac. Incarceration is supposed to take criminals out of circulation. like hospitals. movements could be monitored continuously and cross-checked against crime scenes and times. and abused spouses could have them for their former partners. With more elaborate tracking technology.com/bogronlund/3_314_Upload_05_03/Mitchell_City%20of%20bits. and perhaps reform them. Already. Medieval monasteries employed imprisonment in cells as a form of punishment. An obvious peril is that health care delivery may become an even more depersonalized and technocratic process. the logic of health care facility location and internal organization is changing dramatically. 37 Elaborations of this strategy are easy to imagine and will be increasingly straightforward for enthusiastic law enforcement agencies to implement as wireless telecommunications technology evolves. Itinerant healers are returning.12/03/12 19:06 expertise and advanced medical technology as the traditional doctor's black bag mutates into a sophisticated digital telecommunications device. When Carlo Fontana designed the San Michele prison for young men in Rome (which was to become the prototype for modern jails). http://homepage. both Cluny and Hirsau had their windowless carcer. They will ride the information superhighway. and medical technology revolutions of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries created powerful incentives to centralize medical care and concentrate it in major urban areas.
The first ATM machines was introduced by Citicorp in 1971. some audacious PoMo-kleptos wheeled in a Fujitsu model 7020 automated teller machine-purportedly from a New Jersey bank-and set it in operation. they have learned to bamboozle with floating signifiers instead-because money. There might be some behavior-monitoring capacity built into an anklet or implant. The state will no longer need walls and watchtowers to enact its legal monopoly on confinement and violence. So the story that began with Carlo Fontana's schemes for San Michele may be finally drawing to a close." But postmodern thieves no longer break into vaults or terrorize tellers. too. the famous stickup artist (and jailbird) Willie Sutton replied. the drugs could be sleep-inducing or even lethal. is now digital information endlessly circulating in cyberspace. Telecommunications will do the job instead. But that doesn't seem too difficult. In April 1993.12/03/12 19:06 Of course the system would not be complete without effective ways to apply immobilizing force and punitive violence. using counterfeit bank cards encoded with the pilfered numbers. at Buckland Hills Mall near Hartford." 38 For maximum-security offenders. but somewhere deep in the cyberspace of the ATM system. together with a drug-release mechanism. it electronically recorded the account and personal identification number. This perplexing puzzle is one result of the wholesale shift of Main Street banking to cyberspace that has taken place over the last couple of decades. or New York. "Because that's where the money is. http://homepage. What was the scene of this scam? Where did the deed of milking the moneypukers actually take place? Not.com/bogronlund/3_314_Upload_05_03/Mitchell_City%20of%20bits. Anklets could automatically sound loud alarms when triggered by entry to forbidden places or when activated remotely by wardens. New Jersey. the high-tech bandits began to make cash withdrawals from ATMs in midtown Manhattan. surely in Connecticut. Connecticut. and the drugs would selectively tone down criminally sanctioned behaviors but allow normal or acceptable sexuality. 39 When shoppers inserted their cards in this con-robot. one advocate of walking prisons imagines that "a sex offender's specific patterns of aberrant sexuality would be recognized by the programmed chip.html Page 36 of 143 . bent Baudrillardists. Banking Chambers / ATMs Asked why he robbed banks. Later. then simply printed out slips saying that no transactions were possible.mac.
taken place over the last couple of decades. The first ATM machines was introduced by Citicorp in 1971; by 1980 there were fewer than twenty thousand ATM machines operating in the United States, but by 1990 there were more than eighty thousand. Today deposits and withdrawals only rarely take place at a traditional teller's window; by 1987 over 80 percent of bank customers used ATMs for more than half their transactions. 40 When these devices were still new, and not yet well understood, they were sometimes treated as direct robotic replacements for human staff; you found them inside the bank, beside the counters where you filled out your deposit slips. But this missed the point; since ATMs depend on electronic rather than physical linkage to bank records, they do not really have to be inside under the eye of the manager. So they quickly migrated out onto the street, where they could operate twenty-four hours a day, seven days a week. Soon the realization dawned that they did not even have to stay attached to bank building facades; they could more effectively be located where crowds naturally congregated and where people actually needed cash-in supermarkets, shopping malls, airports, university student centers, and office building lobbies. Or, as in South Central Los Angeles or on the South Side of Chicago, they might more appropriately be placed in police station lobbies-where it was safe to collect cash. National and international ATM networks developed, so that you could get cash from machines that were far away from your hometown. The traditional Main Street bank building disintegrated, and the pieces that remained reintegrated themselves into new settings. At the same time, electronic funds transfer networks have supplanted traditional heist bait-the stagecoach, the armored truck, and even (to some extent) the pocket full of cash. My paycheck is automatically, electronically transferred to my bank account each month, then some of it gets transferred out to make my mortgage payment. And CHIPS (the Clearing House Interbank Payments System, owned by a bunch of big New York banks)-just a couple of mainframe computers and a hundred or so dedicated phone lines in a nondescript Manhattan office building-processes trillions of dollars in payments, from banks all over the world, every day. 41 In 1980 daily electronic money transfers on CHIPS and the Fedwire network run by the Federal Reserve were about twelve times the balances held in accounts by the Federal Reserve; by 1990 the volume had grown to more than fifty times those balances. Money is no longer bullion in a strongbox, but bits in an online database. By this point in the evolution of the digital era, we have almost forgotten the original banchi -the trestle tables at medieval fairs, where bankers and their clients met face-to-face to exchange promises. 42 Accommodating a bank's operations has ceased to be primarily a matter of providing appropriate rooms and circulation (as it was when Sir John Soane designed the Bank of England on three acres of ground in the heart of the City of London), but of configuring the right computer systems. Gaze in wonder at Soane's plan, noting the precisely differentiated functions of his great transaction halls -the Bank Stock Office, Accounts Office, Discount Office, even Five Pound Note Office; we will never see the like again. In sum, we are experiencing the step-by-step emergence of the soft bank-a round-the-clock facility, accessible from indefinitely many locations, and providing electronically mediated withdrawals, deposits, bill payments, check cashing, point-of-sale transactions, travelers' checks, loan applications, statements, and whatever other financial services the banking industry can dream up and sell. 43 Even the nowubiquitous ATMs (in their role as cash dispensers, at least) will become obsolete if coins and bills are eventually eliminated. This is a fairly straightforward technical possibility; a combination of network transfers, checks, credit cards, debit cards, ubiquitous point-of-sale terminals, and replacement of coinoperated gizmos like parking meters with electronic card-reading devices clearly could yield a cash-free society. 44 Personal terminals, for making and receiving payments anywhere, could be integrated with laptop or palmtop computers or could be specialized wallet-sized devices. Not surprisingly, gambling casinos have led the way toward the cashless world. At Foxwood Casino, on the Mashantucket Pequot reservation in Connecticut, arriving customers obtain a "Wampum Card"a smart debit card that electronically stores account balances and transaction records. The gaming tables are
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debit card that electronically stores account balances and transaction records. The gaming tables are hooked into a computer network, and, brags the network's director, "We register a transaction every time the handle of a slot machine is pulled." 45 Bank buildings, then, are no longer where the money is. They are shrinking to the point where they can no longer serve to celebrate financial institutions and transactions as Soane's great design so compellingly did. Indeed, cash money and associated transaction points may soon disappear entirely. Today's Willie Suttons are learning to crack computer security, not safes. Trading Floors / Electronic Trading Systems
Historically, organized exchanges for common stock, futures, and option contracts have evolved as increasingly elaborate and specialized places for making deals. But they were simple in the beginning. The London Stock Exchange grew out of a coffeehouse where traders could meet. And in Vicenza on Tuesday mornings, in the old basilica that Palladio wrapped with his magical loggia, you can still see how modern commodity markets began: buyers and sellers still transact their business in little wooden cubicles as they have for centuries. When James Peacock designed a new building for the London Stock Exchange in 1801-2, European exchanges had evolved into voluntary associations of members who came together to trade securities in auction markets. A member would acquire the right to trade on the exchange by buying a "seat." The great exchanges of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, like H. P. Berlage's monumental brick pile in Amsterdam, were organized around trading floors where the action took place. On Wall Street the floor of the New York Stock Exchange was planned with dumbbell-shaped "trading posts" for member firms in the center, telephone booths around the periphery, and plenty of room for pages to scurry back and forth with orders. The great boards flashed, the brokers shouted their bids and acceptances, and it was the very stuff of capitalist romance. The telegraph and the telephone gradually began to change all that, of course. Geographically distributed over-the-counter (OTC) markets such as NASD (National Association of Securities Dealers) now bring together dealers who quote prices to buy and sell. They are not located on a trading floor somewhere; they might be anywhere. Seats become virtual. The computer takes that process a big step further. By the early 1990s, trading floors everywhere were tumbling into obsolescence: the British and French stock markets had transformed into almost entirely computerized operations, the Toronto exchange was planning to shut down its floor, and the Korean and
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computerized operations, the Toronto exchange was planning to shut down its floor, and the Korean and German exchanges were moving in the same direction. 46 Many stock transactions-perhaps the majority of them-had become computer-to-computer rather than person-to-person affairs. The US Treasury announced plans to introduce electronic bond auctions, in which Wall Street dealers would submit bids electronically instead of phoning them in to government clerks, who scribbled them down. 47 In 1992 Reuters, the Chicago Mercantile Exchange, and the Chicago Board of Trade opened Globex, a very ambitious twenty-four-hour electronic trading system for futures and options contracts. It took about as long to design and build (four years), and cost about as much ($70 million) as a major new trading building. But it has no floor; buy and sell orders are entered electronically into the system, prices are set by a process of computer matching with incoming orders, participants in the trade are properly notified, verification is sent to the Chicago exchange clearing center, and buyers' and sellers' accounts are adjustedall in a few seconds. Its chairman claims, "This is a way to extend our market around the globe across all borders and time zones." Globex has had its teething troubles, but it clearly shows us the financial future. Commentators on the financial markets (generally a pretty buttoned-down bunch) can now see a whole new world coming: The globalization of financial markets simultaneously fragments traditional financial transactions marketplaces and integrates them via electronic means. Physical marketplaces (the trading floors) are becoming obsolete, while "virtual" marketplacesnetworks of computers and computer terminals-are emerging as the "site" for transactions. The new technology is diminishing the role for human participants in the market mechanism. Stock-exchange specialists are being displaced by the new systems, which by and large are designed to handle the demands of institutional investors, who increasingly dominate transactions. Futures and options floor traders also face having their jobs coded into computer algorithms, which automatically match orders and clear trades or emulate open-outcry trading itself. 48 This shift of financial markets to cyberspace has changed what is being traded. The 1990s saw the emergence on a huge scale of lightningfast electronic trading in derivatives-sophisticated, computer-generated financial instruments that would be impossible without networks to move financial data around almost instantaneously and powerful workstations to perform the complex computations on which derivative transactions depend. 49 These pure creations of cyberspace -forwards, caps, collars, swaps, options, swaptions, and more -are essentially carefully calculated side bets on more traditional stock and bond investments. By 1994 the monthly volume of derivative trading on the New York Stock Exchange was running at twice the US gross domestic product. Once, the canyon of Wall Street at the tip of Manhattan really was the place where stocks and bonds were traded-truly the capital of capital. Now (though the old thoroughfare remains and has become increasingly dense with electronics) it is the name of a flourishing region of cyberspace. Department Stores / Electronic Shopping Malls
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they are fast transmuting into computer-intensive network nodes. price updates. it did save lots of very expensive Tokyo real estate. Shinjuku rents become irrelevant. Even something as prosaic as the kitchen sink can now be offered and purchased electronically. The interface between stall or shop and public place was highly standardized. "Going shopping" now means something new. and when adequate display devices are sufficiently inexpensive and widespread. as in Giuseppe Mengoni's Milan Galleria. The electronic mall becomes the digital successor to the Sears catalogue and the home shopping shows on cable television. Even where familiar-looking retail stores remain. (Elaborate virtual reality interfaces are probably unnecessary. Once the traditional product showroom has been virtualized-replaced by a set of computer simulations -it can potentially be entered and explored from anywhere. and replaces the glazed display window facing the street with windows on a computer screen. can probably suffice to create effective virtual showrooms. these patterns have largely been displaced by the newer ones of driving to the suburban shopping mall or to the megawarehouse on the fringes of town. 52 Groups of shops might be unified architecturally to yield grander urban elements." 50 You could strap on a headset and a data glove to inspect the appliances on offer. it suggested a trip to market-contact with the historic urban center. great. Bar code scanners at supermarket checkouts. When Matsushita opened a new-for-the-nineties kitchen showroom in Shinjuku. but the close coupling of retail space to cyberspace can go far beyond that. 54 But the electronic mall simply short-circuits the trip to a concentration of goods and displays. It was only a transitional step. Market squares and market days were important spatial and temporal markers. and warehouses into sophisticated computer systems for just-in-time inventory control.html Page 40 of 143 .com/bogronlund/3_314_Upload_05_03/Mitchell_City%20of%20bits. and videoconferencing. and the heavy apparatus made your neck hurt. warehouses located conveniently to transportation hubs. it was advertised as "the only place in the world where a person can walk in off the street and experience a high-tech Virtual Reality system in a consumer application. http://homepage. tram. 55 The same systems potentially allow on-shelf LED (light-emitting diode) displays of prices to be changed in all stores in a matter of seconds. A geographically distributed. and United Parcel Service trucks equipped with wireless computers. the crude visual simulations approximated a condition of legal blindness. fronts were either left open to show the goods inside or (from the later seventeenth century) took the form of glazed display windows. But by keeping the show and eliminating the room. 51 Traditionally. or bus. and product supplier no longer have to be brought together in the same spot. customer. the gesture sensors recognized only a few simple hand and finger movements. delivery trucks. and wireless computers at rental car returns are the obvious first steps. Salesperson. they just have to establish electronic contact. a multitude of departments might be combined in a single. on-command video clips of clothing being modeled. though. Hand-held. as the opening of the Bon Marché in Paris demonstrated in 1852. vertically stacked store-a downtown place to which crowds of shoppers would swarm by train. a chance to mingle with fellow citizens. Since the 1980s the retail chains Wal-Mart and Kmart have been using VSAT (Very Small Aperture Terminal) satellite systems to link widely scattered stores.mac. the "stores" run by companies like Dell consist of toll-free telephone lines or computer network connections. credit card authorization. Alternatively. Actually.) When there is enough network bandwidth. This idea was successfully pioneered in the phone-order computer business. or viewer-controlled video cameras that can be used to inspect products remotely. 53 More recently.12/03/12 19:06 Don't make the mistake of thinking that cyberspace marketplaces are all about mathematical whiz kids furiously trading esoteric derivatives. it didn't work very well. electronically supported consumer transaction system completely replaces the traditional retail floor. terminals for credit card transactions.
Clothing. as commercial online services have grown. Computers. configure the options. and hand-held wireless sales terminals (much like electronic clipboards) are replacing fixed point-of-sale terminals in some stores.12/03/12 19:06 (light-emitting diode) displays of prices to be changed in all stores in a matter of seconds. scans the current inventory lists of suppliers. specialized retail districts and the departments that make up department stores http://homepage. Delivery is by express package service.. "When a customer pushes that button. When a customer selects a catalogue item. merchants will find that they can dispense with sales floors and sales staff altogether and just maintain servers with databases of product specifications. then ask a salesperson to bring a vehicle out to the house for a test drive. computer-controlled machinery accesses these measurements and fabricates the item perfectly to your size. a displayed pizza is modified accordingly and the price is tallied. Imagine a virtual clothing boutique. 57 Increasingly though. and to provide information for setting advertising and display strategies. images. Consumers might either "window shop" by remotely accessing such virtual stores." 59 Pizza. Consider some snapshots of pioneering entrepreneurial efforts. or they might delegate the task to software shopping agents that go out on the Net with shopping lists. and simulations. Plans announced for Time Warner's pilot Full Service Network in Orlando. and places the order. when you place an order. 58 In these virtual stores. taps into bigger markets. So.. drags items to a "cart.500 from a drugstore. At the bargain-basement. There is no inventory. and return with reports on the best available matches and prices. The phone-order business becomes the network-order business. the shopper moves along "shelves" on which realistically rendered packages are displayed. "he's causing a product to be spit out the back of a warehouse with his name onit. and delivery service. these clips can be accessed randomly from your home television set. Closure of a sale can immediately trigger a delivery order at a warehouse. 60 Interactive television will replace the telephone." and eventually pays with a credit card. the nearest pizzeria is notified and the order speeds to your door. the system automatically verifies the customer's credit. schemes for cybershopping have proliferated. With such soft shops. Automobiles. another service announced for Time Warner's Orlando network." the proprietor announced. include access to an interactive menu of 20. to dispatch salespeople and open up checkout lanes when they are needed. update an inventory database. Contemplate Automall. wireless. inventory-tracking computers allow store assistants to check stock levels and prices and place orders without leaving the sales floor.mac. prices. Groceries. Hand-held.000 products from an online supermarket and 7. [ ]The order is then delivered at a prearranged time. inspect the specifications and prices of the merchandise on offer. (The president of Time Warner has commented: "We're talking about a fundamental shift in advertising. When you are satisfied. This arrangement potentially cuts overhead. low-margin end of the computer business. the act of shopping is scaled down to pointing and clicking. (Fitting rooms become unnecessary. circa early 1990s. and initiate an electronic money transfer. and as switched video networks have emerged. warehouse.) It is then delivered to your door. selects the lowest-cost combination of distributor.") 61 Your detailed measurements are stored in a database somewhere. Product information can be adjusted instantly as supplies and prices change. availability information. as the Internet has opened up to commercial use.com/bogronlund/3_314_Upload_05_03/Mitchell_City%20of%20bits. and your size is never out of stock. As you choose. the Internet Shopping Network went online in 1994 with a World Wide Web "storefront" and product catalogue accessed through Mosaic. The catalogue is a large collection of video clips showing models wearing the items on offer. You can bring the showroom to your house and take a 15-minute walk through it. The idea is that viewers will interactively browse through selections of cars and trucks. Florida. You enter a virtual pizza parlor and see a menu of available toppings. 56 Kmart's ShopperTrak system uses infrared sensors to track where the customers are in the store. and lends itself to further automation at many levels.html Page 41 of 143 ..
or Sienese family. or virtual "storefronts" in the interfaces of online services. file cabinets. These architecturally represent the power and prestige of information-work organizations (banks. accounting.html Page 42 of 143 . corporate headquarters of business and industrial organizations.com/bogronlund/3_314_Upload_05_03/Mitchell_City%20of%20bits. they are locations where value is added to information. elevator-serviced towers. and reception and circulation spaces. printers. it built a shiny high rise in the heart of Hong Kong's business district. for example. insurance companies. As with the old telephone Yellow Pages. As information work has grown in volume and importance. This tightly focused arrangement (as opposed to more diffuse http://homepage. From this follows a familiar. specialized retail districts and the departments that make up department stores simply become directory categories -logical groupings presented as menu items. stored. larger urban patternone that you can see (with some local variants) from London to Chicago to Tokyo.12/03/12 19:06 With such soft shops. Then the Bank of China trumped it by constructing a much taller tower on a nearby. office buildings at high-priced central business district (CBD) locations have evolved into slick-skinned. words. customers let their fingers (or rather now. government bureaucracies. meeting and conference rooms. Florentine. transformed. and so on) much as a grand. airconditioned. copying centers and mailrooms. overlooking site. when the Hong Kong and Shanghai Bank wanted to demonstrate its power and importance. The stock is bigger and the selection larger than in the mightiest big-box offramp superstore. fax machines. The things that remain in physical form are warehouses (which may become smaller as computerized inventory-control strategies become more sophisticated) and delivery vehicles. inboxes and outboxes. Retail location becomes a matter of being in the right directories. 64 From the economist's viewpoint. and architectural firms. accessible locations in transportation networks. The towers cluster densely at the most central. and disseminated. law. 63 So their tissue is mostly composed of desks equipped with information-handling devices (telephones. and the like). Officeworkers live in the lower-density suburban periphery and commute daily to and from their work. computers. and as increasingly efficient transportation and communication systems have allowed separation of offices from warehouses and factories. So. icons.mac. From Kmart to Cybermart! Sic transit retail space? 62 Work / Net-Work Offices are sites of information work-specialized places where numbers. widely replicated. rusticated palazzo represented the importance of a great Roman. their cursors) do the walking. and sometimes pictures are collected.
James Martin and Adrian R. For traditional centers of such industries. More sober and skeptical commentators demurred.com/bogronlund/3_314_Upload_05_03/Mitchell_City%20of%20bits. traveling salespeople can be readily transformed into high-technology nomads who remain continually online and almost never have to visit the home office.) The bedroom communities that have grown up around major urban centers also provide opportunities for establishing telecommuting centers-small. 70 Then the strategy was heavily promoted by pop futurologists of the Reaganite eighties. well before the birth of the personal computer. for the twice-daily commute to/from work. who argued that it would save workers the time and cost of commuting while also saving employers the cost of space and other overhead. D. 68 More radically. but more likely to an obscure location in the heartland of the country.12/03/12 19:06 commute daily to and from their work. suburban or even rural homes. Norman could see this coming. take a look at the mailing address. from which locally housed workers remain in close electronic contact with the now smaller but still central and visible head offices. increasingly sophisticated telecommunications systems has greatly weakened the adhesive power of these former imperatives. up 20 percent http://homepage. so that chunks of the old structure have begun to break away and then to stick together again in new sorts of aggregations. Way back in the 1960s.6 million home-based telecommuters in the United States. Downtown services meet the needs of people in their worker rolesduring weekdays. 67 In insurance companies. Main Street office complexes with telecommunications links to central offices of large corporations or government departments. with the spinning wheel replaced by the computer terminal" and that "in the future some companies may have almost no offices. We have seen the emergence of telecommuting. But by 1993 there was a clear and accelerating trend: there were 6. and for access to information held at the central location and available only there. with or without the assistance of computers. commuting patterns and service locations also begin to change. the future looks increasingly problematic as the office-in-a-briefcase displaces the cubicle at corporate headquarters. much information work that was traditionally done at city-center locations can potentially be shifted back to network-connected. "the partial or total substitution of telecommunication. be excised from downtown towers and shifted to less expensive suburban or exurban locations. which required many businesses with a hundred or more employees to reduce the use of cars for commuting. from that of the individual office cubicle to that of CBDs and commuter rail networks) is the need for face-to-face contact with coworkers and clients. yet retain electronic access to the information resources of the head office. for example. computer-equipped. and prototypes have been constructed at locations such as the Aso resort area near Kumamoto. 66 As a consequence. while suburban services are there for those same people in their roles as residents in the evenings and on weekends. (Next time you pay your credit card bill or order something from a mail-order catalogue. Connecticut. where groups can retreat for a time to work on special projects requiring sustained concentration or higher intellectual productivity. a worker might bicycle to a suburban satellite office cluster or telecommuting center. for close proximity to expensive information-processing equipment. These satellite offices may even be transferred to other towns or to offshore locations where labor is cheaper. This idea hasinterested Japanese corporations. But the development of inexpensive. claiming that savings in commuting costs would be offset and perhaps negated by the increased costs of distributing needed supplies and utilities to workers at scattered locations.mac. They suggested that "we may see a return to cottage industry." 69 The OPEC oil crisis of 1973 motivated some serious study of the economics of home-based telecommuting. Another strategy is to create resort offices.html Page 43 of 143 . You'll find that the envelope doesn't go to a downtown location in a major city. widely distributed computational capacity and of pervasive."65 Gobs of "back office" work can. This tightly focused arrangement (as opposed to more diffuse distributions) allows considerable scale economies to be achieved in mass transit systems. The federal Clean Air Act amendments of 1990. rather than commute by car or public transportation to a downtown headquarters. and that space and overhead costs would not disappear but be transferred to the workers. and other organizations that sell disembodied products or take orders to be filled later. provided further impetus. The bonding agent that has held this whole intricate structure together (at every level. for example. such as Hartford.
many observers have become convinced that the very character of daily work is transforming in ways that reinforce these tendencies. shopping and banking. of course. work. But there is.12/03/12 19:06 accelerating trend: there were 6. they might equally well be regarded as smart.mac.com/bogronlund/3_314_Upload_05_03/Mitchell_City%20of%20bits. it is where information is encoded and sent out in digital form. predicted: "For the first time in history. conversely. multimedia telephones or as domesticated computers. 75 Couch potatoes and cable company executives have been quick to define the consumer electronic appliances that accomplish this as more intelligent descendents of the television set.html Page 44 of 143 . At Home / @Home The domestic living room is emerging as a major site at which digitally displaced activities are recombining and regrounding themselves in the physical world. Robert Reich's policy tract The Work of Nations made a compelling case that advanced economies increasingly rely on highly skilled "symbolic processors" who deal mostly in information. up 20 percent from 1991. then to disband and regroup as old projects end and new ones begin. It's not just in the homes of electroyuppies. But there is much more to them than that. and the reality that has evolved in the 1980s and 1990s is certainly more complex than they imagined. Roebuck and Company proudly built Sears Tower in the Chicago Loop-4. news and entertainment. 76 They insinuate themselves in among familiar furnishings and appliances and displace or eliminate their roles.6 million home-based telecommuters in the United States. In some ways. permanent home offices. and technological change. In many places now. geographically distributed alliances of various specialist groups (consultants. 73 But weakening of the glue that once firmly held office downtowns together turns out to permit rather than determine dispersal. All persons tapped into the global communications net would have ties approximating those used today in a given metropolitan region. as the telecommunications revolution was rapidly gaining momentum. it might be possible to locate on a mountain top and to maintain intimate. The changing relative costs of telecommunication and transportation have indeed begun to affect the location of office work. and chiphead hobbyists. Melvin Webber.. Now it is often better strategy to form multipartner. most of the expertise that they needed to carry on their businesses. subcontractors. from the workplace" that Lewis Mumford's narrative The City in History located in the seventeenth century. digirati. In 1974 Sears.5 million square feet of floor space and the tallest building in the world. the workings of labor and capital markets and the effects of special local conditions often end up shaping the locational patterns that actually emerge from the shakeup. electronic boxes. It is where information streams into the house and is decoded. virtual organization-of business arrangements that demand good computing and telecommunications environments rather than large. over long terms. By 1992 the company had deserted thirty-seven of the forty floors it occupied and sent five thousand jobs thirty-five miles west to Hoffman Estates in Chicago's suburban fringe. while information-work organizations once could accumulate and retain in fixed locations. right in the birthplace of the office skyscraper. no need to hang it on http://homepage. it seems. for example. suppliers. and lots of general social interaction are starting to flow in and out through small. recombinant. real-time and realistic contact with business or other associates. housebroken. 71 At the same time. But Sears didn't stay there very long. education. social. We are. But they no longer seem so inevitable. Given a choice. seeing a reversal of the "gradual divorce of the home . this becomes increasingly difficult in an era of economic globalization and rapid political. In the 1960s and early 1970s. and so on) as needed for particular projects." 72 There is some evidence that these theorists were right. 74 Perhaps the time has not yet come to bid farewell to those vertiginously vainglorious corporate monuments that have defined the great downtowns of the twentieth century. Others have pointed out that. an information appliance hooked up to a high-bandwidth cable is a lot like an oldfashioned mailbox.. But the prophets of urban dissolution underestimated the inertia of existing patterns. and. some urbanists leaped to the conclusion that downtowns would soon dissolve as these new arrangements took hold. Consider this telling straw in the electronic breeze. many of us may prefer working with a net. We are entering the era of the temporary.
it's what most eyeballs are most likely to lock onto most of the time. theaters and performance times. individuals in dens and studies will view them from distances of about eighteen inches and use keyboards. Increasingly. and later became the pivot point for Frank Lloyd Wright's box-busting house plans. and entertainment -now bids to become the most powerful organizer of domestic spaces and activities. It can even be wireless. though. of course. as networks and information appliances deliver expanding ranges of services. but if they are equipped with medical monitoring devices. view them from distances of eight to ten feet. and probably control them with hand-held remote devices. they can just as easily be internal. then that is precisely where we will need them.html Page 45 of 143 . so the display-the source of data. an appropriately configured information appliance can receive or send a fax. Efficient delivery of bits to domestic space will. The postman now knocks anywhere. But there is. Connected to an appropriate paper-processing mechanism. and it belongs in the study or the home office.mac. or deliver today's newspaper right into your hand. these differences do matter. another shows the news from CNN. through installation of specialized information spigots and collectors. small groups of people will sit around them in living rooms. make a copy of a document. news. we will find ourselves able to switch rapidly from one activity to the other while remaining in the same place. collapse many of the spatial and temporal separations of activities that we have long taken for granted. then we will not want them in bedrooms or bathrooms. Printer. Decomposition / Recombination This sort of analysis reveals only part of the story. Imagine. beside the recycling bin. It becomes the new reading and writing desk. For a designer of domestic space. Just as the fireplace with its chimney and mantel was the focus of a traditional living room. for example. When attached to a display device (like a television set or personal computer monitor). One window on your screen connects you to a database on which you are paid to work. in addition. thus restructuring the traditional public-to-private hierarchies of domestic space. When information appliances are treated as interactive televisions or as electronic hearths. so we will end up using that same place in many different ways. such an appliance presents itself as a hearth that radiates information instead of heat. Many of our everyday tasks and pastimes will cease to attach themselves to particular spots and slots set aside for their performance-workplaces and working hours. It will no longer be straightforward to distinguish between work time and "free" time or between the space of production and the space of consumption. home and your own time-and will henceforth be multiplexed and overlaid.com/bogronlund/3_314_Upload_05_03/Mitchell_City%20of%20bits.12/03/12 19:06 where information is encoded and sent out in digital form. Ambiguous and contested zones will surely emerge. or see (on a display) and be seen (via a video camera) without completely relinquishing the privacy and controllability of the home. The functions of the various interior spaces will be established. But these places need not be positioned (like the old urban stoops lauded by nostalgic planning theorists) at the boundary between private property and the street. Where they are assimilated to the tradition of the personal computer. If they are configured as two-way videophones that create zones of semi-public space. and newspaper delivery box all condense into one compact device. It can be wherever cables can reach. that you are in your living room at eight o'clock in the evening. no need to hang it on the front door. photocopier. in large part. homes will be places with network addresses as well as street addresses. And. In most rooms. An information appliance can also create electronic stoops-places where you can hear and be heard. and another puts you in a digital chat room. You switch your attention back and forth-mostly http://homepage. there will be fewer occasions to go out. fax machine.
In the resulting digital dystopia. we can expect "greater community stability" and "a renaissance among voluntary organizations like churches. impedes organization of workers and regulation of workplace conditions. and those who cannot afford wheels? We can also formulate them as questions about architecture's fundamental representational role. 77 In many societies there are well-defined. Domestic space becomes electronic sweatshop. "Landmarks are likely to be financial complexes and electronic skyscraper-fortresses. encourages long and irregular work hours. At an urban scale. halfway houses. and the increasing possibility of changing jobs without changing houses. entertainment. the homebound elderly. residential colleges. some futurologists (particularly Alvin Toffler) 78 have painted a neo-Norman Rockwell picture of cozy electronic cottages that "glue the family unit together again. "The electronic cottage raises once more on a mass scale the possibility of husbands and wives. lodges." With the anticipated decline in commuting to work." As Toffler sees it. and other opportunities and services to be channeled to some households and not to others. and you sometimes turn your attention to them. It removes the possibility of finding any refuge from the workplace. But categories lose their clarity. on the other hand. women's groups. and low-income housing projects make vivid social distinctions by creating readily identifiable. Young children may be isolated and protected in nurseries and playgrounds. To the right.com/bogronlund/3_314_Upload_05_03/Mitchell_City%20of%20bits. Children come and go.12/03/12 19:06 CNN. official residences for political and religious leaders. and another puts you in a digital chat room. and children and for family members and for guests. and rites of passage require redefinition. the sick and disabled. women. orphanages. and to the community structures that accompanied these arrangements. From the left. cordoned off from depleted and decaying inner city residential areas. eliminating the spatial and legal distinctions between home and workplace usually looks more like an insidious strategy to decentralize and proliferate the Dark Satanic Mill. working together as a unit. different information circulates in these different spatial settings. You switch your attention back and forth-mostly dealing with the database. If we can no longer make the traditional urban distinction between. thereby technologically creating and maintaining a new kind of privilege? Or can we use the infobahn as an equalization mechanism-a device for providing enhanced access to these benefits for the geographically isolated. Shall we allow home-based employment. prisons. but keeping an eye on the news and occasionally interjecting a comment into the interesting conversation that is unfolding in the chat room. when the uses of built space are no longer permanently assigned and depend from minute to minute on software and the fleeting flow of bits. and perhaps even children. and. the farmhouse dairy. physically discrete domains. adult breadwinners. Are you at work or at play? Should you be charging your time (or some percentage of it) to your employer? If so.mac. athletic and youth organizations." while more affluent private estates and apartments are "sealed off from the surrounding community by elaborate surveillance and security systems. and there may be architecturally differentiated places for adolescents. making their usual demands. on the one hand. Opposing ideologues have lost no time in pressing upon us their tendentious visions of this restructuring. Thus there will be profound ideological significance in the architectural recombinations that follow from electronic dissolution of traditional building types and of spatial and temporal patterns. clubs. and retirees. and puts women right back in the home. is your supervisor entitled to check up on you by monitoring the screen display? Are you occupying tax-deductible work space or nondeductible living space? Such instabilities and ambiguities in space use also challenge traditional ways of representing social distinctions and stages of socialization." He imagines a cozy return to the days of the loom in the living room. major public and commercial buildings that represent institutions." 79 We can formulate these issues in social equity terms. hospices. education. separate places in the dwelling for men. and merchants who lived above the shop. convents. relatively uniform and repetitive housing http://homepage.html Page 46 of 143 .
Perhaps we will find compelling advantages to putting together spaces-like living spaces and work space that were once thought to belong in different buildings located in different zones of the city. Building these programmable places is not just a matter of putting wires in the walls and electronic boxes in rooms (though that is a start). is to alter the basic fabric of our lives. onboard processing power. you can also see how entry and exit points. going away to college. we will have systems for projecting specialized expertise into many different placesfrom airplane seats to isolated rural community centers-wherever and whenever it is required. school. and going home are economically significant. relatively uniform and repetitive housing areas. sophisticated internal telecommunications capabilities. functionalist modernists of the twentieth century have often derived their less regular layouts directly from empirically established requirements of adjacency and proximity among the necessary spatial elements. tactile. Buildings and parts of buildings must now be related not only to their natural and urban contexts.12/03/12 19:06 buildings that represent institutions. and. distributed computational devices will disappear into the woodwork. formal entries and public open spaces. and when telepresence substitutes for face-to-face contact among the participants in activities. they must function as network interfacesloading docks for bits. Instead of building huge suburban theme parks filled with different rides. conversely. auditory. Simultaneously. or any other kind of building clearly shows how it works: you see particular places for the various activities that are to be housed. going to school or to church. Classical architects of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries handled the task of putting spaces together by creating hierarchies of great and small spaces around axial. To change or eliminate them. and local communities that hold special social meaning will increasingly reassert their power. the fresh requirements of the infobahn age suddenly kick in.html Page 47 of 143 . entertainment moguls will construct networks of much smaller. theater. reprogrammable. Displays and effectors will multiply. home. simulation rides. stock exchange. buildings will become computer interfaces and computer http://homepage. In the end. the spatial linkages that we have come to expect are loosened. on the other hand. The floor plan of a traditional store. 81 But when telecommunication through lickety-split bits on the infobahn supplements or replaces movement of bodies along circulation paths. how shall we make social organization and power legible? Going out. software. or otherwise perceptible form. 80 With the aim of being as logical and efficient as possible. and they can potentially relocate and recombine according to new logics. and entertainment. bank. but also to their cyberspace settings. where bodily actions are sensed and converted into digital information. the story is much the same. library. Perhaps it is not too romantic to imagine that unique natural environments. and walls relate the whole composition to its natural setting or urban context. windows. the old bonds break down and new groupings can begin to form. In any case.com/bogronlund/3_314_Upload_05_03/Mitchell_City%20of%20bits. miniaturized. as electrocottages and cybercondos promise to do. As the relevant technologies continue to develop. streets and public places interconnect buildings. socially and legally defining. going to work. education. Increasingly. 82 Rooms and buildings will henceforth be seen as sites where bits meet the body-where digital information is translated into visual. symbolically freighted acts. If you look at the site plan. They must be equipped with electronic sensors and effectors. symmetrical circulation systems connected to grand. sensors will be everywhere. Instead of living rooms. The constituent elements of hitherto tightly packaged architectural and urban compositions can begin to float free from one another. Keyboards and mouse pads will cease to be the only bit-collection zones.mac. Programmable Places Building type by building type. and capacity for getting bits on and offmuch like computer screen space that can be programmed for many different uses. and. office. together with a circulation system of doors and passageways that integrates these parts into a functioning whole. culturally resonant urban settings. And at an urban scale. In place of today's centralized schools and hospitals. we will have domestic spaces that can be programmed for work.
4 Commercial online services such as Compuserve. and by 1993 it included nearly two million host computers in more than 130 countries. arrange. and big-time bit business. Soon. though.12/03/12 19:06 Displays and effectors will multiply.) According to the best estimates-but in truth. the actual density is likely to be much higher in affluent. nobody really knewthere were more than thirty million active users. and Palo Alto. It was UCLA. and I was a very young assistant professor writing primitive CAD software and trying to imagine the role that designers might play in the emerging electronic future. fall 1969. Dial-in bulletin board systems such as the Sausalito-based WELLmuch like independent city-states-appeared in many locations to link home computers. Prodigy. During the late 1980s and early 1990s more and more networks connected to the Internet. Massachusetts. Footnotes Chapter 5 Soft Cities In a world of ubiquitous computation and telecommunication. computer-literate places like Cambridge. in June 1974 there were 62. 2 (Take care in interpreting these figures. numerous smaller. Memory and screen space become valuable. Real Estate / Cyberspace I was there at the almost-unnoticed Big Bang-the silent blast of bits that begat the new communities of the digital era.html Page 48 of 143 . By December there were four ARPANET nodes. though. They will still care about the qualities of visual and ambient environments.mac. Much of the economic. sought-after sorts of real estate. But commodity will be as much a matter of software functions and interface design as it is of floor plans and construction materials. Computer networks become as fundamental to urban life as street systems. electronically augmented bodies. buildings will become computer interfaces and computer interfaces will become buildings. political. some Bolt Beranek and Newman engineers installed a considerably smaller machine that booted up to become the very first node of ARPANET -the computer network that was destined to evolve into the worldwide Internet. cyberspace was busting out all over: two more important networks. In a back room just down the hallway from the monster mainframe on which I worked. Architects of the twenty-first century will still shape. most http://homepage. by that point. and much lower in inner-city Detroit or East Los Angeles. the very idea of a city is challenged and must eventually be reconceived. In the United States. 1 From this inconspicuous point of origin. social. In April 1971 there were 23. and cultural action shifts into cyberspace.com/bogronlund/3_314_Upload_05_03/Mitchell_City%20of%20bits. familiar urban design issues are up for radical reformulation. 3 While the Internet community was evolving into something analogous to a ramshackle Roman Empire of the entire computer world. And delight? Delight will have unimagined new dimensions. there was one Internet host for every couple of hundred people. CSnet (funded by the National Science Foundation) and BITNET (funded by IBM) developed in the early 1980s. and connect spaces (both real and virtual) to satisfy human needs. firmness. but also the logical integrity of computer systems. In the end. In the first six months of 1994 more than a million additional machines were hooked up. They will still seek commodity. A high-speed backbone (NSFnet) was in place by July 1988. independent colonies and confederations were also developing. As a result. education-and research-oriented Internet. and America Online emerged in parallel to the government-sponsored. network tentacles grew like kudzu to blanket the globe. and in March 1977 there were 111. and delight. Before long. Firmness will entail not only the physical integrity of structural systems. this connected thirteen regional networks scattered across the United States-much as the interstate highway system linked local road networks-and the whole loosely organized system became known as the Internet. postinfobahn architecture. California.
UNIVAC. Since copies of digital data are absolutely exact replicas of the originals. the archaic digital world was a far-flung range in which narrow. centralized calculating and data-sorting machines. cultural and legal ambiguities. expression. but smart ones that can organize. And since multiple copies of files and programs can be stored at widely scattered locations. filter. Because its electronic underpinnings are so modular. and their mainframe successors had led us to believe. No. populated by the few hardy technologists who can tolerate the austerity of its savage computer interfaces. and context. explicitly designed to withstand nuclear attack. Cyberspace is still tough territory to travel.12/03/12 19:06 parallel to the government-sponsored. unreliable trails provided only tenuous connections among the multitudinous tiny realms." Mitch Kapor and John Perry Barlow noted in 1990.mac. expanding system. (The original ARPANET was. You can't demolish it by cutting links with backhoes or sending commandos to blow up electronic installations. do not apply succinctly in a world where there can be none. Before long. most of these erstwhile rivals found it necessary to join forces with the Internet. "cyberspace is a frontier region. cyberspace is essentially indestructible. interpret. The very first. "In its present condition. though. messages would automatically reroute themselves around the damaged parts. There would not have been a great deal to connect if computers had remained as large and expensive as they were when ARPANET began in 1969. the old concepts of property. incompatible communications protocols. and general lack of useful maps or metaphors. Wild West / Electronic Frontier The early days of cyberspace were like those of the western frontier. And those links will last forever. and present vast amounts of information. Each one that rolled off the assembly line had its complement of RAM and a disk drive. proprietary barricades. and we are just beginning to glimpse what it may hold. though. Their real role is to construct cyberspace-a new kind of place for human interactions and transactions. identity. and it expanded the potential domain of cyberspace by a few more megabytes of memory. But as networks developed. showed up in 1974. and redundant. the Altair. "Certainly. Somewhere along the line. in fact. geographically dispersed. education-and research-oriented Internet. and it was followed in the early 1980s by the first IBM PCs and Apple Macintoshes. By the 1990s the digital electronics and telecommunications industries had configured themselves into an immense machine for the ongoing production of cyberspace. It turns out that these electronic boxes are not just big. But networking fundamentally changed thingsas clipper ships and railroads changed the preindustrial worldby linking the increasingly numerous individual fragments of cyberturf into one huge.) If big chunks of the network were to be wiped out. Early computers had been like isolated mountain valleys ruled by programmer-kings. fast. as ENIAC. it doesn't matter if the originals get lost or destroyed. If some memory or processing power were to be lost." And they warned. An occasional floppy disk or tape would migrate from one to the other. our conception of what a computer is began to change fundamentally.html Page 49 of 143 . We found ourselves rapidly approaching a condition in which every last bit of computer memory in the world would be electronically linked to every other. based as they are on physical manifestation. breakneck development of the Internet and of consumer computing devices and software quickly created an astonishing new condition. so did inexpensive personal computers and mass-marketed software to run on them. bringing the makings of colonies and perhaps a few unnoticed viruses. Parallel. and you can't even nuke it. that merely encode and decode electronic information." 5 This vast grid is the new http://homepage.com/bogronlund/3_314_Upload_05_03/Mitchell_City%20of%20bits. hitherto-unimagined territory began to open up for exploration. a vast. eliminating them all with certainty is as hard as lopping Hydra heads. it could quickly be replaced. movement. they are primarily communication devices -not dumb ones like telephone handsets.
then it asks you to specify the amount. You cannot ask it to exercise discretion. computer code-arcane text in highly formalized language. The rules governing any computer-constructed microworld-of a video game. You cannot argue with it. in a pistol duel) but thoseof their surrogates in cyberspace. and who or what you can affect by your actions. Finally. or a chat room on the network-are precisely and rigorously defined in the text of the program that constructs it on your screen. then yet another sequence of actions is initiated. code is the law. To enter the space constructed by the ATM system's software you have to submit to a potentially humiliating public examination-worse than being given the once-over by some snotty and immovable receptionist. players did not have to share a single console but could operate individually from their own. typically accessible to only a few privileged high-priests-is the medium in which intentions are enacted and designs are realized. what kinds of actions you can take.) Next the program presents you with a menu of possible actions -just as a more traditional bank building might present you with an array of appropriately labeled teller windows or (on a larger scale) a directory pointing you to different rooms: if you indicate that you want to make a withdrawal. But the game stayed the same. And there are those who would be King. Consider. if you want to check your balance. launching missiles. do not apply succinctly in a world where there can be none." 5 This vast grid is the new land beyond the horizon. it's all a matter of the software's conditionals -those coded rules that specify if some condition holds. Just as Aristotle.12/03/12 19:06 manifestation. and the rules that counted were the coded-in ones of the virtual place in which the surrogates met. an automated teller machine. 6 On timesharing systems. Phaleas. then it prints out a slip with the amount. Cretan. http://homepage. it provided a diagrammatically depicted. So control of code is power. the familiar ritual of withdrawing some cash from an ATM. the place that beckons the colonists. so denizens of the digital world should pay the closest of critical attention to programmed polity. a word processor window. For citizens of cyberspace. in a database somewhere. cajole it. The field of possible interactions is totally delimited by the formally stated rules. and our freedoms? Does it constrain us unnecessarily or does it allow us to act as we may wish? At a technical level. and Carthaginian ones). so did remote Spacewar between players who might be hundreds of miles apart. for example. And when networks began to develop. and would-be conquerors of the twenty-first century. then you can enter the virtual bank.com/bogronlund/3_314_Upload_05_03/Mitchell_City%20of%20bits. and amiably attempting to blow each other to bits. con artists. and the actual Lacedaemonian. your personal computer desktop. if the balance of your account is sufficient (determined by checking a database). Old computer graphics hackers. You cannot plead with it. for example. with the information magnetically encoded on your ATM card). and it is becoming a crucial focus of political contest. deep-space battlefield in which players could take turns moving simulated spaceships. our property. then some action follows. and Hippodamos. or bribe it. for example. then it physically dispenses the cash and appropriately debits the account. cowboys. the first computer game.mac. The software running the machine has some gatekeeper conditionals. You are either embraced by the system (if you have the right credentials) or excluded and marginalized by it right there in the street. Is it just and humane? Does it protect our privacy. in Politics. Who shall write the software that increasingly structures our daily lives? What shall that software allow and proscribe? Who shall be privileged by it and who marginalized? How shall the writers of the rules be answerable? Face-to-Face / Interface The most basic built-in rules of virtual places control when you can act.html Page 50 of 143 . if you want to make a deposit. (Otherwise you are stopped at the door. contemplated alternative constitutions for city-states (those proposed by the theorists Plato. the program applies a banker's rule. The relationships that mattered were not those of the players' bodies in physical space (as. if you have an account and if you enter the correct PIN number (the one that matches up. Human Laws / Coded Conditionals Out there on the electronic frontier. You may have your card confiscated as well. fondly remember Spacewar.
or SoHo. In the early days of computer networks it seemed a slightly far-fetched metaphor to describe these sorts of interaction sites as "places.com/bogronlund/3_314_Upload_05_03/Mitchell_City%20of%20bits.12/03/12 19:06 the rules that counted were the coded-in ones of the virtual place in which the surrogates met. Perhaps fittingly. Virtuality. Forum habitués would often bar crawl from room to room until they found one that seemed to have the right buzz. coffee shop. cocktail party with electronically masked participants and a mouse in your hand instead of a drink. or Lincoln's Inn Fields. so that a stream of comments scrolled by on each participant's screen-a geographically distributed. provided opportunities to get the latest shipping information. you could type in a short text comment. On the early bulletin boards and commercial networks. 12 We can expect them to evolve into the elements of cyberspace construction -constituents of a new architecture without tectonics and a new urbanism freed from the constraints of physical space. Fleet Street. But SIMNET changed that. toward friendship and intimacy. and to exchange other important commercial information. 8 So these virtual places performed.mac. At any point. And the associated conventions allowed those encounters to evolve. or other such hangout). preceded by your chosen online handle. 7 Here the rules structured not a shoot-'em-up arena but a space for (mostly) risk-free. they will respond to user actions in real time and in complex ways. 13 Depending on your trade. and by the early 1990s it was being hyped as the latest thing for the theme park industry. you might find the need to locate in the financial district. ina vivid new way. highly stylized. multiparticipant conversation. in http://homepage. it is because being on the spot puts you in the know. Not surprisingly. On the Spot / On the Net Why do some places attract people? Often.html Page 51 of 143 . "forums" or "rooms" that allowed participants to "chat" quickly became a main attraction. The technology of distributed interactive simulation (DIS) systems grew out of SIMNET. The merchants' coffeehouses of eighteenth-century New York. 10 Pretty soon you could line up to play BattleTech. 11 They will look. SIMNET first came online in 1986 as a network of M-1 tank simulators." since bandwidth was narrow and communication was mostly restricted to typing and receiving text. The place that you entered was presented as a scrolling text window. we will feel present in them. It had a descriptive or evocative name (like a bar. step by step. the traditional urban function of creating op-portunities for chance encounters between strangers. Since the computer-generated display is updated in real time as controls are manipulated. The viewports of the "tanks" are video screens displaying simulated three-dimensional terrain over which a mock tank battle takes place. We will not just look at them. If they struck up an interesting conversation. 9 A military project dating from the interregnum when ARPA was DARPA. and it has since been elaborated to include other types of vehicles. and they will be increasingly elaborate and artfully designed. cyberspace places will present themselves in increasingly multisensory and engaging ways. some of these convivial spots became hot hangouts in cyberspace. and feel more realistic. on Harley Street. sound. and you could survey the scene by looking at a list of current participants. they could agree to go off into private rooms to continue. or Fightertown -interactive games unfolding in networked simulator pods that immerse you in tacky but fairly convincing virtual worlds. for instance. this appeared in the window. and eventually might even contemplate the big step of choosing times and physical locations to go face-to-face with new-found friends. this prototypical electronic landscape-this Garden of Eden of cyberspaceis a realistically simulated battlefield. dozens of widely scattered tank crews have the vivid impression of maneuvering around the same patch of countryside. they will enable richer self-representations of their users. As bandwidth burgeons and computing muscle continues to grow. the garment district. to meet potential trading partners.
and faculty of a university.html Page 52 of 143 . but of where you can exchange the most up-to-date. specialized information with the most savvy people. Newsgroup software allows participants to "post" text messages (and sometimes other sorts of files). the City of Santa Monica's pioneering Public Electronic Network (PEN) is available only to residents of Santa Monica. bits of gossip.la. You might be attracted to the literary salon. or SoHo.current-events. These are programs for broadcasting e-mail messages to all the "subscribers" on specified address lists. and Deadheads are scattered everywhere. 14 By the 1990s there were countless thousands of these places. Electronic "newsgroups" were also quick to develop.com/bogronlund/3_314_Upload_05_03/Mitchell_City%20of%20bits. As with physical assemblies. The notices-queries.quake. Usually there is a hosta sort of Cyber de Stael or Virtual Gertrude presiding over an online rue de Fleury-who sets topics. or they may be constructed through some informal. to people who work in the city. Within hours of the January 1994 Los Angeles earthquake. and road and rail networks have allowed communication between distant cities. These familiar sorts of physical connections have provided access to the places where people lived. It's not just a matter of where the jobs are. requests. In cyberspace. and occasionally kicks out an unruly or objectionable participant. jokes. the corner saloon. urban places have been linked by movement channels of various kinds: doorways and passageways have joined together the rooms of buildings. Long before the rubble had been swept from Wilshire Boulevard and before telephone service had unjammed. But the opposite can also be true. you may be able to do the same work and pursue similar interests if you are out in the sticks. and anyone who enters the place can read them. If you wanted to be in touch and up with the latest in your field. the garment district. warnings. The virtual communities that networks bring together are often defined by common interests rather than by common location: Unix hackers. it was increasingly important to have ready access to the right newsgroups. on Harley Street. ad-hoc newsgroups can spring almost instantly into existence. They are like electronic Hyde Park Corners-places in which anybody can stand up and speak to the assembled crowd. for example. street grids have connected buildings to each other. http://homepage. Fleet Street. Street Networks / World Wide Web Ever since Ur. it was providing a place to post damage reports and find news about friends and relatives. tips. or Detroit. worked.mac. And your physical location no longer mattered so much. It was the best place to be if you wanted to know what was going on. Silicon Valley. or Lincoln's Inn Fields. When there is a sudden need. or at thirty-five public-access terminals located within the city boundaries. When networks and servers are organized to deal with information and issues of local concern to the people of a town or to the students. Lists may assemble formal groups such as the employees of a business. announcements. and entertained themselves. some lists are public and some secret. Trekkies. site-specific communities. in Hollywood. worshipped. Amiga enthusiasts. they act to maintain more traditional. coaxes the exchanges along when they flag. much as you might pin printed notices to a physical bulletin board.12/03/12 19:06 district. list servers soon evolved to perform some of the same functions. news items. or the Cambridge high table. there was a Usenet newsgroup called alt. self-selection process. but you are likely to feel cut off and far from the center of things. So. responses. advertising every interest you might imagine and some that you surely would not. or whatever-stay there until they are deleted. or the students enrolled in a class. 15 And the Athena educational network was put in place on MIT's Cambridge campus to serve the MIT community. staff. some are open to anybody and some are rigorously exclusive.
Ever since the winter of 1994.com/bogronlund/3_314_Upload_05_03/Mitchell_City%20of%20bits. and you can interact with the characters that you meet. into the vast information flea market of the Web-a cyberspace zone now consisting of countless millions of interconnected pages. slippages. these are communities held together. interactive. Multi-User Dungeons. S. as newcomers learn at old MUDders' knees. If I were to diagram these connections. I would have a kind of subway map of cyberspace. The particular joy of MUDville is the striking way that it foregrounds issues of personal identity and selfrepresentation.) Mosaic is a "client" program that provides convenient access to World Wide Web (WWW) servers located throughout the Internet. of course. have burned up countless thousands of log-in hours since the early 1980s. 16 (Right now. Once you have created your MUD character. you can enter a virtual place populated with other characters and objects. Many are based on popular fantasy narratives such as Star Trek. Some heavily frequented MUDs are almost incomprehensibly vast. But as you quickly discover.mac.html Page 53 of 143 . all with their own special characteristics. which have in turn their own exits. allowing you to wander among thousands of distinct settings. The astonishing thing is that a WWW page displayed on my screen may originate from a machine located anywhere on the Internet. role-playing games. Pages typically have "hyperlinks" pointing to related pages elsewhere in the Web.12/03/12 19:06 Now there is a powerful alternative. like Baudelaire strolling through the buzzing complexity of nineteenth-century Paris. http://homepage. I have had a remarkable piece of software called Mosaic on the modest desktop machine that I'm using to write this paragraph. Lewis's Chronicles of Narnia. Mosaic is open in another window. video. as I move from page to page. C. These servers present "pages" of information. The "home page" of any WWW server invites me to step. and reversals in social and sexual roles and even try on entirely fantastic guises. are violent. like Alice through the looking glass. stress ideals of constructive social interaction. allowing me to jump from page to page by clicking on highlighted text or images. I am logging into computers scattered around the world. the most interesting and provocative thing about a MUD is its constitutionthe programmed-in rules specifying the sorts of interactions that can take place and shaping the culture that evolves. But as I see it. which may be in the form of text. In fact. as in many traditional societies. You can discover how it really feels to be a complete unknown. Darwinian places in which you have to be aggressive and constantly on your guard. Neighborhoods / MUDs MUD crawling is another way to go. by shared myths. Some are set up as hack-'n-slash combat games in which bad MUDders will try to "kill" your character. your first task as a MUD initiate is to construct an online persona for yourself by choosing a name and writing a description that others will see when they encounter you. Frank Herbert's Dune. like many of the TinyMUDs. the Japanese animated television series Speed Racer. and they often attract vast numbers of participants scattered all over the Internet. and even more doubtful products of the literary imagination. 17 These provide settingsoften very large and elaborately detailed ones-for online. and the irresistible thing is that you can experiment freely with shifts. You can examine the settings and objects that you encounter. egalitarianism. or sound. Software constructions known as MUDs. these. Others. This place has exits-hyperlinks connecting it to other such settings. They are cyberspace equivalents of urban neighborhoods. I jump almost instantaneously from virtual place to virtual place by following the hyperlinks that programmers have establishedmuch as I might trace a path from station to station through the London Underground. 18 It's like dressing up for a masked ball. graphics.
barriers and thresholds play crucial roles. And these limitations are temporary. you could exchange conversation. Each of those houses. And some are populated by out-of-control. 22 Only limitations in bandwidth and processing power inhibit taking the next step-the realization of whizzier World Wide Webs.) But greater bandwidth. they needed a lot of interesting places to visit-and things to do in those places. you could customize your character. and nonviolence-MUDderhood and apple pie. As the creators of Habitat soon found. Others. and the same is true of cyberspace. and even swap body parts. and it had doors and passages to other regions. crazy MUDders who will try to engage your character in TinySexthe one-handed keyboard equivalent of phone sex.12/03/12 19:06 guard.mac.000 people to do. with places for serious discussion of different scientific and technical topics. A region-one of as many as 20. Populopolis. the hyperplan is the generator. http://homepage. Yet others are organized like high-minded lyceums. or take it to the Change-o-matic sex-change machine. if you got tired of your character. for example. by selecting from a menu of body parts and choosing a sex. towns. on the QuantumLink Club Caribe network (a precursor of America Online) and Commodore 64 computers. take elevators. 19 Lucasfilm's Habitat. This is the organizing framework from which all else grows. 20 As a citizen of Habitat. in North America. Every journey constructs a narrative.com/bogronlund/3_314_Upload_05_03/Mitchell_City%20of%20bits. sensorily immersive spaces. The MIT-based Cyberion City encourages young hackers-MUDders of invention-to write MUSE code that adds new settings to the environment and creates new characters and objects. In both domains. Enclosure / Encryption You don't get to go just anywhere in a city. 21 (That was a one-bit choice.html Page 54 of 143 . In cyberspace. faster computers. You could walk. and garbage cans. like many of the TinyMUDs. We needed wilderness areas between the towns so that everyone would not be jammed together into the same place. you could reconfigure it. superMUDs. we needed things for 20. and other places is a distinct entity that someone needs to design and create. The online environments of the future will increasingly resemble traditional cities in their variety of distinct places. that reputedly attracted a lot more paying customers on the NIFtyServe network in Japan. theaters. it spawned a colony. and fancier programming can shift them into pictorial and spatial formats. or teleport to other regions and explore them. objects. Most of all. (James Joyce surely would have been impressed. since Habitat was marketed as fairly conservative family entertainment. give it some drugs. But no matter how extensive a virtual environment or how it is presented. and other multiparticipant. city as text and text as city. books and newspapers to read. bags and boxes to carry things in.000 Avatars we needed 20. Early MUDs-much like text-based adventure video games such as Zork -relied entirely on typed descriptions of characters. it has an underlying structure of places where you meet people and find things and links connecting those places. in the extent and complexity of the "street networks" and "transportation systems" linking these places. their task became one of reinventing architecture and urban design for cyberspace. arenas. buy and sell goods. and actions. They needed interesting places to visit-and since they can't all be in the same place at the same time. three-dimensional. And. and in their social and cultural richness. roads.000 "houses" organized into towns and cities with associated traffic arteries and shopping and recreational areas. flashlights. forests. They commented: For 20. weapons. urban-scale structures consisting of hyperlinked. These regions were filled with functional objects such as ATM machines to provide cash. Later. in their capacity to engage our senses.000 similar ones in the original Habitat at its zenith-was a place that you can walk your character around. egalitarianism. was an early example of a graphic MUD that had its first incarnation. stress ideals of constructive social interaction.) Players conversed with one another in comic strip speech balloons. shops. scenes. known as your Avatar.
And they can sometimes be guessed. the modern "private house" emerged. you can build the strongest of enclosures around digital information by encrypting it-scrambling it in a complex way so that it can be decoded only by someone with the correct secret numerical key. Breaches in these surfaces-gates. pay admission. According to Lewis Mumford. but also to manage keys so that they don't fall into the wrong hands. some of the necessary technology does exist. but also privacy. doors. you can lock your doors or leave them open. Different societies have distinguished between public and private domains (and the activities appropriate to them) in differing ways. If you give the correct password. living rooms. domestic privacy was "a luxury of the well-to-do" up until the seventeenth century in the West. placate a watchdog. entry halls. In the built fabric of a city. so shelter is not an architectural issue. Fortunately. speak into a microphone and wait for the buzzer. acquired increasingly rigorous protections of constitutional law and public policy. Under pressure from cops and cold warriors. But privacy certainly is. slip a bribe. and urban form has reflected those distinctions. you obtain the intended recipient's public key and use it to encode the information. and it must allow cyberspace architects and urban designers to organize virtual places into public-to-private hierarchies. of course. who anticipate being thwarted by impregnable fortresses in http://homepage. or act out some other ritual to cross a threshold into a more private space. intruders. The cleverest known way to do this is to use a technique called RSA public-key encryption. the enclosing surfaces of the constituent spaces-walls. So the construction technology for virtual cities-just like that of bricks-and-mortar onesmust provide for putting up boundaries and erecting access controls. can be stolen and copied. Traditions and laws recognize these hierarchies and generally take a dim view of illicit boundary crossing by trespassers. ceilings. lower the window shades or raise them. and roofs-provide not only shelter. smile at a receptionist. In this system. floors.html Page 55 of 143 . Most obviously. It doesn't rain in cyberspace. 25 This controls access to virtual places (such as your e-mail inbox) by asking for identification and a password from those who request entry. like keys. and eventually became the cellular unit of suburban tissue. and parlors to more private. Just as you can put the valuables that you really want to protect in a sturdy vault or crypt. 24 Within the modern Western house itself-in contrast to some of its ancient and medieval predecessors -there is a staged gradation from relatively public verandahs.12/03/12 19:06 and thresholds play crucial roles. dress to a doorman's taste. you're in. submit to a search. The trick is not only to have a code that is difficult to crack. is that passwords. and windowsincorporate mechanisms to control access and maintain privacy. Then the recipient decodes the message using the private key. as long as they didn't do it in the street and frighten the horses. 26 The trouble. 23 The rich were the people who could do pretty much what they wanted. where you can shut and lock the doors and draw down the shades against the outside world. in cyberspace construction the rough equivalent of a locked gate or door is an authentication system. which derives its power from the fundamental properties of large prime numbers. take off your shoes. Spatial divisions and access-control devices are carefully deployed to organize places into hierarchies grading from completely public to utterly private. If you want to send a secure message. though.mac. and Peeping Toms. So password protection -like putting a lock on a door-discourages illicit entry but does not block the most determined break-in artists.com/bogronlund/3_314_Upload_05_03/Mitchell_City%20of%20bits. enclosed bedrooms and bathrooms. systematically enumerated until one that works is found. each user has both a secret "private" key and a "public" key that can be distributed freely. Sometimes you have to flip your ID to a bouncer. As privacy rights trickled down to the less advantaged classes. or somehow extorted from the system manager who knows them all.
and Cambridge Civic Network. Can you always keep your bits to yourself? Is your home page your castle? 31 These are still open questions. public parks. parks. we have probable cause that your child is inside this fortress. These questions. you have to belong to a subscribing organization or have to pay to get in. office building lobbies. and civic institutions." 29 But an FBI agent. have become the foci of crucial policy debates. this means that some part of our emerging electronic habitat should be set aside for public uses-just as city planners have traditionally designated land for public squares.12/03/12 19:06 Under pressure from cops and cold warriors. Telluride InfoZone. the US federal government has doggedly tried to restrict the availability ofstrong encryption software. doesn't parse with the public. and pseudopublic parts of the online world-like the makers of city squares.com/bogronlund/3_314_Upload_05_03/Mitchell_City%20of%20bits. disagreed: "O. 27 From that moment. "The idea that the Government holds the keys to all our locks. If we don't want that. And there must be some kind of public control of its use and its transformation over time. Public pressure for this grew in the 1990s as the importance of cyberspace became increasingly clear. RSAbased Pretty Good Privacy (PGP) encryption program. A spokesman for the Electronic Frontier Foundation protested. 28 The effect is a lot like that of leaving a spare set of your front door keys in a safe at FBI headquarters. hacker folk hero Philip Zimmerman released his soon-to-be-famous. like the complementary ones of privacy and encryption. say.. This begs the question of how truly public cyberspace-the equivalent. By May 1994 commercial versions had been licensed to over four millionusers. They made it out of some new metal. so creators and maintainers of public. then we have to look at Clipper. . A space is genuinely public. Senator Inouye of Hawaii introduced to the US Senate a bill that would reserve 20 percent of all new telecommunication capacity for free." 30 So the technological means to create private places in cyberspace are available. and who exerts control. before anyone has even been accused of committing a crime. But for some reason. 33 But urban public space is not merely un-private-what's left over when everyone walls off their private domains.K.. In 1994. shopping mall atriums. of the Piazza San Marco in Venice-might be constructed. and MIT had released a free. Now.mac. as Kevin Lynch once pointed out. only to the extent that it really is openly accessible and welcoming to members of the community that it serves. right? And there are guys in there laughing at us. noncommercial version that anybody could legally download from the Internet. That's what the basis of this issue really is-we've got a situation now where a technology has become so sophisticated that the whole notion of a legal process is at stake here. who anticipate being thwarted by impregnable fortresses in cyberspace. the Clinton administration pushed its plans for the Clipper Chip.. and Disneyland Main Streets-must consider who gets in and who gets excluded. public uses (noncommercial educational and informational services and civic discourse) and would provide funding for those uses. since they are widely but not universally accessible. The community networks that emerged in the 1980s and 1990s-Santa Monica Public Electronic Network. or something. a device that would accomplish much the same thing as RSA but would provide a built-in "trapdoor" for law-enforcement wiretapping and file decoding. At the very least. right? Nothing'll cut it. Opinion about this divided along predictable lines. interviewed by The New York Times. The Internet and commercial online services like America Online and Compuserve have to date provided only semipublic cyberspace at best. Blacksburg Electronic Village. whose norms are enforced. for examplesought answers by trying to make network access openly available to entire communities in the same way that http://homepage. what can and cannot be done there. a well-organized city needs both. Public Space / Public Access Once public and private spaces are distinguished from each other they can begin to play complementary roles in urban life. but the right to create these places remains a fiercely contested issue. semipublic. We have a search warrant. someone kidnaps one of your kids and they are holding this kid in this fortress up in the Bronx. you could securely fence off your private turf in cyberspace. But in June 1991. Meanwhile. for example. we cannot get in there. Smart Valley. 34 It must also allow users considerable freedom of assembly and action.html Page 56 of 143 . 32 And so it is in cyberspace. The same goes for public cyberspace.
In many (though not all) cases. the new. though. In fact. Just as parks and squares must be pleasant and welcoming to a diverse population in order to function effectively. thinly populated areas. People must also feel secure and comfortable-not subject to hostility. while sensible enough. There is complete dissociation of the two if the electronic public space is accessible only from personal computers in homes and businesses. The Library12. the cultural presumptions and cues that are built into an interface must not discourage http://homepage. The Administration Building2. University Circle13. 36 It began by linking one-room and two-room rural schoolhouses across the state. These are public rather than personal digital assistants. Increasingly. with more than 35. In economically disadvantaged communities. The Post Office3.000 registered users and over 10. successfully pioneered this idea. Public Square4. or attack. The Schoolhouse (Academy One)9. communities and their planners will have to consider tradeoffs between investing scarce resources in creating or upgrading parks and community buildings and putting the money into effective electronic networks. so must the interfaces to public areas of cyberspace. The Communications Center15. The Community Center and Recreation Area10. for example. Since physical distance means little in cyberspace. the possibility also exists to "condense" scattered rural communities by creating public spaces that serve large. Being There / Getting Connected But a free-net's superimposition of the virtual onto the physical. in which a "city" metaphor is explicitly used to structure information access: you go to the appropriate "building" to find the information or services that you want. The Berkeley Community Memory and Santa Monica PEN systems have demonstrated a more radical strategy by placing rugged workstations in places like laundromats and at congregation points for the homeless. one of the most interesting questions for twenty-first-century urban designers to ask is. The Big Sky Telegraph. simply making computers available and providing some kind of electronic access to civic information and discourse is not enough to create successful public cyberspace. is not a logical or technical necessity. The Courthouse and Government Center5. but just as importantly. "How should virtual and physical public space relate to one another?" Consider the obvious options. abuse. where adequate public facilities of a traditional kind do not exist. a citizen can choose between going to an actual public building or to the corresponding virtual one. The Business and Industrial Park11. and economic self-sufficiency. Science and Technology Center7. NPTN/USA Today Headline News On the free-net model. an interface that depends on cryptic commands and arcane knowledge of computer technology is as much a barrier to most people as is a flight of steps to a park user in a wheelchair. The artist Krzysztof Wodiczko has gone a step further by suggesting that the physically homeless and displaced might carry electronic "alien staffs"personal devices that connect them to cyberspace and sometimes construct public representations of self by providing information to others about who they are and where they come from. 35 Many of these community networks are structured as so-called free-nets. and it has focused on education. economic opportunity. And more subtly. Another possibility is to associate access points with civic architecture: put an electronic information kiosk in the lobby of city hall or in the public library. The Medical Arts Building8. Thus the "welcome" screen of the Cleveland Free-Net (one of the oldest and largest. the possibility of providing public cyberspace may become an important community development issue. which has been running in Montana since 1988.com/bogronlund/3_314_Upload_05_03/Mitchell_City%20of%20bits. The Teleport14. these workstations thus begin to play a public role much like the traditional one of fountains in the public places of Rome. virtual city becomes a kind of electronic shadow of the existing physical one.mac. then. The Arts Building6. Whatever approach is taken to deploying network capacity for public purposes.12/03/12 19:06 answers by trying to make network access openly available to entire communities in the same way that city hall and the local public parks traditionally have been.000 log-ins per day) presents the following quotidian directory: 1.html Page 57 of 143 .
I found the following notice from the management (a bit like the "Do not spit" signs that used to appear in railway stations): "And please remember that PRODIGY is for people of all ages and backgrounds. On the one hand. so it remorselessly enforces the norms of Middle America. Eventuallyto cries of "censorship!" from some quarters-a young Norwegian programmer wrote and unleashed an effective piece of "cancelbot" software that sniffed out and automatically removed the offending advertisements wherever they showed up. On the other hand.html Page 58 of 143 . My daughter's high school treats its corner of public cyberspace as a schoolyard where teachers enforce discipline. they were asked to sign contracts banning "sexually explicit speech. 37 Think of important physical public spaces like New York's Central Park and consider the extent to which both their successes and their failures depend on these sorts of things. 38 This blast of unwanted bits had the same effect as driving a blaring sound truck into a public park." Then. http://homepage. but don't mistake them for genuine. Was the operator of this openly accessible place responsible for knowing and controlling what was going on there? Or could he rightfully claim that it was just none of his business? Like the proprietors of shopping malls and Disneylands. like the telephone companies. but their operators also take care to remove messages they consider obscene or illegal. so they have to seem as welcoming. (The question is often framed as one of whether these services should be regarded as common carriers. designers of public cyberspace will have to deal with them as well. Notes containing obscene.com/bogronlund/3_314_Upload_05_03/Mitchell_City%20of%20bits. these places need lots of paying customers to support them. And forget the `x's. the cultural presumptions and cues that are built into an interface must not discourage potential users. Community Customs / Network Norms Where public cyberspace exists. though. Some institutions are even more restrictive. for example. and therefore not responsible for any libelous. profane or sexually explicit language (including descriptions of sexual acts. One of the unrepentant perpetrators proclaimed his right to be a pain and threatened to do it again. Copies of commercial software were being posted. open. The Internet community reacted with outrage and disdain. 39 In another widely publicized incident that unfolded almost simultaneously. how can and should it be used? Do the customs and laws that govern physical public space still make sense in this new context? As usage of the Internet and commercial online services has grown. kids might see the word "girl" in the forum's headline and "go in there looking for information about their Barbies.) The last time I peeked at Prodigy. then downloaded without payment by users who logged in from all over the world. and inclusive as possible. And America Online has shut down some feminist discussion forums because. and flamed back tens of thousands of complaints." 41 The excluded feminists might be forgiven for responding in not-for-prime-time language. for example. These places have found a useful role to play. a graduate student at MIT was busted by the FBI for operating an Internet bulletin board that had become a very active site for illegal activity -much like a bar in which drug deals were going down. watch-out-for-yourself spaces for unconstrained public discourse." Prodigy explicitly aims at a family audience. according to a spokesperson. the operators of commercial online services must struggle with the inherently contradictory nature of the semipublic places they create. the operators want to stay in firm control of what goes on.12/03/12 19:06 as importantly. some particularly thick-skinned lawyers from Phoenix spammed the Internet by indiscriminately spraying a commercial advertisement for the services of their firm into thousands of newsgroups. In April 1994. A good test is whether the language in your note would be acceptable at a public meeting. there have been increasingly frequent disputes that have tested the limits of acceptable behavior in electronic public places and raised the question of how these limits might reasonably be enforced.mac. or criminal information that they might carry or whether they should be in control and therefore held responsible like book and newspaper publishers and television broadcasters. open-to-all. and whether or not masked with `x's and the like) are not allowed. When the kids first got e-mail addresses. obscene. when the inevitable happened. 40 Its competitors Compuserve and Genie have different sorts of constituencies.
when the inevitable happened. and electronic plazas. lobbies. the Indus. first of all. with gates and doors to control boundary crossings. distribution. is that of urban history replayed in fast forward-but with computer resource use playing the part of land use. The WELL. look to its economic base. Nolli and the Net The story of virtual communities. and the irrigation ditch. With steam and steel in the nineteenth century came mushrooming industrial cities like Manchester and Pittsburgh. there will always be a Berkeley! The Berkeley Community Memory system is a radical political invention-a transposition of the Free Speech Movement and People's Park into cyberspace. the Nile. Baron Haussmann's radial patterning of Paris. or Daniel Burnham's grand plan for Chicago-large-scale structures of places and connections organized to meet the needs of their inhabitants. Pisa. transformation. and consumption of digital information. With the development of maritime trade. and Free Nets are-like Hippodamos's gridded layout for Miletos. walls. a similar framework of distinctions and expectations is-with much argumentbeing constructed. the plow. You will see that the ancient cities of Mesopotamia. has reflected this. as cyberspace cities emerge. and private rooms are being invented and deployed. members-only clubs. The organization of built space into public-to-private hierarchies. and Genoa-owing to their favorable locations-flourished as mercantile centers. doors. what can be done where. they emerged in the midst of fertile agricultural hinterlands and busied themselves with the accumulation and exchange of excess agricultural production. Perhaps some electronic cartographer of the future will produce an appropriately nuanced Nolli map of the Net. so have customs. but it costs a quarter to post an opinion and a dollar to open up a new forum.com/bogronlund/3_314_Upload_05_03/Mitchell_City%20of%20bits. postings can be anonymous. And in the soft cities of cyberspace the economic engine is the bit business-the production. to find a primary production level at the foundation of http://homepage. MUDs.html Page 59 of 143 . Now. cities like Rome and Constantinople became fortified enclosures with large military populations engaged in protecting the citizenry and civil institutions. access to public and semipublic places. 1 Economics 101 / Economics 0 and 1 Colin Clark's textbook-enshrined distinctions among economic sectors suggest that we should expect. Funding is decentralized as well: there are coin-operated terminals on which postings can be read without charge. norms. And the parallels don't stop there. and the Yellow River were made possible by invention of the wheel. Footnotes Chapter 6 Bit Biz Follow the money! If you want to understand how a communityphysical or virtual-has grown and survived.mac. Venice. so far. and network navigation systems standing in for streets and transportation systems. As traditional cities have evolved. Nolli's famous map of Rome vividly depicted it. the World Wide Web. the e-mail system was temporarily shut down as punishment." Then. and no central authority controls the content of postings. forums. and some students complained about receiving obscene messages. But then. and exertion of control. When barbarian invaders threatened. 42 All information on the system is community generated. locks. and laws governing rights to privacy.12/03/12 19:06 they were asked to sign contracts banning "sexually explicit speech.
its role in information economies is similar to that of industrial machinery and manufacturing plants in industrial ones. then. At the level corresponding to secondary industry in Clark's schema. So they are willing to spend resources on creating. In cyberspace. though. for example. (Some day. and the channels carry a complex. this information-brokering function remains. such as those converting large libraries and image collections into digital form and putting them online. point-of-sale terminals. text files. so creators should have limited monopolies that allow them to make money from their intellectual contributions while society as a whole benefits from the production and distribution of knowledge. each node in a computer network is both a production and a consumption site for information products. then ship their finished work back out. there is still a need for somebody to serve as "innkeeper" to keep the premises in order and the conversation moving along. then e-mails copies to subscribers. Manufacturers of information products can find suppliers and raw materials on the Net.html Page 60 of 143 . But the "property" metaphor can be misleading.com/bogronlund/3_314_Upload_05_03/Mitchell_City%20of%20bits. though perhaps modified and extended to take account of the novel characteristics of digital media and distribution systems. agents. Networks and cyberspace communities connect players in the different sectors. since digital artifacts (such as application software files.12/03/12 19:06 sectors suggest that we should expect. Like farmers putting their wheat on the railroad to get it to markets and consumers. perhaps. Increasingly. to find a primary production level at the foundation of the bit business. industrial way-as when a publisher uses databases and document-production software to create a newsletter. storing. and transferring bits. Similarly. The editors and publishers of a scientific journal. you will find booming activity at all of these levels. where stories are automatically selected and laid out by personal newspaperproduction software. microphones. primary producers of information can put their bits on the Net. the production capabilities are shifting to the consumer end-as when a wire service feed flows into a personal computer. acquiring. They find that they are interested in trading bits. If you surf around the World Wide Web for a while. It follows. ) Sometimes production and distribution operations are related in something approximating the traditional. and middlemen. raw bits are transformed into information products and distributed to consumers. first of all. Lawyers like to look at valuable bits as a form of intellectual property. that cyberspace economic activity should be regulated by copyright and patent law. much as transportation systems and cities on the ground have always done. Potentially. and in many cases they want to protect their bits.mac. And indeed. of course. and printed books in several crucial ways. brokers. 2 They can be reproduced indefinitely at trivial http://homepage. Though production and distribution mechanisms for traditional print journals and emerging online journals are very different. automobiles. some enterprising urban historian will produce a history of industrial and commercial application software that parallels Sigfried Giedion's cataloguing and celebration of early machines in Mechanization Takes Command. and digital movies and audio files) differ from tangible property like land. multiway information trade. They reason that incentives for the creation of digital works are needed. when gatherings shift from bars to bulletin boards. and then stored in databases like wheat in silos. because people have come to value bits. useful information is now continually harvested from the world by keyboards. And as retailing and banking go online. There are innumerable small operations. software takes command. provide the essential services of evaluating the relevance and scientific merit of submitted papers and selecting the best for publication. and desktop document scanners. and there are a few massive bit extraction and refining enterprises. video cameras. the tertiary Clarkian level becomes that of information retailers. surveillance satellites. Tangible Goods / Intellectual Property This activity only exists. buildings. transforming. or explore the offerings of any commercial online service. Here. like texts printed on paper or movies distributed on videotape. Sales people and professional consultants can set up shop at network addresses instead of at locations on Main Street. sales jobs move to cyberspace.
Because of these differences.html Page 61 of 143 . providers can maintain comprehensive online catalogues that allow users to get quickly and conveniently to what they want. unresolved moral disputes will create conflict among members of cyberspace communities just as surely as they do in other contexts. while avoiding unnecessary impediments to the free flow of information. frequently updated databases may charge users not for the information that they download but for the time spent logged in to the provider's server to conduct searches.com/bogronlund/3_314_Upload_05_03/Mitchell_City%20of%20bits. then the providers can charge fees for downloading the material to the user's printer or viewing device. Moving Material / Processing Bits It would be easy to miss the point by pushing this sort of analysis to its logical extreme and so concluding that cyberspace economic activity operates autonomously in its own realm-disconnected from material. and they can often be moved around undetectably. and through telecommunications networks they can be distributed almost instantaneously throughout the world. 2 They can be reproduced indefinitely at trivial cost. Whatever technical and legal controls are implemented will succeed only to the extent that they have community acceptance. So are automobiles: if I have the family car. Most importantly perhaps. But bits often have value precisely because they tell us something about the material world and can usefully guide our actions in that world. the information stream can be cut off. In fact. users have an incentive to perform (and pay for) new searches rather than to rely on bootleg copies of the results of old searches. For example. And it is a queer kind of property that can be valuable without being intrinsically scarce. then you do not. Land is different: if I build on a lot. where subscriptions are not paid. In many contexts. are books and videotapes: if I check out a copy of some work from the library." 3 The emerging result seems to be a complex interaction between established. place-based operations. even. Or. one person's use of a file or some application software need not interfere with or prevent another's use of the same resource. Geographers. then other users cannot. Another part is the development of intellectual property law to cover the new situations that arise in cyberspace. Infobahn-oriented strategies are emerging. geographically located urban and regional economies and the increasingly powerful effects of long-distance. the electronic linkages of cyberspace largely serve (as Manuel Castells has put it) to "connect agriculture and manufacturing with the consumption of goods and services.mac. and planners will have to gather data and do some careful analysis to sort out http://homepage. since the retrieved information is most valuable when it has been extracted from the latest version of the database. Invention of mechanisms like these is one part of the answer to the problem of constructing a workable framework for cyberspace business -one that adequately protects the originators and distributors of bits. They take up very little storage space. then you cannot. providers of news archives and other large.12/03/12 19:06 automobiles. economists. In the case of online books and journals. By contrast. the digital resources that are available in cyberspace do not have to be scarce resources. So. and printed books in several crucial ways. where users receive continuous streams of information-as in the case of the news feeds that are used to create personalized newspapers-payment can be by subscription. and of movies on demand. it is quick and easy to transform and combine existing digital information to produce new works that may seem very different. almost instantaneous information flows within worldwide virtual communities. the growing cyberspace business community is finding that it cannot rely on either the traditional legal mechanisms for protecting the bits that it sells and barters or on familiar ways of assuring payment. and with the management of organizations and institutions of society. Yet another -perhaps most important of all-is the emergence of a broadly shared sense of morality in these matters.
the boarium for cattle. they need appropriate collections of catalogue pointers rather than convenient access to specialty stores and shopping districts. then. the logical pointers linking merchants and customers can run in either direction. and of whether some groups may be http://homepage. moving them. It is all done with software and databases. customers get to merchants by accessing online catalogues. At the same time. Managers and professionals are increasingly able to scatter across the globe while reintegrating their activities through telecommunications. nineteenth-century railroad towns. The mobility of capital has been heightened.com/bogronlund/3_314_Upload_05_03/Mitchell_City%20of%20bits.mac. as demand for manufactured goods drove development of earlier industrial cities and transportation centers. brokering them. and shopping malls jammed with carefully differentiated retail stores in which the essential transaction takes place at the counter-the point of sale-where money and goods are physically exchanged. Physical Transactions / Electronic Exchanges Historically. and inventing new ways to add value to them. there are some vigorous centralizing forces. and the vinarium for wine. Production processes remain ultimately dependent on appropriation and transformation of matter. The world's apparently insatiable greed for bits will fuel their growth. Merchants get to potential customers by accessing lists of electronic addresses. There is no simple formula. the key to successful marketing is not being in the right neighborhood with the right sorts of customers for whom to lay out wares. the suarium for pigs. Modern cities have main streets. and filter all the databases. In cyberspace the necessary connection of buyers and sellers is established not through physical proximity but through logical linkage. much as merchants of different kinds might cluster together in a bazaar or shopping center.. commercial districts. Do the merchants compile. A world economy can now function in real time. the holitorium was for vegetables. So cyberspace communities-like eighteenth-century seaports. in a separate place. First. 4 In Politics Aristotle proposed that a city should have both a "free" square in which "no mechanic or farmer or anyone else like that may be admitted unless summoned by the authorities" and a marketplace "where buying and selling are done . the initial development of an advanced telecommunications infrastructure is likely to favor existing urban centers (with their high and profitable concentrations of information work) over small towns and remote areas.12/03/12 19:06 Geographers. of how customers can fend off unwanted advertising. economists. there are growing forces acting to decentralize economic activity. and residential locational patterns. They are stops on the infobahn. conveniently situated for all goods sent up from the sea and brought in from the country.. These Roman markets were further specialized by type of produce. skimming them. these opposing forces will have complex and socially differentiated effects on urban and regional development processes and on industrial. 6 Technically. Conversely. Medieval marketplaces were places both for barter and exchange and for religious ritual. Lists of lists and catalogues of catalogues provide convenient starting points for making business connections.html Page 62 of 143 . of who has the right to initiate transactions. owning them. but here are some plausible guesses. Firms can maintain unity of management while decentralizing production and participating in markets worldwide. commercial. stealing them. to search efficiently for particular goods. and planners will have to gather data and do some careful analysis to sort out what is really going on. maintain. They will flourish as places to make bucks from bits by producing them. and decide when and where to direct their advertising? This raises questions about possible invasion of privacy by pinpoint marketers. Furthermore. communities have fostered economic activity by providing specialized settings for buyers and sellers to meet and exchange goods and services. gambling with them. and midtwentieth-century motel/fast-food strips-play specialized roles within the complex new economic order that develops as a new kind of infrastructure is deployed. In the end. but (as with the older strategy of direct-mail marketing) having the right lists for sending out advertising." 5 Ancient Rome had both its fora civilia for civic assembly and its fora venalia for the sale of food. so industrial locations are still largely determined by local availability of raw materials and access to labor markets. But there is a question of who is in control. sort.
travel. industry standards for assuring security of Internet transactions were under development. This information was then used to "personalize" content. computer equipment. like their physical counterparts. cross-linking of credit card records can be used to generate detailed purchasing. data derived from the Member's use of the Prodigy service. high bulk. Prodigy was designed from the outset to carry advertising and to create records of which advertisements had been viewed. and of whether some groups may be systematically denied information about things that they need (a new form of redlining). So various "electronic cash" schemes have been developed to provide security for network financial transactions while maintaining the privacy of principals. a secret key is used to "sign" messages. The Prodigy online service. They have been the ones with the big computers and the capacity to put together lists by recording credit card. and to affix digital "signatures" and time stamps to legally binding documents. whenever a credit card is used for a purchase. and low margins.mac. Users were also asked to provide demographic information. Fortunately. and online shopping services were beginning to offer encryption-protected credit card payment. or flash an ID in cyberspace. Personalization is based on data provided by the Member (or Membership Holder) to Prodigy. Bank Notes / Electronic Cash Since you cannot literally lay down your cash. easily transported. payment methods are being reinvented for this new kind of marketplace. The Internet and similar networks were not initially designed to support commercial transactions nor secure enough for this purpose. Immaterial goods such as insurance policies and commodity futures are most easily traded electronically. 11 Thus a bank might issue "electronic bank notes" in the form of http://homepage.12/03/12 19:06 off unwanted advertising. the merchants have so far had all the advantages. was a pioneering attempt to construct a cyberspace consumer marketplace. 10 But credit card payment-no matter how secure and fraud-resistant it can be made-has the disadvantage that it does not provide the anonymity of cash payment. By the summer of 1994. The idea is readily extended to small. have their particular advantages and disadvantages for traders. data encryption techniques can be used to authenticate the identities of trading partners. produce a credit card. But it makes less sense for grocery retailing and other businesses characterized by mass markets. and home computer transactions and buying mailing lists. initiated by Sears and IBM in the 1980s. and medical histories of individuals. the vendor can keep a record of the number. and only a message signed by the private key can be verified by the public key. high-value specialty items-books. and as client software like Mosaic and Netscape makes it easier for them to find and search catalogues." 8 In this and other cyberspace consumer marketplaces. we may find that an increasing amount of business is done by the highly personalized software agents of customers (who know the habits and preferences of their masters) meeting the sales agents of merchants in virtual showrooms and stores. jewelry. Furthermore. telephone. to allow secure exchange of sensitive information such as credit card numbers and bid amounts. 7 Or do customers construct and maintain databases of pointers to catalogues they find useful and get product information only when they request it? This makes it difficult to market new products and difficult for new merchants to break into markets. and so on-the sorts of things that have traditionally been sold by mail order. communication. Cyberspace cities. so they are likely to grow up around particular trade specializations. The service agreement defined the arrangement clearly: "One of the valuable and unique features of the Prodigy service is its ability to personalize information and transaction services to each Member's interests. 9 But we can expect this balance to shift as more and more customers have computers and network connections. and from the Member's responses to Prodigy's questions and surveys. then a public key is used to verify them. Electronic cash schemes typically make use of digital signatures in some way. of who has the right to initiate transactions.com/bogronlund/3_314_Upload_05_03/Mitchell_City%20of%20bits. As the necessary technology evolves. So a successful cyberspace marketplace probably needs some appropriate balance of the two.html Page 63 of 143 . sign a check.
" 14 Such automata were not available in ancient Greece. where software objects known as bots may interact with human players to serve as guides." He elaborated: "Tools may be animate as well as inanimate. On the street. so has the realization that the denizens of cyberspace. and if-like the statues made by Daedalus or the tripods of Hephaestus . users could simply drag icons representing bank notes to graphically depicted payment locations. So more elaborate schemes. They began to show up in some MUDs. Sometimes it's a case of "My assistant will call your assistant": the task is delegated to agents. transactions reduce to exchanges of bits. But in virtual cities. To withdraw a dollar from the bank. a ship's captain uses a lifeless rudder. a species of artificially intelligent tools that would bail him out of the mess that this morally obtuse line of reasoning had landed him in: "For suppose that every tool we had could perform its task.. Helots / Agents Transactions in cyberspace. from the point of view of his craft.12/03/12 19:06 can be verified by the public key. then transfer a dollar to the payee's account. then master craftsmen would have no need of servants nor masters of slaves. 16 By the 1990s the vast scale of the online world and the huge bit glut that it provided had made agents seem a necessity. Serious users of online information began to rely on search agents that know where to find certain sorts of material. as an aside. for a servant is. you would send it back to the bank. goods and cash crossed store counters. Different denominations would have different private keys. but in cyberspace they are. users could carry their electronic cash in electronic wallets. and his property is an assemblage of such tools. categorized as one of its tools. contracts were physically signed.-shuttles in a loom could fly to and fro and a plucker play a lyre of their own accord. for instance. will need the help of reliable agents to do their bidding. and can perhaps even present it in convenient and attractive formats of your own choosing. Newsgroup junkies turned with relief to the Stanford Netnews Filter. like the Greek citizens contemplated in Aristotle's Politics. to hawk real estate. are not always conducted directly by the principals. either at our bidding or itself perceiving the need. As online activity has grown. which would verify the signature. Online. the bank can still keep a record of who spent which notes and where they were spent. The idea of autonomous software agents that can not only perform useful tasks. Whatever forms of electronic payment eventually gain wide acceptance. Aristotle. but a living man for watch. notoriously. 11 Thus a bank might issue "electronic bank notes" in the form of numbered bundles of bits signed with a particular private key. such as that developed by the DigiCash company. like those that take place in more traditional settings. the user interface need not be. 15 In the 1980s Marvin Minsky's book The Society of Mind provided inspiration and some important technical underpinnings. but also-at least to some extent-learn from experience and make certain decisions on their own goes back to some investigations in the 1960s by the artificial intelligence pioneer Oliver Selfridge. So any piece of property can be regarded as a tool enabling a man to live. and the bank would debit your account and send back an electronic bank note signed with its private key. it does not allow anonymous payments. which becomes particularly important when the transactions that you must conduct are numerous and time-consuming. 12 While this straightforward approach provides good security.com/bogronlund/3_314_Upload_05_03/Mitchell_City%20of%20bits. To spend that dollar." Then he went on to imagine. can go out on the network and get it for you. programmers can construct intelligent bit puppetssoftware tools to do their bidding. 17 Desperate users of e-mail began to employ agents that would filter out junk mail and prioritize the rest.mac. Use of agents frees your time for other things. and sometimes even to sucker the unwary into TinySex.html Page 64 of 143 . 13 Though the underlying mechanics of electronic cash may seem complicated. you would send a message with your private key. check the number against the list of notes already spent. a slave is a sort of living piece of property. described the kind of agents that he had in mind-human slaves-as "live tools" needed to support the "good life. they promise fundamental changes in our daily lives.. and perpetrators of illegal transactions were sometimes caught in the act. In traditional cities the transaction of daily business was accomplished literally by handing things over. provide for "blinding" notes by employing mathematical tricks with random numbers. which http://homepage.
You can go shopping yourself. So Greek and Roman houses had slave quarters. a community's norms and laws applied. offices have receptionists. cyberspace may be flooded with billions of them.000-plus newsgroups on the Usenet message network each day and e-mails back the ones containing specified key phrases.com/bogronlund/3_314_Upload_05_03/Mitchell_City%20of%20bits. 18 Personal computers began to lodge agents that would watch users transacting their daily business of answering correspondence and scheduling meetings. increasingly indispensable. 20 Computer viruses and worms are maliciously constructed agents-fanning out. As software agents have appeared on the scene. slums grew up in the shadows of factories in nineteenth-century industrial cities. And the burgeoning.html Page 65 of 143 . high-density (often high-rise). Disneyland-like "Main Street" filled with "shops" maintained by organizations that want to hawk their wares and services. and libraries have librarians. look for patterns. but outside they did not. and always perform impeccably. It isn't hard to imagine the social and urban problems that could emerge as agent populations grow. will we ever fully trust them? And how will we deal with the old paradox of the slave? We will want our agents to be as smart as possible in order to do our bidding most effectively. uncontrollable rogue agents? Since agents are easy to reproduce. by entering programmed places and interacting with the agents that you find there. Will there will be a criminal underclass? Will faulty programming produce destructive. and make purchases. Newsgroup junkies turned with relief to the Stanford Netnews Filter. negotiate prices. Telescript is a specialized programming language for conveniently creating agents and virtual places. Let your agents do the walking! Early in 1994 the general public began to hear a lot more about the hitherto esoteric topic of agents when General Magic-a much watched and talked-about Silicon Valley startup-rolled out its Telescript and Magic Cap software. but the more intelligent they are. and automate these where appropriate. how will population be controlled? How will the law deal with agents that perform important tasks on behalf of distant. perhaps oblivious originators? 21 Even if our agents turn out to be very smart. like Fagin's boys. may not be. programmed proletariats of cyberspace cities now live invisibly on disk drives. the more we will have to worry about losing control and the agents taking over. The great cities of the past required large labor forces to run them. 19 And as more and more business is transacted in cyberspace. So history replays itself. Plutarch vividly expressed the importance http://homepage. some kinds of transactions are sanctioned and others. repetitive worker housing. like selling drugs. Jurisdictions / Logical Limits Within any community. Or you can delegate the task by sending your agents out to meet other agents. Engineers created agents to control electricity networks. to cause trouble. which reads all 10.12/03/12 19:06 mail and prioritize the rest. they imported slaves or attracted immigrants seeking work. hotels have concierges.mac. So the significance of city boundaries has traditionally been that they marked the limits of a community's power to establish and enforce controls on what inhabitants could do: inside the walls. it seem inevitable that we will see increasing use of agents that automatically seek out offers of goods and services. In MUDs-in a new twist on the Turing test-visitors sometimes find it difficult to tell whether they are interacting online with fellow humans or with clever pieces of software. and astronomers used agents to schedule telescope time. and modernist architects of the early twentieth century became preoccupied with providing inexpensive. Magic Cap is an entry point to this world of agents and places-a graphic operating system that presents cyberspace as a cute. more and more cyberspace places have acquired attendants that guide you through whatever is available there and help you to make use of it-much as shops have shop assistants.
local laws and customs apply. 24 It proposed. not Terminus. which is New Zealand's only Internet connection to the rest of the world. among other things. This issue has also shown up dramatically in New Zealand. for example. This proposal was viewed with understandable alarm by Waikato University. the maps negotiated by politicians and drafted by urban planners are patchworks of ownership boundaries. On national security grounds. Now. island nation long accustomed to controlling flows across its borders. they could simply deluge Usenet newsgroups with unsolicited postings. Today. you can burn books.12/03/12 19:06 community's norms and laws applied. an isolated. (Some mullahs and isolationist despots still get away with it. local power is exerted by some over others. for example. if Amateur Action's disk drives had been located in Mexico or Denmark. it aimed. the United States bans export of powerful cryptography software. 26 Exports are as difficult to control as imports. and it made New Zealand network operators responsible for preventing New Zealand citizens from accessing foreign-based pornography bulletin boards. and the Roman pantheon gave a proud place to Terminus. were hauled into federal court in Memphis. There was a time when governments could effectively control the images by policing production and distribution within their boundaries and confiscating publications at the border. but outside they did not. and convicted on a charge of distributing pornography. Of course. Roman law provided severe punishment for those who tampered with boundary stones. to make transfer of "objectionable" material through telecommunications services illegal.html Page 66 of 143 . California.) But it is very difficult-sometimes impossible-to create effective border checkpoints in cyberspace. 25 This isn't an option for the literate good guys only. But it is well known in the Internet community that copies of such software are available on openly accessible servers and can readily be downloaded by http://homepage. In 1994 the Technology and Crimes Reform Bill was introduced by a right-winger in the New Zealand parliament. for the crudest of hate propaganda. and the use of a packet-switching protocol-which means that files are sent in fragments to be reassembled at the receiving endmakes transmissions particularly difficult to intercept. these lines on the ground mean little in cyberspace. which was physically located in Milpitas. Within jurisdictional borders. You may sympathize with the attempts of local authorities to control kiddie porn. Plutarch vividly expressed the importance of the boundary by telling how Romulus plowed a deep furrow to delineate the periphery of Rome and thought the task so important that he killed the interfering Remus. zoning boundaries. Tennessee. anywhere.com/bogronlund/3_314_Upload_05_03/Mitchell_City%20of%20bits. somewhere carefully out of reach. In 1994 the proprietors of an "adult" image server called Amateur Action Bulletin Board. to roll back the tide of unwelcome bits that advanced telecommunications was bringing. the multiplicity of possible transmission paths. god of boundaries. If nobody wanted to download their nasty stuff. 23 The action followed a raid on the bulletin board premises by US postal agents and San Jose police officers. So Fahrenheit 451 is becoming irrelevant. and local police and military forces maintain power by the potential or actual use of violence.mac. who has a network connection. and jurisdictional boundaries. though. But bits answer to terminals. the postal agents would not have been able to get to them anyway. 22 If they are downloaded through the Internet. they would not even have known where to look. but how about suppression of dissident political speech? The Digital Freedom Network has dramatized the issue by setting up an online library with the sole purpose of providing Internet access to books that are banned in the authors' home countries. it would be just as easy for neo-Nazis to set up a server. The defense contended that these files were legal in California and that the Tennessee court should just mind its own business. Canute-like. but not bits. control of images that have been defined by those in authority as pornographic. Consider. digital images and videos can be posted on bulletin boards that arephysically located anywhere in the world and downloaded by anyone. The prosecution claimed that image files downloaded from the bulletin board violated local Tennessee standards. And if the files had been downloaded from an anonymous remailer.
Whoever runs a machine that serves as a network node can grant or deny user access to that node and can switch on or black out whatever subnetwork that node runs. many commercial and governmental organizations have begun to create "firewalls"-secure computers interposed between their internal networks and the Internet outside. but on a much larger scale. interlopers. well situated in http://homepage. these organizations then have narrow gates that allow traffic to go out but can be defended against unwanted intrusions. Commercial online services like Compuserve and America Online also centralize power. though. it appeared self-evident to him that a state -a self-governing political unit-had a definite. with physical infrastructure and users scattered widely across different political and cultural units. 27 You will quickly see that operators of dial-in bulletin boardslike despotic rulers of walled city-states-can completely control them. Territory / Topology While spatially defined power erodes in cyberspace. It is a remarkable political invention-a very large-scale structure with significant built-in capacity to resist concentrations of power and authoritarian control. large enough for the citizens to live comfortably but in moderation. and access-not the geographic borders and chunks of territory that have been fought over in the past.12/03/12 19:06 copies of such software are available on openly accessible servers and can readily be downloaded by anyone with an Internet address anywhere in the world. Unlike banana republics. there are normally many different ways to transmit a message from one node to another. bounded territory in which the citizens lived and over which they exerted control. In particular. and subversives who may lurk on the wide-open Internet frontier. and control the outflow. But uncontrolled territory has its dangers. Electoral Politics / Electronic Polls To Aristotle the idea of a placeless. and they have to answer to very diverse and potentially fractious user communities. 28 There are few Khyber Passes on the Internet. So a new logic has emerged. not to jurisdictional maps. The Internet. In Internet discussions of censorship and freedom of speech. through which many things flow but which can easily get cut off. Its structure is highly redundant (a feature ultimately deriving from its roots in the old ARPANET. computer networks. so its norms and laws cannot simply be identified with those of people living within the borders of the United States. easy for an expeditionary force to depart from. To protect themselves from the outlaws. another kind of power arises to take its place-that of the system operators (sysops)." But whose constitution and whose amendment? The Internet community is an international one. The private networks run by banks and other large business organizations are closed to outsiders and answer only to themselves. As in ancient walled cities. hard for hostile forces to invade. usually locally run. redundant structure so that it could survive partial nuclear destruction and the knockout of military headquarters). by contrast. decide which bits get stored there and which do not. is a huge. In Politics he devoted a section to enumerating the properties that this territory ideally should have: it should be productive enough for selfsufficiency. and there is no very effective way to grab control of it. for instance. Sysops can control the inflow of bits into a machine. which was deliberately given a distributed. to discover patterns of control and power. it does not have a clear center of authority to take over in a coup.com/bogronlund/3_314_Upload_05_03/Mitchell_City%20of%20bits. These are the sites where real power is exerted. The rights that people think they have also become ambiguous when computer networks cross traditional jurisdictional boundaries. then.mac. the cyberspace Khyber Passes.html Page 67 of 143 . connectivity. participants often refer confidently to their "First Amendment rights. look for strategic bottlenecks. loose confederation of thousands of smaller. borderless community would have seemed very strange. convenient for surveillance. determine which bits can be processed and in what ways. So look to network topologies. The great power struggles of cyberspace will be over network topology.
a Westminster. According to his teleological view. It just isn't practical to repeat it too frequently. However and wherever the power holders get together. Because all students have access to the on-campus Athena network. You can. Aristotle devoted a great deal of Politics to these issues. a Kremlin. and it would save on transportation and accommodation costs. there has been growing flirtation with the idea of replacing old-fashioned voting booths and ballot boxes with electronic polling. at least in part. he argued that the state existed to serve the common good and that constitutions should therefore be judged according to whether the rulers served their own interests only or those of all the citizens. This is not such a big step. four types of oligarchy. and well within reach of agricultural produce and of raw materials needed for manufacturing processes. As political theorists were quick to note when the discipline of cybernetics emerged in the 1940s and 1950s. well situated in relation to sea and land transportation. and how these power holders are to be made accountable. But electoral mechanisms have some obvious limitations as control devices.html Page 68 of 143 . In a cyberspace election. a White House and Congress. Or you can put in feedback loops of some kind. easy for an expeditionary force to depart from. whole cities may be designated as state or national capitals-special places for government business. for example. with representatives connecting by computer network instead of sitting together in chambers. potential problems with electronic stuffing of http://homepage. and four types of democracy. a state has its state house. and most of us watch the proceedings-if we watch them at all -on C-Span or on local cable. there remain the more basic political questions of who holds power.) So a city has its city hall. They operate on a slow cycle. but it would keep politicians closer to their constituents. There are. convenient for surveillance. and it isn't hard to construct plausible arguments in favor of such a substitution. This is. as Aristotle had pointed out.12/03/12 19:06 invade. an inevitable consequence of traditional electoral technology. When votes from large numbers of people scattered over wide areas must be collected and tabulated by manual means. Elections. except in the occasional special case of governments in exile. have various kinds of tyrannies in which control is exerted from the top and there is no effective feedback loop from the ruled to the rulers. Such a rearrangement would be bad for things like fancy Washington restaurants. the populace can throw them out. As telecommunications networks have developed. and their effects on specific policies may not be very sharply focused. you might find the policies of candidates posted online. if the rascals are not acting for the public good. political assemblies could become virtual. of course. so that the rulers feel the consequences of their actions and are prompted to attend to the common good. then. the politicians who assemble in these places represent specific territories from whence they come. For a start. At a larger scale. assembly chambers are already equipped with electronic systems for recording votes. Clearly the technological means are now emerging to replace these spatial and architectural arrangements with electronics and software. these sorts of discussions can readily be recast in computational terms. (Nobody erects them outside.mac. He then went on to describe and evaluate all the different types of constitutions that he could imagine-five types of kingship. and expensive one. or whatever. and a nation -depending on its form of government-may have a Versailles. establish one important kind of feedback loop and opportunity for corrective action. the process always ends up being a sluggish. though. whose interests are served by the power holders. you might use your personal computer to go to a virtual polling place to cast your vote. and the votes might be tallied automatically in real time. 29 This classical view of the territorial state finds architectural expression in the government assembly buildings (usually augmented by bureaucratic support structures) that traditionally have been erected at the hearts of governed territories. cumbersome. In most modern systems. MIT can conduct its student government elections in this way.com/bogronlund/3_314_Upload_05_03/Mitchell_City%20of%20bits.
things may be very different.gov. watching debates." 33 What's even worse. Anyway. and cyberspace offers no impediment to that.12/03/12 19:06 ballot boxes." But in the cyberspace era. Indeed. the pontiff logs in wirelessly to quite another place. system operators can kick you off the Net. electronically recording your response.com/bogronlund/3_314_Upload_05_03/Mitchell_City%20of%20bits. as the Internet and commercial online service communities grew rapidly in the 1990s. it opens up ways of assembling and communicating with dispersed political constituencies. but it just turned out to be the address of a hacker playing a prank. Since there is no direct threat of http://homepage. You do not have to buy into Perot's appallingly reductionist view of political discourse to realize that cyberspace has the potential to change political institutions and mechanisms fundamentally.mac. if you try to play Ovid on Prodigy. new opportunities for instigating and formulating issues. Old hands flame clueless newcomers. and bypassing the politicians by immediately. So you can now fire off your comments on the day's issues to president@whitehouse. but these can be handled through password control of access to the virtual ballot box or (better) through use of encryption technology to verify a voter's identity. Vote with your remote! Grizzled old operators still like to assure us that "all politics is local. Banishment / Sysop Blacklist Of course the holders of power cannot get through cyberspace to the bodies of those over whom they hold sway (though this is a matter of interface design and may change). and mechanisms for providing decisions and feedback at a much faster pace than in the past.com. and for those whose social life depends on cyberspace encounters and assignations. to support real-time (or at least very fast) direct democracy on a large scale.pl. This is what will happen to you if you don't pay your America Online bill. The network presents the packaged alternatives. For instance. Electronic feedback can even be swift enough. your name may end up on the sysop's permanent blacklist. for recreational purposes. in summer 1994 Poland's prime minister. invective-filled e-mail messages or bulletin board postings -probably reflects a need to maintain customary power that would otherwise be challenged in a new domain where the threat of physical violence does not work very well. banishment is a severe punishment. went online at prime_minister@urm. and the threat of it can be an effective form of discipline.html Page 69 of 143 . The idea quickly spread to other parts of the world. Waldemar Pawlak. American politicians quickly realized that they needed email addresses. too.gov or vice. potentially. electronic communication seems to encourage it. Verbal violence is another possibility. Bosses flame subordinates. Men flame women. If you just use the Net casually. The flame wars that frequently erupt.gov. like Wild West gunfights between cattlemen and sheepmen. for business people who conduct profitable transactions in cyberspace. Other kinds of electronic feedback are evolving. 30 And I once tried sending some suggestions on reproductive rights to pope@vatican. or if you seriously offend the system manager of your Internet gateway.president@whitehouse. 31 Populist demagogues like Ross Perot have proffered visions of sitting in front of your two-way television. 32 so the usual means of maintaining power through potential or actual violence are not available when cyberspace communities are geographically widely distributed or cross jurisdictional boundaries. are contests for control of territory on the cyberspace frontier. Your name is removed from a control list and you lose your "access privileges. The extraordinarily common practice of "flaming"-sending abusive. The ancient strategy of banishment has been revived instead: just as the emperor Augustus banished Ovid from Rome to the desolate shores of the Black Sea (for adultery compounded by a salacious poem instigating it). But for scientists and scholars who depend on network access for crucial information. banishment may not hurt you very much. It can also be a way of grabbing power by creating fear-particularly fear of humiliation in public forums.
are contests for control of territory on the cyberspace frontier. in the world of 1984 the television monitor became an ever-present instrument of surveillance. George Orwell presciently anticipated that telecommunications devices would take over these roles. Huge databases of personal information began to accumulate.html Page 70 of 143 . a jittering old printer spewed out a TRW credit report. Every digital transaction potentially left fingerprints somewhere in cyberspace. System operators "legitimately" erase files. anyway. and frustrated recipients shoot back in kind.12/03/12 19:06 sheepmen. receptionist and guard desks conspicuously placed in building lobbies everywhere. Jeremy Bentham's own panopticon prison design is not unique. In variants on time-honored strategies for contesting power. but also having your files erased. you risk not only getting banished. efficient software could be written to collect fragments of information from multiple locations in cyberspace and put them together to form remarkably complete pictures of how we were conducting our lives. Instead of one Big Brother. as cyberspace communities have grown and diversified. and the displayed face of Big Brother was a constant. in which power holders exert surveillance over the rest and in which subjects' awareness of constant surveillance is a reminder that punishment awaits if they step out of line. as elsewhere. if you transgress against system operators. Every computer input device became a potential recorder of our actions. the verbal violence often takes extreme forms. or feels somehow constrained from doing so. civic and institutional buildings are normally constructed by those in power. 35 The last time I came face-to-face with the Little Brother dataveillance force was in a car salesman's cubicle.mac. and even little signs saying "Police take notice. since electronic information -the form of valuable property that exists there-is very vulnerable to seizure and destruction. and execution. So legal systems use fines and confiscations as alternatives to confining the body. but also publicly to represent the presence of surveillance. And the collation problem was solved. he or she can get to that person indirectly by seizing or destroying the person's property. though. monumental police headquarters buildings bristling with electronic antennae in city centers (look at Parker Center in downtown Los Angeles). But Orwell did not bother to think through the technical details. watching. Since there is no direct threat of physical retaliation. going back years and years. a minutely detailed listing of all my credit transactions and transgressions. The rulers would know." As the electronic era dawned. the PoMo maître has left us with the indelible realization that power and surveillance are tightly bound up together. In response to the Honda hawker's two-finger typed command. and this scheme would not really have worked-not with the primitive electronics that Orwell knew about. Where would Big Brother have put all the corresponding monitors on the receiving end? Where would he have found the labor force to watch them all? How would he have sifted through and collated all that information? What actually happened was far more subtle and insidious. He repeatedly portrayed society as a giant panopticon. computer "criminals" deploy their software viruses and worms to equivalent effect. indeed. It is not surprising. and they would respond. This strategy is also effective in cyberspace. but only one of the most extreme and vividly diagrammatic examples. we got a vast swarm of Little Brothers. We entered the era of dataveillance. the means of maintaining power are also the Surveillance / Electronic Panopticon Though the fashion for Foucault has come and gone. Many sources had been combed and correlated electronically http://homepage. with increasing effectiveness. all of these techniques can be turned back on the rulers-and on occasion have been. that a traditional role of architecture has been not only to make efficient surveillance possible. graphic reminder that he was. inflicting pain. then. people routinely fire off remarks that would get them decked in a bar. In cyberspace.com/bogronlund/3_314_Upload_05_03/Mitchell_City%20of%20bits. After all. Hacker break-ins to computer systems are the subversive answer to exclusion and banishment. 34 If a power holder cannot inflict direct punishment on someone. So we see prominent watchtowers on the walls of old cities and of modern jails.
selecting movies. Contention about the limits of privacy and surveillance is not new. Isolated hermits can keep to themselves and don't have to keep up appearances. political assembly-they potentially will grab and keep much more detailed portraits of private lives than have ever been made before. our lives have been leaving increasingly complete and detailed traces in cyberspace as two-way electronic communications devices have proliferated and diversified. And wearable devices-ones that continuously monitor your medical condition.html Page 71 of 143 . is not the worrisome thing.mac. motor vehicle agencies. electronic sphere. since electronic data collection and digital collation techniques are so much more powerful than any that could be deployed in the past. in itself. Families or tribes who joined together because theyshared the same religious beliefs. Then bank ATM machines and point-of-sale terminals in retail stores began to produce transaction records. social contact. But where will digital information about your contacts and activities reside? Who will have access to it and under what circumstances? Will information of different kinds be kept separately. or will there be ways to assemble it electronically to create close and detailed pictures of your life? These are the questions that we will face with increasing urgency as we shift more and more of our daily activities into the digital. And we had better get them right. In return for the benefits of urban life. we will have to make and maintain similar bargains-though they will be embodied in software structures and electronic access controls rather than in architectural arrangements. Telephones were the first such devices to find widespread use. they tolerate some level of visibility and some possibility of surveillance-some erosion of their privacy. Many sources had been combed and correlated electronically to put it all together: the databases of banks. they soon yielded telephone company billing datarecords of when. There is more of this to come. banking. or perhaps the cybersex suits that some journalists have avidly imagined-may construct the most up-close and intimate of records. form of government. insurance companies. and it had not missed anything. for example. 36 It was an impressive performance. they too began to create electronic trails. As personal computers were plugged into commercial online networks. 37 The Political Economy of Cyberspace All this migration of social. As switched video networks become extensively used for everyday purposes-shopping.12/03/12 19:06 transgressions. So urban space became the territory of the civic formation. stores. but the terms and stakes of the central questions are rapidly being redefined. that. and customs maintain and represent whatever balance has been struck. But this is just the beginning. and by whom calls were made. and modes of production created civitas -a community that was not necessarily related to any particular place or construction. collection agencies. going back years and years.com/bogronlund/3_314_Upload_05_03/Mitchell_City%20of%20bits. laws. but city dwellers have always had to accept that they will see and be seen. Architecture. where. http://homepage. Latin. credit unions. That printed report was as vivid a demonstration of power as any face peering out from a display screen. Life in cyberspace generates electronic trails as inevitably as soft ground retains footprints. and political activity to cyberspace will force us to rethink traditional relationships between the civic and the urban. social organization. economic. they provide the means to create the ultimate Foucaultian dystopia. As we construct and inhabit cyberspace communities. and a lot more. But when such a unit chose a particular site and founded a city in which to dwell-as Rome was founded on the seven hills-an urban settlement resulted. as Fustel de Coulanges observed in his great work on the ancient city. magazine subscription services. distinguishes between the terms civitas and urbs. TRW's electronically mediated surveillance had never faltered.
mac. run their local affairs. extended. and how is intellectual property to be managed and protected? What is the role of agents. but one of writing computer code and deploying software objects to create virtual places and electronic interconnections between them. So far. and satisfying ways. as company towns-centrally controlled enterprises that own the infrastructure and try to make money by renting space to information and service providers.html Getting to the Good Bits Page 72 of 143 . heterogeneous. like streets and sewers. and public spaces to meet the needs and aspirations of the civitas. equitable. we will need to consider not only their urban design-the places and interconnections that they provide. might be constructed and run by government monopolies and paid for with tax dollars. The foundation ritual is not one of marking boundaries and making obeisance to the gods. surveillance will be enacted. you would probably find some pretty lively discussion at alt. decentralized system in which the constituent communities organize themselves. Who plays. Footnotes Chapter 7 http://homepage. streets.12/03/12 19:06 on the seven hills-an urban settlement resulted. Discussions of a national information infrastructure raise the possibility that the essential infrastructure elements. So urban space became the territory of the civic formation. they have relied on generating a shared commitment to the common good and on informal. And the Internet demonstrates the possibility of a multilayered. Today. until now. there are no definitive answers to the questions that this task poses. And the new urban design task is not one of configuring buildings. dial-in systems like the WELL belong to the communitarian. Some smaller. by charging access fees to subscribers. The fundamental questions of cyberspace's political economy will urgently be contested. this ancient idea-reflected in the Oxford definition of a community as a "body of people living in one place. but as this windshield survey along the infobahn has shown. Choice of site. social contacts will be made. district. there are at least a few emerging models to consider. but of allocating disk space and going online. and transformed. and (like broadcast media) by selling advertising. and pay their bills in many different ways. and organization of the layout were seen as such fundamentally important acts that they were traditionally ascribed to the community's gods and mythic heroes. As these soft cities develop. these models will be debated. and civic principles determined the spatial configuration of the city. a community may now find its place in cyberspace. and their look and feel-but also their civic character. economic transactions will be carried out. and power will be exerted. The new sort of site is not some suitable patch of earth but a computer to which members may connect from wherever they happen to be. or country"-is eroding. The commercial online systems have developed.com/bogronlund/3_314_Upload_05_03/Mitchell_City%20of%20bits. Within these places. As communities increasingly find their common ground in cyberspace rather than on terra firma. performance of the foundation ritual.Politics. If he were around to frequent the electronic Lyceum. and how might they maintain their norms within these boundaries? What are the legitimate forms of power? How might political discourse be constructed? These are questions worthy of an online Aristotle. who pays. cultural life will unfold. and how is this decided? How is trade to be conducted. and what sorts of regulation might these software slaves require? How should communities define their boundaries. barter systems of information exchange. utopian tradition. We will have to figure out how to make cyberspace communities work in just.
of how the railroad and telegraph systems had spawned remote and desolate villages. 1956: The Commuter City By 1956. and administrative cities had grown at favored locations in the emerging transportation network. 1835: Pre-Industrial Settlements "This will be a place for a village. The convict settlements were intended to remove the undesirable and inconvenient to the antipodes-as far from English soil as possible. slow rail journey to the distant big cityfor the Olympics in Melbourne-industrial capitalism had firmly taken hold and the postwar immigrants were pouring in. eucalyptus-laden breeze. new combinations of buildings. At each stage. and of how merchant.mac. crowds. Some hours after meat pie and tea at the Ballarat railway refreshment rooms (a beer for Dad). And we heard how colonial bureaucrats and military officers-Hoddle. We schoolchildren in the bush learned of the heroes who selected the spots. Much later. and others-had plunked down the surveyed street grids that introduced the beginnings of urban form and order to the scrubby brown land. and communication networks have served the needs of the inhabitants. for particular purposes. cities have been transformed by successive waves of transportation and communications technology. And every day the trams and trains and streams of cars would wash a huge tide of workers into the city in the morning." intoned the explorer John Batman when he encountered Port Phillip Bay in 1835. and of how the first. and information slowly and sporadically http://homepage. the fancy professional consulting rooms of Collins Street. then we would meticulously mark the tracks of inland trailblazers and coastal navigators. I realized that we had been rehearsing our own particular foundation myths-the ritualized tales of how our wandering ancestors had chosen sites and constructed places for their communities.com/bogronlund/3_314_Upload_05_03/Mitchell_City%20of%20bits. fresh urban patterns are forming. as the infobahn takes over a widening range of functions. the headquarters of banks and insurance companies. rough tracks and shelters were laid out upon the freshly cleared ground. government offices. The challenge is to do this right-to get us to the good bits. Often these special places were far from each other.12/03/12 19:06 Getting to the Good Bits During the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. There I found department stores and shopping arcades. industrial. at places that had been picked out for their practicality as ports and their supposed potential for self-supporting agriculture.html Page 73 of 143 . the roles of inhabited structures and transportation systems are shifting once again. We would take out our red plastic templates to trace maps of the island continent and its straggling river systems into our blue-lined exercise books. Light. then-with a brief pause for thirsty workers to grab a drink at the pub (a custom known locally as the six o'clock swill)-would suck them out to suburbia again in the evening. at particular times. locating the settlements that followed and inscribing the dates. grand old hotels. of the settlers who came to these places. of the gold-rush towns and agricultural centers that had sprung up in the interior. and what they are really for. then penetrated what seemed an interminable zone of factories and warehouses to reach the heart of the metropolis. when I learned the age-old distinction between civitas and urbs. All these patterns and rhythms were generated by the need to put bodies in particular places. the grimy train steamed first through a ring of suburban housing. We were told of convict settlements and ports for communities of whalers and sealers along the coasts. It was all there. The gold-rush towns exploded into existence at just those spots where miners could dig the precious metal from the ground. and we have the opportunity to rethink received ideas of what buildings and cities are. transportation systems. and certainly they were all remote from the rest of the world-connected by lengthy and tenuous transportation routes along which passengers. how they can be made. theaters. Now. and foreign voices. as I recall from the Australian history that I learned so long ago in dusty country schoolrooms with the songs of magpies swirling in on the scorching. and the cattle and sheep men were drawn to water and grazing lands. when I first made the long. products.
and places to assemble for shopping and entertainment. There is a small video camera on my desk. or the bush. all interconnected by roads and railway networks for moving bodies back and forth. Sydney. and Barcelona. Louis. the task of the twenty-first century will be to build the bitsphere-a worldwide. most of a citizen's interactions were necessarily with other inhabitants of that same settlement. and of new. places to go to work. But as transportation and communications capabilities improved in the industrial era. For the moment. so many of my generation left the vast. Bodily location is no longer an issue. the space of the city itself was subdivided into specialized places to live. complement. and most of the artifacts that function within it (at every scale. Hong Kong. and information slowly and sporadically flowed. 1994: Telepresence Fast forward. And it mattered where you came from-the tree-lined pleasances of South Yarra or the grubby streets of Brunswick. By mid-twentieth century in the coastal capitals. Through their computer workstations. Back when it took many months for an exchange of letters between an isolated Australian settlement and a foreign city. and the students in these different locations and time zones are working together on proposals for some new housing in an old area of Shanghai.com/bogronlund/3_314_Upload_05_03/Mitchell_City%20of%20bits. their inhabitants had no way to escape the prison house of distance. We are all interconnected by the Internet. upstate New York. the students in Hong Kong are as much a part of it as are those to be found within walking distance of my office. In the sixties. as telepresence augments and sometimes substitutes for physical presence. you could love it or you could leave it. maintaining contact with widely dispersed friends and family became much easier. We have reinvented the human habitat. the students and their instructors can exchange CAD models and rendered images of proposals. and as more and more business and social interactions shift into cyberspace. and discuss and criticize each other's work. The year is now 1994. of mutant architectural forms that emerge from the telecommunications-induced fragmentation and recombination of traditional architectural types. On the same screen.html Page 74 of 143 . Our network connections are becoming as important to us as our bodily locations. and I am typing this text on a computer in my office at MIT. from nano to global) have intelligence and telecommunications capabilities. For designers and planners. hyperextended habitat will transcend national boundaries.12/03/12 19:06 tenuous transportation routes along which passengers. at least. for me. soft cities that parallel. products. and community has come increasingly unglued from geography. Today. and there are additional windows to studios at universities in St. and the rush to claim and settle it is on. In the two centuries from the first convict fleet's arrival in Botany Bay to the formation of the Internet-1788 to 1988 -the preindustrial relationship of civitas to urbs was radically restructured. concrete. and steel. isolated southern continent to be closer to the centers of things. get answers to queries about site and program.mac. we are finding that accessibility depends even less on propinquity. and it became possible to participate actively in communities of interest that were not tied to your hometown. AD 2K: The Bitsphere Cyberspace is opening up. This unprecedented. We are entering an era of electronically extended bodies living at the intersection points of the physical and virtual worlds. and sometimes compete with our existing urban concentrations of brick. geography was destiny still. Vancouver. so that the students can also see me at work. Your community consisted of your close neighbors. there is a video window open to the design studio upstairs where my students are working. the increasingly dense and widespread connectivity that it supplies will quickly create opportunities-the first in the history of http://homepage. electronically mediated environment in which networks are everywhere. of occupation and interaction through telepresence as well as through physical presence. It will overlay and eventually succeed the agricultural and industrial landscapes that humankind has inhabited for so long. we scattered souls have become an electronically linked virtual community.
mean that existing cities will simply fragment and collapse? Or does Paris have something that telepresence cannot match? Does Rome have an answer to Neuromancer? Most of us would bet our bottom bits that the reserves of resilience and adaptability that http://homepage. states. this means that the infrastructure has to provide two-way digital pipes and allow anyone to set up a server. educational. so the policy debates are likely to be contentious ones. ubiquitously present. And if the infrastructure is to encourage national coherence rather than a new kind of balkanization. Some will argue.mac. institutions. then its development must be guided by policies and standards that assure interoperability between all the subnetworks of the national system. railroad networks. the answers that they reach will largely determine the kinds of nations that they become. rights and powers may not be defined by spatial boundaries. network service providers. and health care organizations will use these new delivery systems and virtual places to operate. and entertainment spots for its pluggedin populace. property cannot be protected in traditional ways. territorially defined nations. and much of the economic. from positions grounded on ideals of social justice. as there is now a law of the sea. they have invested in their ports and shipping fleets. content providers. resources. and other service facilities to meet the needs of surrounding local areas. and theaters for those living within its walls. and users to produce and integrate components which extend and add value to the system. social. And as they do so. Democratic ideals (and the lessons of the telephone system) suggest that they should strive to provide universal access -affordable. they will have to resolve fundamental questions about the political economy of cyberspace. high-bandwidth service to all their citizens. If equality of opportunity and symmetry of participation are valued.12/03/12 19:06 widespread connectivity that it supplies will quickly create opportunities-the first in the history of humankind-for planning and designing truly worldwide communities. international bitsphere communities will urgently require appropriate constitutions. cooperate. markets. At the same time. If bottom-up community development efforts and entrepreneurial enterprise are to be encouraged. that universal access and attention to the public good should be guaranteed by treating national information infrastructures as public utilities paid for with tax dollars. Nations that seek to remain economically competitive and to provide high living standards for their citizens will race to embark on their National Information Infrastructure projects as. software developers. Commercial. it should allow a wide range of hardware companies. exchanges. In the end. and the consequent shift of social and economic activity to cyberspace. perhaps there will be a specialized law of cyberspace.com/bogronlund/3_314_Upload_05_03/Mitchell_City%20of%20bits.html Page 75 of 143 . and policy makers will face the difficult question of how to pay for them. Others will claim that only the private sector can mobilize the resources needed to construct these infrastructures quickly and run them efficiently and that private-sector service providers will therefore have to be motivated by opportunities for profits from toll charges and advertising sales. entertainment. and cities will have to adapt their prebitsphere structures and customs to the new contextone in which borders no longer have their old meaning. regions. bitsphere planners and designers will structure the channels. established. and cultural action has been attracted to the upstart venues of cyberspace. and laws. The various possible answers have profoundly differing social consequences. cyberspace development-much like real estate development-will probably progress through a complex and evolving blend of public policies and investments with private-sector responses to emerging opportunities. public policies. Just as architects have traditionally designed schools. and highway systems. hospitals. Does development of national and international information infrastructures. then all classes of users (not just privileged groups and institutions) should be able to create as well as receive information. These national information infrastructures will not come cheap. in the past. the twenty-first-century bitsphere will require a growing number of virtual gathering places. and interfaces of educational and medical service delivery systems for much more extended constituencies. Like more familiar social and political units. We will need rules for this emerging game. and compete on a global scale. Just as the ancient polis provided an agora. then the infrastructure must have a carefully crafted open architecture.
where investments in information infrastructure and appliances are not made. electronically delivered services do not reach. digitally controlled systems. bicycle-riding locals. but the obvious danger is that such restructuring will instead produce electronic Jakartas-well-connected. Bitsphere civic design will encompass not only traditional matters of roads and sidewalks. As the development of pioneering campus and community networks has already suggested. They will be forced to explore the proper respective roles of physically constructed http://homepage. there is no reason to think that this novel condition will make us indifferent to our immediate surroundings or suddenly eliminate our desire for face-to-face human contact in congenial settings. as processors are embedded wherever they happen to be needed.com/bogronlund/3_314_Upload_05_03/Mitchell_City%20of%20bits. but also development of local network infrastructure and creation of electronic venues for local communication and interaction. and land-use zoning. as different sorts of specialized sensors and input devices harvest bits at arbitrary locations. their local institutions and hangouts. So cities and towns will probably find opportunities to restructure themselves-to regroup housing. safety systems.mac. workplaces. and we will still want company. and information appliances. and few economic opportunities are to be found. fortified enclaves of privilege surrounded by miserable hyperghettoes. they acquired increasingly complicated mechanical physiologies. there will be subnetworks at a smaller scale still-that of architecture. Pre-industrial buildings were not much more than supporting skeletons and enclosing skins.12/03/12 19:06 Neuromancer? Most of us would bet our bottom bits that the reserves of resilience and adaptability that have allowed great cities to survive (in changed form) the challenges of industrialization and the automobile will similarly enable them to adapt to the bitsphere. it will become meaningless to ask where thesmart electronics end and the dumb construction begins. and service facilities into reinvigorated small-scale neighborhoods (both urban and rural) that are effectively nourished by strong electronic links to a wider world. cabling in the woodwork. and the architectural works of the bitsphere will be less structures with chips than robots with foundations. and their unique ambiences and customs. We will still care about where we are. Now they are getting electronic nervous systemsnetwork connections. The poor could be left with the obsolete and decaying urban remnants and isolated rural settlements that the more privileged no longer need. sewers. A community's capacity to connect globally can yield renewed opportunity for its citizens-freed from the need to seek employment and services in distant urban centers-to know their neighbors and to participate in local affairs. heating and air-conditioning systems. computers will meld seamlessly into the fabric of buildings and buildings themselves will become computers-the outcome of a long evolution. electrical systems. It is pleasant to imagine a nation of networked Aspens and cyberspaced Santa Monicas peopled by convivial. well-serviced. By redirecting access to services and opportunities. but simultaneously prize their differences from other places. to exchange greetings and gossip with neighbors. computers will burst out of their boxes. With the Industrial Revolution. Architects will increasingly confront practical choices between providing for bodily presence and relying on telepresence. and more. and as all the various displays andappliances are integrated into building-wide.html Page 76 of 143 . Within bitsphere communities. Increasingly. Surely the most fundamental challenge in building the bitsphere will be to deploy access according to principles of social equity-not in ways that heighten the privilege of the haves and further marginalize the have-nots. soon they were routinely equipped with water supply and sewage systems. there will be an important role here for local subnetworks of the national and international systems-electronic Main Streets that provide places for citizens to present themselves in their communities. walls will be wired. As the speed at which bits zip around a building approaches that at which they are moved inside today's computers. Though immersion in electronically propelled bits will progressively reduce our reliance on bodily presence and material exchange. and to transact local business. thus altering the ways in which we use physical space and weakening many of the activity linkages that now hold large urban agglomerations together. the growing information infrastructure has the potential to create winners and losers on a vast scale.
From gesture sensors worn on our bodies to the worldwide infrastructure of communications satellites and longdistance fiber.a piece of digital archaeology. Personal digital assistants and laptop computers will wirelessly exchange bits with the surrounding infrastructure. Networks at these different levels will all have to link up somehow. there will be the intimate bits. while materiality chauvinists will provide ringing denunciations of a world that they see going to hell in a handheld device. Gopher sites. and the community net to the global net. and find that this zone of cyberspace is mostly a ruin when you reach it. And finally. And eventually they will find new ways to accommodate human needs by recombining transformed fragments of traditional building types in a matrix of digital telecommunication systems and reorganized circulation and transportation patterns. the elements of the bitsphere will finally come together to form one densely interwoven system within which the knee bone is connected to the I-bahn. So forget the global couch-potato patches that Marshall McLuhan surveyed back in the sixties. you http://homepage. private digital environments-our personal cyberspace.12/03/12 19:06 on telepresence. Body-mounted and implanted medical monitoring devices will transmit data to environmental control systems.html Page 77 of 143 . no doubt.com/bogronlund/3_314_Upload_05_03/Mitchell_City%20of%20bits. Hand-held remote control devices will be used to interact with digital televisions and other information devices. Sites in cyberspace do not live forever.like the traces of a city that is no longer inhabited -. and digital cash. FTP sites. Miniature storage devices will hold vital medical records. The following list of World Wide Web sites. Link rot will gradually set in. Our electronic accouterments will range from headphones to sensor gloves and the latestfashions in smart sneakers. This will be the place for a global village. but it is a place of new opportunity and hope. Surf Sites Though there is plenty of relevant and interesting material vavailable in print. And their designers will create themost immediate. technoromantic theoreticians will egg them on to Gibsonian gestures of dematerialization and radical renunciation of traditional architectural means. the building net to the community net. Just as clothing has traditionally formed a first interface to the physical world. and of actual space and virtual places. identification. They will be forced to explore the proper respective roles of physically constructed hardware and symbolically encoded software. But even if you are a latecomer. and e-mail addresses provides some suggestions for starting points. so this list will eventually become -. From the sidelines. so our personal electronic devices and bodynets will become interfaces between flesh and nervous system and the bitsphere. the best way to pursue further reading on the topics discussed here is to surf around in cyberspace itself. the body net will be connected to the building net. many of the listed addresses will cease to exist. and much of the online material will be deleted or lost. The uncertainties and dangers of the bitsphere frontier are great.mac.
stanford.com/ BizWeb .netmind.www.bizweb.edu:80/agents/ Media Lab's Autonomous Agents Group: http://agents.html Stanford Netnews Filtering Service: http://woodstock. Physical Transactions/Electronic Exchanges Billboards for Business: http://www.The Similarities Engine: http://www.4.mit.ac.com/bf/ Architecture Contemporary Architecture in Hong Kong: http://www.net/ Commercial Endeavors on the Internet .org/parks/flw.anu.com/~tgiesler/flw_home.sdsc.cs.html Page 78 of 143 .uk/mak/doc/robots/active.edu/groups/agents/ List of Robots: http://web.buffalo.htm Classical Architecture: http://rubens. The information to be found out is of very variable quality. Caveat Surfer! Advertising in 6.html The Frank Lloyd Wright Source Page: http://www.12/03/12 19:06 should still find that it gives at least a few entry points to active areas. Helots/Agents Intelligent Software Agents Resources and Information: http://retriever.co.html Agents in 2.mcs.badgernet.media.White Pages directory : http://www.mac.umbc.directory.3.com Directory of Commercial Services on the Net : http://www.com/bogronlund/3_314_Upload_05_03/Mitchell_City%20of%20bits.Electronic Storefronts: http://gn.webcom.html Frank Lloyd Wright Home Page: http://marin.edu/SDG/Experimental/anu-arthistory/hongkong.ncsa.edu:2000/ The E-Minder: http://www.html Music Recommendations -.edu:70/SDSC/Geninfo/Internet/commerce The Internet Advertising Resource Guide: http://www.com:2080/gallery.com/~se/se_top.6.au/ Planning and Architecture Internet Resource Center: http://www.missouri.edu.com/e-minder/e-minder.cstar.uiuc.billboard.htm FLW Gallery: http://flw.arch.nexor.edu/pairc/ http://homepage. Focused/Fragmented in 6.html BargainFinder Agent: http://bf.edu/internet-advertising-guide.
literature.obs-us.html Citicorps: http://www. Banking Chambers/ATMs Banking and Banks on the Net: http://www.edu/www/ArchiGopher/Palladio/ The World-Wide Web Virtual Library -.net/ellipsis/rachitecture/1.net/~vitruv/ Arts Constant Synthesis Project: http://www.other architectures: http://www.sanctuary.170.clr. music. and perception: http://swerve.basilisk.html Architecture and Building: Net Resources: gopher://una.citibank.edu/VIRTUALLIB/arch.html AEC InfoCenter: http://www.wiso.caup.umich.gold.9.hh.bwk.net/ellipsis/ellipsis.gold.work on avant-garde contemporary architecture: http://www.130/ Royal Architectural Institute of Canada: http://www.ucla.com.html#top Terence Chang's Cyberspace Architecture: Slouching Towards Babylon: http://yorke.inforamp.arch. philosophy.html Ellipsis -. architecture.net/hytelnet/FUL031.au/~bwigley/jb_wigley.html Digital Design Lab: http://www.ozemail.edu/ Vitruvius Online: http://www.columbia.com/ Americam Insitute of Architects: http://199.toronto.html The Department of the Treasury: http://www.5 .edu/people/alumni/tchang/ Basilisk -.gov/ Books The "Being Digital" Cyberdock: http://www.mac.ustreas.nl/lava/labs/naj/index.html Page 79 of 143 .gwdg.lib.University of Toronto: http://www.com/obs/english/books/nn/bdintro.edu/00/inetdirsstacks/archi%3abrown Homes 4 Cyborgs: http://www.htm http://homepage.5.einet.umich.com/bogronlund/3_314_Upload_05_03/Mitchell_City%20of%20bits.a quarterly journal of film.com/haven/consynpro/ Banking in 4.12/03/12 19:06 Palladio Image Archive: http://libra.de/ifbg/banking.aecinfo.0.html Cross Cultural Architecture and Community Planning in Austrailian Aboriginal Communities: http://www.com/~aec/arch/raic/index.com/ rachitecture v1.com/ Bank of England: http://www.gsaup.aec-info.tue.
nstn.com/ General Magic: http://www.std.htm The Online Book Initiative: ftp://ftp.org:90/sites.com/Entertainment/Automobiles/Chrysler/ Chrysler Technology Center: http://www.cadvision.5.org:80/~proeser/ Public Broadcasting On-Line Services: http://k12.html Businesses General Motors: http://www.9. Banking Chambers/ATMs Casino Tour Listing: http://www.enews.org/cbbb/ Chrysler: http://www.com/bookstore/electric.2.obs-us.com/obs/english/books/nn/bdintro.ibm.chryslercorp.apc.io.com/obi Bookstores in 4.igc.com/ Broadcasting in 4.apple.com/vegascom/castour/castour.digital.obs-us.com/ Sears Roebuck: http://www.com:/ Amazon Books: http://www.com/Business/Corporations/General_Merchandise/Sears_Roebuck/ BBN: http://www.amazon.com/ The Better Business Bureau Web Server: http://www.yahoo.html Online Bookstore: http://www. Theaters/Entertainment Infrastructure Film and Broadcasting Page: http://www.genmagic.yahoo.vegas.ca/~at_info/w100_intro.com/Entertainment/Automobiles/General_Motors/ IBM: http://www.html http://homepage.com/ The Web 100 -.html Casinos in 4.mac.com/bogronlund/3_314_Upload_05_03/Mitchell_City%20of%20bits.com Electronic Newsstand: http://www.bbn.12/03/12 19:06 The "Being Digital" Cyberdock: http://www.html Page 80 of 143 . Bookstores/Bitstores The Electric Bookstore: http://daffy.cnidr.a list of the 100 largest US companities on the Web: http://fox.html Digital: http://www.yahoo.com/indext.com/ Apple: http://www.
com/bogronlund/3_314_Upload_05_03/Mitchell_City%20of%20bits.edu/pub/usenet/news.mit.7.org/dfn/ First Amendment: http://www.ac.net/countries/united_states/georgia/atlanta/ Beijing: http://www.uic.edu/Links/metroboston.bhi90210.lira.ai. MA City Hall: http://www.mit.html Cambridge.vegas. Jurisdictions/Logical Limits EFF Site on Censorship: http://www.html Central Park.mit.cn/tour/bj.html Brazil: http://www. Community Customs/Network Norms in 6.centralpark.html Los Vegas: http://www.org:80/pub/Censorship/ Digital Freedom Network: http://www.ihep.html Beverly Hills: http://www.dist.vegas.html Page 81 of 143 .edu/constitution/constitution.com/vegascom/betbasc/betbasc.html Atlanta: http://www.html Genoa: http://afrodite.com/thisco/wdw/wdwhome/wdw.law.city.html#amendmenti Cities and Places Alice Springs: http://www.org/~park/ Chicago: http://www.it:81/~pan/GENOVA/genova.ai. NYC: http://www.billofrights.world.com/faq/index.com/ingres/itinbyvenue?Foxwoods+Casino+(Ledyard) 1~ Gambling: http://www.html BetBasics: http://www.freenet.net/countries/brazil/ Cambridge.travelweb.edu/projects/iiip/Cambridge/homepage.best.answers/gambling-faq Foxwood Casino: http://www.11.conjelco.edu/touring_chi.net/Travel/Australia/NT_info/NTTC/as.mac.html http://homepage.ll.html Censorship in 5.html Detroit: http://detroit.unige.com/ Gambling FAQs: ftp://rtfm.mit.com/ Boston: http://www.edu/projects/iiip/Cambridge/city.com/~dijon/disney/parks/disneyland/ Disney World: http://www.math.cornell. MA: http://www.city.html Disneyland: http://www.eff.iia.12/03/12 19:06 Casino Tour Listing: http://www.hall.pollstar.vegas.org/index.com/vegascom/castour/castour.
Hollywood: ftp://ftp.netcom.com/pub/jc/jclark/web/wehowebl.html Hong Kong: http://www.hk.super.net/~webzone/hongkong.html Hyde Park Corner: http://www.cs.ucl.ac.uk/cgi-bin/tube/hyde_park_corner Kansas: http://www.city.net/countries/united_states/kansas/ Las Vegas: http://www.city.net/countries/united_states/nevada/las_vegas/ London: http://www.city.net/countries/united_kingdom/england/london/ Los Angeles: http://www.city.net/countries/united_states/california/los_angeles/ Manchester: http://www.u-net.com/manchester/tourist/home.html Melbourne: http://www.cs.monash.edu.au/melbourne/melbourne.html New York: http://www.city.net/countries/united_states/new_york/new_york/ New Zealand: http://www.city.net/countries/new_zealand/ Niagara Falls: http://fallscam.niagara.com/ Orlando: http://www.globalnet.net/golda02.html http://www.iu.net:80/orlando/ Paris: http://www.city.net/countries/france/paris/ Phoenix: http://arizonaweb.org/City/Phoenix/ Pittsburgh: http://www.city.net/countries/united_states/pennsylvania/pittsburgh/ Rocky Mountain National Park: http://www.csn.net/estes/ San Francisco Digital Restaurant Guide: http://www.sf.net/lantern/ Seattle: http://www.city.net/countries/united_states/washington/seattle/ Sri Lanka: http://www.city.net/countries/sri_lanka/ St. Louis: http://www.st-louis.mo.us/ Sydney: http://www.bio.uts.edu.au/sydney/sydney.html Tanglewood MA: http://www.pollstar.com/ingres/itinbyvenue?Tanglewood+(Lenox) Vancouver: http://view.ubc.ca/ Venice: http://www.iuav.unive.it/wetvenice/wetvenice.html Maps of World Cities: http://www.lib.utexas.edu/Libs/PCL/Map_collection/world_cities/ City.Net: http://www.city.net/
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Clipper Chip in 5.8. Enclosure/Encryption About the Clipper Chip: http://world.std.com/~franl/clipper/ Clipper Fact Sheet: http://cpsr.org/dox/clipper.fact.sheet.html EFF's Clipper Chip Archive: http://www.eff.org:80/pub/Privacy/Clipper/ Commerce Business Gateways: http://actlab.rtf.utexas.edu/gateways/biz.html Commercial Directories on the Web: http://works.zilker.net/com-http.html Commercial Sites: http://gopher.econ.lsa.umich.edu/EconInternet/Commerce.html CommerceNet Home Page: http://www.commerce.net/ Experimental Stock Market Data: http://www.ai.mit.edu/stocks.html Interesting Business Sites on the Web: http://www.rpi.edu/~okeefe/business.html Internet Business Directory: http://ibd.ar.com/http://ibd.ar.com/ Open Market's Commercial Sites Index: http://www.directory.net/ http://biomed.nus.sg/people/commenu.html Yellow Pages: http://www.w3.org/hypertext/DataSources/bySubject/Yellow/Overview.html Virtual Vineyards: http://www.virtualvin.com/ Community Networks in 5.9. Public Space/Public Access in 5.10. Being There/Getting Connected Peter Scott's List: http://www.usask.ca/~scottp/free.html Judy Hallman's List: gopher://gibbs.oit.unc.edu/11/others.d/communets.d List of Community Networks:http://alberti.mit.edu/arch/4.207/anneb/thesis/addresses.html#list Communities On-Line: A Study of Community-Based Computer Networks:http://alberti.mit.edu/arch/4.207/anneb/thesis/toc.html Public Spaces on the Information Highway: The Role of Community Networks:http://www.ucalgary.ca/~aavis/thesis/thesis.html The National Public Telecomputing Network: http://www.nptn.org/
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The Well: gopher://gopher.well.sf.ca.us/11s/Community/communets/net.com CPSR: http://www.cpsr.org/dox/community.nets.html The World-Wide Web Virtual Library: Community Networks: http://www.rmsd.com/comnet/wwwvl_commnet.html Santa Monica's PEN: http://www.caprica.com/~kevinmck/PENaddress.html Santa Monica's PEN sytem: http://alberti.mit.edu/arch/4.207/anneb/thesis/pen.html Blacksburg Electronic Village: http://crusher.bev.net/index.html Telluride InfoZone: http://infozone.telluride.co.us/InfoZone.html Smart Valley: http://www.svi.org/ Cambridge Civic Network: http://www.civic.net:2401/cambridge_civic_network/cambridge_civic_network.html About Free-Nets: http://www.nptn.org:80/about.fn/ Cleveland FreeNet: telnet://freenet-in-a.cwru.edu Berkeley Community Memory: http://www.zilker.net/users/internaut/comm.html Big Sky Telegraph: telnet://firstname.lastname@example.org Center for Civic Networking: http://www.civic.net:2401 Digital City, Amsterdam: http://www.dds.nl/ Cyber Cafes List of cyber cafes : http://www.easynet.co.uk/pages/cafe/ccafe.htm Cyborgs Personal electronic devices: http://www.sel.sony.com/SEL/consumer/index.html It's fun being a cyborg: http://www-white.media.mit.edu/~steve/cyborg.html Homes 4 Cyborgs: http://www.bwk.tue.nl/lava/labs/naj/index.html Directories Yahoo -- A Guide to WWW: http://www.yahoo.com/ EINet Galaxy: http://galaxy.einet.net/ The Whole Internet Catalog: http://www.digital.com/gnn/wic/index.html Scholarly Conferences: gopher://una.hh.lib.umich.edu/11/inetdirsstacks
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html Collaborative Universitities: A Special Issue of the Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication: http://homepage.com/bogronlund/3_314_Upload_05_03/Mitchell_City%20of%20bits.hh.mit.sims.yahoo.edu:8001/afs/athena.html List of American Universities: http://www.html Educational Resources for Teachers:http://www.lib.wustl.com/Education/On_line_Teaching_and_Learning/ Educational Online Sources: http://netspace.html Page 85 of 143 .du.html Education in 4.html Hal Varian's WWW server for economics: http://www.edu/resources/infoecon/ Yahoo's Economic Listings: http://www.students.occ.thegroup. Schoolhouses/Virtual Campuses Diversity University: telnet://moo.lib.html Yahoo's Education List: http://www.ac.edu/11/inetdirsstacks The Catapult Collection: http://www.edu/world/lecture/ Open University: http://www.yahoo.edu/spedadmin/welcome.12/03/12 19:06 Scholarly Conferences: gopher://una.coled.edu The World Lecture Hall: http://www.mit.brown.mac.edu:8001/~siler/fed/beigebk/beige694.upenn.kent.clark.clas.hh.athena.yahoo.207/home.berkeley.educ.mit.edu/ How Are the Schools in California?: http://noc.wharton.ukans.html Economics in 6.edu/11/ebb Summary of Commentary on Current Economic Conditions in the Third Federal Reserve District: http://compstat.com/Economy/Economics/ Economic Data: gopher://una. Economics 101/Economics 0 and 1 Bill Goffe's Resources for Economists: http://econwpa.1.html Web66: A K12 World Wide Web Project: http://web66.edu/eos/main_image.ufl.umn.uky.net/schools/ Special Education: http://www.edu/user/d/j/djkahle/www/4.uk/ Distance Learning: http://www.utexas.sped.edu:8001/ National Distance Learning Center: telnet://ndlc.6.edu/CLAS/american-universities.org:8888 Globewide Network Academy: http://uu-gna.edu/otherecon.edu/ed/teachers/teachers.com/Education/ Online Teaching and Learning: http://www.net/pub/cargui/links.open.umich.edu Virtual Online University: http://www.umich.
com/Entertainment/Movies_and_Films/Actors_and_Actresses/ Directors: http://www.yahoo.visa.com/bogronlund/3_314_Upload_05_03/Mitchell_City%20of%20bits.fv.com/Entertainment/Movies_and_Films/Directors/ Theater: http://www.std.5.cs.com/Business/Corporations/Financial_Services/Digital_Money/ VISA Home Page: http://www.html Digicash FAQ: http://world.yahoo.com/Entertainment/Movies_and_Films/ Radio: http://www.5.usc.com/Entertainment/ Actors: http://www.org/ramblings/movies/lawnmowerman.spe.com/~franl/crypto/digicash-minifaq.com/Entertainment/Television/ Sony Pictures Classic: http://www.html Films Lawnmower Man: http://www.com/index.com/Entertainment/Radio/ Television: http://www.html Wizard of Oz: http://www.arch.yahoo.com/Pictures/SonyClassics/index.yahoo.html Page 86 of 143 .sony.ramblings.columbia.html Entertainment in 4.html First Virtual Home Page: http://www.com/Entertainment/Theater/ Movies: http://www.mac. Banking Chambers/ATMs in 4.com/publish/testimony.digicash.9.com DigiCash Home Page: http://www.12/03/12 19:06 Collaborative Universitities: A Special Issue of the Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication: http://cwis. Bank Notes/Electronic Cash CyberCash Home Page: http://www.yahoo.com/ v Yahoo's List of Digital Money: http://www.cybercash.com/visa/ David Chaum's testimony for US House of Representatives: http://www.edu/dept/annenberg/vol1/issue1/ Digital Design Lab: http://www.yahoo.digicash.11.edu/Web/People/rgs/wizoz10.yahoo.edu/ Electronic Cash in 4. Department Stores/Electronic Shopping Malls in 6. Theaters/Entertainment Infrastructure Yahoo's Entertainment: http://www.yahoo.cmu.html http://homepage.
whitehouse.hss. Brains/Artificial Intelligence Global Positioning System (GPS): http://wwwhost.Legislative Information on the Internet: http://thomas. Federal Government Web Sites: http://204.ca/~lapierre/nvi/nvi4.124/fedgov.cs.txt Gender Swapping: ftp://media.carleton.cmu.gov/ Navigational System for the Visually Impaired: http://www.html Thomas .utexas.html GPS Service for Geodynamics: http://igscb.loc.vegas.cmu.com/Central/Tv/Net/gambling.doe.za/GameBytes/issue18/misc/ftown.Gambling Frequently Asked Questions: http://www.com/Recreation/Games/Computer_Games/Doom/ Competetive Games: http://www.36. White House : http://www.gov.cmu.html Government and Politics (in 6.html Games Doom: http://www.S.edu/ftp/pub/grg/gcraft/notes/gps/gps.html Gender Gender Issues Online: gopher://english.jpl.gov/ http://homepage.12/03/12 19:06 Wizard of Oz: http://www.9.urm.cnet.html Global Positioning Satellite System in 3.co.html Rec.183.edu/Feminism.virtualworld.html Page 87 of 143 .edu/Web/People/rgs/wizoz10.com/wagernet/ C|Net Central: http://www.com/Recreation/Games/Computer_Games/Doom/ BattleTech: http://www.edu/0F-2%3A1775%3ATruongGender%20Issues%20Online Gender Differences in Computer-Mediated Communication: gopher://gopher.com/bogronlund/3_314_Upload_05_03/Mitchell_City%20of%20bits.html GPS Info: ftp://labtele.S.nasa.txt Feminism: http://english.html Gambling WagerNet: http://www.hss.7.ing.pl/ U.com/faq/index.unifi.gov/ Polish Government WWW Server: http://www.html Fightertown: http://www.gem.yahoo.cc.conjelco.com/BattleTech/BattleTech.org:70/00/cpsr/gender/herring.edu/pub/asb/papers/gender-swapping.yahoo. Electoral Politics/Electronic Polls) U.cpsr.mit.mac.it/www/gps.
teleport.html National Budget Simulation: http://garnet.html The U.html Interactive Democracy: http://www.html Electoral Processes: http://www.ai.ac.gov/su_docs/ The Electronic Embassy: http://www.loc.edu/~cubsfan/liberal.gop.edu:3333/budget/budget.htm The Kremlin: http://www.com/~pcllgn/id.S. Senate: http://policy.12/03/12 19:06 Thomas .berkeley.html Hypertext Novels in 4.com/~pcllgn/id. Congress: http://policy.su/www/wtr/kremlin/begin.nl/~benne/pol-parties.html Electoral Processes: http://www.clark.html http://homepage.edu/~riddle/hyperfiction.net/pub/jeffd/mr_newt.com/~albany/infight.mit.com/~digitals/ Political Parties of the World: http://huizen.5.html Giles' GOP In-Fighting Updates: http://www.uk/depts/po/election.mac.org/ The Republican Party: http://www.ohio-state.keele.html Local Government Network: http://www.com/~cdeemer/index.html Turn Left .webcom.Legislative Information on the Internet: http://thomas. US Government Printing Office: http://www.gpo.edu/hypertext/faq/usenet/Copyright-FAQ/top.teleport.html Hypertext Fiction on the WWW: http://is.ukans.org/ The Democratic Party: http://www.keele.edu/projects/ppp/home.teleport.uk/depts/po/election.S.net/capweb/Senate/Senate.html Political Participation Project: http://www. Tangible Goods/Intellectual Property Copyright FAQ: http://www.html Page 88 of 143 .html Superintendent of Documents' Home Page.access.html Intellectual Property in 6.civic. Theaters/Entertainment Infrastructure What is Hypertext?: http://www.com/bogronlund/3_314_Upload_05_03/Mitchell_City%20of%20bits.cc.dds.2.com/~cdeemer/essay.A Guide to the U.ac.net:2401/lgnet.The Home of Liberalism on the Web: http://falcon.cis.html Charles Deemer's Home Page: http://www.embassy.webcom.html The Newt Gingrich WWW Fan Club: http://www.htm Interactive Democracy: http://www.rice.net/capweb/congress.gov/ Cap Web .teleport.kiae.
Intellectual Property Section Home Page.nl:2080/w3thesis/Hci/user_centered.mac.edu/OGC/IntellectualProperty/INDEX.yale.med.org/home.com/Design/WWWdesign.com/bogronlund/3_314_Upload_05_03/Mitchell_City%20of%20bits.edu/caim/Biblio_GUI.yahoo.com/ Internet in 5.einet.html Page 89 of 143 .eff.loc.isoc.edoc.S.com/u/hopkins/arpanet/index-large.html http://homepage.amdahl.net/galaxy/Business-and-Commerce/Business-Administration/Legal-and-RegulatoryIssues/Intellectual-Property. Real Estate/Cyberspace Electronic Frontier Foundation's Guide to the Internet: http://www.utsystem.com/Law/Intellectual_Property/Copyrights/ Yahoo's Patent List: http://www. University of Texas: http://gold.com/info/internet-index/current.rpi.org/11/internet/history Arpanet: http://hello.kub.com/aaas/copyright/ Interface Design Graphic Design for the User Interface: http://info. Copyright Office: gopher://marvel.yahoo.html History of the Internet: gopher://gopher.gov/11/copyright Yahoo's Copyright List: http://www.eff.org/pub/Intellectual_property/ Office of General Counsel.HTM Intellectual Property and the National Information Infrastructure: http://www.isoc.edu/Internet/Guides/decem/icmc/top.highfive.org/pub/Net_info/Guidebooks/EFF_Net_Guide/netguide.html Copyright-Related Internet Sites: http://www.com/internet/events/inet25.1.gov/web/ipnii/ Intellectual Property Search Results: http://galaxy.openmarket.12/03/12 19:06 U.kaleida.knosso.html David Siegel's High Five -.html Design for WWW: http://www.eff Information Sources: The Internet and Computer-Mediated Communication: http://www.html The Internet Index: http://www.html Internet Society Home Page: http://info.HTML User-centered interface design: http://infolabwww.Excellence in Site Design: http://www.html WWW Hot Topic: Internet 25th Anniversary: http://www.uspto.com/Law/Intellectual_Property/Patents/ Electronic Frontier Foundation Intellectual Property Issues and Policy Archive: http://www.
va.edu/ Yahoo's List of Libraries: http://www.html MedWeb Telemedicine: http://www.telmed.html Parallel: http://www.edu/journal/index.usf.com/bogronlund/3_314_Upload_05_03/Mitchell_City%20of%20bits.mac.html Medicine in 4.html Libraries in 4.183.bl.ora.html Marxism Page: http://www.edu/students/pjaques/etext/markcommumani/index.edu/VirtualHospital.cc.uk/ Library of Congress: http://lcweb.html DoD Telemedicine Web Site Directory: http://www.army.html INET'95 Hypermedia Proceedings: http://inet. Stacks/Servers British Library: gopher://portico.html Internet Survey: http://www.html Telemedicine Demonstration: http://www.145.com/u/hopkins/arpanet/index-large.edu/schedules/demo_intro.anu.cs.html The Virtual Hospital: http://indy.com/ The MoJo Wire: http://motherjones.gov/homepage/lchp.103/hospitalweb.12/03/12 19:06 Arpanet: http://hello.au/parallel/x1/index.edu/WHSCL/medweb.html Popular Mechanics: http://popularmechanics.com/gnn/bus/ora/survey/index.mil/pages/operations/operations.oberlin.html Harvard Library: gopher://hplus.hmc.net/cren/cren-hist-fut.uiowa.xray.com/docs/stats/stats.com.com/ The OAS Weekly Digest: http://www.3.com/ Irresponsible Internet Statistics Generator: http://www.kaleida.harvard.cas.html Bitnet: http://www.com/Reference/Libraries/University_Libraries/ Marxism The Communist Manifesto: http://www.loc.edu.matmo. Hospitals/Telemedicine Hospitals on the Web: http://132.omron.oas.html Journals and Magazines Journal of Deconstruction: http://www.au/polsci/marx/marx.html http://homepage.cren.radiology.html Page 90 of 143 .yahoo.psu.com/digest/digest.nttam.emory.7.anamorph.
ucsb.html MUDs and MOOs in 5.com/~zenugirl/barbie.maui.digital.dir/adma.edu/html/webbing/mudInfo.arts.us/End_of_Road/dogyard.html Mr.html Gastroenterology and liver disease: http://www. Virtual Concrete.gastro.edu/hardin-www/telemed. Neighborhoods/MUDs Available Information on MUDs: http://www.edu/medicus.utexas.slip.edu/concrete/index.buffalo.sg/CH/level1.acsu.com/ An Introduction to Skin Cancer: http://www.fnsb.html Creating a Virtual Body.io.harvard.html Page 91 of 143 .cs.edu/potatoe/ The Alaska Dog Mushers' Association: http://www.armory.ca/ibp/neat_things/ants.uiowa.edu/nafta-7/textonly.html The Barbie Page: Lawyers Jokes: http://gnn.polarnet.org/pub/GII_NII/Telemedicine/ Department of Computer Science in Medicine.7. Hamburg: http://www.com/~brokers/content/excus.html Info on MUDs and Related Topics: http://summit.cmu.net/~southsky/introto.com/gnn/bus/nolo/jokes.nus.vill.eff.html The Interactive Patient: http://medicus.html http://homepage.html EFF Telemedicine Archive: http://www.law.com/bogronlund/3_314_Upload_05_03/Mitchell_City%20of%20bits.uni-hamburg.htm Web Sushi Parlor: http://gsd. Edible Starchy Tuber Head Home Page: http://winnie.html Worldwide Cemetary: http://www. UCSD Art Department: http://www.cis.html Telemedicine Resources and Services: http://naftalab.dir/ Talk to a Cat: http://queer.de/~medizin/Institutes/IMDM/IDV/IDV_HomePage.ips.edu/~lwl/mudinfo.edu/crstaff/CRstaffhome-WADE.edu/cgi-bin/talktocat The Excuse Generator: http://islandnet.htm Cyberspace Hospital: http://ch.mac.html Miscellaneous Cigars: http://www.bus.marshall.stanford.upenn.edu/~kmortens/humidor/ Plastic Princess Page: http://deepthought.arcade.org/cemetery/ How to Blow Up Ants: http://www.12/03/12 19:06 Telemedicine/Rural medicine resources: http://www.ak.
u-strasbg.edu/welcome.4.se/mud/faq/faq1.html TrekMUSE: http://grimmy.edu:8888 MUDlist: http://www.html NarniaMUSH: telnet://dobest.okstate.artcity.12/03/12 19:06 Info on MUDs and Related Topics: http://summit.uk/ British Museum: http://www.lib.hep.upenn.com/artgallery/rockwell_list.upenn.com/Art/Museums/ Norman Rockwell Gallery: http://www.com:80/AI.uk/User/Andrew.html33~ Music http://homepage.edu/~jds/mudfaq-p1.edu/~lwl/mudinfo.edu/start.broadartfdn.edu/~lwl/muds.html MUD FAQs: http://www.Wilson/MUDlist/dorans.berkeley.html The Eli Broad Family Foundation: http://www.ac.gus.cis.uk/gallery2/index.upenn.ucl.html Art Museums: http://www.uk/local/museums/BritishMuseum.org/ Yahoo's List of MUDs: http://www.lysator.balliol.html American Memory from the Library of Congress: http://rs6.pitt.html Dune: http://des8.cmcc.mac.html More MUD FAQs: http://www.com/bogronlund/3_314_Upload_05_03/Mitchell_City%20of%20bits.gov/amhome.cs. Galleries/Virtual Museums British Library: gopher://portico.html Page 92 of 143 .edu:6250/ Zork: http://hollebeek.yahoo.html The MUD Resource Collection: http://www.cm.muse.stanford.ox.edu/~tim/zorkmud.html Museum of Paleontology.ac.edu/html/webbing/mudInfo.mit.html Smithsonian Institution: http://www.html#anchor_mwho The Almost-Complete List of MUSHes: http://www.loc.si.math.org/ Art City: http://www.cis.media.html MedioMoo: telnet://mediamoo.cf.fr/~dune/homepage.cnidr.digital.html Canadian Museum of Civilization: http://www.yahoo.bl.ac.liu.com/Entertainment/Games/MUDs__MUSHes__MUSEs__MOOs__etc_/ MOO Central: http://www.htm The Nightmare Gallery: http://thomas.edu/~jrgst7/MOOcentral. University of California at Berkeley: http://ucmp1.virginia.html Museums in 4.ca/cmc/cmceng/welcmeng.
cnn.com.au/online/sites.4.pathfinder.enews.unc.bermudasun.html Wall Street Journal's Money and Investing Update: http://www.com:/ New York Times: http://nytimesfax.com/ Real Audio: http://www.earn.edu/nii/NII-Table-of-Contents.jp/mirror/www.globe.html NII: Agenda for Action: http://sunsite.com/ CNN Newsroom: http://www.mit.yahoo.html Click -.com/ Chicago Tribune: http://www.net/wrtv6/chat/cr.com/ The Tech: http://the-tech.html The Utne Lens: http://www.au NewsLink: http://www.realaudio.ncb.edu/nii/NII-Agenda-for-Action.com/lens/ The Bermuda Sun: http://www.sjmercury.edu/ Time Warner: http://www.glocom.html News Yahoo's List of Newswires: http://www.sg/it2k/it2k.update.newslink.org/ The Sidney Morning Herald: http://www.com The Boston Globe Online: http://www.com/globe/globe.html IT2000-A Vision of an Intelligent Island: http://www.net/P/ProRev/index.12/03/12 19:06 1-800 MUSIC NOW: http://www.unc.htm The Progressive Review: http://emporium.mci.click.com/ WRTV-6 Chat Room: http://www.com/ National Information Infrastructure in 6.wsj.html Page 93 of 143 .1800musicnow.12.gov.com/ San Jose Mercury News: http://www. AD 2K: The Bitsphere NII Home Page: http://sunsite.tribune.com.smh.com/News/Newswires/ Electronic Newsstand: http://www.utne.html Europe and the Global Information Infrastructure: http://www.com/bogronlund/3_314_Upload_05_03/Mitchell_City%20of%20bits.turnpike.net/EC/bangemann.org/news http://homepage.mac.Interactive Magazine: http://www.iquest.ac.chicago. The Political Economy of Cyberspace in 7.
org/~barlow/barlow.interport.mac.edu/hypertext/faq/usenet/finding-groups/general/faq.com/bogronlund/3_314_Upload_05_03/Mitchell_City%20of%20bits.4.oneworld.2/ Genie: http://www.ac.html Usenet News via WWW: ftp://mail. Clarke: http://www.vt.html Page 94 of 143 .com/PRODabout/abtpsc1.genie.newspage.ohio-state.html Alexander Graham Bell: http://sln.uk OneWorld Online: http://www.psu.ai.com/ The Guardian On-Line: http://go2.pollstar.html Tony Bennett: http://www.fi.lib.cis.html How to Post: http://www.lsi.bermudasun.co.at/www/news/news.uidaho.12/03/12 19:06 The Bermuda Sun: http://www.com/ingres/itinbyartist?Tony+Bennett Rodney Brooks: http://www.guardian.cis.htm John Perry Barlow: http://www.com The Gate -.br/~rbianchi/clarke/ Freud: http://www.boku.ohio-state.edu/Philosophy/Aristotle/Default.usatoday.html Stephen Hawkins: http://www.edu/Libs/PCL/portraits/wchurchill.html USENET FAQs: http://www.net/nypsan/ William Gibson: http://sfbox.org/ Newsgroups in 5.html People Aristotle: http://nifty.unf.edu/barr/alt-creation-guide.uk/computing/cdromtoday/Issue10/Time/Universe http://homepage.edu/franklin/inventor/bell.edu/newsmail/usenet.html Winston Churchill: http://www.edu/hypertext/faq/usenet/top. On the Spot/On the Net List of Usenet FAQs: http://www.org/news USA Today: http://www.mit.futurenet.co.com/ Newspage: http://www.html Creatomg an Alt Newsgroup: http://www.5.com/ Prodigy: http://www.edu:10021/J/jfoley/gibson/gibson.usp.edu/people/brooks/brooks.jincs.from the San Francisco Chronicle and the San Francisco Examiner: http://www.sfgate.astranet.eff.6.bookstore.math.html On-line Services Compuserve: http://198.jpg Arthur C.utexas.
ic.cs.gov/bureaus/bop.cs.edu:80/stern/ Ivan Sutherland: http://wombat.html Political Economy of Digital Intrastructure: http://mas962.umd.utexas.mac.ac.edu/arch/4.htm Marvin Minsky: http://www.kei.mit.futurenet.music.html Federal Bureau of Prisons: http://gopher.bookstore.net/capweb/States/HI/HI.lib.ncsu.207/homepage.uidaho.html Norman Rockwell: http://www.edu/courses/mas962 Prisons in 4.uk/?ivan+sutherland Alvin Toffler: http://www.uk/computing/cdromtoday/Issue10/Time/Universe Daniel K.edu/unity/users/a/asdamick/www/news/notables.org/ Digital Communities: http://alberti.html Marshall McLuhan: http://www.eff.html Frank Sinatra: http://www.12.12/03/12 19:06 Stephen Hawkins: http://www.doc.com/McLuhan/default.edu/students/pjaques/prison/home. Prisons/Electronic Supervision Programs Prison-related Resources: http://www.jpg Plato: http://nifty.mit.sony.beaulieuhome.html Page 95 of 143 .mit.htm Warren Robinett: http://www.io. Inouye: http://policy.ac.com/homepages/mkapor/ Fritz Lang: http://www.edu/M/person-exact?e42DA1 Yo Yo Ma: http://www.media.com/web_resources/futurist/toffler_alvin/ Alan Turing: http://www-groups.oberlin.usdoj.html Krzysztof Wodiczko: http://alberti.org/~buff/sinatra.st-and.inettech.dcs.com/artgallery/rockwell_list.8.html Political Economy in 6.html#Krzysztof Wodiczko USENET Notables with World Wide Web Pages: http://www4.ai.com/Music/ArtistInfo/YoYoMa.html Samuel Morse: http://www.gus.edu/Libs/PCL/portraits/morse.com/bogronlund/3_314_Upload_05_03/Mitchell_City%20of%20bits.html Mitch Kapor: http://www.com/trivr/minutes/robinett.mit.html http://homepage.html Howard Stern: http://krishna.trinet.co.edu/Philosophy/Plato/Default.edu/arch/fac.msstate. The Political Economy of Cyberspace The Electronic Frontier Foundation: http://www.edu/people/minsky/minsky.uk/~history/Mathematicians/Turing.
eff.cis.aspeninst.census. Public Space/Public Access in 6.ota.7.12/03/12 19:06 Cecil Greek's Criminal Justice Page: http://bayflash.html Electronic Privacy Information Center (EPIC): http://epic.manymedia.Privacy: http://draco.html Clipper Chip: http://draco.com:8080/~franl/privacy/ CPSR's privacy resources: http://www.org Information Security and Privacy in Networked Environments: ftp://otabbs.org/ Electronic Frontier Foundation: http://www.html Page 96 of 143 .usf.gov:8080/museum/tour.centerline.Where to Get It: http://web.html Privacy Act and Title 13 of the United States Code: http://www.nsa.centerline.mit.centerline. Contiguous/Connected in 5.com:80/prc/ Francis Litterio's Your Privacy: http://draco.11.html NSA's National Cryptologic Museum: http://www.8.edu/~greek/cj.html The Privacy Rights Clearinghouse: http://emma.com:8080/~franl/clipper/ PGP encrypted T-shirts: http://colossus.9.com:8080/~franl/pgp/viacrypt.edu/hypertext/faq/usenet/net-privacy/top.html Privacy in 2.centerline.ohio-state.com:8080/~franl/crypto/ PGP .mac.com:8080/~franl/privacy/ USENET FAQs--Privacy & Anonymity on the Internet FAQ: http://www.org/Index.ai. Surveillance/Electronic Panopticon Virtual Library -.gov/pub/information.805 Ethics and Law on the Electronic Frontier: http://swissnet.com/bogronlund/3_314_Upload_05_03/Mitchell_City%20of%20bits.html 6.org/dox/privacy.html Robotics http://homepage.net/wepinsto/wsft_f/wspp_f/wsppts.mit.edu/network/pgp.edu/6805/ Robotics Aspen Institute: http://www.html ViaCrypt PGP: http://draco.gov/privacy. Enclosure/Encryption in 5.cpsr.stpt.centerline.security Virtual Library Cryptography: http://draco.
gov/tasks/rams/homepage.html Page 97 of 143 .7.mac.edu:8001/afs/cs.com/ http://homepage.savvy.cs.fhg.cmu.edu/~mgjones/shopping.cs.com/~isr/ISRHome.com/ IMall Home Page:: http://www.mecklerweb.yahoo.com:80/isc/ Metropolis Shopping Center: http://nextsrv.com/imall/http://www.net/ecat/ Yahoo's Shopping Centers: http://www.virtumall.12/03/12 19:06 in 3. Hospitals/Telemedicine Publications: ftp://ftp.imall.jpl.telescope.usc.org/rti/index.edu/project/mrcas/www/papers/CVRMed.ps Robot Assisted Micro Surgery: http://robotics.cmu.html The Internet Mall: http://www.com/homepage.com/ Internet Shopping Club: http://gacc.org/mark/fave-inter.com/Business/Corporations/Shopping_Centers/ Yahoo's List of Online Catalogues: http://catalog.html Yahoo's List of Interesting Devices Connected to the Net: http://www.unc.ipa.html Shopping in 4.gov/people/.onramp.edu/dept/raiders/ USC's Tele-Garden: http://www.11.nasa.html Robotic Surgery: http://www.yahoo..html http://haifa.telescope.savvy.html Shopping IN: http://www.html JPL Robotics: http://robotics. Department Stores/Electronic Shopping Malls Shopping 2000's Mall Directory: http://www.edu/nano/etc/www/nanopage.nasa.com/imall/ Catalog Mart Home Page: http://catalog.mecklerweb.com/Computers/Internet/Interesting_Devices_Connected_to_the_Net/ Remote Control on the Internet: http://www.muohio.6.edu/dept/garden/ Bradford Robotic Telescope: http://www.net/shopping_in/ Electric Catalog: http://www.com/bogronlund/3_314_Upload_05_03/Mitchell_City%20of%20bits.html Micro Robots: http://haifa.html USC's Mercury Project -.rahul.de/pub/VIRTUAL-REALITY/WWW/public.cas.Robotic Tele-Excavations: http://www.jpl.shopping2000.isx.isx.usc.com/ VirtuMall: http://www.html Nanomanipulator Project: http://www./homepage.com/~isr/WhyMR. Hands/Telemanipulators in 4.
eecs.mac.com/Business/Corporations/Catalogs/ Wane's Online Grocery Store: http://rainer.htm Smart-Food Coop: http://thinkpix.gnn.miss_manners Collaborative Flaming: http://gummo.HTML "The Nerd in the Noosphere" by Michael Heim: http://sunsite.edu:81/news/business.com/Business/Products_and_Services/Personals/ Yahoo's Dating List: http://www.html http://homepage.com/Entertainment/Dating/ WebChat Experimental Server: http://webchat.com/forecasts/index.ac.bid.stanford.com/smartstore/virtret.com/bid/cybercafe/cmeet.bnt.cstar.unc.edu/html/hypermail/www-talk-1994q4/0019.yahoo.com/wic/bus.10.html Business News and Information: http://umbc7.html Chicago Mercantile Exchange: http://reagan.12/03/12 19:06 Yahoo's List of Online Catalogues: http://catalog.cob.feature.com/gnn/meta/finance/index.savvy.yahoo.ohio-state.yahoo.cstar.yahoo.savvy.html GNN Personal Finance Center: http://nearnet.com/Business/Corporations/Catalogs/http://catalog.com/htbin/wa Computer Equipment: http://www.com/sfc/ Social Interaction Personals: http://www.gnn.com/info/exchanges.html Global Chat: http://www.ac.cc. Trading Floors/Electronic Trading Systems New York Stock Exchange: http://www.com/ http://www.prospero.htm JewelQuest: http://jewelquest.html Miss Manners: news:clari.com/bogronlund/3_314_Upload_05_03/Mitchell_City%20of%20bits.html QuoteCom Exchanges by Country: http://www.uic.service.digital.umbc.html Wall Street News: http://Wall-Street-News.com/globalchat/ Stock Market in 4.com/smartstore/ Virtual Retailing: http://bf2.htm Vienna Stock Exchange: http://nearnet.edu/cmc/mag/1995/jan/heim.edu/Jargon30/JARGON_F/FLAME.emory.com/ Smart Store Virtual: http://bf2.com/ The Meeting Place: http://www.edu/tourism/sightsee/mercant.html Page 98 of 143 .edu/dept/fin/nyse.04.html Definition of Flaming: http://nws.mecklerweb.com/ http://www.wwa.com/imall/3-comptr.quote.
zdnet.edu/~steve/netcam.mit.html Experimental Stock Market Data: http://www.ai.mit.edu:70/0/telecom-info.ipps.com:80/ Inter@ctive Week Internet Index: http://www.html Yahoo's List of Telephone Companies: http://www.canberra.html Telecom Information Resources on the Internet: http://www.html Page 99 of 143 .edu/~csdismas/cam.html Universities Boston University: http://web.com/sub/ticker.edu/afs/cs/project/sensor-9/ftp/www/homepage.contrib.edu.stanford.mac.columbia.com/Entertainment/Television/ Emmy Awards: http://www.html Surveillance in 6.edu/usr/rr48/phi/bentham.edu/stocks.media.com/qtitv.html Television of the Future: http://www.emmys.html Interactive Television: http://quicktime.umich.edu/ MIT (official home page): http://web.mit.au/~nemo/couch.cs.cmu.fi.html Interweb Couch: http://blitzen.html The American Stock Exchange: http://www.com/~intweek/daily/mp951018.yahoo.gnn.quote.html Jeremy Bentham: http://www.11.yahoo.com/Business/Corporations/Telecommunications/ Yahoo's List of Cable Companies: http://www.edu/ http://homepage.com/bogronlund/3_314_Upload_05_03/Mitchell_City%20of%20bits.cmu.edu/~ta43/looksee.apple.lsa.com/gnn/meta/finance/index.12/03/12 19:06 GNN Personal Finance Center: http://nearnet.com/Computers/Internet/Interesting_Devices_Connected_to_the_Net/Spy_Cameras/ Wearable Wireless Webcam: http://www-white.bu.html QuoteCom Ticker Symbol Search: http://www.amex.yahoo.html Web Cameras: http://www. Surveillance/Electronic Panopticon Spy Cameras: http://www.edu/franklin/inventor/bell.html Telecommunications Alexander Graham Bell and His Telephone: http://sln.andrew.org/tindex.com/Business/Consortia/Cable_Television_Laboratories/ Television The Couch Potato Cam: http://www-leland.html Yahoo's Television List: http://www.yahoo.
ibp.com/ulysses/vip/ Virtual Reality Publications: http://www.au:/weather.sf.com/bogronlund/3_314_Upload_05_03/Mitchell_City%20of%20bits.cc.com/user/hlr/vircom/ Dialog on Virtual Communities: http://www.unsw.umd.mit.html Future Applications of VR: http://www.edu/ University of Waikato: http://www.Misty.html Weather Weather Sites: http://www.08dialog1.netvideo.2.5.arch.html Page 100 of 143 .well. Multimedia.ll.nz/ Video in 4.html#slo3 Virtual Irish Pub: http://WWW.edu:8001/ Columbia University: http://www.well.mit.uk Dartmouth: http://www.html Virtual Communities in 5.12/03/12 19:06 MIT (official home page): http://web.html Virtual Communities Sources: http://www.ac.anu.com/techno.emedia.ForceTactile.virginia.edu/projects/eve/eve-articles/I.waikato.edu.html http://homepage.open.ac. and Virtual Reality Seminar: http://www.berkeley. Bookstores/Bitstores Video on the Internet: http://www.ucla.edu/ UCLA: http://www.columbia.wx.html University of Virginia: http://www.us/00/Community/virtual_communities92 Virtual Communities Focus Group: http://bliss.edu/impact/focus/virtual/vircomm.a USC seminar: http://cwis.html Cyperspace.edu/VRweb/Syllabus.net/feed/95.htm Heads Together: http://www.cs.edu. On the Spot/On the Net Reinhold's Virtual Communities: gopher://gopher.au/subjects/arch/specres2/mcmillan/futworld.edu/OtherSites/OtherSites.C.edu/ Open University: http://pepper.com/pit/heads-together/ Imedia DS1000 Video Server: http://image.mac.edu/index.ca.artcenter.edu/~pshen/pd_ser.08dialog/95.edu/dept/cntv/heim/index.edu/ MIT (SIPB): http://www.htm The Metaphysics of Virtual Reality -.usc.html Weather and Global Monitoring: http://life.mit.mit.dartmouth.
ncsa. and the Credible City: Academic Work in the Virtual University by Stephen R.gilgordon.mac.12.com/Business/Corporations/Financial_Services/Banks/ Insurance: http://www.ucdavis.edu/0F-2%3a285%3aGood%20Office%20Patterns Telecommuting.com/bogronlund/3_314_Upload_05_03/Mitchell_City%20of%20bits.edu/dept/annenberg/vol1/issue1/acker/ACKTEXT.com/Business/Corporations/Financial_Services/Insurance/ Law Firms: http://www.au:/weather.yahoo. Employment.buffalo. Taylor and Cynthia C.cs. number 3 (November/December 1993).edu:8001/internet/h_firms. Teleworking and Alternative Officing: http://www.engr.w3. Davidson for organizing this very successful event. Acker: http://cwis.html Acknowledgements I presented a first sketch of this book at a symposium entitled Electrotecture: Architecture and the Electronic Future.ucdavis.12/03/12 19:06 Weather and Global Monitoring: http://life.HTM Telecommunications and Travel Research Program: http://nachos. Work/Net-Work Banks: http://www.net/knowware/worksite.mit.hss.edu:1024/weather.eff.org/ Netscape Home Page: http://home.com/ WWW FAQ: http://sunsite.mcom.edu.edu/~its/telecom/ World Wide Web NSCA Mosaic: http://www.html Telecommuting: http://www.cl.cmu.usc.com/ Resources dealing with Technology Change.htm Space. Collaboration. and Work: http://mindlink.uiuc.html Page 101 of 143 .html Work in 4.msu.edu/weather/ Weather Sources: http://escher.html The World Wide Web Initiative: http://www.yahoo.edu/SDG/Software/Mosaic/NCSAMosaicHome.html Weather Maps: http://rs560. in New York in 1993.unc.yahoo. and to the other participants for the stimulating discussion that they provided.anu.html What's the Web?: http://www.com/Business/Corporations/Law/Firms/ Architecture Firms: http://arch. sponsored by the Guggenheim Museum and ANY magazine.edu/boutell/faq/hypertext. http://homepage. The results of this symposium were published in ANY. I am grateful to Mark C.edu:8001/people/rei/wwwintro.org/pub/EFF/Policy/OP/Telecommuting/ Good Office Patterns: gopher://english.
cable TV networks. Massachusetts. telephone. using concepts of three-dimensional typography developed by the late Muriel Cooper. photograph © Serge Lafontaine and Tilemachos Doukoglou. Inc. and the technology of wireless telegraphy was emerging. page 132. and colleagues too numerous to mention read versions of the manuscript as it evolved and generously gave me their comments. students. The jacket illustration was produced by Suguru Ishizaki at the MIT Media Laboratory. Punch. The telephone followed in 1876. By the 1950s extensive analog telecommunications networks employed wire. 42-61. page 106 top. largely separate. photograph courtesy of NYNEX Corporation. "The Proportions of Man.. translated by Benjamin Bucknall (London: Sampson Low." Fortune. and the first communications satellites were put into service.com/bogronlund/3_314_Upload_05_03/Mitchell_City%20of%20bits. and with participants in the seminar generated additional ideas and insights. television. December 19. "The First Hut. Leonardo da Vinci. meticulous research efforts of Anne Beamish.12/03/12 19:06 In Fall 1994. 1876). and most installations of digital telecommunications equipment are small and inconspicuous. The final text owes much to the extensive. By mid-1994 the local cable television company was providing me with direct access to the Internet computer network from my home in Cambridge. and telephone networks are explored in detail in Gary Stix. page 26 bottom.html Page 102 of 143 . Inc. Nuova Pianta di Roma (Rome. when the telegraph was demonstrated and patented.. Friends. Long-distance telegraph and telephone networks had developed by the dawn of the twentieth century. All Rights Reserved. Krzysztof Wodiczko. "Domesticating Cyberspace. 1. Michael Baenen did some crucial fact checking. still from the film Lawnmower Man. In the 1960s digital telecommunications systems began to supplant the older analog ones. Cable links are mostly underground and in building walls. detail from Giambattista Nolli. page 106 bottom. cable. April 19. Additional illustration credits are as follows: page 2. with our teaching assistant Anne Beamish. © 1993 The New Yorker Magazine. digital service. Development of the worldwide telecommunications infrastructure began in 1837." from The Habitations of Man in All Ages. Fiber-optic cables and ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network) lines became increasingly commonplace in the 1980s. 1993. and it was clear that existing. page 162. photographs courtesy of the artist. courtesy Ian Hunter. "The Race to Rewire America. Politicians and journalists began to talk about the emergence of an Information Superhighway system. radio. broadband. page 26 top. numerous discussions with Mitch. and data networks would eventually evolve into a worldwide. Debra Edelstein provided editorial advice. Eugène-Emmanuel Viollet-le-Duc. e-World screen shot courtesy of Apple Computer." Scientific American 269: 2 (August 1993): 100-10. 2. page 46 bottom. Mitch Kapor and I taught an MIT graduate seminar entitled Digital Communities.mac. wireless links are completely invisible. The converging futures of computer networks. page 6. The plans in chapter 4 were all drawn by Anne Beamish. drawing by P. Steiner. http://homepage. 3." The Bettmann Archive. see Andrew Kupfer. 1878 (Punch's Almanack for 1879). and microwave links together with crossbar switching technology. page 46 top. 1748). Footnotes Chapter 1 For an overview of the process of fiber-optic network installation.
Give the command "Search RSVP personals" and you will be greeted with the message.12/03/12 19:06 3. Streets were laid out in a regular grid.edu. `men and non-smoker. the San Jose Mercury News maintains an online database of personal ads (not that you will find me on this one). 6.. It was sited on a rocky peninsula on the Aegean coast of what is now Turkey.for example media@mit . beginning in 479 B. 1. 2. finger me by typing finger wjm@mit.C. for example." 3. and there was a magnificent agora in the center. Finger files are maintained by many of the host computers on the Internet. The Greek agora is the prototype urban public space. For example. Footnotes Chapter 2 The Parisian flâneur made his literary debut in Baudelaire's famous essay "The Painter of Modern Life" (1863).<%6>'<%0>" http://homepage. Sometimes a domain that is closely associated with a particular group.) Internet users can. adjacent to the harbor. "Type words that describe what you are looking for. the Ionian city of Miletos was rebuilt. according to a master plan by the Milesian architect Hippodamos.does acquire a certain cachet..html Page 103 of 143 . 4.com/bogronlund/3_314_Upload_05_03/Mitchell_City%20of%20bits. This yields my full name. 1994) does not define any particular cyberspace neighborhood. As network usage grows. Aristotle credited Hippodamos with being the inventor of "the art of planning cities. open space where public life was enacted. then click List Ads. If they are resourceful and knowledgeable. MA: Addison-Wesley. Voice mail and video mail systems operate in similar ways. the agora was a central. they can construct a fairly detailed description of me (or practically anybody else who uses Internet) by piecing together fragments of information from various accessible <->databases. After being overrun and destroyed by the Persians in 494 B. fancier interfaces) and trade on their snob value. do not provide access to them. For example. (Some hosts.mac. Having an agora was essential to being a city rather than merely a settlement. The compendium E-Mail Addresses of the Rich and Famous (Reading. for security or privacy reasons.C. 5. and phone number . He was a man of the boulevards: he strolled them to observe the life of the great city and by so doing also put himself on display. mailing address. The software performs the basic functions of storing messages at some central location as they arrive. In the ancient Greek city. But at least for now the basic point remains valid: logical connection matters much more than physical location. it may be that some access providers will attempt to distinguish themselves by providing premium service (faster machines. then forwarding them to the addressee's personal computer or workstation when requested.just as if they looked me up in the printed MIT phone directory.
when "phonies" began to take advantage of the telephone's elimination of visual cues. Even before text became digital. the women tumbled to his deceptive game and publicly denounced him in a WELL conference space. But the network greatly expands that space. printed text created some space for these games." a disabled older woman who participated in the Compuserve network's "Between the Sexes" online conference.edu with the word "help" in the "Subject" line. After he teleromanced several women at the same time (without telling them of the others). then. and so on in face-to-face interactions. for example. in summer 1993. 10. to set up swindles.com/bogronlund/3_314_Upload_05_03/Mitchell_City%20of%20bits. Thursday. It featured a bow-tied agent called Phil. January 6. 12. send e-mail to oracle@cs. "The Role of Emotion in Believable Agents. D1. See Erving Goffman's classic The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life (New York: Doubleday. do well to take a close look at the gay studies literature. "Joan" was eventually unmasked. 11. to the shock and dismay of many of the other conference participants. 13. Such agents are discussed in detail in the "Intelligent Agents" special issue of Communications of the ACM 37: 7 (July 1994). Students of cyberspace culture might. and people's inexperience in dealing with this. Apple Computer's famous promotional videotape The Knowledge Navigator provided an early dramatization of this idea. as a middle-aged male psychiatrist. http://homepage. George Eliot and Henry Handel Richardson played them with panache. D5. 1994. A 1985 Ms. competence. 14. 1959) for a discussion of the many and complex ways in which we acquire information about general socioeconomic status. See John Markoff. Some early published stories of this sort of thing quickly attained the status of cyberspace morality tales.12/03/12 19:06 7. magazine story by Lindsy Van Gelder." Communications of the ACM 37: 7 (July 1994): 122-25. who looked a bit like a talking passport photo and who supposedly performed librarian and resource-management tasks.html Page 104 of 143 . These tales recall similar ones from the early days of the telephone. attitude. "Hopes and Fears on New Computer Organisms. for example. 8. the news media reported widely on "The Case of the Cybercad" on the WELL (a popular Bay Area online conferencing system).mac.indiana. General Magic introduced the Telescript language intended for programming practical software agents. told the story of "Joan." The New York Times. trustworthiness. For information on the Usenet Oracle. Then. Joseph Bates. In 1994 the idea began to go commercial in a significant way. 9.
1989). G. Manhattan office buildings were connected via fiber-optic links to a telecommunications park in New Jersey. We can use encryption techniques to put verifiable digital "signatures" on electronic documents. when monasteries introduced mechanical clocks. and so on). and Society: Geographical Societal Perspectives (Dordrecht: Kluwer. ships. Gross. is regularly simulated by software running on more up-todate hardware. see Prakash Chakravati. the Pony Express. Kellerman. pigeons. drums and horns.. grand promises of artificial intelligence have gone unfulfilled and will continue to be unfulfilled unless there are spectacular breakthroughs of a kind that do not seem imminent. 18. 20. In Technics and Civilization (New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. that existence on the Net radically extends the kind of pseudo-immortality that authors gain from having their books published. and R. For the early history of asynchronous communication systems (using runners. The existence of once-popular but now obsolete types of computer terminals. Mitch Kapor (in an e-mail note after reading a manuscript draft) has chided me for being a bit silly about this. A. at least. see A. Kellerman." Telos 50 (1981): 59-78. He may be right.12/03/12 19:06 15. D. 1986). and so started to impose orderly routines on urban life. "The Decycling of Time and the Reorganization of Urban Space. Space." Cultural Dynamics 4 (1991): 38-54. D. But it is certainly worth noting. Raulet. "Space. "Communications from Cave Messages to Mail Messages. Lipman. The first teleport was developed by the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey in the late 1970s. "The New Utopia: Communication Technologies. Time. There is now a technical answer of a sort. began to ring out the hours. Sugarman.html Page 105 of 143 . "Temporality and the Modern State. Gross. fire.com/bogronlund/3_314_Upload_05_03/Mitchell_City%20of%20bits. chains of men with loud voices." IEEE Power Engineering Review 12: 9 (September 1992): 29-31. IL: Dow JonesIrwin." Telos 87 (1991): 39-58. 21. 17. See D. D. A. F. such as teletypes and DEC VT-100s. 1934) Lewis Mumford dated the synchronous city back to the thirteenth century. Many of the early. eds. There is a growing literature on the relationship between telecommunications and the use of time in modern urban societies. semaphore. A. so we cannot expect to get to Gibsonian silicon immortality by extrapolation of current technology.mac. 19. This already happens with machines. http://homepage. Time. 16. Cushman. On teleports generally. Teleports and the Intelligent City (Homewood. and Modern Culture. But this does not alter the basic fact that telecommunication distances us from the flesh-and-blood bodies of those with whom we communicate and puts constructed electronic masks in their place." Theory and Society 14 (1985): 53-82.
For a brief introduction to the geography of communications satellites. flight simulators and motion-based amusement rides use hydraulic rams to accelerate riders over short distances and so subject them to g-forces similar to those experienced in moving vehicles. And NEC's "virtual skiing" laboratory in Tokyo has developed a system that senses http://homepage. most American schoolrooms did not even have telephones. At a larger scale. For example. When the tactors are stimulated by a current.38-47. Yet another approach is to employ servomotor-driven joysticks that vibrate to simulate movement across rough and bumpy surfaces. "The Bit Police: Will the FCC Regulate Licenses to Radiate Bits?. Pneumatic cylinders that provide variable resistance to the fingers as air pressure is regulated by computer have also been tried. Bandwidth becomes particularly important here since the rough telecommunications rule of thumb is that good video requires about a thousand times as much bandwidth as speech." Telecommunications Policy 13 (1990): 59-68. which transmitted through a steering wheel the feel of a racecar in motion. despite endless talk in the popular press about the Information Superhighway. 25. Actually. 26. intimacy is a matter of using all sensory modalities and opening up the bandwidth as far as possible. and push back when solid objects or force fields are encountered. 22. 1986). As I wrote these words. see Nicholas Negroponte. 28.html Page 106 of 143 . 29.mac. Perhaps the most effective early application of force feedback. they press on the fingertips. we are talking about a great many more bits. 27. L. One current approach is to combine a gesture-sensing glove with arrays of tiny switches known as tactors. stationary exercise bicycles have incorporated increasingly sophisticated computer monitoring of the user's physical response." Wired 1:2 (May/June 1993): 112. see A. 24. together with automatic adjustment of the level of difficulty of the simulated terrain. of course. Qvortrup. 23. don't touch) and other rituals of erotic titillation often depend on shutting down a few sensory channels.com/bogronlund/3_314_Upload_05_03/Mitchell_City%20of%20bits. stripteases (look. was in the Atari videogame Hard Drivin'. Conversely. Kellerman.12/03/12 19:06 Irwin." Telecommunications and Geography (London: Belhaven. From a telecommunications viewpoint. 1993). A picture is truly worth a thousand words. For a lively analysis of the issues involved here. "Microwave and Satellite Communications. pp. "The Nordic Telecottages: Community Teleservice Centers for Rural Regions. though.
18. Many old computer hands detest it for the conceptual vulgarities that it has come to connote. See Kimiko Eastham. has already developed to chronicle the tales of this territory. The Lost Dimension (New York: Semiotext(e). Robert Hooke clearly saw this coming. but that there may be found many Mechanical inventions to improve our other Senses. 36.1. searching. Paul Virilio. and pole movements. see Grigore Burdea and Philippe Coiffet.sf. For a comprehensive survey of the relevant technologies. 33. Anne Beamish. In the preface to Micrographia (1665) he wrote: "The next care to be taken. of hearing.html Page 107 of 143 ." Wired 1: 3 (July/August 1993): 29. so I shall use it.mac." The New York Times. 30. and press releases. section 2. available by FTP from the Electronic Frontier Foundation ( eff@well. see John Tierney. touching. . Footnotes Chapter 3 In the seventeenth century. But it has won out against all the plausible alternatives and has succeeded in taking possession of its semantic niche. And NEC's "virtual skiing" laboratory in Tokyo has developed a system that senses head position. 1990). the adding of artificial Organs to the natural. spent most of her time surfing the Net to search library catalogues. but was introduced by William Gibson in his 1984 novel Neuromancer. And as Glasses have highly promoted our seeing.com/bogronlund/3_314_Upload_05_03/Mitchell_City%20of%20bits. in respect of the Senses.us ). Sunday. " http://homepage. "Crime and Puzzlement" (June 8. This word does not have a respectable technical pedigree. it simulates actual slopes and adjusts them according to the user's ability. My research assistant." For a survey of interactive computer porn in the 1990s. leg movements. Frederik Pohl explored it in his 1966 short story "Day Million. January 9.ca. "Porn. tasting. Postmodern prostitution is a pretty hackneyed fantasy by now (though journalists never seem to tire of pop-eyed speculation about it). A literary subgenre. pen >> sword. the Low-Slung Engine of Progress. news stories. "Everything but the Broken Bones. 1990) and "Crime and Puzzlement Part 2" (July 21. so 'tis not improbable. 35. 1994). analogous to the western pulp novel. bibliographies. 1994. as well as blood flow and stress.12/03/12 19:06 the simulated terrain. smelling. Basic sources on the topic are John Perry Barlow. and as it were. and databases and to download papers. Virtual Reality Technology (New York: John Wiley.. pp. p. is a supplying of their infirmities with Instruments. Once again. 34. 32. 31.60. and retrieving information in this way.. Most of the research and fact-checking for this book was done by browsing. 1991).
For a brief survey of electronic prostheses. the concept has been deployed to good effect by cultural critics. human beings convert themselves into cyborgs by transferring their minds into machines. see Gareth Branwyn. 1994. See also Thomas Levenson. January 16. Cyborgs. 39: 3 (May/June 1992): 28-29. and related issues." in Nots (Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Bly. 2. For a convenient summary of the early history of television. 4. Clarke's 1956 novel The City and the Stars. 5. "Hyperinstruments: A Progress Report 1987-1991. http://homepage. 1994). For an introduction to the topic of the body in architectural and urban space. see Donna Haraway." See I. Here we're talking about flesh and bits. "The Betrayal of the Body: Live Not. and Women: The Reinvention of Nature (New York: Routledge. see Sara A. p. for example. 7." The Sciences (July/August 1994): 15-17. a soft lap computer. and Mark C." MIT Media Laboratory. pp. Infrared wireless communication between electronic devices had." The New York Times Magazine. January 1992. "How to Scan a Cat.12/03/12 19:06 1. In Arthur C. for example. InfoCulture: The Smithsonian Book of Information Age Inventions (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company. A brief technical description is given in Tod Machover.com/bogronlund/3_314_Upload_05_03/Mitchell_City%20of%20bits. 8. Industrial designer Emilio Ambasz has already speculated about "a soft portable telephone. 1993). Steve R.11. implants. "Taming the Hypercello. wearable computers of various kinds were beginning to appear.mac. D.html Page 108 of 143 . 6. see Richard Sennett. Taylor.214-55. 9. 1991). 3. a soft camera. Flesh and Stone: The Body and the City in Western Civilization (New York: W. For a discussion of Xerox PARC research on media spaces. (One inexpensive personal communicator became popular with school kids because its infrared capabilities allowed silent passing of electronic "notes" in class. W." Wired 1: 4 (September/October 1993): 62-65.) Conformable. 113. The technology of bodynets was rapidly emerging by the early 1990s. The hypercello was developed by Tod Machover and his team at MIT's Media Laboratory. More recently. Sunday. 1993). Norton and Company. The term is from "cybernetic organism" and applies to artificial and augmented bodies animated by human intelligence. "The Desire to Be Wired. see Steven Lubar. become commonplace. Simians.
January 3. J. The artists set up a two-way video connection between outdoor public pedestrian spaces in Century City.mac. "The Design of Virtual Environments . pp." Computer Graphics 28: 2 (May 1994): 102-4. Thursday October 7. Modern motion-based simulators for location-based entertainment (LBE) installations typically have computer. produced by Phil Ramone (Capitol Records. Monday. Avital Ronell. William Safire added. Elizabeth M.laid down their counterfeit counterpoint. 23." The New York Times. Saturday.11. in a column entitled "Art Vs. Jonckheere. 1993. This metaphor originated with the "Hole-in-Space" project of video artists Kit Galloway and Sherri Rabinowitz in 1980." Presence 1: 1 (Winter 1992): 80-107. D1." 14. and Computing. 1994. E. Y. and transcontinental casual pedestrian encounters could take place. California.Value Added Entertainment. See also National Public Radio. never interacted. A. See Stephen Clarke-Willson. "A Robot with Improved Absolute Positioning Accuracy for CT Guided Stereotactic Surgery. and Lincoln Center in New York City. Wenzel. 12." Weekend Edition transcript for Saturday. Schizophrenia. Electric Speech (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press. 13. Audio. and S.301. A23): "The `duets' are a series of artistic frauds.by telephone . with their bobbing wooden horses for small children. S. Sinatra wheezed out his soundtrack and others . segment 18. 1989). 16. Artifice" ( The New York Times.html Page 109 of 143 . p. 17." The New York Times. "Localization in Virtual Acoustic Displays. Hans Fantel. Kwoh. Duets. 1994. November 13.com/bogronlund/3_314_Upload_05_03/Mitchell_City%20of%20bits. 11.<->controlled hydraulic actuators that move riders along up to three axes of translation and three of rotation. http://homepage.12/03/12 19:06 Harrison. 1993. "Media Spaces: Video. 1993). For a brief account of the process and of the technology employed. 15. The singers never sang together. Images of pedestrians were projected at approximately full scale. "A Major Record Album: Only a Phone Call Away." Communications of the ACM 36: 1 (January 1993): 28-47. Use of motion-based simulators for entertainment can be traced all the way back to early fairground carousels. "A Review of Frank Sinatra's Latest Album `Duets'. The Telephone Book: Technology." IEEE Transactions in Biomedical Engineering 35 (1988): 153-60. January 1. "Sinatra's `Duets' Album: Is It a Music Recording or Technical Wizardry?. and Susan Irwin. 10. Hou. see Anthony Ramirez. Hayati.
pp. Davies. August 2. Churbuck. 1992. According to the report. See "Robot Disarms Gunman." The New York Times. 20." IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology 12: 1 (March 1993): 120-25. In 1994 the Dante 2 robot made a more successful descent into the Mount Spurr volcano in Alaska. Unfortunately. 25. 19. see Warren E. 22. and A." Presence 1: 4 (Fall 1992): 375-403. For more discussion of the relevant technologies. http://homepage. 18. "Transmitting the scene by a video camera. teleoperated robot called Virgil down the crater of Mount Erebus in Antarctica. see Steven M.486-90. G. September 5..html Page 110 of 143 . "Robot Is Nearing Goal Inside Active Volcano.111-12. 1988). War Without Men (Washington. 1993). McGreevy. "Future Warriors. "Robotic Surgery: A First-Hand Experience in Transurethral Resection of the Prostate. D. W. Charles Petit. For a brief survey of such applications. War and Anti-War (Boston: Little." San Francisco Chronicle. L. Leary.12/03/12 19:06 153-60. Ng. Shaker and Alan R. R. This account is based on Alvin and Heidi Toffler.com/bogronlund/3_314_Upload_05_03/Mitchell_City%20of%20bits. Brown and Company. September 14." Military Review (September 1987). 24. C8. pp." Forbes. 1993.mac. B. Frederick Timmerman Jr. 1994. see David C. Michael W. the robot opened a closet door at the direction of a fire department employee who was at the controls from a safe distance. Hibberd. S. DC: Pergamon-Brassey's. A4. "Applied Reality. 21. the mission failed due to a broken cable. 26. Sunday. "The Presence of Field Geologists in Mars-Like Terrain. In 1993 NASA attempted to put an eight-legged. Timoney. Wise. for the story of how a teleoperated robot owned by a Maryland police department was successfully used to disarm a murder suspect hiding in a closet. "Robot's Operating Room Success: Sacramento Man Takes a Few Steps 2 Days After Surgery. Tuesday." 23." Associated Press Online. 1992. November 10. Col.
Ducatel. 28. Robinett. D5. "Smart Cars on Smart http://homepage. and Mathew L. February 8. 1992)." MIT Artificial Intelligence Laboratory. 1991). A section of Route 91 in Orange County. see Robert L. Transport in the Information Age: Wheels and Wires (London: Belhaven Press. California.com/bogronlund/3_314_Upload_05_03/Mitchell_City%20of%20bits. "Synthetic Experience: A Proposed Taxonomy. and a "congestion pricing" system to mitigate traffic jam problems. 30. 1989. There is a well-developed technology of Geographic Information Systems (GIS)." The New York Times. and Lee Tavrow.html Page 111 of 143 . Eric Drexler and Chris Peterson." The New York Times.83." The New York Times. Edmund L. Equivalent technology was slower to appear in the US. it becomes increasingly feasible to deliver the resources of a GIS system to precisely where they are needed in the field. July 13.12/03/12 19:06 Rodney Brooks. Hepworth and K. see Suneel Ratan." Fortune. This was in 1993. "Cars That Know Where They're Going. "Twilight Zones and Cornerstones: A Gnat Robot Double Feature. "An Oldsmobile Option for Self-Navigating Car. "Traffic-Free Roads: Engineers Are Merging Computers and Concrete to Ease Driving's Biggest Pain. "A Robot Ant Can Be Tool or Tiny Spy. p. Andrews. see M. with Gayle Pergamit. InfoCulture. "Navigating Your Auto by Computer. Wald. Warren Robinett. 1991." The Futurist (May/June 1989): 29-36. see Mathew L. As geopositioning and mobile computing technologies develop. 34. Tuesday." Presence 1: 2 (Spring 1992): 229-47.mac. For discussion of flexible. electronic road-use pricing and related ideas. introduced automatic vehicle identification (AVI) devices. Wednesday January 5. 31. 35. electronic sensors. A technical introduction to the issues involved here is provided in Pravin Varaiya. 33. September 28. Anita Flynn. French. 1994. D2. Wald. 29. "Synthetic Experience. 1994. The construction of the silicon ant is briefly described in BCS Tech (May 1993): 3-4." 32. 1992. The early histories of telegraphy and wireless telegraphy are usefully narrated in Lubar. For an introductory survey of the technology. Unbounding the Future (New York: William Morrow. 27.
Steve Lohr. http://homepage. Bulkeley. In September 1993 Murdoch acquired Delphi Internet Services.171-212." The Boston Globe. pp. 36. Access to the Electronic Newsstand is via Gopher or Telnet. June 20. Plans to publish a worldwide online newspaper were announced. Fragile old books can be preserved by storing their pages in digital format. Information is available at info@enews. or Ride a Data Highway?. This has some additional advantages." USA Today. Monday. See Josh Hyatt.12/03/12 19:06 A technical introduction to the issues involved here is provided in Pravin Varaiya.html Page 112 of 143 . 7. 5. "Will They Sit by the Set. "Revolution in Store for Record Shops. John Tierney. February 8.1. 1986). "Record Store of the Near Future: Computers Replace the Racks." in Buildings and Power (London: Routledge. Books are brittle. September 3. "Visible Knowledge. Development of library and museum plans is explored in Thomas A.com/bogronlund/3_314_Upload_05_03/Mitchell_City%20of%20bits. p. 1993. Wednesday. "Future Subscribers. "Smart Cars on Smart Roads: Problems of Control." IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control 38: 2 (February 1993): 195-207. 1.1. Sunday. then reprinting facsimiles where necessary on acid-free paper. B4. 1993." The New York Times. B1-B2. William M. 2. pp. May 12. "Libraries Shift from Books to Computers. D13. Footnotes Chapter 4 For elaboration of this line of argument in a more recent context.mac. Nikolaus Pevsner. 8. 3. 1976). 1993). 1993. May 17. 6.106. The Whale and the Reactor: A Search for Limits in an Age of High Technology (Chicago: University of Chicago Press. but bits don't bust. Friday. 9." The Wall Street Journal. p. 73. and Kevin Maney. 4. pp. 1993. Monday. 1993. a small online service specializing in providing access to the Internet. see Langdon Winner. 71.com." The New York Times. Markus. A History of Building Types (Princeton: Princeton University Press.
" 12.a national treasury of the English language . Similar systems have been developed for the National Gallery in Washington and other museums. in 1993. prepared to move to new quarters in St. 1993). The Thesaurus Linguae Grecae ." The New York Times. pp. 13. See also Noam Chomsky's powerful analysis in E. A History of Building Types. "Libraries Without Walls for Books Without Pages. Manufacturing Consent: The Political Economy of the Mass Media (New York: Pantheon. p." Channel DLS 25: 8 (April 1990): 8. Pevsner. the creation of original work from primary sources. 1991. debate raged about the relative importance of traditional and electronic library services.com/bogronlund/3_314_Upload_05_03/Mitchell_City%20of%20bits.12/03/12 19:06 The possibility of such a library has become a topic of discussion among humanities scholars. Sunday. MA: MIT Press. Pevsner.is under development.17. As the British Library itself. A standard starting point for Frankfurt-style critiques of this development is J<129>rgen Habermas." ENR 229." and went on to assert.111-38. 10. and the Humanities: The Implications of Electronic Information (Santa Monica: The Getty Art History Information Program. See Brian Keeney. The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere (Cambridge. Library. 1993. "The Pixels and Perils of Getting Art Online. August 7.mac." Wired 1: 1 (1993): 62-110. p." Guardian 33: 5. 1992. http://homepage. Some soft libraries already exist. And a two-gigabyte British National Corpus . 1994. September 28.a very extensive corpus of ancient Greek texts .html Page 113 of 143 . pp." in A History of Building Types. See "US. "The Keeper of the Living Language. 1989. 1989. In a letter to the London Review of Books (September 9. section 2. and "Dispersal of Harvard 11. See Technology. "Museums. Pancras.has been published on CD by Yale University Press. March 29. For a general discussion of the move toward online libraries. see John Browning. pp. See Phil Patton. British Libraries Need Space. 14. 15. "Mobile Shelving Snafu: British Library Building Under Construction in London Delayed by Rusting Stacks. Chomsky. A20: 1. 31.1. The idea was put forward in a presentation at the MIT Media Laboratory symposium "Digital Expression" in October 1994.4-5) a rather Blimpish spokesperson for the "Regular Readers' Group" questioned "BL management's right to alter the British Library's traditional role as provider of public reading rooms to that of a depot supplying books in electronic form to universities and public libraries for a fee. 16.74. Scholarship.23. p." San Francisco Chronicle. April 25. "It is a policy which completely destroys the basis for scholarly work: that is. Herman and N. 1988). translation of the 1962 German original).
41-94. "Education and Computing at MIT: A 10th Birthday Snapshot of Project Athena. Whitehead and M. 20. Imagologies: Media Philosophy (New York: Routledge. Kemeny and Thomas E. "Astronomy Classes Soon May Stargaze in Daylight. Z." Communications of the ACM 37: 7 (July 1994): 13-17.229-44. Taylor and Esa Saarinen. February 18. 22. Chandler." in Buildings and Power.. See Larry Press. Both are reproduced in Pevsner. see Mark C.139-58.12/03/12 19:06 in October 1994." Science 162: 3850 (October 11. and Gregory A. 24." in Buildings and Power. "Dartmouth Time Sharing. Thompson and G." The Boston Globe. 1975)." pp. Eldars. 1994). D. for formal instruction of medical students. See Markus. This and other school plans of the Age of Reason are explored in ibid. "Hospitals. in the sixteenth century. Goldin. 21. Roden. Fall 1993. See J. 23. see Pevsner. "Project Athena: Supporting Distributed Computing at MIT. Markus has an insightful discussion in "The Sad. the connection was made explicit by the emergence of the anatomy theater. 26. 1968): 223-28.mac. 25. For discussion of a pioneering exploration of teleseminar teaching. Kurtz. in fact." in A History of Building Types. For a classic early discussion. the task can be formulated mathematically as a quadratic assignment problem. D. Jackson." IBM Systems Journal 31: 3 (March 1992): 550-63.139-58. John G. pp. A comprehensive and detailed history is provided in J. Arfman and P. The Hospital: A Social and Architectural History (New Haven: Yale University Press. In both cases. 17. "Formation. "An Approach to the Optimum Layout of http://homepage. 19. For the evolution of hospital plans." MIT Academic Computing. Thus teaching space tends to be organized much like dramatic space. "Tomorrow's Campus.html Page 114 of 143 . M. pp. pp. 18. see B. "Hospitals.com/bogronlund/3_314_Upload_05_03/Mitchell_City%20of%20bits.107-18. pp. "Invisible Knowledge." in A History of Building Types. 1993.
Keil-Slawik. "Remote Direct Manipulation: A Case Study of a Telemedicine Workstation. see B. See Andrew Purvis." Boston Globe. 31. "An Approach to the Optimum Layout of Single-Storey Buildings. 1964. 1994. January 27-30. 29. Peter L. Lance Fraser. 1993.1373-79. "Letting Telemedicine Do the Walking. McCoy. provides a less technical survey of some pioneering attempts to develop adequately realistic surgical simulation and telesurgery systems. Boyd." San Diego. Stephanie Plasse. Lou Fintor. "Telemedicine Will Revolutionize Care. "Telepathology: Long Distance Diagnosis. "The Future of Telemedicine." Hospitals & Health Networks 67: 20 (October 20. A9." New Physician 42: 6 (September 1993): 24. 1993): 46-48. June 17. Z. "Medicine on the Superhighway. Eldars. "A Literature Review: Robots in Medicine. July 15. Mitchell. C.mac. C. "New Wave in Health Care: Visits by Video. and Robert S. 1993. August 23." in H. 1993): 183-84. Everett Koop. and B. Peter Yellowlees and William T." The New York Times. Diana Phillips Mahoney. 45. pp." American Demographics (March 1994): 6. "Telemedicine: A Health Care System to Help Australians.1227@compuserve." Computer Graphics World 17: 7 (July 1994): 20-26. pp. 1993. May 31. 1993. Director of the Nemours Center for Biomedical Communication.12/03/12 19:06 classic early discussion. October 21. Bullinger." Health Progress 75: 3 (April 1994): 48. and S. Gary Busack. and R. Computer-Aided Architectural Design (New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold. Rebecca Piirto Heather.68." Journal of the National Cancer Institute 85: 3 (February 3. Neil Izenberg. May 18. Whitehead and M." MIT Communications Forum. See B. Hsia. Plaisant. Schneiderman.1313-14. Proceedings of the symposium "Medicine Meets Virtual Reality II: Interactive Technology & Healthcare. John McConnell. pp. 28. 1993. Bloom. WH8. Spencer. California. November 27. Mittelstadt. "The Doctor Is On-Line.html Page 115 of 143 . "Remote Possibilities. K. 27." American Journal of Clinical Pathology 91: Supplement 1 (1989): S39-42. 1991). p.. "Virtual Science. http://homepage." The Lancet 342. Early attempts to derive efficient hospital plans automatically are surveyed in William J. Available from Allied Management Associates. J." Time. T." Architects' Journal. Preising. A1. quoted in the transcript of "Networked Health Care Delivery: Opportunities and Challenges for the <%6>'<%0>90s. See R.com ." Consumers' Research 76: 5 (May 1993): 38. 70530." USA Today. and B. Weinstein. 32. 1993): 437." Washington Post. 30. Lisa Belkin." Medical Journal of Australia 159: 7 (October 4.com/bogronlund/3_314_Upload_05_03/Mitchell_City%20of%20bits. "Rural Connections. C. 1992.43. Rozek. Human Aspects in Computing: Design and Use of Interactive Systems and Information Management (Amsterdam: Elsevier Science Publishers. September 8. "Electronic House Calls. 1994. "Healing by Wire. 1977). ed. "Telemedicine: Scanning the Future of Cancer Control. "Telemedicine: Two-Way Interactive Video." IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Magazine 10 (1991): 13-22. Rhonda Bergman.
May 13. 36. CHIPS. Hunter. "Integration of Advanced Technology in the Battlefield and Operating Room." The New York Times. "Fast Money. pp. CHAPS.460 ATM Caper Face Sentencing. when a banker turned out to be insolvent his bench was broken up . 1992. p. "International Payments and EFT Links. pp.159-68. Sunday." in Buildings and Power. Sagar. had a very spatial and physical interpretation. November 12-13. Section 6." Presence 2: 4 (Fall 1993): 265-80. B9. See Proceedings of the ARPA Advanced Biomedical Technology Workshop. 1989). pp. 42. 38. Paul G. "One Less Thing to Believe In: High-Tech Fraud at an ATM. Hunter. for descriptions of various physiological status monitoring systems for military personnel. and Peter J. Charette." The Boston Globe. The mastermind. pp. Frankel and Jeffrey C. For useful brief histories of prison architecture. "The Bad. Gordon Mallinson. October 18. Lynette A.118-30. A History of Building Types. Kirk Johnson. 1993.111-30. Marquardt." in A History of Building Types.mac. Blair. Price and A. originally. Mark A. Tilemachos D.130.12/03/12 19:06 33. SWIFT and other elements of the large-scale." Tucson. Ibid.57. 41. Arizona. Pevsner.banca rotta. Jones.com/bogronlund/3_314_Upload_05_03/Mitchell_City%20of%20bits. Scott Pace. Ian W. http://homepage.193. p. December 19." The New York Times. see Pevsner. 34. M." 39. 35. 1987). p.1. Doukoglou. Max Winkler. international EFT system are discussed in Allen B. Peter Passell.36. see Steve Burkholder. Sunday. Thursday. 40. and Markus. "Prisons." in Elinor Harris Solomon. "Walking Prisons: The Developing Technology of Electronic Controls. Electronic Funds Transfers and Payments: The Public Policy Issues (Boston: Kluwer Nijhoff Publishing. pp. used the alias "Will Sutton. G. 1993. 37. For an account of the trial of the culprits. 1993. Pevsner notes that the related idea of insolvency also. D.html Page 116 of 143 . "Masterminds of $107. p. 59." The Futurist (July/August 1993): 34-36. "A Teleoperated Microsurgical Robot and Associated Virtual Environment for Eye Surgery.12. The Changing Geography of the Service Sector (London: Belhaven Press.
David Tracey. June 20. <->I. 52. the tradeoff is between the multisensory richness and possible recreational value of store shopping on the one hand and the speed and convenience of teleshopping on the other." Infoworld." Economic Review (July/August 1991): 1-21. http://homepage. Alan Radding. 48. A New System Quickens the Race Toward a Global Electronic Market. 1993): 282-86.141-49. "Teleshopping or Store Shopping? A Choice Model for Forecasting the Use of New Telecommunications-Based Services. 44. 46. 50. Rule.<->Salomon. See F." International Herald Tribune. [to text] 49. Proussaloglou. Abken. "Globalization of Stock." Vital Speeches of the Day 59 (February 15. "The CashFree Society. "Futures Shock: Are Trading Floors Obsolete. A History of Building Types. see Robert P. 1993." in The Fall of Public Man (New York: Norton. 43. James B. see Burnham P. p. June 29. Beckwith. Peter A.mac. 1994. "Bond System Delay Asked. "Eight Forecasts for US Banking. 45. Warwick. For the shopper. DC: Office of Telecommunications Policy. Pevsner. and Options Markets. Thursday. "The Bank and Its Customer: Tomorrow's Virtual Reality Bank.com/bogronlund/3_314_Upload_05_03/Mitchell_City%20of%20bits. April 11. April 29. 47. 1992). "The Secret Money Machine.70.html Page 117 of 143 . D16." Time. "Casino Takes a Gamble on Cashless Transactions." The Futurist (November/December 1992): 19-22. 1992. "Touring Virtual Reality Arcades. 51.12/03/12 19:06 42. Barone. pp." Time. pp. 1994.257. and David R. p. and K. For an insightful discussion of the appearance of the department store and the role that it assumed in urban life. "Public Commodities. Thomas McCarroll. "Value Choices in Electronic Funds Transfer Policy" (Washington. p. For development of the idea of the virtual bank." The Futurist (March/April 1989): 27-33. 28-34. For discussions of these possibilities. see Richard Sennett. May 7. 1993. Koppelman. undated). Reuters. Futures." Environment and Planning B 18 (1991): 473-89." The New York Times. John Greenwald.69.
For histories. 56. built in 1922. 55. p. 1994. Wednesday. "Wireless Signals Keep Retailers Humming. Minnesota. 54. One industry analyst has remarked: "Cyberspace is going to finish what Walmart started. R11. 57. 1993. see W." The New York Times." The Wall Street Journal.12/03/12 19:06 1992). Stephanie Strom. D7. and B. 1991. Lowndes." San Jose Mercury News. 53. S. Renee Covino Rouland. July 29. Patrick M. "Kmart Testing `Radar' to Track Shopper. 1987): 122-25. On VSAT technology. 9D. "After Browsing Catalogs. Francine Schwadel.1. David Bank. 1985). http://homepage. 59. Maitland. pp. built by Victor Gruen in 1956. "Corporate Use of Transponders Could Turn Glut to Shortage. E5. "Satellites Move into the Mainstream. 1985). June 20. 62.com/bogronlund/3_314_Upload_05_03/Mitchell_City%20of%20bits." The Wall Street Journal. 1994. is often cited as the prototype of the suburban shopping mall." Aviation Week & Space Technology 126 (March 9. Kansas City's Country Club Plaza. January 2. Shopping Malls: Planning and Design (Essex. Tuesday. Wednesday. 60. Southdale Mall in Edina. Dial Up Internet for Order. John Tierney. Interactive shopping via computer networks is going to put more traditional downtowns and more mom-and-pop stores out of business. UK: Construction Press." Richard Sclove. Sunday. In 1994 the Pizza Hut chain pioneered electronic pizza service by setting up the PizzaNet Home Page on the World Wide Web. Monday. was the first fully enclosed mall." Discount Merchandiser 30 (June 1990): 45-46. or Ride a Data Highway?" The New York Times.html Page 118 of 143 . quoted by John Markoff in "Staking a Claim on the Virtual Frontier.mac. 1992. September 24. "Home Shopping: The Next Generation. B1. see Jay C. March 21. The Malling of America (New York: William Morrow." The New York Times. April 20. Kowinski. 1994.141-49. "Will They Sit by the Set. Reilly. 58. 61.
" Transportation Research A 22A:4 (1988): 301-17. 1976). the telegraph system. constructed in 156074. funded pilot program. 1970). and G.century American business enterprises were usually small. 1989). April 18. for Better or Worse. Downtown office buildings became increasingly popular in the nineteenth century. Nilles. R. Carlson. Spinks. "Telecommuters" are defined here as "employees of businesses or government agencies working part or full time at home instead of at the office. 63.html Page 119 of 143 . February 8. and storage of documents also played an important role. 68. Tuesday. 69.mac.213-24." The New York Times. to Giorgio Vasari's Uffizi in Florence. B5. pp. 15556. The railroads. NJ: Prentice-Hall. "Satellite and Resort Offices in Japan.particularly in Chicago . 64. 70. Norman. "Telecommuting and Main Street. F. DC is the first installation in a federally 66. A History of Building Types. Nilles. Control Through Communication: The Rise of System in American Management (Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press. New technologies for the production. The TelecommunicationsTransportation Tradeoff: Options for Tomorrow (New York: John Wiley." The New York Times.32." Progressive Architecture (March 1994): 55. family affairs in which the internal operations were controlled and coordinated through word of mouth and by letter. elevator-serviced highrises by the end of the century. Earlynineteenth. systematic management techniques. The Computerized Society: An Appraisal of the Impact of Computers on Society in the Next Fifteen Years (Englewood Cliffs. J. B1." Transportation 18 (1991): 343-63. 6. Hannemann. reproduction. James Martin and Adrian R. and . Sunday. pp. pp. Gray. and later the telephone facilitated the emergence of larger and more far-flung organizations employing newer modes of internal communication and more hierarchical. Jack M. at least. "Traffic Reduction by Telecommuting: A Status Review and Selected Bibliography. see Pevsner. See Kirk Johnson." By this point. Calem. "Working at Home. Wendy A. See Abby Bussel. Robert E. see JoAnne Yates. 1994. For an account of the evolution of this pattern.1.12/03/12 19:06 This building type can be traced back. Business Section. newspaper http://homepage. The Shenandoah Valley Telecommuting Center for federal government workers who would otherwise commute to Washington. M. 67. 1993. P.com/bogronlund/3_314_Upload_05_03/Mitchell_City%20of%20bits. 65. "New Breed of High-Tech Nomads: Mobile Computer-Carrying Workers Transform Companies.evolved into steel-framed. See in particular J. For a brief history.
" By this point. 1993.mac. "The Post-City Age. p. See John Markoff.19) claimed that men's suit sales had plummeted because "dealing with people through faxes and computers" meant that "there is no need for appearance to be as large a factor." Transportation 18 (1991): 291-318. Abler. 1994. pp. 75." 71. C. Webber. Nilles. a major battle was shaping up between the computer and television industries over the characteristics of the device that would deliver bits to the home. Goulias.html Page 120 of 143 . The Wall Street Journal (December 14. 73. 1993.E2) reported that the trend toward electronically supported work at home accounted for 45 percent of all new jobs from 1987 to 1992.12/03/12 19:06 government agencies working part or full time at home instead of at the office. http://homepage. p. p." Daedalus 97 (1968): 1091-110. Lewis Mumford. and telecommunications capability to their products." Transportation 18 (1991): 383-409." Bell Telephone Magazine 49: 2 (1970): 10-15. "Impact of Telecommuting on Spatial and Temporal Patterns of Household Travel. and Ilan Salomon. pp. 74. p. The St." in Telecommunications and Geography (London: Belhaven Press. Petersburg Times (January 3. Ram M. "Communication and Community. Patricia L. "Is Telecommuting Cheaper Than Travel? An Examination of Interaction Costs in a Business Setting. Its Transformation (New York: Harcourt Brace and World. By the mid-1990s. "Telecommuting and Travel: State of the Practice. Sunday." Transportation 18 (1991): 365-82. Mokhtarian. Jack M. "Teleworking in the Netherlands: An Evaluation of Changes in Travel Behaviour. "Telecommunications and Cities. This position is argued in Aharon Kellerman. Goldmark.24) reported that one million more people were telecommuting in 1993 than in the previous year. 1994. The Atlanta Constitution (January 2. "What Makes Cities Important. for example. Melvin M.com/bogronlund/3_314_Upload_05_03/Mitchell_City%20of%20bits. and Ryuichi Kitamura. there has been considerable empirical study of the tradeoffs between telecommuting and travel and of the spatial and other effects of telecommuting. The City in History: Its Origins. p. The cable industry was pushing set-top boxes that would turn television sets into interactive devices. video. see R. 1994. 76. F. See. May 8. while personal computer companies were adding audio. "I Wonder What's on the PC Tonight. and Harry Van Ooststroom." The New York Times. State of the Art. and Joseph Schofer." Scientific American 227 (1972): 143-50. Rebecca Hamer.1.93-115. By now. 8. 1961). newspaper reports were increasingly suggesting that telecommuting was significantly on the rise in the United States: The Miami Herald (December 13. Eric Kroes. and P. Pendyala. marking a 15 percent increase in the number of company employees who worked at home part or full-time during normal business hours.B1) reported that 20 to 40 percent of all employees surveyed would like to telecommute. section 3. 72.383. Helen Nancy Schneider." Transportation 18 (1991): 319-42. "Telecommuting and Urban Sprawl: Mitigator or Inciter?" Transportation 18 (1991): 411-32. For similar views. 1993). Konstadinos G.
"Doubts Are Raised on Actual Number of Internet Users.and it was intended for use by the military and by computer science researchers. One early example of this sort of system is Cinetropolis. 1993. for a systematic. See also Rowan A." Futures 20: 3 (June 1988): 227-40.html Page 121 of 143 . Footnotes Chapter 5 ARPANET was funded by ARPA . 3. Reed. "The Building of the Internet. Baglivo and Jack E." The Economist 19 (February 1994): 74-75. Kevin Robins and Mark Hepworth. See Jean-Nicolas-Louis Durand. For a useful summary of the early history. Précis des le<135>ons d'architecture (Paris: Ecole Polytechnique." Telecommunications Policy (November 1992): 666-89. 2. 82. and Francois Bar. "The Myth of the Electronic Cottage. Robert R. "Electronic Spaces: New Technologies and the Future of Cities. Accurate estimates of user numbers are hard to make. 78." The Futurist 20: 5 (September/October 1986): 18-22. 1 and D4. See also Tom Forester. and there is some argument about these figures. Wakefield. see Joshua Meyrowitz.the Advanced Research Projects Agency of the US Federal Government . 1. 81." Futures 20: 2 (April 1988): 155-76. 1980). http://homepage. 1802). 80. "The Electronic Cottage. 79. Graver.12/03/12 19:06 For discussion of this point (largely with reference to pre-computer electronic media). 1983)." The New York Times. textbook exposition of this approach. Wednesday. No Sense of Place: The Impact of Electronic Media on Social Behavior (New York: Oxford University Press. Incidence and Symmetry in Design and Architecture (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 1994.com/bogronlund/3_314_Upload_05_03/Mitchell_City%20of%20bits. Hart. "Home Computers and Families: The Empowerment Revolution. 77. 1985). see Jeffrey A. The 1993. statistics are from a December 16.mac. See "Theme Parks: Feeling the Future. developed by Iwerks Entertainment. online posting "Revised Internet Index" by Win Treese of the DEC Cambridge Research Laboratory. August 10. See Peter H." chapter 16 of The Third Wave (New York: William Morrow and Company. Lewis. For a discussion of the underlying logic of this approach. see Jenny A. Alvin Toffler.
Mitchell Kapor and John Perry Barlow. It was the progenitor of increasingly fancy space shoot-'em-ups that appeared as computers became faster and graphics more sophisticated. for example. It seems to have first appeared on a DEC PDP-1 at MIT in 1962." September 1993. "Being There: The Subjective Experience of Presence. See Katz. "War Is Virtual Hell. Theme Park and Home Entertainment Systems. 11. 12. 6. 9.ca. "Military Networking. authored by Marcus Watts to support interaction on the WELL. 7. 5. "Military Networking Technology Applied to Location-Based. available from the author at fig@well." Computer Graphics 28: 2 (May 1994): 93-96.sf.mac. it does not confer any social obligation. July 10. The phenomenon of feeling present in a virtual place has been discussed extensively in the literature of simulation and virtual environments. 10.us." Electronic Frontier Foundation. are surveyed in Warren Robinett. Apparently SIMNET was inspired by Battlezone.com/bogronlund/3_314_Upload_05_03/Mitchell_City%20of%20bits. Miss Manners has tackled the question of how to handle this progression. 1990.html Page 122 of 143 ." The Washington Post. DC. Carrie Heeter. 8. See. an Atari arcade game from the early 1980s. The aspects of synthetic experience. Washington. Notwithstanding. and technologies currently available to provide them. The Picospan software. provided a very influential early model for this sort of virtual place. 1993. "Across the Electronic Frontier. but she has heard worse ones. "Entertainment Driven Collaboration. For discussion of New York's communication advantages and their role in its growth to commercial http://homepage. and Bruce Sterling. 4." Presence 1: 2 (Spring 1992): 262-71. Wednesday. "Synthetic Experience: A Proposed Taxonomy. B5. For discussions of SIMNET. Michael Harris." Presence 1: 2 (Spring 1992): 229-47." Computer Graphics 28: 2 (May 1994): 110-12. see Warren Katz. see Cliff Figallo." for an introduction to DIS technology.12/03/12 19:06 For a history of the WELL." Wired 1: 1 (1993): 46-99. August 18. "The Well: Small Town on the Internet Highway System. She advises: "Miss Manners would not go so far as to say that a computer bulletin board exchange constitutes a proper introduction.
Mosaic was developed at the National Center for Supercomputer Applications at the University of Illinois. see John Markoff. "The Lessons of Lucasfilm's Habitat. was based on the fantasy board game Dungeons and Dragons . 19. "Call me Ishmael" might be the opening ploy in a MUD interaction." 14. Cyberspace: First Steps (Cambridge." in The Virtual Community (Reading. 13. "Fly Me to the MOO. and so on.html Page 123 of 143 . "Habitat: Computer-Mediated Play. 16. a city council agenda and meeting schedule.12/03/12 19:06 For discussion of New York's communication advantages and their role in its growth to commercial dominance. 15. 1991). an international system of database servers organized to allow remote requests for information from any computer on the Internet. As programmers will appreciate. see David Bennahum. Cities and Towns 1780-1880 (Berkeley: University of California Press. written at the University of Essex by Roy Trubshaw and Richard Bartle. "A Free and Simple Computer Link. MA: http://homepage. 1993.000 copies of Mosaic were being downloaded monthly from NCSA's public server. There are numerous arcane variants on the generic Multi-User Something idea ." The New York Times.ca. This is. The first MUD. 22-37.palo-alto. 1983) serves as a pretty good theoretical introduction to MUDding.paloalto. On Populopolis see Howard Rheingold. 18.. MUDs constitute a natural application for object-oriented programming techniques. You can access it by Mosaic or Lynx http://www. There is a city government phone directory.com/bogronlund/3_314_Upload_05_03/Mitchell_City%20of%20bits. 2nd ed. So Wayne Booth's classic The Rhetoric of Fiction (Chicago: University of Chicago Press. or you can get information by e-mailing to email@example.com. and so on.ca. On the development. MOOs. Monkkonen. 1988). MUSHs. closely related to the old literary issue of establishing a voice. On the experience of MUD crawling.hence the name. Chip Morningstar and F. 17.S. Though." Lingua Franca 4: 4 (May/June 1994): 1. and the developments of the MUD idea and of object-oriented programming have been intertwined.. graphic interface to the World Wide Web. see Eric H. Wednesday. as Miss Stein might well have judged had she encountered a newsgroup.us." in Michael Benedikt.us. but took the very different approach of setting up a World Wide Web server on Internet. MUCKs. MA: The MIT Press. ed. The City of Palo Alto was also quick to create an online information service. December 8. Urbana-Champaign.TinyMUDs. Mosaic is essentially a point-and-click. Randall Farmer. more than 50. "Remarks are not literature.273-302. America Becomes Urban: The Development of U. pp. By early 1994.mac. The differences do not matter for our purposes here. D1. D5. The original work on World Wide Web was done by Tim Berners-Lee at CERN in Geneva in the late 1980s. introduction. MUSEs. of course. and remarkable initial success of NCSA Mosaic.
One consequence is that you can get sued for invasion of privacy. But the California courts ruled against the employees' claim that the passwords created an expectation of privacy.html Page 124 of 143 ." which took a strong stand against Clipper and urged the http://homepage. Peter H. "Habitat: Computer-Mediated Play. 27." The Wall Street Journal." in The Virtual Community (Reading. You should not assume. quoted by Steven Levy.286-87. April 28. 22. "Of Privacy and Security: The Clipper Chip Debate. 1961). 20.12/03/12 19:06 Howard Rheingold. Nissan dismissed some employees after peeking into their password-protected electronic mail boxes. 28. Thursday. Crypto Policy. pp. Authentication systems were not needed on the earliest computers. one who intentionally intrudes upon the seclusion of another is subject to liability if the intrusion would be highly offensive to a reasonable person. and they are not commonly used on personal computers today. the word is from the Sanskrit for "descend. 60. Under American tort law. Keys and Conflict: Issues in U. In June 1994 the US Public Policy Committee of the Association for Computing Machinery (USACM) released an expert panel report entitled "Codes. Bulkeley.188-96. 23. Sunday. Lewis." 21. In Hindu mythology. "Cypher Probe.mac. Privacy and Freedom (New York: Atheneum. timesharing systems in the 1960s. "The Lessons of Lucasfilm's Habitat. that a password-protected place is necessarily private. The City in History (New York: Harcourt Brace and World." The New York Times Magazine. 26. April 24. But they are required on machines that have many potential users.44-51. and the idea carried over to computer networks in which a user logged into one machine can remotely access other machines. William M. Sunday. p. Jerry Berman. 24. 1967). an avatar is a deity descended to earth in bodily form. A8." The New York Times. June 12. "Battle of the Clipper Chip. In the widely reported case of Bourke v. Lewis Mumford. Westin. On the general idea of privacy rights. F5.384. see Alan F. The employees sued for invasion of privacy and wrongful determination. 1994. the Nissan Motor Corporation in 1993. multi-user. Morningstar and Farmer.com/bogronlund/3_314_Upload_05_03/Mitchell_City%20of%20bits. Thus they first came into widespread use with the growing popularity of mainframe-based. 1993). since access to the machine can be controlled physically. MA: Addison-Wesley. 1994." pp. 25.S. A1. 1994. 70. though. pp.
Saturday." 30. Leanne G." Communications of the ACM 37: 1 (January 1994): 39-51. pp. see Lawrence M." Whole Earth Review (Summer 1991): 32-35. and Andrew M. Inouye was serving as Chairman of the Communications Subcommittee of the Senate Commerce. Monday. August 3. Community and Privacy (New York: Doubleday. 1963). 1992). Senate Bill S. Jim Kallstrom.S. 35. For a classic discussion of the public/private dichotomy in architecture and urban design. 1981). On the issue of Internet advertising. 38." in Public Space (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 37. Rivlin." which took a strong stand against Clipper and urged the Clinton Administration to withdraw it. Lewis. The Berkeley Community Memory system. 52-54. "From an Executive at Ogilvy & Mather. 29. was a very early experiment with elements of the idea." The National Law Journal. Peter H. see Doug Schuler. Some Guidelines for Tasteful Advertising on the Internet. Stone.2195. 32. For a survey and discussion of the first community networking efforts. May 7. quoted by Levy.12/03/12 19:06 and Conflict: Issues in U. Kevin Lynch. "Computer E-Mail Privacy Issues Unresolved.51. 31. See also Stephen Carr. 36. Frank Odasz. Some of these issues are very basic. "Arizona Lawyers Form Company for Internet Advertising. "Big Sky Telegraph. D16. 1994. 1994.html Page 125 of 143 . Wednesday. "Rights in Public Space. for example. If you want to create a successful online public space for a multiethnic community. going back to the early 1970s. with particular reference to electronic mail privacy and electronic monitoring of employees. see Serge Chermayeff and Christopher Alexander. Transportation and Science Committee. For a useful summary of some of the legal issues. Crypto Policy. 34. A Theory of Good City Form (Cambridge. http://homepage. January 31. "Community Networks: Building a New Participatory Medium. MA: The MIT Press. p.mac. see Michael Traynor. Fisher. Mark Francis. you cannot rely solely on prompts and commands in English." The New York Times.137-86. 33. pp. "Battle of the Clipper Chip.com/bogronlund/3_314_Upload_05_03/Mitchell_City%20of%20bits. 1994." The New York Times.
for a lively account. 1989). 5. D5.mac. "Censors Become a Force on Cyberspace Frontier. A Historical Evolution: The City Square (New York: Whitney Library of Design. Economic Restructuring. For discussions. Aristotle." 42. Silicon Dreams: Information. pp." in N. Peter H.talk of an article that first appeared in Cardozo Law Forum (September 1992). There has been much controversy about Prodigy's control . Peter H. Lewis. 1." posting on misc. p. 4.legal. Footnotes Chapter 6 For an introduction to the bit business..eff. "Censors Become a Force on Cyberspace Frontier. "Questioning Applicable Laws: Prodigy.12/03/12 19:06 38. Hackers: Heroes of the Computer Revolution (New York: Dell. see Anne Wells Branscomb. Lilla. Lewis. The Public Face of Architecture (New York: Free Press. For historical surveys of these places. 1984). MA: Blackwell. Webb. more ad-hoc compilations like the Internet Mall have performed a similar function on a fairly small scale (for information. Manuel Castells.html Page 126 of 143 . and M. see Mike Godwin.98-103. Glazer and M.orf. and Schuler. 1994. Jackson. The commercial online services provide "shopping centers" that are basically conveniently organized and presented catalogues of online catalogues. "Some `Property' Problems in a Computer Crime Prosecution. "Forum Follows Function. B. Man. e-mail http://homepage. see Robert Lucky. see J. "Community Networks: Building a New Participatory Medium. eds. The Informational City: Information Technology. 2." in Who Owns Information? From Privacy to Public Access (New York: Basic Books. For a discussion of difficulties in applying intellectual property law in cyberspace. June 29. 1989).and sometimes refusal to exert control . xii.comp.com/bogronlund/3_314_Upload_05_03/Mitchell_City%20of%20bits.over its "public" forums. 1994). 3. On the Internet.1. Politics. 1990). VII. Martin's Press." The New York Times. 39. and the Urban-Regional Process (Cambridge." 41. see Steven Levy. 1987). pp. Wednesday. 40.129. and Machine (New York: St.
8." Prodigy Services Company. "The Mathematics of Public-Key Cryptography. see Martin E. "Who Owns Your Name and Address?. August 12. 15. see David Chaum. Privacy for Sale: How Computerization Has Made Everyone's Life an Open Secret (New York: Simon & Schuster.9-29. 1994).com ). 7." Scientific American 241: 2 (August 1979): 146-147. 12. For a discussion of some of these issues. 11. 1992). D1-D2." The New York Times. For discussion. 6. White Plains. if it has some capacity to learn from experience." Scientific American (August 1992): 96-101.. If it can somehow be programmed to enact your personal wishes. For details.nl. then you can confidently call it an agent. CommerceNet. 1993). iv. "Achieving Electronic Privacy. Peter H. Politics. Jr. 13. 1994. see Anne W. Friday. and if it can adapt to the unexpected and execute contingency plans.104. For an introduction to electronic cash schemes. 10. Aristotle.net )." in Who Owns Information? From Privacy to Public Access (New York: Basic Books. Branscomb. pp. Gandy. 9. http://homepage.com/bogronlund/3_314_Upload_05_03/Mitchell_City%20of%20bits. p. I. Hellman. "Prodigy Service Member Agreement. Lewis. 1989. 14. "Attention Shoppers: Internet Is Open.12/03/12 19:06 Mall have performed a similar function on a fairly small scale (for information. see Oscar H. The Panoptic Sort (Boulder: Westview Press. e-mail firstname.lastname@example.org. which went online on the Internet in April 1994. is an ambitious system of World Wide Web "storefronts" accessed through Mosaic ( http://www.mac. But software is agentlike to the extent that it operates autonomously and intelligently. List construction practices are hair-raisingly surveyed in Jeffrey Rothfeder. Details on the DigiCash scheme can be obtained by sending e-mail to email@example.com Page 127 of 143 . The line between agents and more traditional sorts of software tools is not easily drawn.
January 9. Schwartz. 20. 17. for example. see Computer Underground Digest 6: 55 (Sunday. 18." Communications of the ACM 37: 7 (July 1994): 68-71. "Agents That Reduce Work and Information Overload.a Macintosh program from Charles River Analytics. 19. 20A. http://homepage.html Page 128 of 143 . Evan I. "Software Valets That Will Do Your Bidding in Cyberspace. 23. An early commercial example of this sort of agent was Open Sesame! . See Pattie Maes. Wednesday." New Scientist 142: 1920 (April 9. July 31. "How Might People Interact with Agents. "Officials Fight Computerized Child Porn. 1994. July 6. We might turn to ancient philosophy and law dealing with slaves for some guidance here." San Jose Mercury News. files 1-6. Following Aristotle's view of slaves as live tools. "Proposed New Zealand Legislation." The New York Times. Norman. 22. see "Couple Guilty of Sending Pornography by Computer.12/03/12 19:06 Marvin Minsky. Friday. and Seneca famously developed the position that they were capable of virtuous action and should be held responsible for the virtue or otherwise of their acts. The Stoics took the contrary view that slaves should be treated as autonomously intelligent beings. Ellen Germain. For text of the Defense Motion to Dismiss. 1994) files 1-6. p. 146. "Software's Special Agents. The text of the bill is reproduced in Computer Underground Digest 6: 65 (Sunday. file 1. file 7. 1994). 1994). 1994). The Society of Mind (New York: Simon & Schuster. they occupied some kind of limbo between human beings and animals. but it turns out not to be much help. September 1.11. See for instance. Roman law basically denied that slaves were autonomously intelligent. 1993." Computer Underground Digest 6: 60 (Wednesday. July 29. Sunday. 1994.mac. A10. 1987). So.com/bogronlund/3_314_Upload_05_03/Mitchell_City%20of%20bits." Los Angeles Times. June 19. a slave who killed somebody was either malfunctioning and should be destroyed or was carrying out an instruction for which the owner was responsible." Communications of the ACM 37: 7 (July 1994): 31-40. 24. 21. Some of these problems are explored in Donald A. 16. 1994): 19-20. See Nathan Torkington. and Computer Underground Digest 6: 69 (Sunday. July 17. On the conviction.
v." Whole Earth Review (Summer 1991): 28-29. 1953). redundant. 25. Lewis. Sunday. Rick E. be very effective. potentially authoritarian. For one view of how this might work. "Conscious Democracy Through Electronic Town Meetings. 27.18-19. they risk getting their brains fried.mac.com/bogronlund/3_314_Upload_05_03/Mitchell_City%20of%20bits. An occasional criticism of online public spaces is that they represent a wimpy cop-out . See Ray Bradbury. Monday. all the broadcast networks in the old Soviet Union ran through a single switch. True or not. When characters offend against the power structure. But it does establish the idea. The contrast between centralized. since network access currently does not reach many of the places where books are notoriously banned. and it suggests a very likely future condition. August." IFIP World Congress. for example. "On the Internet. so that they could be shut down in an instant. 1994. this is a compelling image of totalitarian control of electronic telecommunication. 1994.12/03/12 19:06 See Peter H. 31. Any kind of forcefeedback device also has the potential to inflict violence. "Information Technology: Weapon of Authoritarianism or Tool of Democracy. Recall that William Gibson's cyberspace novels postulate head implants as interface devices. just as transportation to Australia became a standard penalty in the eighteenth." The Boston Globe.html Page 129 of 143 .century British legal system. Aristotle. 28. 30. pp. 29. Fahrenheit 451: The Temperature at Which Books Burn (New York: Ballantine. Bruner. E18. Elgin. Hamburg. 26. Dissidents' Shots Heard 'Round the World. see D.a withdrawal http://homepage. Politics. peer-to-peer structures and inter-networking of the Internet is explored in Roger Clarke. The Digital Freedom Network may not. Pakistan. This may become a standing threat and standard penalty. 32. August 1. 1994. client-server architectures for computer networks and the decentralized. 33. 31." The New York Times. and Iran. It certainly would not get The Satanic Verses to the hinterlands of India. VII. According to a perhaps apocryphal or exaggerated story. in practice. "Info Explosion Extends to the Former East Block. June 5.
but [William] Mitchell does. How. and theatres. 34. 1995) "City of Bits is yet another impressive and important feat by Melbourne-born Bill Mitchell. in a succinct. Roger A.) I'm not so sure. pp. Footnotes Chapter 7 (No footnotes to Chapter 7) MEDIA REVIEWS Metropolis (June. There are few places nastier than the site of an all-out flame war. Tokyo and New York. This is not a discourse on paradigm shifts & agrave. Mitchell's volume revels in a gizmotic world of techno-toys and feats -.but this does not deter him from providing a seemingly valueneutral rendition of infotech's impacts on the way 'we' live and work and build and dwell. More akin to Nicholas Negroponte's Being Digital . museums." in Privacy for Sale." Communications of the ACM 31: 5 (May 1988): 498-512.com/bogronlund/3_314_Upload_05_03/Mitchell_City%20of%20bits. see Gandy. libraries. Peter Droege . Manuel Castells or Martin Pawley. For development of this scenario. It's a SimCity world.] Mitchell conveys awareness of some of these troubling conditions -. Coolly illustrated. the slimmish volume digests much of what is known about infotech's impacts on the world. Peppered with hip slogans and jaunty jargonic jingles.. see Rothfeder. la David Harvey. The Panoptic Sort. shopping malls. William Mitchell explores the future of this new nonhttp://homepage. On the methods of TRW and other major credit bureaus..12/03/12 19:06 An occasional criticism of online public spaces is that they represent a wimpy cop-out . (It's a line that seems particularly popular with New Yorkers.a withdrawal from full-blooded engagement in real urban places with all their risks and dangers. Clarke. will we build the bitsphere? If the real world is any guide.celebrated nonchalantly despite widening divides between information-haves. the book speaks to the lay cyborg: people like you and me.mac. while also proposing that architecture may teach us how to design the public virtual spaces of the future in which there will be schools. enhanced by and utterly dependent on technological devices.31-62. "Information Technology and Dataveillance. but one waiting for TangiblePolicies to deal with RealInequalities. personalised and accessible manner. University of Sidney in Architecture Australia "You may never have thought of architecture as an interface. 37. [. inconsistently." Wendy Grossman in New Scientist (5 August 1995) "In his lucidly written and intelligently argued text.html Page 130 of 143 . have-nots and have-beens. he asks. "The Secret Sharers. 35. nor a researchy tome like Saskia Sassen's work on techno-impacts on the financial services industry in the world city triad of London. 36.
No map can be drawn up to help people navigate their way round the new space since it is a space which defies cartographical delimitation. Complete with architectural blueprints.. the separation of work and home life and personal identity.'[the author] says. etc. or is the idea of 'diaspora' a misnomer in a post-McLuhan world? 'We may be entering an era in which nations are defined more as dispersed. Rather. 'Highly redundant packet switching networks that transcend national boundaries. museums. Everyone will have a[n] electronic identity in the future. such as name and number. the nature of public discourse. and some would argue that the Irish have a relatively high presence in cyberspace due to its traditionally high degree of emigration." Publishers Weekly (21 August 1995) "The book's stress on architecture analogies gives a very new way of looking at old issues. In more speculative chapters. lie at the heart of the politics of cyberspace. hospitals.com/bogronlund/3_314_Upload_05_03/Mitchell_City%20of%20bits. the ancient Greek 'agora' (or urban public space) features heavily.html Page 131 of 143 .' this is a particularly clever and evocative look at the "soft cities" of the 21st century.' he says. His is a voyage well worth undertaking and remains optional only for those who prefer a more back to basics strategy of adaption in the face of the future and its evolution. don't most legislators the world over suffer from electronic agoraphobia? 'Cyberspace. questions of governmentality. William Mitchell explores the future of this new nongeometrical 'space' from the perspective of architectural and urban design. The future will hit you like a comet.'" Michael Cunningham in The Irish Times (4 September 1995) http://homepage.12/03/12 19:06 "In his lucidly written and intelligently argued text. For example. illustrations of digital gadgetry and an index of related Internet 'surf sites. as implemented for example on the Internet. As someone remarked. the Internet interprets censorship as damage and routes around it. supports a truly radical conception of free speech. Mitchell's architectural journey through the virtual cities of the future is a welcome addition to the burgeoning literature on the topic of the near and unstoppable future. and the make-up of our everyday routines. changes made possible by computer technology. anonymous re-mailers. A similar scattered community is the electronic diaspora.mac." Keith Ansell Pearson in the Financial Times (29-30 July 1995) "Mitchell argues that online communities. and 'identity' that is more complex and metastable than any before. private and public space. convinced that in the 21st century we will inhabit not only 'real' cities and spaces made of concrete and glass. electronically interconnected communities of interest and common culture rather than as geospatial entities. transcending geographic boundaries and social contexts. and not simply technical issues. banks and bookstores. Mitchell maintains that the most important tasks facing us are not technical ones to do with such mattes as how to devise the digital plumbing of broadband communications. [The author] is surely right when he claims that an exploration of the new space becomes crucial when we realise that the design of the digital era will profoundly affect issues such as access to economic opportunities. forms of cultural activity. but more and more the simulated cities and virtual spaces created by the new electronic media. and incorporate technologies like encryption. 'Ireland and Greece. he walks us through the changes in civic institutions such as libraries. offer new ways of thinking about urban design. His exploration succeeds in showing that libertarian concerns. are truly unsensorable. they are architectural and environmental ones to do with transformation of civic structures and spatial arrangements being brought about by our evolution into the virtual. But when it comes to cyberspace.. and other traditionallycemigrant cultures may well be the first to evolve in this way.' He stresses how the new 'city of bits' can condense scattered rural communities.
the online version has a new wrinkle: sprinkled through it are words highlighted in color.' Mitchell said. look at the New York Times SyndicateM. Unsurprisingly for a dean of architecture and planning at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology . and prisons could all conceivably be dispensed with if enough virtual options were offered online. questions or counterarguments. page 17 http://homepage. Mitchell pointed out. the electronic 'book' will grow and change over time. though not entirely uncritical. Place and the Infobahn . is basically positive in its depiction of the glorious electronic future that lies ahead. 'Without leaving my office at MIT. freedom must flourish. There's also a place for readers to plant their own seeds: At the text's end ia an invitation for readers to post their own comments. evolving entity.) METROPOLIS Metropolis June. needs no plug or batteries.com/bogronlund/3_314_Upload_05_03/Mitchell_City%20of%20bits. readers are transported to other electronic sites anywhere in the world. and to respond to the comments posted by others.' Mitchell said. 'You can burn books. But the printed version still has advantages. each of which provides a hypertext link to other sites on the Internet that contain related information.' He is bullish on everything from virtual museums. Mitchell's book lays out its arguments with the linear logic of one of Le Corbusier's early city grids. and as a medium that will probably never die. 'It enables you to think of a text as a living. celebrating the Infonet and the new spatial freedom that it brings. Thus. They are. he writes. 1995 Metroplois . It is conveniantly portable. but not bits.mac. Even better. and then the book came along.html Page 132 of 143 . evolving thing. Chandler in The Boston Globe (9 September 1995) (For full article. 'The keyboard is my cafe'. Shopping malls.' Mitchell marvels.12/03/12 19:06 Michael Cunningham in The Irish Times (4 September 1995) "Mitchell's City of Bits: Space. and can easilty be read anywhere.' Mitchell assures us." 'I think of it as being very much like a garden you have to keep tending. a cybernetic bit of bonding that will make the Roy Rogers-Trigger ties seem trivial. 'we'd regard it as a tremendous technological innovation. changing. in effect. 'If the electronic world had come first.' he said. even the bath. To take that into account. But the difference between the printed and the online versions goes beyond that. 'Fahrenheit 451 is becoming irrelevant. and some may contain more information than the whole book in which they are embedded. theatres. schools. which can obviously be more complete than anything found in the limited realm of the three-dimensional. Mitchell and his assistants will be constantly updating the links.' David L. has an easy-to-read high contrast 'display'. By clicking on those words. super-footnotes. skyscrapers. to the coming marriage between persons and machines. although the basic text will remain fixed.'" Mark Harris in the Vancouver Sun (2 September 1995) "In addition to the entire text of the book. because the Internet is a constantly changing. 'I can teach a class in Singapore. because on the Net thought has become harder than ever to censor. adding new relevant sites as they appear and pruning off dead branches that lead to defunct sites.
riding the information superhighway.html Page 133 of 143 . that building in Shanghai he designed with his world-wide students (none of whom were actually in Shanghai): of what benefit is his virtual design community to the real community that will presumably live there someday? Perhaps Mitchell's global design session was just an academic exercise.. Cambridge.com/bogronlund/3_314_Upload_05_03/Mitchell_City%20of%20bits. in appropriate combination. and upstate New York. the one cyber contraption we seem to have gotten used to. and public places are robbed of their ideas and imagination. others are in St. banks. Throughout City of Bits . Place. Even the ATM. Vancouver. The dean marvels at his pedagogical milestone: an "electronically linked virtual community" that negates the issue of "bodily location".66 Email: graf@birkhauser. with a computer at his fingertips and a video camera trained on him. we shop for groceries at home by strolling down virtual aisles and "pointing and clicking" at the items we want. and in response to a series of questions e-mailed to him.mac. 1995) In City of Bits . malls. In this rapidly approaching world. he points out the responsibility of architects "to learn to deploy both bricks and bits. Sitting in his office. perhaps too fascinating." Mitchell has his reservations. Nothing is sacred.12/03/12 19:06 cyberspace and sidewalks City of Bits: Space. and the Infobahn by William J. Mitchell agrees. transforming schools. The "urban design" possibilities of the Internet are. rendered obsolete by digital currency. parks.ch available September 1996 List price: DM 58 / SFr 52 Translator: Gabriele Herbst http://homepage. they design a residential project in Shanghai." Mitchell writes.. German Birkhäuser Verlag AG Klosterberg 23 CH-4010 Basel Switzerland Fax: +41 (61) 271. in the extent and complexity of 'street networks' and 'transportation systems' linking these places. Our ailments are treated by "itinerant healers. Some are merely in a studio upsatirs. he works with students around the world. theaters. to meet human needs.TRANSLATED The following translations of City of Bits are currently available or will be forthcoming within the next year. Massachusetts. He remarks briefly on the difficult tradeoffs faced by poor communities who will have to decide whether to devote scarce resources to parks and community buildings or to computers and high-bandwidth connections." CITY OF BITS . Connected via video and the Internet. while also casting aspirations at the digital dystopia of surveillance and oppression forecast by resolute Luddites. and hospitals. Hong Kong. The danger is that architects are so struck by this new world that our streets. It would seem that feng shui is pretty difficult to practice over the Internet. Mitchell paints an alluring portrait of cyberspace as the new urban realm. in their capacity to engage our senses. the computer escapes its box and weaves itself into the fabric of our daily lives. made possible by the wonders of technology. William Mitchell. Mitchell skirts the urban riddle of the twenty-first century: What should be done about real cities when everyone is plugged into cyberspace? For instance. He wholeheartedly rejects the vision of Norman Rockwell-esque electronic cottages. Louis. fascinating. "will increasingly resemble traditional cities in their variety of distinct places.76." "The online environments of the future. as touted by rabid futurists. But for the most part. and thier social and cultural richness. describes a new method of teaching. prisons. of course. Mitchell (MIT Press. may shortly wind up on the slag heap. But one wonders if it is a good thing that buildings can be designed by teams of cyber-architects who have never met one another and may never have visited the site of the project. dean of the architecture school at MIT.
I just call up Net Search (1). I can instantly copy quotations (without worrying about transcription errors)." Are we about to hear of a cybernaut surfing the Net? Actually. Now. 110-260 Korea Fax: +82 (02) 745.500 Korean won Translator: Heejae Lee Chinese Commonwealth Publishing Co. O Muse. But it's also an excellent starting point for thinking about the character and uses of text in an online world since. I do feel a little guilty about leaving it to gather dust. bookshops and libraries soon be things of the past? I don't think so. to form them out of unlikely things like neon tubes. then disappears when I click to dismiss it. Shuichi Kakei. I still love the feel of that old clothbound volume in my hands. But the attractions of the newcomer are just too seductive to ignore.mac. But the online digital text does take over some of the traditional functions of ink on paper. of the man of many devices. I need not fear losing it by accidentally leaving it somewhere. and the bits that I want come flowing down the line to my laptop computer. Don't get me wrong. and even analyze frequencies of occurrence in different contexts. we're back where we started. and using literary http://homepage. Masahige Motoe. It doesn't cost me anything. . to print them on paper. Mitchell February 1996 Back to the Future? "Tell me. it inscribes itself briefly on my screen. type in some keywords and click a couple of times. The ancient text has finally been freed from its long enslavement to materiality. Since it doesn't have a limited number of physical copies. it cannot go out of print. humankind has figured out innumerable ways to bind words permanently to matter . Does this make the printed text obsolete? Will printers. I can click on hot-linked words to discover where they show up in other ancient Greek texts. binders. transforming. 7F #87 Sung Chang Road Taipei Taiwan for distribution in Taiwan only forthcoming 1999 HOMER William J. Inc. And (if I were scholar enough to find these capabilities useful) I could go back to the original Greek at any point and click on words to find dictionary entries. who wandered full many ways .com/bogronlund/3_314_Upload_05_03/Mitchell_City%20of%20bits. It's never unavailable because it's been borrowed by someone else. and Noriyuki Tajima Korean Gimm-Young. as the dwindling band of the classically educated will recognize. (2) Without having to carry a weighty package of paper around with me. .html Page 134 of 143 .to carve them into clay and stone.that I am constructing myself.like this very one . and faded away as the itinerant poet ceased to speak. and it does enable some strikingly new ways of producing. I can even make a hard copy whenever I need that for some reason. this is a popular translation of the opening line of the Odyssey . The digital text has new pleasures. in the days of Homer.4826/7 forthcoming early 1998 List price: 5. I no longer bother to seek out the tattered volume that's somewhere on my shelves. In the thousands of years since. in some ways. If I want to consult the text of the Odyssey . 170-4 Kahae-dong. words had no material embodiment. from anywhere in the world. I cherish the memories it evokes. Chongno Seoul. I can get to the digital version at any time.12/03/12 19:06 Herbst Italian Electa via Trentacoste 7 20184 Milano Italy forthcoming 1999 Japanese Shokoku Sha available November 1996 Translators: Ryusuke Naka. and paste them into texts . they floated freely in the air. Finally. run morphological analyses. and furtively to spray them onto walls.
and a copy gets sent to you immediately.html Page 135 of 143 . and there is some good evidence that we were right. tough (you can drop a book without damaging it. that it was quite widely read and even reviewed in some countries long before copies of the hardback were available there. while the paperback is cheaper is not designed to have such a long life. And lots of people decided that they wanted both. in the first two printings. publishing a book in different versions is not a new idea. Why should this be so? The answer is that the hardback and online versions added value to the text in different and complementary fashions. But we guessed that the additional sales generated by the Web site would outweigh such losses. Conversely. comfortable in the hand. we published the URL (the address in cyberspace) of the Web version on the dustjacket of the print version. why would anyone buy a copy when the online version was right there at no cost? Perhaps we would lose sales. a well made book is light. http://homepage. (At the very least. and No-back Of course. well produced print version for ease of extended reading. The Case of City of Bits In 1995 I had a chance to explore these questions in a practical context when. Depending on the content and the marketing strategy for a particular book. and it is aimed at libraries and at buyers who want to keep it permanently on their bookshelves.mac. it could not have had many predecessors. So a reader of either one could always conveniently obtain the other. but not a laptop). in paperback only. we decided that it should be self-exemplifying-that it should appear simultaneously as a hardback (3) and in a full-text World Wide Web version. it has long been a common strategy to put out both hardbacks and paperbacks. and just the sheer pleasure of it. to achieve instant world-wide distribution. with City of Bits . since publishers generally have not begun to guarantee the permanent existence of Web sites. Paperback. and attempting to charge just didn't seem worth the trouble at that point. it forces designers to rethink the task of making language visible. (5)) There was some risk in this. and the access mechanism (turning pages) is a lot nicer than using a mouse and cursor to scroll text down a screen. and it does enable some strikingly new ways of producing. include your credit card number (in a secure transaction). and these will obviously be crucial to the development of an online publishing industry. and it leaves publishers anxiously scrambling to find new business models. You may also want a well designed. It can be used. With the Web. It has an extremely high-contrast. click to transmit your order. even by very small publishers. the online no-back emerges as a third option at the inexpensive and ephemeral end of the spectrum. We provided free access to the Web version. portability. transforming. enter your name and address. and using literary material. convenient mechanisms for charging for access to online material are being put in place. Hardback. it may appear in hardback only. But these were not highly developed when we put City of Bits online.) We made the marketing people happy by providing a link to an online order form from the opening screen of the Web site. But. or in hardback followed by a less expensive paperback at a later point. and it is likely that the Web site also stimulated bookstore and mail-order sales. (4) As far as I know. The hardback is more expensive and more robust. about 2% of the total sales were directly through the online order form. Its emergence requires writers to reconsider their craft. certainly we found. you still need a hardback copy if you want to be sure of continued access in the future. and usable anywhere.) So readers of the Web version are not necessarily potential customers for the hardback. it was the first book to be published simultaneously in print and on the Web.com/bogronlund/3_314_Upload_05_03/Mitchell_City%20of%20bits. (As the Web develops. to use in different ways. Since it dealt with the digital revolution and the new relationships that were being created between the material and virtual worlds.12/03/12 19:06 on paper. in paperback with a small number of hardbacks for sale to libraries. I published my book City of Bits . of course. with the MIT Press. (The dimensions of that complementarity will be explored in the discussion that follows. high-resolution display. By comparison with even the very best laptop computer.
First. Computers will become lighter. Typically. you can reliably attract a lot of attention by scattering words like "sex" and "nude" through your text . They are usually pretty dumb. and making sure that it did so was a key to success. to make sure that your site is not missed by the search engines . When you take it in your hand. a hot-link was made from the entry in the MIT Press's online catalogue to the City of Bits site. electronic "catchment" to collect potential readers and efficiently funnel them to the site. the hardback. less fragile. what links they followed to get to your site. and the Table of Contents. what they looked at.mac. these engines explore the Web periodically to create large indexes and directories. for the moment at least. and online reading lists for classes of various kinds. But. The third strategy for bringing in readers is to attract the attention of Web search engines . Thus. The quality of displays will improve. and so on. if Gutenberg had invented the personal computer and printed books had not appeared until the 1980s. ( 6). classified Internet and Web guides. by scanning through the documents themselves. but some were reciprocal . which we have not used. online newsletters and magazines. If you are prepared to ignore the obvious privacy issues.com/bogronlund/3_314_Upload_05_03/Mitchell_City%20of%20bits. to provide one path into the online City of Bits. Hot-links from other Web sites provide a second way in. and the electronic no-back have significantly different properties and roles.is to get itself picked up and read. Some of these links were sought and negotiated by members of the City of Bits WWW team. since they just look for keyword matches. So the hardback City of Bits has a vivid.which have now become very important tools for finding one's way around the Web . Incidentally. When Web-surfers access your server. things won't stay this way. then.html Page 136 of 143 . The ultimate effect was to create a very large. employ these indexes and directories to provide very rapid access to the relevant Web sites. The Web version clearly had to attract attention in very different ways. Most were one-way.but it may not be the sort of attention that you want! A fourth possible strategy. City of Bits was quickly listed in many online. We may even see the emergence of programmable "smart paper" . the author's Home Page. Several strategies were used. the paperback. but many appeared spontaneously.Web-surfing catalogue browsers can immediately get their hands on the online version. you can use this information to target electronic http://homepage. or even by searching other indexes and directories. I have often thought that.a fixed "you point to me and I'll point to you" arrangement.you must make sure that the appropriate descriptors are included in titles and headers. personalized print copies on demand. where they are from. the metaphor of an "electronic bookstore" was fairly closely followed. "Cool Sites" collections.12/03/12 19:06 Indeed. colorful dustjacket to catch the reader's attention. and in the text of the opening pages. we would now be hailing paper and print as a major technological advance! As forward-looking computer technologists will be quick to point out. So. and more portable. And the first thing that the online version presents is a Welcome page with links to a Synopsis. So much as bookstore browsers can pick up a copy of the hardback . home pages of organizations and individuals who wanted to draw attention to it. Getting the Reader's Attention The first task of a book . it is technically possible to collect a lot of information about them . you find a brief description and author biography on the flyleaf. is closely analogous to pinpoint direct-mail marketing. Then you can flip through it to see what's inside. Sophisticated home and office printers will allow production of high quality.who they are. what browser they were using.especially a trade book that's supposed to attract an audience . They perform their explorations in a variety of ways-by looking for specified keywords in the titles or headers of Web documents. it's carefully designed to stand out on a bookstore display or a library shelf. in response to users' queries.allowing development of devices that combine the virtues of the portable computer and the book. from the other site to City of Bits .
sub-headings. So. To allow for sequential reading of the narrative. flat on a desktop. and body text. At the top of the tree is the Table of Contents page providing entry points to each of the chapters. there are "previous" and "next" hot-links at the end of each subsection.html Page 137 of 143 . there is no index. A Table of Contents right at the front. since the screen can only display a limited amount of text at one time. Web-surfers who looked at MIT Press online catalogue entries for other books on related topics might get email promoting City of Bits. since there's never any ambiguity about which note relates to which point in the text. this eliminates the intellectual drudgery of creating an index. there is the introductory section of text followed by hot-links to the subsections that it contains. Endnotes. You may make notes as you go. the notes are numbered-but. From the reader's viewpoint.12/03/12 19:06 prepared to ignore the obvious privacy issues. of course. The springiness of the paper allows you to scan quickly by riffling through pages with the book half open. You may read in strict sequence. it provides greater freedom. the hardback version of City of Bits is a narrative divided into chapters on different sub-topics and it has a table of contents and an index to guide the reader through the material. that many readers immediately type in their own names to see if they're mentioned anywhere!) The hierarchy of information is also handled differently in the online version. The physical book is not only a repository of the textual information. or you may jump back and forth.mac. you can search for anything.) To maintain consistency with the print version. Finally. (I'm told.com/bogronlund/3_314_Upload_05_03/Mitchell_City%20of%20bits. Most dramatically. you can use this information to target electronic advertising. (Cross-references within the text could be handled in a similar way. This allows for multiple styles of reading. they privilege the hierarchical structuring of the book's content and the operation of searching while they make http://homepage. Its size and shape tells you roughly how much information it contains. Endnotes. you can jump immediately to particular chapters that interest you. provide effective search and navigation capabilities. You can skim quickly or you can read more slowly and attentively. with numbered references from the text. but there aren't any. Overall. and continuity with tradition. The online version provides very different reading tools. for example. but the mechanical properties of the binding assure that you can also leave it open. and you always know how far through it you are from the relative thicknesses of the stacks of pages under your left and right thumbs. for more extended and careful study. the reading tools provided with the online version have a very interesting effect. you can use the index to find passages on particular topics. Reading Tools and their Effects In traditional fashion. since current bandwidth constraints make it undesirable to download large text files to your browser all at once. for example. but also a reading tool that allows you to pursue these strategies efficiently. and since scrolling through a long segment of text doesn't work nearly as effectively as flipping the pages of a book. and you can even cruise the index (or the endnotes) to look for entries that may pique your interest. they no longer really have to be. and numbered pages. The complete text is organized into a hierarchy of small segments. are handled by hot-links. with internal hot-links providing the interconnections among them. of course. you can follow a continuous thread straight through from beginning to end. click on the endnote mark and you immediately get the corresponding note. and gives you context and feedback as you do so. and you don't have to rely on the author's judgment about what was worth including in the index. it is replaced by an internal search engine that locates instances of user-entered keywords in the text. allow backup information to be provided without disrupting the flow of the narrative. or you may not. without having to go up and down the hierarchy. an Index at the very back. From the author's viewpoint. there is the relatively short text of each subsection. Within each chapter. Typography signals the hierarchy of information by visually distinguishing headings.
and rigidity. The issue of producer-control versus user-personalization is a philosophical rather than a technical one. after the site had been up for a few months. External Hot-Links Perhaps the most obvious and striking difference between the hardback and the online version is that the text of the online version contains hundreds of hot-links to other Web sites with relevant information on the topics that are discussed.12/03/12 19:06 the hierarchical structuring of the book's content and the operation of searching while they make sequentially following the narrative more cumbersome and difficult. In the online version of City of Bits . random jumps back and forth. (You can think of this as a new form of bricollage . It all adds up to something that has the characteristic look of a MIT Press book. you can immediately access the relevant passage. All of this matters. and to design online productions that either go for a consistent look or encourage personalization. Or it can be seen as an advantage-opening up the possibility of adapting content intelligently to different contexts and to the needs of different readers. So the structure of intertextual linkages in which City of Bits embeds itself is a very dynamic thing. it is technically feasible to implement systems that support either one or both. perhaps every reader of City of Bits could have a uniquely personalized version. since the Web is growing explosively. continuous narrative sequences. who don't like the loss of control). Whenever a search engine discovers a relevant site. it will become more interesting to try to take advantage of them. on the other hand. and to construct multi-threaded and branching narratives-in other words. Some of these external hot-links are to sites that I or my research assistant discovered and consulted when City of Bits was being written. http://homepage. weight. you can just click to go and visit one. by many different types of browsers. picking out key words. Thus the City of Bits site becomes a conveniently organized entry point for exploring an enormous quantity of related information. and the continuity of the main narrative thread. then. This can be seen as a disadvantage (and typically is by graphic designers. So it's probably optimal to read the hardback first. to remain consistent with the print version.to assure a reasonably high level of graphic quality. The designer. Yasuyo Iguchi chose to set it in Bembo and Meta. and relevant new sites are continually appearing. and just to keep things simple for ourselves. for example. in either English or Greek.com/bogronlund/3_314_Upload_05_03/Mitchell_City%20of%20bits. to gain an overview. that CD-ROM and online books that have these sorts of reading tools have tended to emphasize modular.mac.) This process has to be repeated at regular intervals. privileges skimming.html Page 138 of 143 .) The hardback. then to go to the online version for more detailed study and for ongoing reference. but the vast majority have resulted from systematically going through the text. and the matte varnish of the jacket so as to create a particular relationship of feels and textures. the cloth for the cover. when I refer to Aristotle's Politics . When I discuss online shopping malls. to provide dense cross-referencing within the material. we tried to exert as much control as possible . as personalization tools become increasingly sophisticated. (It's no accident. shape. than it did when it first went online. ( 7). with many different settings of their various options. and that signals something about the product's style. But. and the producers of Web servers and browsers can try to eliminate as many sources of unwanted variation as possible. and level of sophistication. to produce screen displays that vary enormously. and it looked very different. She arranged elements on the various different sorts of pages. She chose the paper. and sending search engines out on the Web to find what was out there. classified and indexed chunks of content as in encyclopedias and dictionaries. online. we link it in. proportions. She gave consideration to its size. And. content. But the client-server architecture of the Web does not allow a designer such precise control of the online version. and deployed white space with care. to focus on anything other than long. Fixed-Format and Personalized Good graphic designers exert very considered and precise control over the look and feel of a printed book. Certainly this was the case with City of Bits . it may be downloaded to many different types of display devices.
in the process. print endnotes can only be updated. yet it has http://homepage. and scholars will have less of a problem. and usefulness of a cited document. then. online versions of books can easily provide for readers to add their comments. for example. check it out and assure myself that everything was in order.html Page 139 of 143 . that the operator of that site had subsequently substituted several hundred pornographic GIF files for the philosopher's words. we employ a software tool that automatically runs through the text. There.) To facilitate this. quality.12/03/12 19:06 few months. There are. and reports all those that don't seem to be working. and sometimes subsequent readers see these comments and may even add their own responses. In the online City of Bits . Caveat surfer! As the Web and similar structures mature. there will undoubtedly be an increasing number of sites providing stable. since the contents of an externally linked site may change unpredictably. "guaranteed" content. some time later. It has succeeded in provoking.only to discover. the seed provided by the original text has grown into a considerably larger and richer textual structure. but it creates some theoretical connundrums and practical difficulties. and for these comments to be widely available. One is the dynamism that I have noted. all at once. but they have their dangers.mac. And they can even insert hot-links to other sites that they consider relevant. you cannot add too many endnotes to a printed book without making it bulky and unwieldy. This agora is organized as a collection of newsgroups. I might. checks all the hot-links. and then make the link from City of Bits . But the author of an online publication cannot attempt to take the same responsibility. But the most important difference is the shift in scholarly responsibility. Marginalia and Readers' Comments Sometimes readers like to scribble their comments in the margins of printed books.com/bogronlund/3_314_Upload_05_03/Mitchell_City%20of%20bits. The continually growing. They can also use a simple form to add their own comments. a site quickly loses its charm . scholars who cite irrelevant or poor-quality publications are not highly regarded. readers can enter an electronic " agora " directly from the site's front door. but there is no practical limit to the number that you can embed in an online text. And. Furthermore. and to give publication date and page numbers.like an untended garden. Recall that endnote citations are normally to printed documents that have been formally published and do not change. or become irrelevant. ( 8). or from the foot of any page of text. discover a site containing the text of Aristotle's Politics . already some refereed online technical journals. when there is a reprint or a new edition. there are some important differences. that the substitution of hot-links for endnote citations entails. and correspondingly in the reader's use of the text. and provides all the usual features of newsgroup support software. at any time. (If this is not done. adding these links may just seem to be a more convenient way to provide endnote citations to related publications. for example. but this usually isn't encouraged (particularly with library books) and it isn't a very effective form of discourse. Superficially. so special institutional arrangements will be needed in contexts where such stability is necessary. But. but hot-links can be updated incrementally and at any time. shifted to new locations. the online version of City of Bits has become encrusted with commentary. By contrast. than it did when it first went online. Over time. The converse process is to combat link-rot by identifying and removing hot-links to sites that have died. A responsible scholar is expected to check the relevance. and making visible a discourse in a way that is impossible with print. But the medium does not automatically enforce document stability in the way print does. on closer inspection. they can read the ( comments ) that other readers have posted. capturing. This evolution is fascinating and exciting to see. external hot-links are very useful. So. transforming structure is actually the work of many hands.
In future. rather than standing distinct. (This will require making new and unusual types of agreements with the overseas publishers. but we leave everything else there. geographically distributed sites in which you are asked. and the like. As it turned out. Perhaps naively. or a neo-Nazi diatribe? These are not the sorts of questions that arise about scribbled marginal comments in printed books. after a few attempts to secure permissions to reproduce complete reviews online. In the case of City of Bits . take responsibility for actively moderating and shaping the discussion? Should I delete blatantly irrelevant and self-serving comments? What if advertisements are posted? What if a reader were to post comments that I found personally offensive and insulting? (Am I obliged to provide that person with a platform?) What if a posting were found to contain slanderous or obscene material. yet it has my name on it.com/bogronlund/3_314_Upload_05_03/Mitchell_City%20of%20bits. layer of commentary and elaboration. we had hoped that we might add the full texts of all reviews to the site as they appeared. then build links to and fro. Generally. provides links to it. comments so far have been serious and responsible.mac. A book becomes a thing of a different kind when it systematically internalizes and reports back the discussion that it has provoked. or should I. City of Bits generated a lot of interest. the team that maintains the site has taken a rigorous "hands off" attitude.something that.much as they have traditionally been reproduced in jacket copy and advertisements. though. and provide structures of crosslinkages among the English and foreign-language versions so that multilingual readers might conveniently move back and forth . we retreated to the position of posting short extracts . transforming structure is actually the work of many hands.html Page 140 of 143 . what language you want to use-as in American Express cash machines. we occasionally go through and clean out the completely irrelevant postings that sometimes appear. The continually growing. Mentions. Perhaps we have just been lucky. mentions in other works. As translation rights have been sold. Online Appropriation In effect. but it becomes less and less so as time goes on and the online comments accumulate. it was mostly mine. Reviews.12/03/12 19:06 difficulties. In the beginning. At what point does it become inappropriate to say that it is "my" text? When does it become more reasonable to call it a collective work? Who bears moral and legal responsibility for it? Should I treat the agora as a zone in which complete freedom of speech is permitted. extremely interesting. so we have not been forced to confront any really troublesome dilemmas. secondary. These seem difficult questions.) For example. Or we might encourage the foreign publishers to develop their own Web sites for the translations. and derivative texts . commentaries. as the author. details on the forthcoming foreign-language editions have been posted in a Translations section of the site.a particularly useful capability where words and phrases do not have very exact equivalents in other languages. and quickly received many reviews in both the specialist and mainstream media. But the world is not quite ready for that. When the translations are completed. we might simply add online texts of the foreign-language versions to the City of Bits site. it is easy to imagine online books existing as multilingual. it will only be necessary to link to them. and Translations Any successful book soon generates a growing body of thematically related. when the majority of reviews appear in online editions of newspapers and magazines. and translations. or where there might be ambiguity or debate about the best way to translate things. That would have made accessible another. news articles. because of the http://homepage. we will explore further possibilities. In the more distant future. though. it may not be so difficult to achieve our original ambition. where possible and appropriate. and it is not yet clear how these will work out. the various external linkages from the City of Bits site appropriate a vast array of existing textual fragments and combine them to form a new work . The City of Bits site keeps a running record of this sort of material (to the extent that the team can keep up with it) and. and aloof from it. and generally getting rebuffed or asked to pay exorbitant fees. closed. We might go further. but they have been hotly debated in relation to online newsgroups and bulletin boards.reviews. on entry. and general answers will probably have to be worked out through experience and debate.
and the accreted structure of comments. of course. modular increments. because of the selection and organization that goes into it.) That way. Critical scholars play it when they create structures of comparisons and contrasts among texts.com/bogronlund/3_314_Upload_05_03/Mitchell_City%20of%20bits. On the contrary. A more radical possibility would be to make continual small changes to the core text to reflect new developments and to respond immediately to comments and criticisms. which corresponds to that of the print version. the online City of Bits has been appropriated into a great many online constructions created by others. The author of an appropriated text does not lose anything in this way. So far. The City of Bits team certainly played it when they constructed the online version. as published on paper. On a large scale. that a collection can be a creative work.) Others. the contents of the externally linked sites evolve. What if. The core text.mac. cross-referenced print collection. recognized in intellectual property law. authors usually post texts online because they want them to be noticed and read. so it is an advantage to attract linkages that might channel readers from other texts and sites. But embedding in online link structures does make this possibility dramatically explicit.though. And. Thus any change in the core text will be carried out in well-defined. does not change. by now. Pedagogues play the game when they link words in books and articles to online reference works -dictionaries. (They forget. But the structure of links that it carries is continually adjusted and extended. Some fairly straightforward software could then automatically relate comments and other linked material to the appropriate versions. for example. a privileged one. But this would destroy the logical integrity of references within the overall structure. we have not had the energy or the disk space for that. (There is no technical difficulty in doing so. the operators of Internet guides like Yahoo! play the link-editor role by selecting and classifying online material and providing convenient point-and-click access from a topic list. there would be no need to keep using an increasingly obsolete and unsatisfactory text while waiting for the right moment to put out a complete new edition. since the constituent fragments are merely pointed to rather than reproduced. Stabilities and Instabilities As we have now seen. the online City of Bits has both stable and unstable elements. and translations grows. (Heraclitus would have loved it!) Even the internally stable elements are continually being recontextualized. (This shifts to a radically new context the old idea.12/03/12 19:06 array of existing textual fragments and combine them to form a new work .that of the link-editor who locates fragments of text online and combines them into original literary structures by superimposing patterns of linkages. If I decide to do new print editions. I expect to add the text of those to the online version. They do not like the possibility that their work might be used in ways they cannot control and for purposes that they never intended. is significantly greater than the sum of its parts. are excited by being able to see with new clarity the evolving roles that their texts play in ongoing discourses.html Page 141 of 143 . is just one of these constituent fragments . Whatever the balance between stable and unstable elements. reviews. and so shift in their meaning. The original City of Bits text. including myself. the text would be kept constantly up to date. though. you never read the same text twice.) This strategy of textual appropriation and collage does not run into the sorts of intellectual property difficulties that would arise in creating a large. to be sure. that authors have never really had very much control over the uses and misuses of their published texts. In sum.something that. as the huge structure that embeds them transforms itself. an important new literary role has now emerged . a reader's comment refers to a specific paragraph in the core text and that paragraph is subsequently deleted or significantly altered? Perhaps the most satisfactory approach would be to preserve successive versions as incremental changes are made. some of them have been greatly disconcerted by the idea. and so on. http://homepage. though. encyclopedias. and to preserve the earlier edition texts as well. When I have discussed this form of appropriation with other authors.
In the end. MIT Media Laboratory. Web Crawler. or you can provide access to the site on a subscription basis. and the Infobahn. Place. Kalin. Lycos. and can apply alternative sets of layout http://homepage. Excite. it has no distinct boundaries. The site that remains will not instantly disappear. With online books. that performance will end. and Yahoo. it is distributed over many different machines in widely scattered locations. Payment can be made by means of a secure credit card transaction. but will slowly fade away .it is quite impossible to preserve more than a very partial record of the past states of that transforming structure. Magellan. Massachusetts Institute of Technology. to lay out material that you're about to read. Cambridge MA. City of Bits: Space.12/03/12 19:06 Furthermore-an alarming thought for historians . but also extensive cross-links from text to text. How long do they stay available online? What is the electronic equivalent of going out of print? Who is responsible for long-term archiving? Answers to these questions are likely to vary with the type of book. The End Hardback and paperback books eventually go out of print. Mitchell.com/bogronlund/3_314_Upload_05_03/Mitchell_City%20of%20bits.perseus. certainly. (4) /City_of_Bits/. Archival libraries selectively perform the function of preserving books after that point." Ph.D. 1995. or through the emerging mechanism of digital cash (6) A project to develop a workable form of digital "smart" paper was initiated by Joseph Jacobson at MIT's Media Laboratory in 1995. There are many others. Eventually.edu/. Open Text. 1995. (5) You can charge for downloading files or for time spent connected to a Web site. and may therefore produce different results. (2) The version I describe here is that found in the Perseus archive at http://www. The Electronic Library. The Perseus site provides not only access to numerous Greek texts. (3) William J.html Page 142 of 143 . and Daniel C. I regard it as a kind of extended live performance in a vast virtual theater. but I can give a provisional answer for City of Bits online. Regina Schoonover. it will cease to function and to live becoming. Teresa Ehling. and that can be flipped over by an electric charge to display text and graphics. The design and implementation team consisted of Anne Beamish. Stevenson. Mitchell.) Jacobson's idea is to employ tiny particles of electronic "ink" that are black on one side and white on the other.com/NS) is one of the search engines for the World Wide Web that emerged with the explosive growth of the Web in the mid-1990s.mac. for example Alta Vista. He imagines downloading text into reprogrammable electronic books with computers in the spines and pages made of digital paper. "The Architecture of Information: Interpretation and Presentation of Information in Dynamic Environments. Jeffrey T. They employ differing strategies. Who Where. Weitzman's system intelligently adapts given text and illustrations to different display formats. personal graphic designer. who knows how you like to see things. See for example Louis Weitzman. (See Frames. and even more to keep them growing and changing. instead. Like Troy.like an abandoned stage-set-as link-rot sets in and as additions and updates are no longer made. and may change over time as online publication grows in importance.tufts. Suguru Ishizaki. January 1996. MIT Press.infoseek. and it is far too large and complex to back up on tape. But what about online books? Since it does take some effort and resources to keep them around. NlightN. part of the archaeology of cyberspace. The printed book appeared to give scholars stable. repeatable text modules to work with. (7) It's like having your own. Perhaps that was always a myth. there will be fewer and fewer visitors. the City of Bits will be an electronic ruin. William J. they are likely to have quite limited lives. As time goes by. thesis. that myth is increasingly difficult to sustain. Footnotes (1) Infoseek Corporation's Net Search (http://guide. Deja News. Program in Media Arts and Sciences. and many useful search and analysis tools.
cs.mac. http://homepage.html Page 143 of 143 . for example.12/03/12 19:06 adapts given text and illustrations to different display formats.uchicago.com/bogronlund/3_314_Upload_05_03/Mitchell_City%20of%20bits. it can lay out the same text and illustrations in the style of Scientific American or of Wired. For example.edu/publications/cjtcs/. Chicago Journal of Theoretical Computer Science. http://www. (8) See. and can apply alternative sets of layout rules to the same content.