,G &$ru d M

',,: .;lt:.,,-

l;i::-.,:*, *j:'1.,;* : = l " ';.
g-i:: .;

,G &$ru d M
',,: .;lt:.,,-

l;i::-.,:*, *j:'1.,;* : = l " ';.
g-i:: .;

2. The i.ntem,al forcas are the forces which hold together the parforming the rigid body. If the rigid body is structurally ticles composedof severalparts, the forces holding the component partJ together are alsode{ined asinternal forces.Internal forces will be consideredin Chaps. 6 and 7. As an example of external forces, let us consider the forces acting on a disabled truck that three people are pulling forward by *"ans of a rope attachedto the front bumper (Fig. 3.1). The external forcesactingon the truck are shownin afree-bodydiagram (Fig. 3.2). Let us first consider rhe roeight of the truck. Although it embodies the eflect of tlre earths pull"on each of the particles Formingthe Fig. 3.1 truck, the weight can be represented by the single force W' The point of application of this force, i.e., the point at which the force acts, is de{ined as the center of graoity of the truck. It will be seen in Chap. 5 how centers of gravity can be determined. The weight W tends to make the truck move vertically downward. In fact, it would actuallycausethe truck to move downward,i.e., to fall, if it were not for the presenceof the ground. the ground opposesthe downward motion of the truck by means of the reactions R1 and R2. These forces are exerted by the ground on the truck and must therefore Fis.3.2 be included among the external forces acting on the truck. The people p"lling on the rope exeft the for"" F. The point of applicationof F is on the front bumper. The force F tends to make the truck move forward in a straight line and does actually make it this motion. (Rolling resistance move, sinceno externalforce opposes neglectedhere for simplicity.) This forward motion of the has been truck, during which each straight line keeps its original orientation (the floor of the truck remainshorizontal,and the walls remain vertical), is known as atranslation..Other forces might causethe truck to move differently. For example, the force exerted by a jack placed under the front axlewould causethe truck to pivot about its rear axle. Such a motion is a rotation It can be concluded,therefore, that each impart of the external forces acting on a rigid body can,if unopposed, to the rigid body a motion of translationor rotation, or both.

of 3.3 Principle Tronsmissibility. Forces Equivolenl

75

OF 3.3 PRINCIPLETRANSMISSIBITIW. FORCES EQUIVATENT
The pri.nciple of transmisslbllltg statesthat the conditions of equilibrium or motion of a rigid body will remain unchangedif a force F acting at a given point of the rigid body is replaced by a force F' of the samemagnitudeand samedirection,but actingat a different point, line of action (Fig. 3.3). proaidzd that the tuo forces haue the sam.e The two forces F and F' have the sameeffect on the rigid body and are said to be equir:alent.This principle, which statesthat the action along its line of action, is based on of a force may be transn'aitted experimental evidence. It cannot be derived from the properties esiablishedso far in this text and must therefore be acceptedas an experimentallaw. However,asyou will seein Sec,16.5,the principle_ of transmissibilitycan be derived from the study of the dlnamics of rigid bodies, bui this study requires the introduction of Newton's Fig. 3.3

2. The i.ntem,al forcas are the forces which hold together the parforming the rigid body. If the rigid body is structurally ticles composedof severalparts, the forces holding the component partJ together are alsode{ined asinternal forces.Internal forces will be consideredin Chaps. 6 and 7. As an example of external forces, let us consider the forces acting on a disabled truck that three people are pulling forward by *"ans of a rope attachedto the front bumper (Fig. 3.1). The external forcesactingon the truck are shownin afree-bodydiagram (Fig. 3.2). Let us first consider rhe roeight of the truck. Although it embodies the eflect of tlre earths pull"on each of the particles Formingthe Fig. 3.1 truck, the weight can be represented by the single force W' The point of application of this force, i.e., the point at which the force acts, is de{ined as the center of graoity of the truck. It will be seen in Chap. 5 how centers of gravity can be determined. The weight W tends to make the truck move vertically downward. In fact, it would actuallycausethe truck to move downward,i.e., to fall, if it were not for the presenceof the ground. the ground opposesthe downward motion of the truck by means of the reactions R1 and R2. These forces are exerted by the ground on the truck and must therefore Fis.3.2 be included among the external forces acting on the truck. The people p"lling on the rope exeft the for"" F. The point of applicationof F is on the front bumper. The force F tends to make the truck move forward in a straight line and does actually make it this motion. (Rolling resistance move, sinceno externalforce opposes neglectedhere for simplicity.) This forward motion of the has been truck, during which each straight line keeps its original orientation (the floor of the truck remainshorizontal,and the walls remain vertical), is known as atranslation..Other forces might causethe truck to move differently. For example, the force exerted by a jack placed under the front axlewould causethe truck to pivot about its rear axle. Such a motion is a rotation It can be concluded,therefore, that each impart of the external forces acting on a rigid body can,if unopposed, to the rigid body a motion of translationor rotation, or both.

of 3.3 Principle Tronsmissibility. Forces Equivolenl

75

OF 3.3 PRINCIPLETRANSMISSIBITIW. FORCES EQUIVATENT
The pri.nciple of transmisslbllltg statesthat the conditions of equilibrium or motion of a rigid body will remain unchangedif a force F acting at a given point of the rigid body is replaced by a force F' of the samemagnitudeand samedirection,but actingat a different point, line of action (Fig. 3.3). proaidzd that the tuo forces haue the sam.e The two forces F and F' have the sameeffect on the rigid body and are said to be equir:alent.This principle, which statesthat the action along its line of action, is based on of a force may be transn'aitted experimental evidence. It cannot be derived from the properties esiablishedso far in this text and must therefore be acceptedas an experimentallaw. However,asyou will seein Sec,16.5,the principle_ of transmissibilitycan be derived from the study of the dlnamics of rigid bodies, bui this study requires the introduction of Newton's Fig. 3.3

5a and d are thus equivalent. Consider now the two equal and opposite forces P1 and P2 acting on the bar AB as shown in Fig. Q. This conceptwill be more clearly if understood.we thus have V:PQsin0 (3. if not absoIutely rigid. The direction of V is obtained from the rieht-hand de.6 do not have a commonpoint of application.can be added according to the mles of Chap.r) (a) 3. the bar of Fig. 2 forn-r a right-handed systerr of orthogonal a. at leastusedwith care. their sum is equal to zero. 2. to l. we first add to the mathematicaltools at our disposalthe aectorproduct of two vectors.5d.6b). of the systemsshown in Fig.I t: I (b) iWe should note ihat the r. 3. The bar of Fig. if not absolutelyrigid. and V-taken in that order-are said to form a rieht-handed triad.I2 lbrm a right-handed orthogonal triad.it or shouldbe avoided.xesand that the unit vectors i.5d is in and. the original system of forces shown of 3. PRODUCT TWOVECTORS OF 3. in terms of the eiternal behavior of the bar. will be introducedat this time.5c). The vector product of two vectors P and Q is defined as the vector V which satisffesthe following conditions. Close your right hand and hold it so that yout lingers are curled in the samesenseas the rotation through 0 which brings the vector P in line with the vector Q.and their sum is ugiin .and appliedmore effectively.5a is in tension and. But the intem. S. while the principle of transmissibilitymay be used freely to determine the conditions of motion or equilibrium of rigid bodiesand to computethe externalforcesactingon thesebodies. and : axes used in Chap. will increasein length slightly. .alforces and deformafionsproduced by the two systemsare clearly different. j."to (Fig.5e).the samedirection. 3. 3. and the sameline of actionbut actinqat B insteadof at A (Fie.4 VectorProduct Two Vectors 77 to in Fig. k defined in Sec. 3. as these forces are equal and opposite. your thumb will then indicate the direction of the vector V (Fig. 3. point. will decreasein length compresision slightly. Thus. 3.6a).5ais equivalent no forceat"all(nig. of 2.re* "otr""pt. The force P2 can be replacedby a force Pj havingthe samemagnitude. The line of actionof V is perpendicular the plane containing P and Q (Fig.5/). Note that if P and Q they should iirst Fiq. be redrawn from the samepoint. From the point of view of the mechanics rigid bodies. The magnitudeof V is the product of the magnitudes P and and of the sine of the angle g formed by P and Q (the meaQ sure of which will alwaysbe 180" or less). 3.in determininginternal forces and deformations.4 VECTOR of In order to gain a better understanding the effect of a force on a the conceptof a momentof a force about a rigid body. The three vectors P. 3. The forcesP1and Pi can then be added.Thus. 2.u . 3. and.3. y.

we first add to the mathematicaltools at our disposalthe aectorproduct of two vectors. j.it or shouldbe avoided. 3. y.re* "otr""pt.5ais equivalent no forceat"all(nig.we thus have V:PQsin0 (3.3. 3.5c). Note that if P and Q they should iirst Fiq.I2 lbrm a right-handed orthogonal triad. Consider now the two equal and opposite forces P1 and P2 acting on the bar AB as shown in Fig. to l. will increasein length slightly.5a and d are thus equivalent.alforces and deformafionsproduced by the two systemsare clearly different. The direction of V is obtained from the rieht-hand de.and their sum is ugiin .5d is in and.r) (a) 3.5a is in tension and. their sum is equal to zero. 2 forn-r a right-handed systerr of orthogonal a.the samedirection. while the principle of transmissibilitymay be used freely to determine the conditions of motion or equilibrium of rigid bodiesand to computethe externalforcesactingon thesebodies. The line of actionof V is perpendicular the plane containing P and Q (Fig.5/).4 VECTOR of In order to gain a better understanding the effect of a force on a the conceptof a momentof a force about a rigid body. of 2. Q. 3. The bar of Fig. The magnitudeof V is the product of the magnitudes P and and of the sine of the angle g formed by P and Q (the meaQ sure of which will alwaysbe 180" or less). 3. The three vectors P. at leastusedwith care. k defined in Sec."to (Fig. the original system of forces shown of 3. your thumb will then indicate the direction of the vector V (Fig.Thus. and the sameline of actionbut actinqat B insteadof at A (Fie. will decreasein length compresision slightly.in determininginternal forces and deformations. The vector product of two vectors P and Q is defined as the vector V which satisffesthe following conditions. 2. and V-taken in that order-are said to form a rieht-handed triad. 3.4 VectorProduct Two Vectors 77 to in Fig. The force P2 can be replacedby a force Pj havingthe samemagnitude.xesand that the unit vectors i.u . and : axes used in Chap. S. 3.6a). This conceptwill be more clearly if understood.5e). . in terms of the eiternal behavior of the bar. of the systemsshown in Fig. and.6 do not have a commonpoint of application. From the point of view of the mechanics rigid bodies. be redrawn from the samepoint. point. if not absolutelyrigid. 3. the bar of Fig. PRODUCT TWOVECTORS OF 3.5d. will be introducedat this time. Close your right hand and hold it so that yout lingers are curled in the samesenseas the rotation through 0 which brings the vector P in line with the vector Q. as these forces are equal and opposite.I t: I (b) iWe should note ihat the r. 3. 2.and appliedmore effectively. But the intem. The forcesP1and Pi can then be added. 3. Thus. if not absoIutely rigid.6b).can be added according to the mles of Chap.

similarly.9a). and k.6) z \a) PRODUCTS EXPRESSEDTERMS IN 3.5) can be replaced by P x Q' and that. the relation (3. and we can now be sure that the distributive property holds for vector products. 3. 3. 2. Consider first the product i x j (Fig.10a). which were de{inLd in Chap. we have in general (PxQ) S+Px(QxS) x (3. Finally. respectively. Qi. does not apply to vector products. Thus.lO .9b). 3. their vector product will alsobe a unit vector.the vector products P x Qr and P x Qn can respectivelybe replaced by P x Qi and P x Qi. (3. since the projection of a parallelogramonto an arbitrary plane is a parallelogram.5 VectorProducts of Rectongulor Components 79 PxQ':PxQi+PxQi (3. Thus. j. This unit vector must be k.5') can be obtainedin the samemannerfrom Qi and Qi. the associativeproperty.9 productsin (3.This relationbetweenthe vectors Q'.9b).5 VECTOR OF RECTANGULAR COMPONENTS Let us now determine the vector product of any two of the unit vectorsi.Now.the projection Q' of the sum Q of Qr and Q2 must be the sum of the projectionsQi and Qi of Q1 and Qz on the sameplane (Fig. 3.5') We now observe that P x Q' can be obtained from Q' by multiplylng this vector by the scalarP and rotating it counterclockwise through 90" in the ar plane (Fig.3. Since both vectors have a magnitude equal to I and since they are at a right angle to each other. 3. the other two vector .5') has been proved. 3.f0b).note that the left-hand member of Eq. the relation to be proved can be written in the form in Exoressed Terms 3. and Qi will still hold after the three vectors have been multiplied by the scalarP and rotated through 90' (Fig. A third property. rule given on page 77 that the product j x i will be equal to -k (Fig. it should be observedthat the vector product l( (b) Fis.l la) Fis.

2.the projection Q' of the sum Q of Qr and Q2 must be the sum of the projectionsQi and Qi of Q1 and Qz on the sameplane (Fig. the associativeproperty.9a).5 VECTOR OF RECTANGULAR COMPONENTS Let us now determine the vector product of any two of the unit vectorsi.Now. we have in general (PxQ) S+Px(QxS) x (3. rule given on page 77 that the product j x i will be equal to -k (Fig. 3. since the projection of a parallelogramonto an arbitrary plane is a parallelogram.9b). Since both vectors have a magnitude equal to I and since they are at a right angle to each other. respectively. and k. 3. (3. the relation (3.f0b). and we can now be sure that the distributive property holds for vector products. their vector product will alsobe a unit vector.l la) Fis.lO . 3.6) z \a) PRODUCTS EXPRESSEDTERMS IN 3. 3.5') We now observe that P x Q' can be obtained from Q' by multiplylng this vector by the scalarP and rotating it counterclockwise through 90" in the ar plane (Fig. 3. A third property. does not apply to vector products. Consider first the product i x j (Fig. Thus.the vector products P x Qr and P x Qn can respectivelybe replaced by P x Qi and P x Qi.5') has been proved.5) can be replaced by P x Q' and that.10a). the other two vector .3. similarly. Qi.5') can be obtainedin the samemannerfrom Qi and Qi. Finally.This relationbetweenthe vectors Q'.9b). 3. Thus. it should be observedthat the vector product l( (b) Fis. This unit vector must be k. and Qi will still hold after the three vectors have been multiplied by the scalarP and rotated through 90' (Fig. the relation to be proved can be written in the form in Exoressed Terms 3. which were de{inLd in Chap.9 productsin (3. j.5 VectorProducts of Rectongulor Components 79 PxQ':PxQi+PxQi (3.note that the left-hand member of Eq.

. 3. = Oi by applying the triangle rule for the addition ofvectors. it does nof depend upon the actual position of the point of application of the force along its line of action.ent F about O as the vector producr of of r and F: Mo:rXF (3. In the SI system of units.rd".72a. customary system of units. where a force is erpressed in pounds and a distance in feet or inches. 3. the line of action. 1 2 axis your thumb will indicatethe senseof the moment Me (Fig. the position vectors r and r' ofA with respect to two reference points O and O' and the position vector s of O with respect to O' (Fig. thus. effectof the force on the rigid body depends also upon its point of applicationA. the moment Me of a force F does not characterize the position of the point of application of F. lWe can easily verify that position vectors obey the law of vector addition and. the moment Mp must be pelpendicularto the plane containingO and the force F. We can observe that although the moment M6 of a force about a point depends upon the *ugt-tit. Anotherway of de{iningthe sense Me is furnishedby a variation of of the right-hand rule: Closeyour right hand and hold it so that your fingers are curled in the senseof the rotation that F would impart to ttrJrigra body abouta fr-xed directedalongthe line of actionbf Uo. we find that the magnitude of the moment of F about O is Ms: rF sin? : Fd la) .12a). We will define the mom. are trrly vectors. for example.r2) where d represents the pelpendicular distance from O to the line of action of F. In the U. Conversely.11) 3.40a. The position of A can be conveniently defined by the vector r which joins the ffxed referencepoint O with A. where a force is expressedin newtons (N) and a distance in meters (m). Sec.-t (b) (3. F i g . Consider. 3 .As we by know. 3. t The position vector r and the force F deiine the plane shownin Fig.4. the moment of a force is expressed in newton-meters (N ' m). ln. ft or lb . and the sense of the force.6 MOMENT A FORCE OF ABOUT POINT A Let us now considera force F actingon a rigid body (Fig. 3. denoting by 0 the angle between the lines of action of the position vector r and the force F. this rotation will be observedas counterclockuise an observerlocated at the tip of by Me. Since the tendency of a force F to make a rigid body rotate about a fixed aris pelpendicular to the force depends upon the distance of F from that axis as well as upon the magnitude of F.S. Finally. We verifz that the position vector r' : O'A can be obtained from the position vectors s = Oj 6 and .6 Momenfof o Forceobout o Point 8l Accordingto the de{initionof the vectorproduct givenin Sec. the moment of a force is ermressedin lb .However. we note that the magnitude of M6 measures the tendency of the force F to make the rigid bod:t1rotate about a fixed axis directed alongMs. 3.12b).16).3. this vector is known as the position aector of A. The senseof Me is defined by the senseof the rotation which will bring the vector r in line with the vector F.the force F is represented a vectorwhich definesits magnitude the anddirection.3.

and the sense of the force.72a. 3 .6 Momenfof o Forceobout o Point 8l Accordingto the de{initionof the vectorproduct givenin Sec. we find that the magnitude of the moment of F about O is Ms: rF sin? : Fd la) . where a force is expressedin newtons (N) and a distance in meters (m). are trrly vectors.-t (b) (3. the moment Me of a force F does not characterize the position of the point of application of F. denoting by 0 the angle between the lines of action of the position vector r and the force F.12a). ft or lb .12b). Conversely. this rotation will be observedas counterclockuise an observerlocated at the tip of by Me. this vector is known as the position aector of A. it does nof depend upon the actual position of the point of application of the force along its line of action.3.As we by know. t The position vector r and the force F deiine the plane shownin Fig. Consider. the moment of a force is expressed in newton-meters (N ' m). 3. .40a.11) 3. 3. Sec.S. We will define the mom. the line of action. 1 2 axis your thumb will indicatethe senseof the moment Me (Fig.4. The position of A can be conveniently defined by the vector r which joins the ffxed referencepoint O with A. we note that the magnitude of M6 measures the tendency of the force F to make the rigid bod:t1rotate about a fixed axis directed alongMs. for example.rd". In the SI system of units.However. the position vectors r and r' ofA with respect to two reference points O and O' and the position vector s of O with respect to O' (Fig. thus. Finally. Since the tendency of a force F to make a rigid body rotate about a fixed aris pelpendicular to the force depends upon the distance of F from that axis as well as upon the magnitude of F.ent F about O as the vector producr of of r and F: Mo:rXF (3. The senseof Me is defined by the senseof the rotation which will bring the vector r in line with the vector F. lWe can easily verify that position vectors obey the law of vector addition and.r2) where d represents the pelpendicular distance from O to the line of action of F. We can observe that although the moment M6 of a force about a point depends upon the *ugt-tit. 3. where a force is erpressed in pounds and a distance in feet or inches.the force F is represented a vectorwhich definesits magnitude the anddirection. effectof the force on the rigid body depends also upon its point of applicationA.16). customary system of units. Anotherway of de{iningthe sense Me is furnishedby a variation of of the right-hand rule: Closeyour right hand and hold it so that your fingers are curled in the senseof the rotation that F would impart to ttrJrigra body abouta fr-xed directedalongthe line of actionbf Uo. = Oi by applying the triangle rule for the addition ofvectors. the moment of a force is ermressedin lb . We verifz that the position vector r' : O'A can be obtained from the position vectors s = Oj 6 and . ln. F i g . the moment Mp must be pelpendicularto the plane containingO and the force F. In the U.3. 3.6 MOMENT A FORCE OF ABOUT POINT A Let us now considera force F actingon a rigid body (Fig. 3.

This property. and z of the point A.u) F i g .14 theorem.17) where the components M.4 that r x ( F 1+ F 2 + " ' ) : r X F 1 * r x F 2 * (3.14) 3.3. are appliedat the samepoint A (Fig. (3.15)and (3. 3.8 Rectongulor of Components the Momenl of o Force 83 about a gi. Fo. and a components. the moment M6 about O of a force F whose components are F*.3 .zFv Mv : zFx . we write the moment Me of F about O in the form Mo:M. is known as Yarignon's Fis.8 RECTANGULAR A FORCE OF In general. y.. .i+Mvj+M"k (3.oen In words. . instancesto resolveF into componentswhich are not parallel to the coordinateaxes(seeSampleProb. F2. .xFz M" : xF. : UF^. several if we denote by r the position vector of A.k for Substituting r and F from (3.16)into M O : r X F (3.5)of Sec.3).ent point O of the resultantof seaeral conanrrentforces is equal to the sum of the mamentsof the aarious the same point O. Observing that the components of the position vector r are respectively equal to the coordinates r. M* and M" are defined by the relations M.THEOREM 3. 3.7 VARIGNON'S The distributive property of vector products can be used to determine the moment of the resultant of several concurrentforces.xes. 3. the determination of the moment of a force in space will be considerably simplified if the force and the position vector of its point of application are resolved into rectangular r. it follows immediately and from Eq. MOMENT COMPONENTS THE OF 3.it may be more expeditiousin some to the coordinatea.r8) . for example. whlch was originally forces abcvut z by established the French mathematicianVarignon (1654-1722)long before the introduction of vector algebra. we write r:ri+yj+zk F:F. Il forcesF1. \rill generally resolued However. and z (Fig. 3.5.15). (3. and F" and whlch is applied at a point A of coordinates r. !. Consider.15) (3. y. As vou will see in the into components F Le parallel next section.i+Fyj+F.3. The relation (3.14)makesit possibleto replacethe direct determination of the moment of a force F by the determination of the moments of two or more comDonentforces.1a). 1 5 and recalling the results obtained in Sec.r6) z (3. _ yF.the mom.

i+Mvj+M"k (3. .4 that r x ( F 1+ F 2 + " ' ) : r X F 1 * r x F 2 * (3. for example.oen In words.k for Substituting r and F from (3.5. As vou will see in the into components F Le parallel next section. whlch was originally forces abcvut z by established the French mathematicianVarignon (1654-1722)long before the introduction of vector algebra. and F" and whlch is applied at a point A of coordinates r. 3. it follows immediately and from Eq. we write the moment Me of F about O in the form Mo:M.8 RECTANGULAR A FORCE OF In general.14 theorem. and z of the point A. This property. MOMENT COMPONENTS THE OF 3. : UF^. Consider.xes. and z (Fig.15).i+Fyj+F. the moment M6 about O of a force F whose components are F*. is known as Yarignon's Fis.3 .1a). 1 5 and recalling the results obtained in Sec. y. Observing that the components of the position vector r are respectively equal to the coordinates r. F2.3). \rill generally resolued However. 3.the mom. !.17) where the components M. are appliedat the samepoint A (Fig. (3.5)of Sec.THEOREM 3. instancesto resolveF into componentswhich are not parallel to the coordinateaxes(seeSampleProb. y. the determination of the moment of a force in space will be considerably simplified if the force and the position vector of its point of application are resolved into rectangular r.16)into M O : r X F (3.14)makesit possibleto replacethe direct determination of the moment of a force F by the determination of the moments of two or more comDonentforces.15) (3.r6) z (3. Fo.u) F i g .ent point O of the resultantof seaeral conanrrentforces is equal to the sum of the mamentsof the aarious the same point O.zFv Mv : zFx . and a components. several if we denote by r the position vector of A.7 VARIGNON'S The distributive property of vector products can be used to determine the moment of the resultant of several concurrentforces. Il forcesF1.r8) . _ yF. M* and M" are defined by the relations M.xFz M" : xF..15)and (3.8 Rectongulor of Components the Momenl of o Force 83 about a gi.3. we write r:ri+yj+zk F:F.3. . (3. The relation (3. 3. 3.14) 3. .it may be more expeditiousin some to the coordinatea.

?40-lb' V*rticEl force. = F(24 in. : 5 in. (e) whether any one of the forcesobtainedin partsb. 0S : ttl in. : F(20.I sAlvtPLE A 1001bvertical force is applied to the end of a lever which is attachedto a shaft at O.17.) : Dt. we write Mo: FcJ 1200lb ' in.we have d : (24 in. We expressthis fact by writing bIo : l2l]0 llr ' i1. '.7lb *+ '. 'E ! B /!. but In this caseM6 : Pd yields d. 85 . Although they have the same moment about O.. andd is equivalentto the oriqinalforce. : (240 tb)d OB cos 60" : cl nr. The perpendicular distance from O to the line of action ol the 100-lb force is d : (24 in. the moment will be representedby a vector M6 perpendicularto the plane of the figure and pointing into the paper. lb F = 5(l lir =d3i)- -Fl .) sin 60" : 20./f.. each causesthe lever to pull on the shaft in a dilferent way.1: 1200 lb . None of the forces consideredin parts b.8 in.) : 12oolb ' in. c. We choose tl-re force perpendicular to OA and note that d : 2a in. thus Mo : F d 1200 lb ' in.A pROSLrt$3.1l = ' I o i't/ffo'i. and d is equivalent to the original 1001b force. / '. Since Mp : Fd.) cos 60" : 12 in. Since the moment about O must be 1200 lb ' in.8in.': &./$tun.i ftf t'/ i 6{d lt! d. The magnitude of the moment about O of the 1001b force is Mo : Fd: (100lbXr2 in. (b) tlie horizontal force applied at A which createsthe samemoment about O. $malle*t Forc*. Determine (a) the moment of the 1001bforce about O. in. Since the force tends to rotate the lever clockvise about O. the smallestvalue of F occurs when d is maximum.i e. In other words. (d) how far from the shaft a240-Ibvertical force must act to createthe samemoment about O.7lb E * . (c) the smallest force applied at A which createsthe samemoment about O. they have different r and y components.lisrizanfal Force" In this case. although each force tends to rotate the shaft in the same manner. s(}LUTroru $. c. fltarflent cbout 0.) F : 57.. P --'l i \ F-d iit' e.

. (e) whether any one of the forcesobtainedin partsb. Since Mp : Fd.we have d : (24 in.17.) : Dt. thus Mo : F d 1200 lb ' in. In other words. None of the forces consideredin parts b. / '.) : 12oolb ' in. in. = F(24 in.1l = ' I o i't/ffo'i.?40-lb' V*rticEl force. but In this caseM6 : Pd yields d. each causesthe lever to pull on the shaft in a dilferent way.i ftf t'/ i 6{d lt! d. (b) tlie horizontal force applied at A which createsthe samemoment about O.I sAlvtPLE A 1001bvertical force is applied to the end of a lever which is attachedto a shaft at O.) cos 60" : 12 in. they have different r and y components. (c) the smallest force applied at A which createsthe samemoment about O. The magnitude of the moment about O of the 1001b force is Mo : Fd: (100lbXr2 in. 85 . andd is equivalentto the oriqinalforce.': &. P --'l i \ F-d iit' e. : 5 in. '. : (240 tb)d OB cos 60" : cl nr. $malle*t Forc*. We expressthis fact by writing bIo : l2l]0 llr ' i1.8 in. the smallestvalue of F occurs when d is maximum./f.7lb E * .A pROSLrt$3. fltarflent cbout 0.) F : 57. Determine (a) the moment of the 1001bforce about O. and d is equivalent to the original 1001b force. 'E ! B /!..7lb *+ '. lb F = 5(l lir =d3i)- -Fl . The perpendicular distance from O to the line of action ol the 100-lb force is d : (24 in.i e.. we write Mo: FcJ 1200lb ' in. We choose tl-re force perpendicular to OA and note that d : 2a in. 0S : ttl in./$tun. c. the moment will be representedby a vector M6 perpendicularto the plane of the figure and pointing into the paper.) sin 60" : 20. Since the moment about O must be 1200 lb ' in.1: 1200 lb . (d) how far from the shaft a240-Ibvertical force must act to createthe samemoment about O. although each force tends to rotate the shaft in the same manner.lisrizanfal Force" In this case. : F(20.8in. Although they have the same moment about O. s(}LUTroru $. c. Since the force tends to rotate the lever clockvise about O.

the momentMa can be expressedin the form of a determinant: ( 2 b .fr 2 0 N ) i + ( e 6N ) j . a 87 .( 7 . 6 S N ' r n ) i + ( 2 6 .1 I -t a r lx1 j F .08)(-120)j (0.PROB[f.3 0 -120 96 l M .3 m)i + (0. m)i . 3 m ) i+ ( 0 . 5 0 m into Substituting (3). m X+ i 2 8 .5.7)of Sec.fiiI3. we write x.I : (200N) cD Cts t3i components. {1} .l28k) : (0. 8N . i n ) k " . 8 h i .3x-128x-j) + (0. 2 4 m ) j ( 0 .24 " -(1 : ". 6 8 f " r r i ) i + i ! E .8 N'n)j r4j for the Substituting ra^ andF from (2) and (4) into (1) andrecalling (3. i .08)(e6x-i) + + } M .08 m)k i:) and F is the 200-N force directedalongCD.o: Ed : (0. r k F " l i j k l 0.3m)i + (0. 3 2 m ) k c D : 0 . relations x x Ma: 1616 F: (0. Alternafive SalufiE*.i 7 .3i+ 0.". n r ) k . 8 N . As indicatedin Sec. we obtain 3.(0.( 1 2 8 ) k N (28.32 m)k] [-(0.08k) (-120i + 96j .08 -128 | I Ac-Ae zc-:ol: 1 4 0. we obtain : 200N . m l k : M. 50r"uflsF{ The moment Ma about A of the force F exerted by the wire on point C is obtained by forming the vector product Ma:166XF where r67a is the vector drawn from A to C.3xe6)k (0.8. F : F. 8 N . Introducingthe unit vector It: citcn. { : . n i ) j+ { 2 E . determine the moment about A of the force exerted by the wire on point C. 8 N . r : .3.4 SA'YTPLE A rectangular by plateis suppofied brackets A andB andby a wire CD. at Knowing that the tension in the wire is 200 N. have we Resolving vectorC-d into rectangular the c n : .( 0 . .

8 N'n)j r4j for the Substituting ra^ andF from (2) and (4) into (1) andrecalling (3.7)of Sec. we obtain 3.( 0 . 8N .8. at Knowing that the tension in the wire is 200 N.(0. 6 8 f " r r i ) i + i ! E . 2 4 m ) j ( 0 . As indicatedin Sec. . 8 N . { : .08k) (-120i + 96j .08 -128 | I Ac-Ae zc-:ol: 1 4 0.( 1 2 8 ) k N (28.".24 " -(1 : ". i n ) k " .3 0 -120 96 l M .1 I -t a r lx1 j F .08 m)k i:) and F is the 200-N force directedalongCD. 5 0 m into Substituting (3).3i+ 0. we obtain : 200N .fiiI3.32 m)k] [-(0. r k F " l i j k l 0. Alternafive SalufiE*.( 7 .l28k) : (0.3xe6)k (0. a 87 . m l k : M.PROB[f.I : (200N) cD Cts t3i components. relations x x Ma: 1616 F: (0. n i ) j+ { 2 E . 8 N . the momentMa can be expressedin the form of a determinant: ( 2 b . 3 2 m ) k c D : 0 . {1} .3 m)i + (0. F : F.08)(e6x-i) + + } M .3x-128x-j) + (0. 3 m ) i+ ( 0 . 6 S N ' r n ) i + ( 2 6 . 8 h i .5. Introducingthe unit vector It: citcn.3m)i + (0.o: Ed : (0. 8 N . have we Resolving vectorC-d into rectangular the c n : . r : . m)i . 50r"uflsF{ The moment Ma about A of the force F exerted by the wire on point C is obtained by forming the vector product Ma:166XF where r67a is the vector drawn from A to C. m X+ i 2 8 .i 7 .3.4 SA'YTPLE A rectangular by plateis suppofied brackets A andB andby a wire CD. n r ) k . determine the moment about A of the force exerted by the wire on point C. we write x. i .08)(-120)j (0.fr 2 0 N ) i + ( e 6N ) j .

3. in.6. determine (a) the moment about B of the force exerled on the nail. P3. Knowing that a : 28o. 3"? A foot valve for a pneumatic systemis hinged at B. P3. Determine the moment of P about B when a is equal to 25o.3"r A foot valve for a pneumatic systemis hinged at B. 3"* It is known that a vertical force of 200 lb is recuired to remove the nail at C from the board.5 An 8lb force P is applied to a shift lever. P3. Knowing that d.3 ond P3. cloclovisemoment about B.Determine (a) the moment of the 300-N force about D.8 Fig. (b) the magnitude of the force P that createsthe same moment about B if a : 10". snd P3. in.5.2 125 mm { C B I I Fig.nts.3 A 300-N force is applied at A as shown. Fig. The moment of P about B is clocloviseand has a masnitude of 250 Ib . (c) the smallestforce applied at C that createsthe samemoment about D.8 For the shift lever shown. (b) the magnitude and senseof the horizontal force applied at C that createsthe same moment about D. (c) the smallest force P that creates the same moment about B. determine the moment of the l6-N force about point B by resolving the force into horizontal and vertical compon. Determine the value of a. 3. (b) the smallest force applied at B that createsthe samemoment about D.I ond P3.7 An l1-lb force P is applied to a shift lever.7 .4 3-4 A 300-N forceis appliedat A asshown. 3.determine the moment of the 16-N force about point B by resolvingthe force into componentsalong ABC arrdin a direction perpendicular ABC.Determine(a) the moment of the 300-N force about D. to 3. Fig. : 28o. As the nail first starts rroving. P3. P3. determine the magnitude and the direction of the smallestforce P that has a 2101b .

snd P3. 3. P3.3 ond P3. 3"* It is known that a vertical force of 200 lb is recuired to remove the nail at C from the board. (b) the smallest force applied at B that createsthe samemoment about D.5 An 8lb force P is applied to a shift lever. 3.Determine (a) the moment of the 300-N force about D.2 125 mm { C B I I Fig.4 3-4 A 300-N forceis appliedat A asshown. Fig.Determine(a) the moment of the 300-N force about D. determine (a) the moment about B of the force exerled on the nail. The moment of P about B is clocloviseand has a masnitude of 250 Ib . P3. (b) the magnitude and senseof the horizontal force applied at C that createsthe same moment about D.3 A 300-N force is applied at A as shown.5. Fig.7 An l1-lb force P is applied to a shift lever. As the nail first starts rroving. Determine the value of a.8 For the shift lever shown. in. (c) the smallest force P that creates the same moment about B. determine the moment of the l6-N force about point B by resolving the force into horizontal and vertical compon. P3.I ond P3. 3"? A foot valve for a pneumatic systemis hinged at B. determine the magnitude and the direction of the smallestforce P that has a 2101b . cloclovisemoment about B.3"r A foot valve for a pneumatic systemis hinged at B. Knowing that a : 28o. P3. to 3.determine the moment of the 16-N force about point B by resolvingthe force into componentsalong ABC arrdin a direction perpendicular ABC. (c) the smallestforce applied at C that createsthe samemoment about D. in.nts. P3.7 .6. (b) the magnitude of the force P that createsthe same moment about B if a : 10". 3. : 28o. Knowing that d.8 Fig. Determine the moment of P about B when a is equal to 25o.

3k andg : 2i + 2j+ 5k. -4 m). (b) : 2i + 2. P3.21 .Skand 4i . 3.1. Assurnethat the position vector of A is (a) r : 2i . When he pushes down at A. 9l 120mm Fig. Determine t]le moment of the force about A.5k.5j .19 Determine the moment about the oriein O of the force F : 4i + 5j . 3.4k.2kandQ : -2i + 5j-k. a force of 485 N is exertedon the alternatorat B.3j + 2k and -2i * 6j .B ) .lk. respectively. Determine the unit vector normal to the plane when A and B are equal to. (b) P : 6i . 3.17 The vectorsP and Q are two adjacent sidesof a parallelogram. (c) r : 2i + " 5j + 6k. that the position vectorof A is (a) r : i * j + k. Determine the area of the parallelogram when (a) P : -7i + 3j . (c) r : -4i+6j+10k.14 x 3 . Determine the perpendiculardistanced from the line to the origin O of the systemof coordinates. (a) i + 2j . P3.2O Determine the moment about the origin O of the force F = -Asurn" -2i + 3j + 5k that acts at a point A.3.5k.5j .15 3. a n d B use the results obtained to prove the identity s i n a c o s B : j s i n( a + 9 1 + j s i n( a .3j + 4k. w h e r e : B ' . 16 m) and (-1 m. Fig. P3.tg A plane contains the vectors A and B. Determine the moment of that force about bolt C if its line of action passes through O. f 5 F o r m t h e v e c t o r p r o d u c t s BC a n d B ' X C . Fig. 3.(b) 3i .14 A mechanicuses a piece of pipe AB as a lever when tightening an alternator belt.3k that acts at a point A.21 A 200-N force is applied as shown to the bracketABC. 3. (b).f6 A line passes throughthe points (20 m. :2i + 3j .7j .

(b) 3i . -4 m).14 A mechanicuses a piece of pipe AB as a lever when tightening an alternator belt.15 3. P3. Determine the unit vector normal to the plane when A and B are equal to.21 . (b) P : 6i .17 The vectorsP and Q are two adjacent sidesof a parallelogram. (b) : 2i + 2.14 x 3 . (c) r : 2i + " 5j + 6k. When he pushes down at A. 9l 120mm Fig. 3. (c) r : -4i+6j+10k. Determine the perpendiculardistanced from the line to the origin O of the systemof coordinates. w h e r e : B ' . (b). Determine the moment of that force about bolt C if its line of action passes through O. Determine the area of the parallelogram when (a) P : -7i + 3j . (a) i + 2j .tg A plane contains the vectors A and B. :2i + 3j . f 5 F o r m t h e v e c t o r p r o d u c t s BC a n d B ' X C . a force of 485 N is exertedon the alternatorat B. 3. 3.f6 A line passes throughthe points (20 m. that the position vectorof A is (a) r : i * j + k. Fig.Skand 4i . Determine t]le moment of the force about A. Fig. P3.3k that acts at a point A. 3.3k andg : 2i + 2j+ 5k.19 Determine the moment about the oriein O of the force F : 4i + 5j .2O Determine the moment about the origin O of the force F = -Asurn" -2i + 3j + 5k that acts at a point A.B ) .5k. a n d B use the results obtained to prove the identity s i n a c o s B : j s i n( a + 9 1 + j s i n( a .5j . 3.lk.4k.5k.7j . P3.3j + 4k. 16 m) and (-1 m.3.1. respectively.3j + 2k and -2i * 6j .5j . Assurnethat the position vector of A is (a) r : 2i .21 A 200-N force is applied as shown to the bracketABC.2kandQ : -2i + 5j-k.

Determine the value of a that minimizes the perpendicular distance from point C to a section of pipeline that passesthrough ooints A and B. 3.33 3.26 3.22. Determine moment in the aboutC of the resultant forceRo exerted the davitat A. determine the pelpendicular distancefrom point A to portion DE of cableDEF.31 In Prob. P3. determine the perpendicular distancefrom point C to portion AD of the line ABAD.27 3. 3.25.24. 3. In Prob. determine the pelpendicular distancefrom point O to cableBC.3O In Prob. on 93 Fig.32 3.34 .The tension line ABAD is 82 lb. Fis.3.3. determine the perpendicular distancefrom point C to a line drawn through points A and B. 3.34 In Prob.26. P3. determine the perpendicular distancefrom point D to a line drawn through points A and B.22. 3. In Prob. determine the perpendicular distancefrom point A to a line drawn through points C and G. determine the pelpendicular distancefrom point O to cableAB.24.26 A small boat hangs from two davits. 3.3. 3.29 InProb.28 In Prob. one of which is shown in the figure. 3.25. 3.

26 3. one of which is shown in the figure. 3.27 3. determine the pelpendicular distancefrom point O to cableAB. 3. P3.22.22. Fis. determine the perpendicular distancefrom point C to portion AD of the line ABAD. Determine moment in the aboutC of the resultant forceRo exerted the davitat A.25. 3.32 3.3. P3.The tension line ABAD is 82 lb. determine the perpendicular distancefrom point A to a line drawn through points C and G. determine the perpendicular distancefrom point D to a line drawn through points A and B.29 InProb.33 3. 3. Determine the value of a that minimizes the perpendicular distance from point C to a section of pipeline that passesthrough ooints A and B.26. determine the pelpendicular distancefrom point A to portion DE of cableDEF. on 93 Fig. 3. 3.3.26 A small boat hangs from two davits. 3.24.34 In Prob. 3.31 In Prob. In Prob.3. determine the pelpendicular distancefrom point O to cableBC.25.34 .3O In Prob.24. In Prob. 3.28 In Prob. determine the perpendicular distancefrom point C to a line drawn through points A and B.

1 f. k : 0 k . 3. we note that (3.24) and (3. and negative otherwise.s.30) for their scalar product and write PQ cos 0 : P.:€.21).we equate the expressions obtained in (3.'. + PaQa* P. i : 0 (3.oenaxi.9 Scolor Productof Two Vectors 95 i .:Pcos0 (3. that is.the expression obtained P . If P and OL are at a right angle. 3. i : i . P. Q reduces for to . Consider now a vector Q directed along OL and of the same senseas OL (Fig.f*€.. if 0 is acute. *-. we have P. 3.18a' In the particular casewhen P and Q are equal. i ' j : 0 j .definition of the scalarproduct it follows that the scalarproducts of the unit vectors are either zero or one.P: ri + rl + P!: pz (3. 3. The projection of P on the axi.rPvQa+P^Q^ cos0: PQ (3.2r Por. Projecti. Consider a vector P forming an angle 0 with an axis.Q. or directed line.Q: P Q c o s0 : P o r Q .22). Angleformed by tuo giaen oectors...2e) Thus. OL (Fig.sOL is defined as the scalar Fig.ffi.30) P. the projection of P on OL is zero. . k : I k .Q.33) We note that the projection Pe1 is equal in absolute value to the length of the segmentOA.Q" Solving for cos 0. The scalarproduct of P and Q can be expressed as P . it will be positive if OA has the same senseas the axis OL.32) 2.31) Appliccfions l. Let two vectors be given in terms of their components: P:P"i+Psi+P"k Q: Q"i+ Qai+ Q"k To determine the angle formed by the two vectors.E. j : 1 j .onof a oector on a gi.

that is. Q reduces for to . P.32) 2.30) P. *-. Angleformed by tuo giaen oectors.31) Appliccfions l.P: ri + rl + P!: pz (3.oenaxi. . OL (Fig. 3.2e) Thus.rPvQa+P^Q^ cos0: PQ (3. Consider now a vector Q directed along OL and of the same senseas OL (Fig.Q.21).E.f*€. Consider a vector P forming an angle 0 with an axis.24) and (3.we equate the expressions obtained in (3. if 0 is acute.1 f. and negative otherwise. it will be positive if OA has the same senseas the axis OL.sOL is defined as the scalar Fig.:€.ffi.. 3. j : 1 j . + PaQa* P.22)..onof a oector on a gi. If P and OL are at a right angle.9 Scolor Productof Two Vectors 95 i .definition of the scalarproduct it follows that the scalarproducts of the unit vectors are either zero or one. 3. The projection of P on the axi.Q. or directed line.Q: P Q c o s0 : P o r Q . i : i . i : 0 (3.:Pcos0 (3. i ' j : 0 j . we have P.s.Q" Solving for cos 0. the projection of P on OL is zero. k : I k . The scalarproduct of P and Q can be expressed as P .18a' In the particular casewhen P and Q are equal.33) We note that the projection Pe1 is equal in absolute value to the length of the segmentOA. Projecti. k : 0 k . we note that (3..'.30) for their scalar product and write PQ cos 0 : P.the expression obtained P .2r Por. 3. Let two vectors be given in terms of their components: P:P"i+Psi+P"k Q: Q"i+ Qai+ Q"k To determine the angle formed by the two vectors.

the concept of moment of a force about an axis.P .40) This expression be written in a more compactform if we observe can that it representsthe expansionof a determinant: a'\/ v' Fig..rcular permutation. Let OL be z Fig.30)to express scalar the product of S and V." P. V : S " V .(P.26). Since the parallelepipeddefined in the preceding paragraphis independent of the order in which the three vectors are taken. P. 3. It also folloys from Eq. we can introduce a new concept.9) for the cornponents V. P.PrQ") (3. The mixed triple product will be zero if S. (3.p.we observethat the sign of the mixed triple product remains unchangedif the vectors are permuted in such a way that they are still read in counterclockwise order.26 lsS . and Q can be defined equallywell as S .3e) Arranging in a circle and in counterclockwiseorder the letters representingthe three vectors(Fig.Q) + sy(p. P..27).3. and Q can be expressed terms of the rectangular in components thesevectors..(P x Q): p.(pyQ. P. + Substitutingfrom the relations(3.p. p.Q^) + s.39)whlch were derived earlier from geometricalconsiderations.1 I Momentof o Forceobout o Given Axis 97 : ..l P-. (P x Q) or (S x P) .I I MOMENT A FORCE OF ABOUT GIVEN AXIS A Now that we have further increasedour knowledge of vector algebra.27 .gv . 3. Consider again a force F acting on a rigid body and the moment M6 of that force about O (Fie. 3.S .39)and from the commutaiiveproperty of scalarproducts that the mlred triple product of S. ( Q x P ).l (3.41) By applying the rules goveming the permutation of rows in a determinant. although not the same sign. and Q *ill all have the same absolutevalue.+ S u V y S = V . and Q are coplanar.(Q x s): Q.tip of Sl. of DenotingP x Q by V and using formula (3.3.e . the six mixed triple products which can be formed with S. we could easilyverify the relations (3. Such a permutation is said to be a ci. _ p. ( P x Q )= lp. J ). Qv l. ( Sx e ) : . ( p x S ) (3. The mixed triple product of the vectors S.1 s.(s x P) 3. (p x Q) : s. It is easily shown that s. Q. we of obtain s . we write S . ( P x Q ) : S .

l P-.39)whlch were derived earlier from geometricalconsiderations. Consider again a force F acting on a rigid body and the moment M6 of that force about O (Fie.. + Substitutingfrom the relations(3..l (3.rcular permutation. P. and Q *ill all have the same absolutevalue. ( P x Q ) : S . P.tip of Sl.26 lsS .40) This expression be written in a more compactform if we observe can that it representsthe expansionof a determinant: a'\/ v' Fig.1 I Momentof o Forceobout o Given Axis 97 : . although not the same sign. and Q can be expressed terms of the rectangular in components thesevectors.30)to express scalar the product of S and V.PrQ") (3..(pyQ.27 . The mixed triple product will be zero if S.Q^) + s.9) for the cornponents V." P.gv .we observethat the sign of the mixed triple product remains unchangedif the vectors are permuted in such a way that they are still read in counterclockwise order. It also folloys from Eq.26).. 3. p.3. V : S " V . of DenotingP x Q by V and using formula (3. _ p. Let OL be z Fig.e . P. ( P x Q )= lp. and Q are coplanar. the six mixed triple products which can be formed with S.I I MOMENT A FORCE OF ABOUT GIVEN AXIS A Now that we have further increasedour knowledge of vector algebra.the concept of moment of a force about an axis. ( p x S ) (3.p. we can introduce a new concept.41) By applying the rules goveming the permutation of rows in a determinant. 3. ( Sx e ) : . and Q can be defined equallywell as S . we write S . J ). we could easilyverify the relations (3.P . Since the parallelepipeddefined in the preceding paragraphis independent of the order in which the three vectors are taken. Q. P.1 s. Such a permutation is said to be a ci.3e) Arranging in a circle and in counterclockwiseorder the letters representingthe three vectors(Fig.(s x P) 3.+ S u V y S = V . It is easily shown that s. ( Q x P ). (P x Q) or (S x P) .27).3.Q) + sy(p.(P. we of obtain s .(Q x s): Q.39)and from the commutaiiveproperty of scalarproducts that the mlred triple product of S.p. The mixed triple product of the vectors S. Qv l. (p x Q) : s. (3. 3.(P x Q): p.S .

j. (3.Indeed.3. when computing the moment of F about the given axis.the moment of a force F applied at A about an axis whlch does not pass through the origin is obtained by choosingan arbitrary point B on the axis (Fig. (ra4 x F) (3. )x F ] But. I zdn F^ (3. in the form of a determinant. \.[(ra-rr) x F ] + z \ . y. Mr: . Fy. and z axes. I F. Expressing Me.r") x tr'] :. F* and F^ of a force F acting on a rigid body measure.: AF^.es are respectively equal to the expressions obtained in Sec. the volume of the parallelepipedhaving the vectors i.18) We observethat-just_as the componentsF. ihe tendency of F to move the rigid body in the x. : direction cosines of axis BL XA/B: Xa . the moments M".zFu Mo:zF*-xF^ M^: xF.1 6 . .of the unit vectors i.respectively. The expression obtained for M61 thus reducesto its first term.Zg)and determining the projection on the axisBL of the moment M6 of F about B. More generally.46) z Fis.t. Mu. y. denoting by M67 the result obtained with a different point C. F.. We write Mnr: i . and k for r\ in (3.. \y. it follows from Sec.A can be any point on the line of action of F.respectively. .45) where tNB : tA .6 that.[ . rr . we obselve that the expressions thus obtained for the moments of F about the coordtinate ax.16. I i.29 where \".tc lie in the sameline. since the vectors. 3.f0).nis.[.rn represents the vector drawn from B to A. and M^ of F about the coor&nate axesmeasurethe tendencv of F io impart to the rigid body a motion of rotation about the r. and z directions. we have Msr: | .Xn rjdn: At . lxe73 Aen F.!lF. l l.ln F..8 for the components of the moment M6 of F about O: 3.\ and tB . 3. [ ( " " . 3. : components of force F Zdtn: Za . S.\.1 I Momentof o Forceobout o Given Axis 99 M.42). In addition. we have Mcr:.[(ra . as is the mixed triple product of these three vectors (Sec.Zn It should be noted that the result obtained is independent of the choice of the point B on the given a. which is the expression used earlier to define Mpy. and F for sidesis zero.

(ra4 x F) (3.zFu Mo:zF*-xF^ M^: xF.42). (3. F. I i.[(ra . and z directions. S. : components of force F Zdtn: Za .29 where \". and M^ of F about the coor&nate axesmeasurethe tendencv of F io impart to the rigid body a motion of rotation about the r.\.rn represents the vector drawn from B to A. y. and z axes.Zg)and determining the projection on the axisBL of the moment M6 of F about B. 3.8 for the components of the moment M6 of F about O: 3. \y. and k for r\ in (3. since the vectors.1 I Momentof o Forceobout o Given Axis 99 M. I zdn F^ (3. in the form of a determinant. lxe73 Aen F.nis. y. 3. More generally.1 6 .. 3. denoting by M67 the result obtained with a different point C. as is the mixed triple product of these three vectors (Sec. the moments M". The expression obtained for M61 thus reducesto its first term.46) z Fis.18) We observethat-just_as the componentsF. Fy. )x F ] But. it follows from Sec.respectively. . [ ( " " .!lF.es are respectively equal to the expressions obtained in Sec.f0).16.ln F. we have Msr: | .Indeed.[.3. In addition. the volume of the parallelepipedhaving the vectors i. j. we have Mcr:. we obselve that the expressions thus obtained for the moments of F about the coordtinate ax.Xn rjdn: At . I F.the moment of a force F applied at A about an axis whlch does not pass through the origin is obtained by choosingan arbitrary point B on the axis (Fig. and F for sidesis zero.. ihe tendency of F to move the rigid body in the x.: AF^.A can be any point on the line of action of F.[(ra-rr) x F ] + z \ .6 that.45) where tNB : tA . \.of the unit vectors i. rr .respectively. : direction cosines of axis BL XA/B: Xa . We write Mnr: i . .. when computing the moment of F about the given axis. F* and F^ of a force F acting on a rigid body measure. Mr: . Expressing Me.r") x tr'] :.Zn It should be noted that the result obtained is independent of the choice of the point B on the given a.t. Mu.tc lie in the sameline. l l.[ . which is the expression used earlier to define Mpy.\ and tB .

Also. 3. and F in terms of their rectangularcomponentsand to then evaluatethe mixed triple product . 2. -. The cosine of the desired angle is then obtained by dividing the scalarproduct of the two vectorsby the product of their magnitudes[Eq.Mo:. fomputing the projeclion of s vecfor P on a given cxis Ol"" tn general.42) where r\ is the unit vector along OL and r is a position vectorfrom any point on the line OL to any point on the line of action of F.Yot will also use the mixed triple product of three vectorsto find the mnment of a force about rLgi..tr. First ex?ress vectors the in terms of their componentsand determine the magnitudesof the two vectors.. as Mor:i.and they must be placed in the proper order. r. The two essentialstepsin this procedure are to first express. Take care that i has the correct sense(that is. Determining fhe mcmenf lll6..\ is directed along one of the coordinate axes.. P in component form.. In most three-dimensionalproblems the most convenient wav to compule the mixed triple product is by using a determinant z -. begin by expressing and the unit vector .5.that defines the direction of the axis.1. .-.. : As noted in the text.32)J..\ .:. is directed from O to L).. The required projection is then equal to the scalarproduct P . The procedure you should follow when computing the moment of a force about an axis is illustrated in part c of Sample Prob. (contirrued) roI .Ms1 is equal to the scalarcomponent of Me along that axis. when . However. As was the casefor the moment of a force about a point.aen axis and the perpendicular distancebetueen two lines.(rxF) (3.. (r x F) to determine the moment about the axis. l.. .:. choosingthe most convenientposition vector will simplify your calculations. recall the waming of the previouslesson: vectorsr and F the must have the correct sense.al c force sbout a given uxis OL We defined Ms. 3. the projection is also given by P cos0.{n the problems for this lessonyou will apply the scalar product or dot prodact Iof trvo vectors to determine the angleformed by tuo giaen oectors and the projection of a force on a gioen axis.f..if you know the angle 0 formed by P and r\.\.tr. €clculctlng the ongle formed by fwo given vectars. (3.

42) where r\ is the unit vector along OL and r is a position vectorfrom any point on the line OL to any point on the line of action of F.5. (3.that defines the direction of the axis.Yot will also use the mixed triple product of three vectorsto find the mnment of a force about rLgi.al c force sbout a given uxis OL We defined Ms.and they must be placed in the proper order.. begin by expressing and the unit vector . r.tr.. the projection is also given by P cos0.\. and F in terms of their rectangularcomponentsand to then evaluatethe mixed triple product .... fomputing the projeclion of s vecfor P on a given cxis Ol"" tn general.. As was the casefor the moment of a force about a point.:.32)J. Also.(rxF) (3. (contirrued) roI . P in component form.Mo:. is directed from O to L).aen axis and the perpendicular distancebetueen two lines. The procedure you should follow when computing the moment of a force about an axis is illustrated in part c of Sample Prob. 3. In most three-dimensionalproblems the most convenient wav to compule the mixed triple product is by using a determinant z -. The two essentialstepsin this procedure are to first express. However.1. (r x F) to determine the moment about the axis.\ is directed along one of the coordinate axes. as Mor:i. First ex?ress vectors the in terms of their componentsand determine the magnitudesof the two vectors. The required projection is then equal to the scalarproduct P . 3. .. l.. when . Take care that i has the correct sense(that is. The cosine of the desired angle is then obtained by dividing the scalarproduct of the two vectorsby the product of their magnitudes[Eq. recall the waming of the previouslesson: vectorsr and F the must have the correct sense. Determining fhe mcmenf lll6.{n the problems for this lessonyou will apply the scalar product or dot prodact Iof trvo vectors to determine the angleformed by tuo giaen oectors and the projection of a force on a gioen axis.. -... €clculctlng the ongle formed by fwo given vectars. . 2.tr.:.-.if you know the angle 0 formed by P and r\. : As noted in the text.\ .Ms1 is equal to the scalarcomponent of Me along that axis. choosingthe most convenientposition vector will simplify your calculations.f.

determine(a)the angle between cable AC and the boom AB.42 Knowing that the tension in cable AD is 405 N. and use the results obtained to prove the identity c o s a c o s B : ] c o s ( a + 9 1 + j c o s( a . compute the scalarproductsp . where B : B'. *. 3. P3. BranchIines iD anclEF ioin AB as shorin. Determine the angle formed by pipes AB and EF.39 ond P3.SS Considerthe volleyball net shown. S"4l Knorvingthat the tensionin cableAC is 1260 N. Determine the angle formed by pipes AB arxl CD.aneand forrns an angle of 37" with the ziiis.4i + 5j . e. Determine the angle formed by guy wires AB and AC. e . (b) the projection on AB of the force exertedbv cableAD at ooint A.3k. S.j + 2k.4O 3"1*S Considerthe volleyball net shown. Determine the angle formed by guy wires AC and AD.S"35 Given the vectors P : 3i .41 ond P3. a Fig. p . (b) the projection on AB of the force exertedby cableAC at point A. S.Jn. S-Sf 3. Branch lines Cb and EF ioin AB as sho. andQ.F ) . C and B' .3? Section AB of a pipeline lies in the yz plane and forms an angle r-rf37" with the a aiis.42 r03 . P3. Fig.S. ancl S : -2i + 3j . C. Section Ats of a pipeline lies in the yz pl. determine (a) the angle between cable AD and the boom AB.$& Form the scalarproductsB .k.

j + 2k. S-Sf 3. C. P3. Determine the angle formed by pipes AB arxl CD. e . P3. 3. Section Ats of a pipeline lies in the yz pl. e. p .3k.Jn.4i + 5j .3? Section AB of a pipeline lies in the yz plane and forms an angle r-rf37" with the a aiis.F ) . a Fig.39 ond P3.42 Knowing that the tension in cable AD is 405 N.42 r03 .S.41 ond P3. (b) the projection on AB of the force exertedby cableAC at point A. S"4l Knorvingthat the tensionin cableAC is 1260 N. S.4O 3"1*S Considerthe volleyball net shown. determine(a)the angle between cable AC and the boom AB. S. Determine the angle formed by pipes AB and EF.SS Considerthe volleyball net shown. determine (a) the angle between cable AD and the boom AB. Determine the angle formed by guy wires AC and AD.k. ancl S : -2i + 3j . and use the results obtained to prove the identity c o s a c o s B : ] c o s ( a + 9 1 + j c o s( a . andQ.S"35 Given the vectors P : 3i . *. (b) the projection on AB of the force exertedbv cableAD at ooint A. where B : B'. Determine the angle formed by guy wires AB and AC. Branch lines Cb and EF ioin AB as sho.$& Form the scalarproductsB . C and B' . BranchIines iD anclEF ioin AB as shorin.aneand forrns an angle of 37" with the ziiis. compute the scalarproductsp . Fig.

determine the distance a. 3.54 When a force F is applied to the handle of the valve shown.49 To lift a heavy crate.50 3. Determine the largest allowabletension in line ABAD when r : 6 ft.5I. a force F of magnitude70 lb is applied to the handle of the valve. It is known that the moment about the z axis of the resultant force Ra exerted on the davit at A must not exceed 279 lb . Problems | 05 3. {t M.. m and -460 N . respectively. P3. 9. ft. of F about the y axis.5O To lift a heavy crate. ft in absolutevalue. 3. and M. determinethe momentM. : -6f lb .5t A small boat hangs from two davits. determine @ and d. atd M^: -81 lb . determine the larsest allowable distance r when the tension in line ABAD is 60 lb. one of which is shown in the figure. its momentsabout the x and z axesare. : -43 lb . ft. : -77 lb .3. Knowing that the moments about the y and the z axesof the force exertedat B by portion AB of the rope are. Knowing that the man applies a 195-N force to end A of the rope and that the moment & ttrut force about the y axis is 132 N . 3.52 For the davit of Prob. m. Knowing that g : 25. respectiveln 120 N . a man uses a block and tackle attached to the bottom of an I-beam at hook B.49 ond P3. Fig.53 To loosena frozen valve. a man usesa block and tackle attachedto the bottom of an I-beam at hook B. m. . M. ft. determine the distancea. For d : 27 in.

3. . ft in absolutevalue. respectively. determine the distancea.3. Determine the largest allowabletension in line ABAD when r : 6 ft. its momentsabout the x and z axesare.50 3. atd M^: -81 lb . : -77 lb . 3. determine the larsest allowable distance r when the tension in line ABAD is 60 lb. For d : 27 in. : -43 lb . determine @ and d. m. m. of F about the y axis. Knowing that the man applies a 195-N force to end A of the rope and that the moment & ttrut force about the y axis is 132 N .5I. and M. one of which is shown in the figure. m and -460 N . {t M. Fig. determine the distance a..54 When a force F is applied to the handle of the valve shown. ft.49 To lift a heavy crate.5t A small boat hangs from two davits. a man uses a block and tackle attached to the bottom of an I-beam at hook B.49 ond P3. 3.53 To loosena frozen valve. It is known that the moment about the z axis of the resultant force Ra exerted on the davit at A must not exceed 279 lb .52 For the davit of Prob.5O To lift a heavy crate. Knowing that g : 25. respectiveln 120 N . a man usesa block and tackle attachedto the bottom of an I-beam at hook B. ft. determinethe momentM. a force F of magnitude70 lb is applied to the handle of the valve. Knowing that the moments about the y and the z axesof the force exertedat B by portion AB of the rope are. : -6f lb . P3. ft. 9. Problems | 05 3. M.

58. *3.67 In Prob. Problems 107 Fig. determine the perpendicular distance between cable AE and the line joining points D and B.69 In Prob. determine the perpendicular distancebetween portion BG of the cable and the diagonalAD.65 In Prob.63 Two forces F1 and F2 in spacehave the same magnitude F. "3"64 In Prob. determine the moment of that force about the line joining points A and D. 3. determine the perpendicular distance between cableEC and the line joining points A and D.55.61 A sign erected on uneven ground is guyed by cablesEF and EG.6f ond P3. determine the perpendicular distance between cable EF and the line joining points A and D.62 3"62 A sign erected on unevenground is guyed by cablesEF atdBc. Prove that the moment of F1 about the line of action of F2 is equal to the moment of Fe about the line of action of F1.66 In Prob.3. determine the perpendicular distance between portion BII of the cable and the diagonal AD. *3. "3. determine the perpendicular distance between cable CF and the line joining points D and B.If the force exertedby cable EC at E is 54 lb. determine the moment of that force about the line joining points A and D.68 In Prob. 3.62. If the force exertedby cable EF at E is 46 lb. 3. P3.56. 3. *3. 3. . *3. 3.57. 3.61.

*3.3. *3.62 3"62 A sign erected on unevenground is guyed by cablesEF atdBc.61 A sign erected on uneven ground is guyed by cablesEF and EG.58.55. determine the perpendicular distance between cable CF and the line joining points D and B. Prove that the moment of F1 about the line of action of F2 is equal to the moment of Fe about the line of action of F1. determine the perpendicular distance between cableEC and the line joining points A and D. 3. determine the perpendicular distancebetween portion BG of the cable and the diagonalAD. . "3"64 In Prob.66 In Prob.65 In Prob. 3.63 Two forces F1 and F2 in spacehave the same magnitude F.68 In Prob. 3.67 In Prob. determine the moment of that force about the line joining points A and D. determine the perpendicular distance between cable EF and the line joining points A and D.6f ond P3. P3. determine the moment of that force about the line joining points A and D. *3. Problems 107 Fig. 3.61.69 In Prob. determine the perpendicular distance between portion BII of the cable and the diagonal AD.62. *3. 3.57. "3.If the force exertedby cable EC at E is 54 lb. determine the perpendicular distance between cable AE and the line joining points D and B. 3. 3.56. If the force exertedby cable EF at E is 46 lb.

The first coupleconsists the forcesF1 and -F1 of of magnitude F. 3.2) and the principle of transmissibility (Sec..and the secondcoupleconsists the forcesF2 and -F2 of of magnitude F2. which are located at a distanced1 from each other (Fig. it should not be accepted as a substitute for logical reasoning.). 2. As seenin the preceding section. .the only motion a couple can impart to a rigid body is a rotation. Before stating that two systems(or groups) of forces have the same effect on a rigid body. Since each of the three couples shown has the same moment M (same direction and samemagnitudeM : L20lb .(3) canceling two equal and opposite forces acting on the sameparticle. This evidence consistsof the parallelogramlaw for the addition of two forces (Sec.e can transform one of them i. and the relation F1d1: F2d2 (3. we can expectthe three couples to have the same effect on the box.oalenf.Sincethe two couples havethe samemoment M. (4) attachingto the sameparticle two equal and opposite forces.(2) resolving a force into two components.I3 EQUIVATENT COUPLES Figure 3.35a). 3.While intuitive feeling is of great help in the study of mechanics.we should not accept it hastily.35d). Let us now prove thattuoo coupleshaoingthe sampmoment M are equi.First consider two couples contained in the same plane. Therefore.o systemsof forces are equioalent (i.34 showsthree coupleswhich act successively the same on rectangularbox. 3.ntothe other by meansof one or seoeralof the following operations:(1) replacing two forcesacting on the sameparticle by their resultant.4e) must be satisfted. we will state that tu. they must have the same sense(assumedhere to be counterclockwise). Each of these operationsis easilyjustified on the basisof the parallelogramlaw or the principle of transmissibility.3. which is perpendicular to the plane of the figure.To prove that they are equivalent.3). and assumethat this plane coincides with the plane of the figure (Fig.35). which are located at a distanced. (5) moving a force along its line of action. 3.e. they have the same effect on a rigid body) if u. in. 3.34 (a) (b) (c) As reasonableas this conclusionappears.2from each other (Fig..13 Equivolent Couples | 09 30 lb z Fig. we should prove that fact on the basisof the experimental evidence introduced so far. 3. we shall show that the first couple can be transformed into the second by means of the operationslisted above.

which is perpendicular to the plane of the figure.I3 EQUIVATENT COUPLES Figure 3. we can expectthe three couples to have the same effect on the box. Before stating that two systems(or groups) of forces have the same effect on a rigid body.2) and the principle of transmissibility (Sec.While intuitive feeling is of great help in the study of mechanics. (4) attachingto the sameparticle two equal and opposite forces.13 Equivolent Couples | 09 30 lb z Fig. Each of these operationsis easilyjustified on the basisof the parallelogramlaw or the principle of transmissibility.4e) must be satisfted.e.35d). 2. 3.34 (a) (b) (c) As reasonableas this conclusionappears.2from each other (Fig. in.3. and assumethat this plane coincides with the plane of the figure (Fig. As seenin the preceding section. This evidence consistsof the parallelogramlaw for the addition of two forces (Sec. 3. they must have the same sense(assumedhere to be counterclockwise). Since each of the three couples shown has the same moment M (same direction and samemagnitudeM : L20lb . . we shall show that the first couple can be transformed into the second by means of the operationslisted above.(2) resolving a force into two components.).we should not accept it hastily. Therefore.e can transform one of them i. we should prove that fact on the basisof the experimental evidence introduced so far..35a).First consider two couples contained in the same plane.Sincethe two couples havethe samemoment M. Let us now prove thattuoo coupleshaoingthe sampmoment M are equi. it should not be accepted as a substitute for logical reasoning.(3) canceling two equal and opposite forces acting on the sameparticle.3).35).and the secondcoupleconsists the forcesF2 and -F2 of of magnitude F2. (5) moving a force along its line of action.. 3. 3. which are located at a distanced1 from each other (Fig.To prove that they are equivalent. which are located at a distanced.ntothe other by meansof one or seoeralof the following operations:(1) replacing two forcesacting on the sameparticle by their resultant. they have the same effect on a rigid body) if u.The first coupleconsists the forcesF1 and -F1 of of magnitude F.the only motion a couple can impart to a rigid body is a rotation. we will state that tu.o systemsof forces are equioalent (i. 3.34 showsthree coupleswhich act successively the same on rectangularbox. and the relation F1d1: F2d2 (3.oalenf. 3.

we saw in Sec.in whetherthey are contained the samemomentM are equivalentplaneor in parallelplanes. M : r x F 1 + r X F 2 But the first term in the expressionobtained represents the moment M1 of the couple in P1.I5 COUPLES BEREPRESENTED As we saw in Sec. There is therefore no need to draw the actual fbrces forming a givencouplein order to define its effect on a rigid body (Fig. 3'384)' it is sufficient to draw an arrow equal in magnitude and direction to the moment M of the couple (Fi-g.are equivalent.3.37 tF2) and we conclude that the sum of two couples of moments M1 and M2 is a couple of moment M equal to the vector sum of M1 and M2 (Fig. .igb to representthe couple defined in Fig.13.37b). BYVECTORS CAN O. 3. We have M : Ml * M2 (3.14 that the sitm of two couplesis itself a couple and that the moment M of the resultantcouplecan be obtainedby fbrmins the vector sum of the momentsMr and Me of the givencouples' obeythe law of additionofvectors.ni"trtandlng of thb mechanics rigid bodies.we er?ressthe moment M of the resulting couple as follows: M:rxR:rx(F1 and.bl" the resultant R of and'acting respectivelyat A and B. Similarly.. -F1 perof urri-" that the couplein P1consists two forcesF1 and and-acting -Fr pendicular to the line of intersection of the two planes '::l that the iespectively at A and B (Fig. respectively in P1 and pr. by 3. without any loss of generality. 3'38a can truly a be considered vector.| 4 ADDITION COUPIES Consider two intersecting planes P1 and P2 and tr.3. It is clear thit -F1 and -F2 form a couple' F1 and f". by Varignon'stheorem.38b).r" juit established very important for the of correct . whether they act in the sameplane or in parallel planes.3.bn the other hand.50) Fig. couples which have the same moment.3.couples in Fig. to of in i2 consists twoTorcesF2 and -F2 perpendicular AB "o.It indicates that when a couple acts on a rigid body. The only thing which corrnts is the moment of the couple (magnitudeand direction).3. S.37a).Coupleswith the samemoment will^harethi sameeffect on the rigid body. a"i the resultant -R of Denoting by r the vector joining B to A and recalling the definition of the mlment of a coupie (Sec. we assume. it does not matter where the two forces foiming the couple act or what magnitude and direction they have. the sarne is The property *" hu.and the arrowused TFus.12).and'the second term representsthe moment M2 of the couple in P2. 3.15 CouplesCon Be Represented Vectors I I I Ot 3.vocouples acting ^We can.

37 tF2) and we conclude that the sum of two couples of moments M1 and M2 is a couple of moment M equal to the vector sum of M1 and M2 (Fig.we er?ressthe moment M of the resulting couple as follows: M:rxR:rx(F1 and.38b).14 that the sitm of two couplesis itself a couple and that the moment M of the resultantcouplecan be obtainedby fbrmins the vector sum of the momentsMr and Me of the givencouples' obeythe law of additionofvectors. a"i the resultant -R of Denoting by r the vector joining B to A and recalling the definition of the mlment of a coupie (Sec.in whetherthey are contained the samemomentM are equivalentplaneor in parallelplanes. whether they act in the sameplane or in parallel planes..bl" the resultant R of and'acting respectivelyat A and B. 3'38a can truly a be considered vector.It indicates that when a couple acts on a rigid body. It is clear thit -F1 and -F2 form a couple' F1 and f".bn the other hand.15 CouplesCon Be Represented Vectors I I I Ot 3.50) Fig.ni"trtandlng of thb mechanics rigid bodies.and the arrowused TFus.12). 3. we assume. BYVECTORS CAN O. by 3.vocouples acting ^We can.I5 COUPLES BEREPRESENTED As we saw in Sec.3.igb to representthe couple defined in Fig.3. the sarne is The property *" hu.3.37b).Coupleswith the samemoment will^harethi sameeffect on the rigid body. 3. we saw in Sec. by Varignon'stheorem. M : r x F 1 + r X F 2 But the first term in the expressionobtained represents the moment M1 of the couple in P1.3.r" juit established very important for the of correct . 3'384)' it is sufficient to draw an arrow equal in magnitude and direction to the moment M of the couple (Fi-g.37a). . S. it does not matter where the two forces foiming the couple act or what magnitude and direction they have.are equivalent. -F1 perof urri-" that the couplein P1consists two forcesF1 and and-acting -Fr pendicular to the line of intersection of the two planes '::l that the iespectively at A and B (Fig. respectively in P1 and pr. to of in i2 consists twoTorcesF2 and -F2 perpendicular AB "o.3.and'the second term representsthe moment M2 of the couple in P2. We have M : Ml * M2 (3.| 4 ADDITION COUPIES Consider two intersecting planes P1 and P2 and tr. There is therefore no need to draw the actual fbrces forming a givencouplein order to define its effect on a rigid body (Fig. Similarly.13. without any loss of generality. couples which have the same moment. The only thing which corrnts is the moment of the couple (magnitudeand direction).couples in Fig.

3. the couple vector Me' must be the sum of Ms and the vector s x F' As noted above. it may to the however. however.the force-couplesystemobtainedby transferring of a force F from a point A to a point O consists F and a couplevector *y to F.it is necessary add to F a couple vector whose moment is equal to the moment about O' of the force F applied at O. Thus. Since Me is a free vector. together with F. plane containing r and F.. would have been attachedal O'' The relation existingbetween the moments of F about O and O' is obtained by writing Mo. to to irove the force F from-O to O'. : r' X F = (r * s) x F = r X F * s x F Mo.couple tends to impart to the rigid body the samerotational motion O that the foice F tended-toprod.2 The force exe*ed by eoch hond on the wrench could be replocedwith on equivolent system octing on the nut.corrsistingof F and of the cbuple vector Me. the moment Mo. Conversely.51) where s is the vector joining O' to O. and the combinationobtained (Fig' 3. : r' x F of F about O' should hu# b""" computed.40 This result could also have been establishedby observingthat. force-couplesystemcon-sistilg Me perpendicular of-"tot"" F and a couplevector Mo -hi"h aremutualiy perpendiatlar can be replacedby a iingle equivalentforce.39c)' is referred to as aforcelcouplesVstem If the force F had been moved from A to a different point O' (Fig. and a new force-couple system. the moment Mp' of F about O' is obtained by adding to the moment Me of F about O the vector product s X F representingthe moment about O' of the force F applied at O.404and c). force-couple .40band c). Thus.3.:Mo*sXF of 3.suuliu attachLdat O. This is done by mwing the force F in the-planeperpendicularto Me until its moment about O is equal to the momenl of the couple to be eliminated. Pholo 3.fir convenience. the couplevector M6 can be freely movedto O'.the couple vector is be applied anywhere.16 Resolutiono GivenForceinto " l-orce ol I ond o Louple I l3 (3. \a) (b) lc) Fis. 3. . in order to transfer to O' the force-couple system attached at O (Fig.t"" before it was transferred "boirtThe couple is represented a couplevector Me perpendicuiar by to O.

however.3. the moment Mo. : r' x F of F about O' should hu# b""" computed. \a) (b) lc) Fis. would have been attachedal O'' The relation existingbetween the moments of F about O and O' is obtained by writing Mo.the couple vector is be applied anywhere.suuliu attachLdat O. and the combinationobtained (Fig' 3. in order to transfer to O' the force-couple system attached at O (Fig. This is done by mwing the force F in the-planeperpendicularto Me until its moment about O is equal to the momenl of the couple to be eliminated. together with F. Pholo 3. the couplevector M6 can be freely movedto O'. Thus. force-couplesystemcon-sistilg Me perpendicular of-"tot"" F and a couplevector Mo -hi"h aremutualiy perpendiatlar can be replacedby a iingle equivalentforce. 3. plane containing r and F.corrsistingof F and of the cbuple vector Me.the force-couplesystemobtainedby transferring of a force F from a point A to a point O consists F and a couplevector *y to F.fir convenience. force-couple . it may to the however.couple tends to impart to the rigid body the samerotational motion O that the foice F tended-toprod. : r' X F = (r * s) x F = r X F * s x F Mo.51) where s is the vector joining O' to O. Thus. the moment Mp' of F about O' is obtained by adding to the moment Me of F about O the vector product s X F representingthe moment about O' of the force F applied at O. Since Me is a free vector. Conversely. 3. . the couple vector Me' must be the sum of Ms and the vector s x F' As noted above.40band c)..40 This result could also have been establishedby observingthat.16 Resolutiono GivenForceinto " l-orce ol I ond o Louple I l3 (3.404and c).t"" before it was transferred "boirtThe couple is represented a couplevector Me perpendicuiar by to O. to to irove the force F from-O to O'.:Mo*sXF of 3.it is necessary add to F a couple vector whose moment is equal to the moment about O' of the force F applied at O. and a new force-couple system.2 The force exe*ed by eoch hond on the wrench could be replocedwith on equivolent system octing on the nut.39c)' is referred to as aforcelcouplesVstem If the force F had been moved from A to a different point O' (Fig.

we thus obtain a force-couple system at B. g { r\ .4 0 0 N ) j i $ .(2'l N'rn)k BC : 12-t) nm ts &tlr*rnutiv* Sslufio$. r . We move the force F : -(400 N)j to O and at tle sametime : add a couple of moment M6 equal to the moment about O of the force in # k' its original position.(100 N)j r4(r0 \)j il5 . 2 6 0 m ) j x ( .(OC)cos 0"(400N)k 6 We concludethat _ (400 N)i (OC) cos 60" : 0. r' : t(OC)cos + 60oi (OC)sin60Jl x (-400N)j (81N'rrr)k : .*nnr. This Iast couple can be eliminated by applying F at a point C chosenin such a way that F = . the couple of moment -(24 N ' m)k can be moved to B. m)k is obtained. Since the effect of a couple does not depend on its location.m)k This couple is added to the couple of moment -(24 N ' m)k formed by the two 200-N forces. r r . . F l 4 .1 =-(60N. {W} _ l + r .SAMPLE PROBLEM3.060 m : 60 mm BC : 120 mm : 300 mm * 120 mm OC : 42t) x*tz OC : OB + BC . Determine the distancefrom the shaft to the point of application of this equivalent force.7 Replace the couple and lorce shown by an equivalent single force applied to the lever. 1 5 0 m )+ ( 0 .( B C ) c o s6 0 " ( 4 0 0 N ) k 150mm We conclude that (BC) cos 60' : 0. and a couple of moment -(84 N . The couple can now be eliminated by applpng F at a point C chosenin such a way that -(24N'm)k:nd*r : .O B x F : [ ( 0 . 60 mm 200 '/ ' 260mm a // / / /i gOtlJTlOtil i SoLuTloN t I 4 N'nJk First the given force and couple are replacedby an equivalentforce-couple systemat O.210 m : 210 mm .r4(x) N\j -(84N'm)k: od .k + 150mm ] M o .

Since the effect of a couple does not depend on its location. and a couple of moment -(84 N . F l 4 . 60 mm 200 '/ ' 260mm a // / / /i gOtlJTlOtil i SoLuTloN t I 4 N'nJk First the given force and couple are replacedby an equivalentforce-couple systemat O. 1 5 0 m )+ ( 0 . the couple of moment -(24 N ' m)k can be moved to B.O B x F : [ ( 0 . This Iast couple can be eliminated by applying F at a point C chosenin such a way that F = . The couple can now be eliminated by applpng F at a point C chosenin such a way that -(24N'm)k:nd*r : . r . m)k is obtained. g { r\ .k + 150mm ] M o .210 m : 210 mm . we thus obtain a force-couple system at B.7 Replace the couple and lorce shown by an equivalent single force applied to the lever.*nnr. Determine the distancefrom the shaft to the point of application of this equivalent force. .(2'l N'rn)k BC : 12-t) nm ts &tlr*rnutiv* Sslufio$.m)k This couple is added to the couple of moment -(24 N ' m)k formed by the two 200-N forces.(OC)cos 0"(400N)k 6 We concludethat _ (400 N)i (OC) cos 60" : 0.( B C ) c o s6 0 " ( 4 0 0 N ) k 150mm We conclude that (BC) cos 60' : 0.SAMPLE PROBLEM3. r' : t(OC)cos + 60oi (OC)sin60Jl x (-400N)j (81N'rrr)k : . We move the force F : -(400 N)j to O and at tle sametime : add a couple of moment M6 equal to the moment about O of the force in # k' its original position.060 m : 60 mm BC : 120 mm : 300 mm * 120 mm OC : 42t) x*tz OC : OB + BC .1 =-(60N.r4(x) N\j -(84N'm)k: od . {W} _ l + r . r r .(100 N)j r4(r0 \)j il5 .4 0 0 N ) j i $ . 2 6 0 m ) j x ( .

71 roon.AD/ \ 160 rnr.bl' tYo coupl&.in I I B Fis.ndi"ular distancebetween the two forces.7O 3.n 160mm Fis.""r.71 A plate in the shapeof a parallelogramis acted upon.7S Two parallel 60-N forces are applied to a lever as shown' Determine the moment of the couple formed by the two forces (a) by resolving each force into horlontal and vertical components and adding tie moments of the two resulting couples."r"i"dti r"r to tfuhten a screw into a block of wood Determine the magnitudLs of the two smallest horizontal forces that are equivalenl to M if they are applied (a) at corners A and D. P3. (b) by using the perp. (b) at corners B and C. P3. 21lb C 12th -T l lb l6. Fig. clockwise and d is 42 in. (c) the value of a if the resultant couple is 72 lb ' in.72 A couple M of magnitude 18 N ' m is applied to the handle of u . (b) the perpendiculardistancebetweenthe 12-lb forces if the resultant of tire i"o couplesis zero.72 r17 .tt'r by surnming the moments of the two forces about point A. P3. D"tettoine (a) the tnoment ol the couple formed by. (c) anywhere on the block.3. g.Jhg two 'zt-lb fo.

""r. D"tettoine (a) the tnoment ol the couple formed by. P3.in I I B Fis.bl' tYo coupl&.n 160mm Fis. g. Fig.71 roon. 21lb C 12th -T l lb l6.7O 3. (b) by using the perp.7S Two parallel 60-N forces are applied to a lever as shown' Determine the moment of the couple formed by the two forces (a) by resolving each force into horlontal and vertical components and adding tie moments of the two resulting couples. (c) the value of a if the resultant couple is 72 lb ' in. (c) anywhere on the block.72 A couple M of magnitude 18 N ' m is applied to the handle of u . (b) at corners B and C.71 A plate in the shapeof a parallelogramis acted upon.ndi"ular distancebetween the two forces.72 r17 .3. clockwise and d is 42 in.tt'r by surnming the moments of the two forces about point A.Jhg two 'zt-lb fo. (b) the perpendiculardistancebetweenthe 12-lb forces if the resultant of tire i"o couplesis zero."r"i"dti r"r to tfuhten a screw into a block of wood Determine the magnitudLs of the two smallest horizontal forces that are equivalenl to M if they are applied (a) at corners A and D. P3. P3.AD/ \ 160 rnr.

of 3.8O ShaftsA and B connect the gear box to the wheel assemblies ShaftsA and.B a tractor, and shaft C conneits it to the engine' lie in the vertical qz plane,while shaft C is directed along the r axis. Replacethe couples applied to the shafts with a single eq'uiualenfcouple, speciiying iti magnitude and the direction of its axis. 3.81 The tension in the cable attached to the end C of an adjustable boom ABC is 560 Ib. Replacethe force exerted by the cable at C with an equivalent force-couple system (a) at A, (b) at B' Fig. P3.80

Problems | 9 I

Fig. P3.81

3.82 A 1601b force P is applied at point A of a structural member, Replace P with (a) an equivalen[ force-couple system at C, (b) ar' f-r o*f.eqriivalent systemconsisiing of a vertical force at B and a second Fig. P3.82 force at D. 3.83 The 80-N horizontal force P acts on a bell crank as shown' (a) ReplaceP with an equivalentforce-couplesystemat B' (b) Find it" two verticalforcesai C and D that areiquivalent to the couple found in part a.

4ft----]

t_
Fis. P3.83

loomm

,,t--l

g.84 A dirigible is tethered by a cable attached to its cabin at B. If the tensioi in the cable is i040 N, replace the force exerted by the cable at B with an equivalentsystemformed by two parallel forces applied at A and C.

Fig. P3,84

of 3.8O ShaftsA and B connect the gear box to the wheel assemblies ShaftsA and.B a tractor, and shaft C conneits it to the engine' lie in the vertical qz plane,while shaft C is directed along the r axis. Replacethe couples applied to the shafts with a single eq'uiualenfcouple, speciiying iti magnitude and the direction of its axis. 3.81 The tension in the cable attached to the end C of an adjustable boom ABC is 560 Ib. Replacethe force exerted by the cable at C with an equivalent force-couple system (a) at A, (b) at B' Fig. P3.80

Problems | 9 I

Fig. P3.81

3.82 A 1601b force P is applied at point A of a structural member, Replace P with (a) an equivalen[ force-couple system at C, (b) ar' f-r o*f.eqriivalent systemconsisiing of a vertical force at B and a second Fig. P3.82 force at D. 3.83 The 80-N horizontal force P acts on a bell crank as shown' (a) ReplaceP with an equivalentforce-couplesystemat B' (b) Find it" two verticalforcesai C and D that areiquivalent to the couple found in part a.

4ft----]

t_
Fis. P3.83

loomm

,,t--l

g.84 A dirigible is tethered by a cable attached to its cabin at B. If the tensioi in the cable is i040 N, replace the force exerted by the cable at B with an equivalentsystemformed by two parallel forces applied at A and C.

Fig. P3,84

3.9t

A hexagonalplate is acted upon by the force P and the couple shown.betermine the Inugtrit,rd" and the direction of the smallest force P for which this sysiem can be replaced with a single {brce at E. A rectangular plate is acted upon by the force and couple :h9y (a) For is This systEm io be replacedwith a singleequivalentforce action ol the : 40", specify the magnitude and the a !"9 9f equivalent 6rce.'(b) Speciiy the value of a if the line of action of th'e equivalent force ii to intersect line CD 300 mm to the right of D.
300N

Problems l2l

3.tg

A

Fig. P3.9r

TI 240mm
I

t_

I

D

l*_noo

lig. P3.92 3.93 Rn eccentric, compressive1220-N force P is applied to the end of a cantilever beam. Replace P with an equivalent force-couple systemat G. 3.94 To keep a door closed,a wooden stick is wedgedbetween the floor Fig. P3.93 and the doorknob' The stick exerts at B a 175-N fbrce directed along line AB. Replacethat force with an equivalent force-couple system at C. .)

P

Fig. P3.94

3.9t

A hexagonalplate is acted upon by the force P and the couple shown.betermine the Inugtrit,rd" and the direction of the smallest force P for which this sysiem can be replaced with a single {brce at E. A rectangular plate is acted upon by the force and couple :h9y (a) For is This systEm io be replacedwith a singleequivalentforce action ol the : 40", specify the magnitude and the a !"9 9f equivalent 6rce.'(b) Speciiy the value of a if the line of action of th'e equivalent force ii to intersect line CD 300 mm to the right of D.
300N

Problems l2l

3.tg

A

Fig. P3.9r

TI 240mm
I

t_

I

D

l*_noo

lig. P3.92 3.93 Rn eccentric, compressive1220-N force P is applied to the end of a cantilever beam. Replace P with an equivalent force-couple systemat G. 3.94 To keep a door closed,a wooden stick is wedgedbetween the floor Fig. P3.93 and the doorknob' The stick exerts at B a 175-N fbrce directed along line AB. Replacethat force with an equivalent force-couple system at C. .)

P

Fig. P3.94

Replacethe given force-couplesystemwith an equivalent force-couplesystemat corner I{. . acting on a rigid body at by the points At. Az.99 SJAO The handpiece for a miniature industrial grinder-weight-0'9 lb.IOO g. Fs. 3.dded to the original system of -o-"rrt ".As seenin the precedingfrom Ai to a given point O if a^coupleof moment M1 equal to the fFr oi Fr about O is . determine (a) the magnitude and lb . in. . . defi. and its center of gravity is located on the y axis' The-head ot the handpiece is off#t in the ra plane in tuch . .ms' ar. assumingthat M1 0'68 ' in'. P3. section. Fig.ir*l 3. F3.iTJj: 123 '1" Fig.\trrg. we obtain the forces.ned _thepositi'onoectors11. P3.F1 can be moved etc.I7 TO OF OF REDUCTION A SYSTEM FORCES ONE ONE COUPLE AND FORCE Considera systemof forcesFr. ansle of 25" with the r direction. Reduct'on"oi. \a) (c) Fig. Show that the weight and the two couplesM1 and M2 can be replaced of the handp"iece : with a singlb equivalent force' Further. uid.t2.65 lb the direction of the equivalent force' (b) the point where its line of action intersectsthe ra Plane. .12 BT. couple M are applied to corner A of the block shown.3.3. .a14).BC fo. As. rs.41 . way that Iine.E9 A 46-lb force F and a 2120-lb ' in. . Fr. Repeating this procedure with Fz. . tutr': 0.

defi. Fr.I7 TO OF OF REDUCTION A SYSTEM FORCES ONE ONE COUPLE AND FORCE Considera systemof forcesFr. tutr': 0. .dded to the original system of -o-"rrt ". Show that the weight and the two couplesM1 and M2 can be replaced of the handp"iece : with a singlb equivalent force' Further.41 .ir*l 3. 3. way that Iine.65 lb the direction of the equivalent force' (b) the point where its line of action intersectsthe ra Plane. P3.E9 A 46-lb force F and a 2120-lb ' in. F3.IOO g. Replacethe given force-couplesystemwith an equivalent force-couplesystemat corner I{. . . . . P3. assumingthat M1 0'68 ' in'. couple M are applied to corner A of the block shown. Repeating this procedure with Fz. section. . Fs. .BC fo. \a) (c) Fig.3.iTJj: 123 '1" Fig. Fig. and its center of gravity is located on the y axis' The-head ot the handpiece is off#t in the ra plane in tuch .As seenin the precedingfrom Ai to a given point O if a^coupleof moment M1 equal to the fFr oi Fr about O is .a14). in. As. determine (a) the magnitude and lb .F1 can be moved etc.ned _thepositi'onoectors11.ms' ar.\trrg.3. rs. Reduct'on"oi.t2. we obtain the forces. uid. Az. . acting on a rigid body at by the points At. ansle of 25" with the r direction.12 BT.99 SJAO The handpiece for a miniature industrial grinder-weight-0'9 lb.

. we state that sfstem"at O is defined by the relationLs Fr.it may have the sameresultant and the iame moment resultant."i.57) into their rectanand sufficient condithe qular componJnts..It wilt hold. t*o'ryriu-" of forces. Resolvins the forces and moments in (3. the surns of of the forces ond ttu sums" the momnntsabout a gioen point O of ihu |or"ut of the two systemsare. the equi.for example. resultantsand their moment resultantsabout an arbii.thercfore. Recalling^thx the force'"o. and (2) the same rotation about the x.whtch act oi the sine rigid bodg are equioalentif. The result of be restatedas follows. the two sy-stems said to.57) Photo 3. Yet. it is impotani to note that this statementdoes^notapplyto any systemof ve6tors. Tnit eqliualent force-couple body. 2F.ren for"e sysi"m on the rigid cai be reduced to the same forces are eqri.-y. and only if.o systems forces actingon a rigid body are equipollent.-equaL ^Expressed matiiematically. lf tu.57) must be established only one point O. Two systemsof effect of tie gi. Fi' qi.ralenceof^two systemsof lbrces acting on a rigid lior.they are also equiaalent. :2F'. .we can express necessary fo.. respectittely.rpl" (3.a s)'stemof forcesacting on tdo not-lbrm u ti$q body' A difa set of independentparticleswhich on the sameparticlesmay happento be ferent systemof forcei acting equipolient to the first one.can.while equipollent.e. and a directions. " '-. (3.the tr"""sury and sufftcient conditions for the two systemsof forces to be equivalent are )F : )F' and )Mo '= 214' (3.3 The forcesexerled by the children with on upon the wogon con be reploced when onolyzing system force-couple equivolent the motionof the wogon.: 2F'. howeveawith respectto any point If the-two systemsare equivalent.bg) These equations have a simple physical siglificance'-They express to that two'systems of forces aie equivalent if they tend_ impart to the rigid body (1) the sametranslationin thr: x. .Consider. respectively.]when their are trary point O are respectivelyeqqal.. andFi. and z axes.57)or (3'58).e.ceding equipillent. A. Fz. if they "force-couple system at a gioen point O. 2 M u: 2 7 1 ' 2F':2P'^ 2M^:2P7' (3. since different forces will now act will on their effects thesepartic)es bediiflerent: particles. 2M*:2M'. be section.52).I9 EQUIPOLLENT of when two systems vectorssatisfi Eqs. In general. on the various of the two systems forces.3. Note that to prove that two systemsof forces-are equivalent..19 Equipollent We saw in the preceding sectionthat any systemof forces acting on at r."rp"Jtir"ly. are not equiualent' . F.I8 OF SYSTEMS FORCES EQUIVATENT of Systems Vectors 125 3.ystem a givenpoint a riqid body can be reduied to a force-couple completelythe systemchiracterizes O. body as follows: 2F.. OF SYSTEMS VECTORS 3.thus in established tle pre.aalunt. the with respectto secondof thJ relations(3.

the with respectto secondof thJ relations(3. howeveawith respectto any point If the-two systemsare equivalent.19 Equipollent We saw in the preceding sectionthat any systemof forces acting on at r."i. lf tu.thercfore.It wilt hold.57)or (3'58).rpl" (3. the two sy-stems said to.]when their are trary point O are respectivelyeqqal. if they "force-couple system at a gioen point O.57) must be established only one point O. are not equiualent' . and (2) the same rotation about the x. A. Fi' qi. 2 M u: 2 7 1 ' 2F':2P'^ 2M^:2P7' (3. 2F. and a directions. F.a s)'stemof forcesacting on tdo not-lbrm u ti$q body' A difa set of independentparticleswhich on the sameparticlesmay happento be ferent systemof forcei acting equipolient to the first one."rp"Jtir"ly.I9 EQUIPOLLENT of when two systems vectorssatisfi Eqs.o systems forces actingon a rigid body are equipollent.: 2F'. Tnit eqliualent force-couple body. Note that to prove that two systemsof forces-are equivalent.-equaL ^Expressed matiiematically. (3.can.. respectittely...ralenceof^two systemsof lbrces acting on a rigid lior. Recalling^thx the force'"o.whtch act oi the sine rigid bodg are equioalentif.-y. " '-. be section.3. we state that sfstem"at O is defined by the relationLs Fr. Two systemsof effect of tie gi. it is impotani to note that this statementdoes^notapplyto any systemof ve6tors. the surns of of the forces ond ttu sums" the momnntsabout a gioen point O of ihu |or"ut of the two systemsare.I8 OF SYSTEMS FORCES EQUIVATENT of Systems Vectors 125 3. In general. since different forces will now act will on their effects thesepartic)es bediiflerent: particles. body as follows: 2F. 2M*:2M'. respectively.e.ren for"e sysi"m on the rigid cai be reduced to the same forces are eqri. OF SYSTEMS VECTORS 3..while equipollent.aalunt..57) into their rectanand sufficient condithe qular componJnts.the tr"""sury and sufftcient conditions for the two systemsof forces to be equivalent are )F : )F' and )Mo '= 214' (3.e. resultantsand their moment resultantsabout an arbii. The result of be restatedas follows. Fz. andFi.57) Photo 3.we can express necessary fo.for example. and only if. :2F'.Consider. Yet.it may have the sameresultant and the iame moment resultant. and z axes.bg) These equations have a simple physical siglificance'-They express to that two'systems of forces aie equivalent if they tend_ impart to the rigid body (1) the sametranslationin thr: x.52). .3 The forcesexerled by the children with on upon the wogon con be reploced when onolyzing system force-couple equivolent the motionof the wogon. . the equi. Resolvins the forces and moments in (3. t*o'ryriu-" of forces.they are also equiaalent. on the various of the two systems forces..ystem a givenpoint a riqid body can be reduied to a force-couple completelythe systemchiracterizes O.thus in established tle pre.ceding equipillent.

l { \a) (b) . since the moment 9f a grven^ to force musi be perpendicular that force.8. we write x\-AR":MB whlch representsthe equation of the line of action of R' We -determine directlv the r and q intercepts of the line can also of action of the resultant by noting that U3 must be equal to the moment about O of the y component of R when R is attached at B (Fig. :2F.and thus the moment resultant M3.-we elpress that the moment of R about O must bJequal to M$. 3.3.44a) by acterized the components (3.ihe force-couple systgmat O is then char(Fig.22) of Sec. we the y axis(Fig. 3.ifhe force-couplesystemat O consists.On the other hand. Denoting by r and y the coordinatesof the point of application of the resultant and recalling formula (3.As noted in Sec.20 Further \a) (b) Fig. 3.3.59) M: : M3:2Mo &.the moment aboutO of of tle system. & : >F" of of Reduction o System Forces 127 3.44b) and to the moment of its r component when R is attachedat C (Fig. will each force therefore' lie in the zr plane.45o).3. 3.44 To reduce t}e system to a single force R. Parallelforces have parallel lines of action and may or may not here that the forcesare parallelto Assuming havethe samesense.the reductionof a systemof forces is considerablysimplified if the forces are resolvedinto rectangular components. F3 .44c).17. 3. note that their sum R will alsobe paralIel tb the y axis.

As noted in Sec. since the moment 9f a grven^ to force musi be perpendicular that force.8.3.59) M: : M3:2Mo &. note that their sum R will alsobe paralIel tb the y axis.-we elpress that the moment of R about O must bJequal to M$.On the other hand.45o). & : >F" of of Reduction o System Forces 127 3.44a) by acterized the components (3. Denoting by r and y the coordinatesof the point of application of the resultant and recalling formula (3. 3. 3.ihe force-couple systgmat O is then char(Fig.ifhe force-couplesystemat O consists.17.l { \a) (b) .the moment aboutO of of tle system.20 Further \a) (b) Fig.the reductionof a systemof forces is considerablysimplified if the forces are resolvedinto rectangular components. :2F. we the y axis(Fig.44b) and to the moment of its r component when R is attachedat C (Fig. 3.44c). 3. we write x\-AR":MB whlch representsthe equation of the line of action of R' We -determine directlv the r and q intercepts of the line can also of action of the resultant by noting that U3 must be equal to the moment about O of the y component of R when R is attached at B (Fig.44 To reduce t}e system to a single force R.3. F3 . will each force therefore' lie in the zr plane.3.22) of Sec.and thus the moment resultant M3. 3. Parallelforces have parallel lines of action and may or may not here that the forcesare parallelto Assuming havethe samesense.

therefore. the numerator in (3. R R (3. 3'47) system that the moment about O of this force--c^ouple and expressing force system. we note that if a different point O' had been used. A wrench. we can write a relation involving the position vector r of an arbitrary point P located on that axis' Attaching the resultantforce R and couple vector M1 at P (Fig. .62) would have been + R ' M 3 .61) (3.5 The pushing-turning of with the tightening o screw ossocioled linesof octionof the force the illuslroies collineor o ond couplevectorthot constitute wrench.3. the pitch of the wrench can be expressed y .= * ' 2 B . M B= R . we note that the of projection of M$ on the line of action of R is Mt: R.62) To define the aris of the wrench. the scalar product R ' M[ is independent of the choice of point O.17.35)obtainedin Sec. or. 3. pR*rxR:MB (3. Using the relation (3.64) Axrs ofute oction Phofo 3. is equil to th"e moment resultant M$ of the original we write M1*rxR:MB Eq.53) of Sec.M3 asl Thus.3. a force R and a couPle vector of of 3. (s x R) is identically equal to zero' we have R .63) (3. Fis.61). M B Thus.47 tThe erpressions obtained for the projection of the couple vector on tle line of action of R and for the pitch of the wrench are independent of the choice of point O.: R ' ( M B s x R ) = R ' M B+ R ' ( s x R ) Since the mixed triple product R . recalling (3.of the wrench. consistsof two collinear vectols.21 Reduction o System . namely.Forces 129 to o Wrench Mr=PR (3.9 for the projection the Recalling expression a vect"oron the line of action of another vector. : M .

the scalar product R ' M[ is independent of the choice of point O. M B Thus. is equil to th"e moment resultant M$ of the original we write M1*rxR:MB Eq. 3.= * ' 2 B . or. Using the relation (3. R R (3. M B= R . consistsof two collinear vectols. Fis.M3 asl Thus.3.53) of Sec. pR*rxR:MB (3. A wrench. . we can write a relation involving the position vector r of an arbitrary point P located on that axis' Attaching the resultantforce R and couple vector M1 at P (Fig.61) (3.Forces 129 to o Wrench Mr=PR (3.63) (3. 3'47) system that the moment about O of this force--c^ouple and expressing force system. we note that the of projection of M$ on the line of action of R is Mt: R. recalling (3.62) To define the aris of the wrench.3. the pitch of the wrench can be expressed y . therefore.21 Reduction o System . the numerator in (3. : M . we note that if a different point O' had been used.5 The pushing-turning of with the tightening o screw ossocioled linesof octionof the force the illuslroies collineor o ond couplevectorthot constitute wrench. (s x R) is identically equal to zero' we have R .62) would have been + R ' M 3 .9 for the projection the Recalling expression a vect"oron the line of action of another vector.: R ' ( M B s x R ) = R ' M B+ R ' ( s x R ) Since the mixed triple product R .of the wrench.35)obtainedin Sec. a force R and a couPle vector of of 3.64) Axrs ofute oction Phofo 3.61).47 tThe erpressions obtained for the projection of the couple vector on tle line of action of R and for the pitch of the wrench are independent of the choice of point O. namely.17.

04i .4.at O equivalent"to the given syitem of forces consistsof a force R M$ defined as follows: ar'rda "oopl" R: )F : (2.33i) + (looi + 7oj) x (3.4.00i) + (300i.400 .33j) + (3. Note tLat the moment of each force componentcould havebeen obtained directly from the diagram by first forying the product_ofits magnitude and perpendicular distince to O and then assigning. Determine (a) the lQuivalent exertsa"5000-1b ft force-couple system at the foremast O.tothis product a positive oi a negative sign depen&ng upon the senseof the moment' &" Single Tugboei" The force exerted by-a single tygbo$ must be equal to R.u.ri O is equal to Mfi.9. I tt. The force-couple f I .00i .54j) : (390 .L25.2000+ 1062+ 248)k : -1035k at system O is thus force-couple The equivalent hps)i .4. Each of the given forces is resolved into in the-diagram shown (hp units are used). mire powerful tugboat should push to produce the same effect as thJ original four tugboats.00i) + (-5'00i) + (3. (b) the point on the hull where a single.e'7ej) : -1035k -r(9. = 1ii35kip .:13 X-ti.70j) x (3.olnpon"nts ^ a.4.54i+ 3.-Clbservingthat the position vector of A is r:ri+70j we write r x R : M B (ri + 70j) x (e.yrt"'.04 kips fi : 13. ind itJpoint of application A must be such that the moment of R abo.41'1 li *: r3r .50i.79)k .79j u$: I(r x n) : (-90i + 50j) x (2.50i .3 hrl.633k : -1035k . Force-eouple Syriem Et (}.7ekips)j MB : -(1035 kip ' ft)k 3 = (9.04i .(9. Since all the forces are contained in the plane of the ffgure.ooi) + (400i+ 70j) x (-5.54i+ 354i) : 9. we could have expectedthe sum of their moments to be perpendicular to that plane. ti I '+ Remark.ooi.210 .3'9 SAelpLx pRSBLE&1 Four tugboats are used to bring an ocean liner to its pier Each tugboat force in the direction shown.

(b) the point on the hull where a single.04i .210 .79j u$: I(r x n) : (-90i + 50j) x (2.50i .4. Force-eouple Syriem Et (}.7ekips)j MB : -(1035 kip ' ft)k 3 = (9.54j) : (390 .at O equivalent"to the given syitem of forces consistsof a force R M$ defined as follows: ar'rda "oopl" R: )F : (2.(9.2000+ 1062+ 248)k : -1035k at system O is thus force-couple The equivalent hps)i .4.-Clbservingthat the position vector of A is r:ri+70j we write r x R : M B (ri + 70j) x (e.400 . Since all the forces are contained in the plane of the ffgure.yrt"'. mire powerful tugboat should push to produce the same effect as thJ original four tugboats.00i) + (300i.ooi) + (400i+ 70j) x (-5.33i) + (looi + 7oj) x (3. I tt. = 1ii35kip . The force-couple f I .00i . Each of the given forces is resolved into in the-diagram shown (hp units are used).olnpon"nts ^ a.04i .50i.:13 X-ti.633k : -1035k .54i+ 354i) : 9.4.L25.4. Note tLat the moment of each force componentcould havebeen obtained directly from the diagram by first forying the product_ofits magnitude and perpendicular distince to O and then assigning.tothis product a positive oi a negative sign depen&ng upon the senseof the moment' &" Single Tugboei" The force exerted by-a single tygbo$ must be equal to R.04 kips fi : 13.79)k .00i) + (-5'00i) + (3. Determine (a) the lQuivalent exertsa"5000-1b ft force-couple system at the foremast O.ooi.e'7ej) : -1035k -r(9.3'9 SAelpLx pRSBLE&1 Four tugboats are used to bring an ocean liner to its pier Each tugboat force in the direction shown. ti I '+ Remark. ind itJpoint of application A must be such that the moment of R abo.33j) + (3.3 hrl.ri O is equal to Mfi. we could have expectedthe sum of their moments to be perpendicular to that plane.u.70j) x (3.54i+ 3.41'1 li *: r3r .9.

and the computationsare arrangedin tabular form' Sincethe force R and the couple vector Mfi are mutually pelpendicuIar. 8Oz:240 z : 3. \: t".t.0{} ft 'tri We conclude that the resultant of the given systemof forces is r33 . Determine the **gnitnd" and point of applicationof the resultantof the four loads' lJni . Denoting by r the position vector of the desiredpoint of application.50ft R : lifi hps j. origin O of the cooridinate forie R and a couple vector M[ defined as follows: . The new poini of applicationof R will be selectedin the plane of the mat and in such a way that the moment of R about O will be equal to Uf .280k from which it follows that x -80r : -280 r : 3..l A square foundation mat supports the four columns shown.: SCIUTION We first reduce the given system of forces to a force-couple systemat the This force-couplesystemconsistsof a syst_em.!' ':. z : 3.1: a.l .and by r and we z its coordinates.(80kips)j .(280kip'ii)l R:>F M5:)(rxr) The position vectors of &e points of application of the various fbrces are detennined.50 {1.. aa:l: ...g:!i"itt \ i:: .l:.the force-couplesystemobtainedcan be reducedfuther to a singleforce R.' i:. tlul )tt.00ft id "t : 3.. write rx R :M6 (ri + zk) x (-80j) : 240i* 280k -80rk + 80zi :240i .

origin O of the cooridinate forie R and a couple vector M[ defined as follows: . The new poini of applicationof R will be selectedin the plane of the mat and in such a way that the moment of R about O will be equal to Uf . z : 3.. tlul )tt..l A square foundation mat supports the four columns shown.0{} ft 'tri We conclude that the resultant of the given systemof forces is r33 .l .. 8Oz:240 z : 3. and the computationsare arrangedin tabular form' Sincethe force R and the couple vector Mfi are mutually pelpendicuIar.(80kips)j .(280kip'ii)l R:>F M5:)(rxr) The position vectors of &e points of application of the various fbrces are detennined. Determine the **gnitnd" and point of applicationof the resultantof the four loads' lJni .g:!i"itt \ i:: .the force-couplesystemobtainedcan be reducedfuther to a singleforce R.' i:.50 {1.280k from which it follows that x -80r : -280 r : 3.: SCIUTION We first reduce the given system of forces to a force-couple systemat the This force-couplesystemconsistsof a syst_em. \: t".!' ':.00ft id "t : 3. write rx R :M6 (ri + zk) x (-80j) : 240i* 280k -80rk + 80zi :240i ..50ft R : lifi hps j.t.1: a. aa:l: .l:. Denoting by r the position vector of the desiredpoint of application..and by r and we z its coordinates.

a .8].t-fihis lessonwas devoted to the reduction and simplification of force systems.1'ia::::'.:.*.:.t ::. Denoting by s the vector drawn from B to A. := .orrl" convenie'nt the previous lessonthat further reduction to a single force is possibleonly if the (contirrued) 135 .::: J. The two systemsare equivalent (that is.::.: :::::::..: :::li:::. If you wish to reduce u [i. that is. but arbitrary.'the resultant R moment resultant Mfi can be obtained by adding to Mf._point A (as explainld in paragraph r).::: a.. you will be askedto perform the operabelow. you can write |li. 4.:::r i: a:':::. We have Ml:XrxF) where the position vectol r is drawn from A to any point on the line of action of F. the two _systems no need to checkwhether or not the secondequation equivaleni and there is then is satisfied.:i 2.. 3.a. ai:::: ::a::::::: . Redrcing c given force system to s single force. You will recall from Mfi ut .a':a:: .: You should recognizethat if the first of these equationsis not satisfied..:..::. if cannot be the two systems-donot have the same resultant R. :':t:. i.that is.::l:' :. Mf:Mf+sxn 3. First_reduce the given ofthe resultantR and the couple-vector systemconsisting to system a force-couple poittt a (asexplainedin paragraph1).::.e given rigid body) if the two force-couple systemsyou have obtained are identical.:l..:: i:::. they have the saine effect on tf. tions discussed E L Reducing force sysfemfo s force ond s couple ct o given point A" The forces. Checking whefher ?wo farce sYstems ore equivclent First reduce each force systeil to a force-couple system at the samn.: . you need_ remainsunchanged.and the new moments of the forces about A.:. the by and forceis thelesultanrR of the system is obtained adding various the moment of the couple is the mament resultant of the sptem and is obtained by adding the momentJ about A of the various forces.loving s force-couple sysfem from point A to poinf B. if )F : )F' and )Ma : )Mi .':.::l:. the moment about B of the force R applied at A lsample Prob.. the I In solrritrg problems which follow.: a:aa]:.'"n force sysiem to a force-couple system at point B after you hlve the not r_ecom_pute reduced ii to a force-couple system at point A..

The two systemsare equivalent (that is.a .a. but arbitrary.:.'the resultant R moment resultant Mfi can be obtained by adding to Mf.'"n force sysiem to a force-couple system at point B after you hlve the not r_ecom_pute reduced ii to a force-couple system at point A.*.e given rigid body) if the two force-couple systemsyou have obtained are identical. 3...::: J.:i 2. If you wish to reduce u [i. Checking whefher ?wo farce sYstems ore equivclent First reduce each force systeil to a force-couple system at the samn.and the new moments of the forces about A. :':t:.t ::..: :::li:::. the moment about B of the force R applied at A lsample Prob.':.:.: a:aa]:.::l:. := . they have the saine effect on tf. you will be askedto perform the operabelow. the two _systems no need to checkwhether or not the secondequation equivaleni and there is then is satisfied.: . the I In solrritrg problems which follow...8].::: a.:l.t-fihis lessonwas devoted to the reduction and simplification of force systems. tions discussed E L Reducing force sysfemfo s force ond s couple ct o given point A" The forces.::.:: i:::.: You should recognizethat if the first of these equationsis not satisfied. that is. Denoting by s the vector drawn from B to A. You will recall from Mfi ut .: :::::::. the by and forceis thelesultanrR of the system is obtained adding various the moment of the couple is the mament resultant of the sptem and is obtained by adding the momentJ about A of the various forces. you can write |li.loving s force-couple sysfem from point A to poinf B._point A (as explainld in paragraph r). you need_ remainsunchanged..:::r i: a:':::. if )F : )F' and )Ma : )Mi ..1'ia::::'.::.::.a':a:: .that is. We have Ml:XrxF) where the position vectol r is drawn from A to any point on the line of action of F.:. if cannot be the two systems-donot have the same resultant R..:.::l:' :. ai:::: ::a::::::: .orrl" convenie'nt the previous lessonthat further reduction to a single force is possibleonly if the (contirrued) 135 . 4. Redrcing c given force system to s single force. i. First_reduce the given ofthe resultantR and the couple-vector systemconsisting to system a force-couple poittt a (asexplainedin paragraph1). Mf:Mf+sxn 3.

j) \ E*----- d.1t t0 lb :. force and the &stance{rom point A 3. 3.n 2ft Fig.l. Replace eachloadingwith an equivalentforce-couplesystemat end A ot the beam. (b) Which of the loadingsare equivalent? 200\ 3.fty') 2.]b. 3.m I r I r. which has been bent into the shape shown. Prob. P3. (c) act systems at the cornersof a piece of force-couple 3..101which is equivalent to this loading. Determine which of these svstemsis equivalent to a force F : (10 lb)i and a couple of moment M : (15 lb ' ft)j + (15 lb ' ft)k located at the origin.101d.900 \' { 200N'rn 2..100N. P3.rn j . Ib.103 Determine the singleequivalent to its line of action foi the beam and loading of (a) Prob.101b.3.101e.3. Fig.104 .r. ] r--r-=---*w.102 A 4-m-lonqbeam is loaded as shown. (b) Prob..Ii \-T..2300 N.oo N l3oo I { i' t 2 0 0\ .t01 (a) to A 4-mJong beam is subjected a varietyof loadings. '1" B r i ..l0l 3.5ft X 13{ 2fr 15lb.104 Five separate sheet metal. m _du r.. Determine the loading of Prob.

force and the &stance{rom point A 3.2300 N.l0l 3. m _du r.102 A 4-m-lonqbeam is loaded as shown.5ft X 13{ 2fr 15lb. P3.r..]b. (b) Prob. '1" B r i .101e.101which is equivalent to this loading.oo N l3oo I { i' t 2 0 0\ .. Determine the loading of Prob..100N. (b) Which of the loadingsare equivalent? 200\ 3. Determine which of these svstemsis equivalent to a force F : (10 lb)i and a couple of moment M : (15 lb ' ft)j + (15 lb ' ft)k located at the origin. which has been bent into the shape shown..Ii \-T. P3.m I r I r. Ib. Fig. Replace eachloadingwith an equivalentforce-couplesystemat end A ot the beam..j) \ E*----- d. Prob.t01 (a) to A 4-mJong beam is subjected a varietyof loadings.900 \' { 200N'rn 2.104 .1t t0 lb :.rn j . ] r--r-=---*w.3.101b. 3. (c) act systems at the cornersof a piece of force-couple 3.n 2ft Fig.104 Five separate sheet metal.3.fty') 2.101d.. 3.l.103 Determine the singleequivalent to its line of action foi the beam and loading of (a) Prob.

assuming right. P3. P3..t14 to 3. The tension on each side of the two belts is as shown. (a) Find the resultant of this^system 6f forces. r=zIn. 3.115 A machinecomponentis subjected the forcesand couplesshown. P3. 3. (b) point B' (c) point C.Itl 340N that the 760-N force is directedto the 3. 210lb :.. and determine where its line of action intersectsthe bottom edee of the bracket.112 SolveProb. that P : 60 N. determine the location of the rivet hole if it is to be located (a) on line FC.(a) Find the resultant of these forces.t50 lb zD- 2in -J- t/ -rr J4_ I in.ll3 3. Fig. 3. r=.109 ond P3. Replacethe four forceswith a single equivalent force.116 SolveProb.tl5 . 3. I t 1b 120 ib 160 640 mm tig. Four forcesact on a 700 x 375-mm plate as shown.111. For P : 0.llO Problems 39 | 3. 3. The componentis to be held in place by a single rivet that can resist a force but not a couple.109 A couple o{magnitude M = 54lb in.1t1n .114 Pulleys A and B are mounted on bracket CDEF. and the three forcesshown are applied to an angle bracket. Determine the equivalent force acting-on the truss and the point of intersection of its line of action with a line drawn through points A and G' 8ft_*F-8ft I' lb 180 Fig.ll0 A couple M and the three forces shown are applied to an angle bracket. l .113 A truss supports the loading shown. (b) Locate the points where the line of action of the resultant intersectsline AB and line BC. (b) Locate the two points where the line of action of the resultant intersectsthe edge of the plate. 3. (b) on line GH.115.assuming Fig. P3. Find the moment of the couple if the line of action of the resultant of the force systemis to passthrough (a) point A.

P3.. 3. 3.112 SolveProb. (b) point B' (c) point C.. Replacethe four forceswith a single equivalent force. The componentis to be held in place by a single rivet that can resist a force but not a couple. 3.116 SolveProb. (b) on line GH. P3.(a) Find the resultant of these forces. I t 1b 120 ib 160 640 mm tig.assuming Fig.113 A truss supports the loading shown. 3.assuming right.llO Problems 39 | 3.111. 210lb :.114 Pulleys A and B are mounted on bracket CDEF. 3. that P : 60 N. The tension on each side of the two belts is as shown. l .109 ond P3.1t1n .115. and the three forcesshown are applied to an angle bracket.Itl 340N that the 760-N force is directedto the 3. Determine the equivalent force acting-on the truss and the point of intersection of its line of action with a line drawn through points A and G' 8ft_*F-8ft I' lb 180 Fig.t14 to 3. For P : 0. Find the moment of the couple if the line of action of the resultant of the force systemis to passthrough (a) point A.ll3 3.115 A machinecomponentis subjected the forcesand couplesshown. Four forcesact on a 700 x 375-mm plate as shown. r=zIn.ll0 A couple M and the three forces shown are applied to an angle bracket. (b) Locate the points where the line of action of the resultant intersectsline AB and line BC. 3. and determine where its line of action intersectsthe bottom edee of the bracket.t50 lb zD- 2in -J- t/ -rr J4_ I in.tl5 . (a) Find the resultant of this^system 6f forces. (b) Locate the two points where the line of action of the resultant intersectsthe edge of the plate.109 A couple o{magnitude M = 54lb in. r=. P3. Fig. determine the location of the rivet hole if it is to be located (a) on line FC. P3.

the force-couplesystemshown is exerted on the wall. P3.6 lb)i t RrJ couple systemat A consisting (o.0 Ib ' ft)j . 1 Fig.3.123 As an adjustablebrace BC is used to bring a wall into plumb.122 A mechanic uses a crowfoot wrench to loosen a bolt at C. 3. (b) Find the correspondingvalues of Ro and M".25lb .a student applies the forces and couple shorin. P3.t23 .l2l 3. (a) Determine the forces exerted at B and C knowing that these forces and the couple are equivalent-to a forceofthe lorce R : (2. Problems | l4 Fig. Replacethis force-couple systemwith an equivalent force-couple system at A if R : 2L2lb and M : 13.(0.z lb)k'and the couple Ml I u.: 21b. Eis.t21 While using a pencil sharpener.72lb ' fok.122 I 9 6 in. Knowing that these forcesare equival"ttt to a force-couple system at C consisting of the force C : -(8 lb)i + (4lb)k and the coupleM6 : (3601b ' in.i + (1. The mechanic holds the socket wrench handle at points A and B ancl appliesforces at these points. determine the forcesappliedat A and at B when A. P3. ft.)i.

The mechanic holds the socket wrench handle at points A and B ancl appliesforces at these points.z lb)k'and the couple Ml I u. 1 Fig.(0.l2l 3.122 I 9 6 in. P3.122 A mechanic uses a crowfoot wrench to loosen a bolt at C. Eis.a student applies the forces and couple shorin.)i. Replacethis force-couple systemwith an equivalent force-couple system at A if R : 2L2lb and M : 13.i + (1.25lb . determine the forcesappliedat A and at B when A. (a) Determine the forces exerted at B and C knowing that these forces and the couple are equivalent-to a forceofthe lorce R : (2.: 21b.0 Ib ' ft)j . (b) Find the correspondingvalues of Ro and M". 3. P3.t21 While using a pencil sharpener.3.6 lb)i t RrJ couple systemat A consisting (o.123 As an adjustablebrace BC is used to bring a wall into plumb. ft.72lb ' fok. Problems | l4 Fig. P3. Knowing that these forcesare equival"ttt to a force-couple system at C consisting of the force C : -(8 lb)i + (4lb)k and the coupleM6 : (3601b ' in.t23 . the force-couplesystemshown is exerted on the wall.

If the forces have the same magnitude P.*.130 Four signs are mounted on a frame spanning a highway.134 . (b) the pitch of the wrench.l3O 3.66 x 0. P3.133 *3.> I _____-.l . replace them with an equivalent wrench and determine (a) the magnitude and the direction of the resultant force R.134 A piece of sheet metal is bent into the shape shown and is acted upbn by three forces.66 x 0'66 x 1. ifeach box is uniformly loaded and the line of action of the resultant of the weights of the four boxesis to pass through the point of intersection of the centerlinesof the trailer and the axle.1 r _.l3I Fig.2-m box.129ond P3. Determine the magnitudeand the point of application-of forces when a : I ft and b : 12 ft' resultant of the four wind Problems 43 | l_) m Fig.131if the students possible in the fourth box and at least one side of the box must coincide with a side of the trailer. and the magnitudes of the horizontal wind forces acting on the signs are Jho*tt.2-m box and where on the trailer they should secureit.3. P3. (c) the axis of the wrench.131 A group of students loads a 2 x 3.as magnitudesof the horizontal wind forces acting o^n the shoi"n. without the any part ofthe box overhanging sidesofthe trailer. (b) the pitch of the wrench. . Determine the smallestload the studentsshould place in a second0.129 Four signs are mounted on a frame spanning a higlway. P3.66 x 0. 3. P3. Replacethe three forces by an equivalentwrench and determine (a) the magnitude and direction of the resultant force R. Fig. and the the signsare.66-m boxesand one 0.3.3. (c) the axis of the wrench.(Hint: Keep in mind that the box may be placed either on its side or on its end.66 X 1.66 x 0.-t.) *3.3-m flatbed trailer with two 0. Each of the boxesat the rear of the trailer is positionedso that it is aliqnedwith both the back and a side of the trailer. Determine a and b so that the point of application of "r the resultant of the four forces is at G.t32 want to place as much weight as SolveProb. .tx I a 1 o--oT' Fig.133 . Three forces of the same magnitude P act on a cube of side a as shown.

Fig.66 x 0. P3.129 Four signs are mounted on a frame spanning a higlway.134 . (b) the pitch of the wrench. .3-m flatbed trailer with two 0. Replacethe three forces by an equivalentwrench and determine (a) the magnitude and direction of the resultant force R.as magnitudesof the horizontal wind forces acting o^n the shoi"n.129ond P3. If the forces have the same magnitude P.*. (c) the axis of the wrench.l .133 . 3.133 *3. without the any part ofthe box overhanging sidesofthe trailer. and the magnitudes of the horizontal wind forces acting on the signs are Jho*tt. Determine the smallestload the studentsshould place in a second0.1 r _.3. (c) the axis of the wrench.66-m boxesand one 0.tx I a 1 o--oT' Fig. P3.66 x 0'66 x 1. Determine the magnitudeand the point of application-of forces when a : I ft and b : 12 ft' resultant of the four wind Problems 43 | l_) m Fig.(Hint: Keep in mind that the box may be placed either on its side or on its end.3.66 X 1.2-m box.> I _____-.66 x 0. Determine a and b so that the point of application of "r the resultant of the four forces is at G.134 A piece of sheet metal is bent into the shape shown and is acted upbn by three forces.131 A group of students loads a 2 x 3. replace them with an equivalent wrench and determine (a) the magnitude and the direction of the resultant force R.l3O 3.131if the students possible in the fourth box and at least one side of the box must coincide with a side of the trailer. and the the signsare.2-m box and where on the trailer they should secureit.3.) *3. Each of the boxesat the rear of the trailer is positionedso that it is aliqnedwith both the back and a side of the trailer.l3I Fig. . (b) the pitch of the wrench. ifeach box is uniformly loaded and the line of action of the resultant of the weights of the four boxesis to pass through the point of intersection of the centerlinesof the trailer and the axle.t32 want to place as much weight as SolveProb.-t.66 x 0. P3. P3.130 Four signs are mounted on a frame spanning a highway. Three forces of the same magnitude P act on a cube of side a as shown.

P3./ 16ollr:lr Fig. (b) the pit"h of the wrench. replacethe forces exertedon the pole hu* TL" with an equivalenl wrench and determine (a) the resultant force R.f41 system o.nd *3. z Fig. a wrench can be replaced with two forces chosenin such a way that one force passesthrough a given point while the other force lies in a given plane.142 Determine whether the force-and-couple shown can be reduced to a single equivalent force R. its pitch. (c) the point where the axis of the wrench intersectsthe re plane.N Fig.144 Show that.145 Show that a wrench can be replaced with two perpendicular forces. If it can. replace the given system with an equivalent wrench and determine its resultant. Fig. t\.. determine R and the point where the line of action of R intersects the ya plane. *3.143 Replace the wrench shown with an equivalent system consisting of two forces perpendicular to the y axis and applied respectively at A and B. and the point where its axis intersects the yz plane.tlt6 Showthat a wrench can be replacedwith two forces. P3.140 *3..fi \l K.g... P3. one ofwhich is applied at a given point. in general. If it cannot be so reduced.ff the tensionsin the tutrrJ*ug"it"de P.one of which has a prescribed line of action.*7JA6 cables A fleeooleis guyed by three cables. V oi. F.143 t't NI iar* . Problems | 45 .t42 . P3. *3. *3.l4l *3.

l4l *3.140 *3. t\. If it can.143 t't NI iar* ... and the point where its axis intersects the yz plane. (b) the pit"h of the wrench. z Fig.tlt6 Showthat a wrench can be replacedwith two forces. Problems | 45 .142 Determine whether the force-and-couple shown can be reduced to a single equivalent force R. *3. replacethe forces exertedon the pole hu* TL" with an equivalenl wrench and determine (a) the resultant force R.143 Replace the wrench shown with an equivalent system consisting of two forces perpendicular to the y axis and applied respectively at A and B.fi \l K.g. a wrench can be replaced with two forces chosenin such a way that one force passesthrough a given point while the other force lies in a given plane.144 Show that. determine R and the point where the line of action of R intersects the ya plane.ff the tensionsin the tutrrJ*ug"it"de P.. its pitch. P3.. replace the given system with an equivalent wrench and determine its resultant.t42 .N Fig. in general. V oi. Fig. If it cannot be so reduced. P3.f41 system o. P3.*7JA6 cables A fleeooleis guyed by three cables. *3. P3.one of which has a prescribed line of action. F.nd *3. *3.145 Show that a wrench can be replaced with two perpendicular forces./ 16ollr:lr Fig. one ofwhich is applied at a given point. (c) the point where the axis of the wrench intersectsthe re plane.

Pv P.ti.om.Xn I r = : j k l Fig. r:!. 3'52)' Using a determinant form. we had Mr where xun. andzsp XA1B: Xd .1 through 3. arc the components the positionvector r (Fig.51 where d representsthe perpendicular distancefrom O to the line of action of F.ent of a force F were expressed [Sec.i l1r" j l.Using a determinant. Its moment Ms about a point B in the sameplane is pelpendicular to that plane (Flg.*u)Fv . 3.52 lro6 lF" Uen zercl Fv F. 3.= 11k Fig.53) and is completely defined by the scalar (3.11) aector drawn from O to the point of applicawhere r is the posi.AilFr Variousmethodsfor the computationof the moment of a force about a point were illustratedin SampleProbs.23) Mn : (xe . Awn.l ZA/B : Za - (3.24) .9] was denoted Scolqr product of two vectors by P ' Q and was defined as the scalarquantity P'Q:PQcoso (3. we also wrote of components rnornent Rectcngulor A (x.5I).l M o : r X F j kl (3. 3.19) In the more general caseof the moment about an arbitrary point B of a force F applied at A.z) F.g. 3.3.4. we found tlai the -ugttit.U F .the force F can be assumedto lie in the xy plane.18) Mr:zFr-xF^ M ^ : x F o.(Ao . of z where x.uct of two vectors P and Q fSec. Q. (3.on the force F (Fig.53 The scalar prod.l lQ' Q.l A (3. we also wrote ond Review Summory 147 lr n : lt. F.3.6] as the vector product Momentof a fsrce about o point (3. Denoting by 0 the anglebetween tion A of the lines of action of r aid F.3.zF.8] as Mr: yF" .2r) of the vector r4is: Zn denote the components lerc Aa Us In the caseof problems inaoluing only tuoodimensions.10) of The m.omnnt a force F abant a point O was defined fSec. 3. \l.rd" of the as moment of F about O can be expressed Mo:rFsin0:Fd (3.lo: kl zl ln F. Mo The rectangular componentsof the m.12) Fig. 3.

zF.l M o : r X F j kl (3. we found tlai the -ugttit.*u)Fv . Mo The rectangular componentsof the m.3.23) Mn : (xe .52 lro6 lF" Uen zercl Fv F.24) .1 through 3.18) Mr:zFr-xF^ M ^ : x F o.om. \l.9] was denoted Scolqr product of two vectors by P ' Q and was defined as the scalarquantity P'Q:PQcoso (3.5I).l A (3.z) F.rd" of the as moment of F about O can be expressed Mo:rFsin0:Fd (3. we had Mr where xun. we also wrote of components rnornent Rectcngulor A (x. Denoting by 0 the anglebetween tion A of the lines of action of r aid F.l ZA/B : Za - (3.i l1r" j l. 3.= 11k Fig.51 where d representsthe perpendicular distancefrom O to the line of action of F.10) of The m.11) aector drawn from O to the point of applicawhere r is the posi. of z where x.on the force F (Fig.lo: kl zl ln F.AilFr Variousmethodsfor the computationof the moment of a force about a point were illustratedin SampleProbs.53 The scalar prod.Xn I r = : j k l Fig. 3.2r) of the vector r4is: Zn denote the components lerc Aa Us In the caseof problems inaoluing only tuoodimensions. (3.l lQ' Q. 3. 3'52)' Using a determinant form. 3. Q.4.ent of a force F were expressed [Sec.Using a determinant.12) Fig.3. 3.uct of two vectors P and Q fSec.U F . r:!.19) In the more general caseof the moment about an arbitrary point B of a force F applied at A.3.(Ao .the force F can be assumedto lie in the xy plane.omnnt a force F abant a point O was defined fSec.6] as the vector product Momentof a fsrce about o point (3. andzsp XA1B: Xd .8] as Mr: yF" . F. Pv P. we also wrote ond Review Summory 147 lr n : lt. 3.ti. Awn.53) and is completely defined by the scalar (3. arc the components the positionvector r (Fig. Its moment Ms about a point B in the sameplane is pelpendicular to that plane (Flg.g.

3'6]. it is a vector M perpendicular to the plane of the couple aid eq. 3.16].The sum of two couples is itself a couple lSec. and the moment M of the resulltant couple can be obtained by adding vectorially -the Fig. J .they.eductisn c systemaf forcer system fo c $orce'couple .m. g./ /?:fi tlt ol r. called a couple^ oector. " \a) \c) (d) Fig.-i'e. 3.oenpoint O by first replacing each of force-couple the forces of the systemby an equivalent force-couple systemat C) of R.nn. equal in hagnitude and direction to the moment M of which can be the coupld iSec.131.e Couples Reviewond Summory 149 was shown that the moment of a couple is independent of the point about which it is computed. Fig. consistingof the force F applied at O and a couple of moment M6 equal to the moment abo"l O of the force F in its original position [Sec' 3. it should be noted that the force F and the couple vector M6 are alwaysperpendicularto each other (Fig.57 momentsM1 and M2 of the original couplesfsample Prob.3'12]'It a. al I I '-L = . opposite rmd Ttaoforces F and -F mngnitude'-pa-rallel lines of haaingthe sa.t+]. have the-same effect on a given rigid body lsec' 3. 3.3.58).59 of It follows fSec. 3.57). Two couples having the same moment M are equioalent.59).$Nr. 3.171that any sIJStem forces canbe reducedto a system at a gi.. 3. It follows that a couple can be repiesented by a vector.15L A couple vector is afree Dec'tor origin O if so desired and resolvedinto components attachedto the (Fie. 3.58 Any force F acting at a point A of a rigid body can be replaced by Force-couple system ^iorrn-touple systemat in arbitrary point O.e sense saidt0 form t-caryl! [Sec' nati.tal in magnitude to the product of the io--on magnitudeF of the forces and the perpen&cular distanced betweentheir lines of action (Fig.

The sum of two couples is itself a couple lSec. 3.3. 3.171that any sIJStem forces canbe reducedto a system at a gi. al I I '-L = .nn..58 Any force F acting at a point A of a rigid body can be replaced by Force-couple system ^iorrn-touple systemat in arbitrary point O.59).e Couples Reviewond Summory 149 was shown that the moment of a couple is independent of the point about which it is computed. have the-same effect on a given rigid body lsec' 3. g. J .tal in magnitude to the product of the io--on magnitudeF of the forces and the perpen&cular distanced betweentheir lines of action (Fig. opposite rmd Ttaoforces F and -F mngnitude'-pa-rallel lines of haaingthe sa.m. it is a vector M perpendicular to the plane of the couple aid eq.they. Two couples having the same moment M are equioalent.131.t+].16].-i'e.58). " \a) \c) (d) Fig. consistingof the force F applied at O and a couple of moment M6 equal to the moment abo"l O of the force F in its original position [Sec' 3. 3.57).$Nr. and the moment M of the resulltant couple can be obtained by adding vectorially -the Fig. 3.59 of It follows fSec. Fig./ /?:fi tlt ol r. It follows that a couple can be repiesented by a vector. 3. it should be noted that the force F and the couple vector M6 are alwaysperpendicularto each other (Fig.oenpoint O by first replacing each of force-couple the forces of the systemby an equivalent force-couple systemat C) of R.15L A couple vector is afree Dec'tor origin O if so desired and resolvedinto components attachedto the (Fie.3'12]'It a. 3'6]. called a couple^ oector.eductisn c systemaf forcer system fo c $orce'couple . 3. 3.57 momentsM1 and M2 of the original couplesfsample Prob. equal in hagnitude and direction to the moment M of which can be the coupld iSec.e sense saidt0 form t-caryl! [Sec' nati.

149 -T + 28 inrn I I 3. 3. 21 mm Fig. 3. After a fish takes the bait. The two ropes are attached to a stake at B. determine (a) the angle between rope AB and the stake.I48 Detail of the stake at B t5l .149 A 6-ftJong fishing rod AB is securelyanchoredin the sand of a beach. P3.147 / z rTlln Fis. Determine (a) the moment produced by the weight W of the crate about E. Determine the moment of the force about C. (b) the smallestforce applied at B that createsa moment of equal magnitude and opposite senseabout E.150 RopesAB and BC are two of the ropes used to support a tent.148 It is known that the connectingrod AB exertson the crank BC a 1. P3.147 A crate of mass 80 kg is held in the position shown. (b) the projection on the stake of the force exerted by rope AB at point B.5-kN force directed down and to the left along the centerline of AB. o['o"'-1-"" ]rQ Fig. P3.3. If the tension in rope AB is 540 N. Determine the mornent about A of the force exerted by the Iine at B. the resulting force in the line is 6 lb.

3. 21 mm Fig.5-kN force directed down and to the left along the centerline of AB. 3. After a fish takes the bait.147 / z rTlln Fis. 3. (b) the smallestforce applied at B that createsa moment of equal magnitude and opposite senseabout E. Determine the moment of the force about C. o['o"'-1-"" ]rQ Fig. the resulting force in the line is 6 lb. P3.149 -T + 28 inrn I I 3. P3. determine (a) the angle between rope AB and the stake. P3. Determine the mornent about A of the force exerted by the Iine at B.I48 Detail of the stake at B t5l . If the tension in rope AB is 540 N.148 It is known that the connectingrod AB exertson the crank BC a 1.149 A 6-ftJong fishing rod AB is securelyanchoredin the sand of a beach. (b) the projection on the stake of the force exerted by rope AB at point B. Determine (a) the moment produced by the weight W of the crate about E.147 A crate of mass 80 kg is held in the position shown.150 RopesAB and BC are two of the ropes used to support a tent. The two ropes are attached to a stake at B.

(a) Determine the forcesexertedat B and C.156 Four ro'oes attachedto a crate and exert the forcesshown' Ifthe forces alreto be replaced with a single equivalent force applied at a point on line AB. (b) the value of a so that the single equivalent force is applied at point B. (b) Find the corresponding . knowing that theseforcesare equivalent to a force-couplesystemat A consistingof R : -(30 N)i + N 'm)i. P3. Determine the magnitudesof the additionalloadsthat must be applled at B and F if ihe resultant of all six loads is to pass through the center of the mat.R. head of the screw for which the blade is least likelv to slip when Fig./j+ n"k and M] :'-02 (c) What is the orientation of the slot in the values of R" and R.157 A blade held in a braceis usedto tighten a screwat A.158 A concrete foundation mat in the shape of a regular hexagonof side 12 ft supports four column loads as shown.are 3.156 the brace is in the position shown? Problems | 53 Review i60 lb Fig. ?etermine (a) the equivalentforce and the disiance from A to the point of applicationofthe force when a : 30o.. 3. Fig.I57 3. P3.158 . P3.

/j+ n"k and M] :'-02 (c) What is the orientation of the slot in the values of R" and R. (b) Find the corresponding . knowing that theseforcesare equivalent to a force-couplesystemat A consistingof R : -(30 N)i + N 'm)i. 3. (b) the value of a so that the single equivalent force is applied at point B.are 3.156 Four ro'oes attachedto a crate and exert the forcesshown' Ifthe forces alreto be replaced with a single equivalent force applied at a point on line AB. Fig. P3.156 the brace is in the position shown? Problems | 53 Review i60 lb Fig. ?etermine (a) the equivalentforce and the disiance from A to the point of applicationofthe force when a : 30o. (a) Determine the forcesexertedat B and C.158 . P3. Determine the magnitudesof the additionalloadsthat must be applled at B and F if ihe resultant of all six loads is to pass through the center of the mat.I57 3.157 A blade held in a braceis usedto tighten a screwat A. head of the screw for which the blade is least likelv to slip when Fig.R. P3.158 A concrete foundation mat in the shape of a regular hexagonof side 12 ft supports four column loads as shown..

Write a computer program that can be used to determine the lenglhs of AB and cD that minimize the distance of between the a. The ducts ari to be connected by two flexible itbo*r and a straight center portion.(c) Prob' 3'127' 3.(b) Prob. P3. The centerlines of the ducts are parallel to each other but are not perpendicular to the walls.C5 .C6 .3.[. 3.C5 A body is acted upon by a system of n forces. to 36 in. the magnitudS^and and the e"quivalent of the original force system'Use application in the xa plane of the resultant tti progru* to solve(a) Prob. enter a room through two parallel walls. Assume that the elbows are of negligible length and that AB .113. Write a computer program thai catr be used to calculate the equivalent force-couple system 'at tfie orisin of the coordrnateaxesand to determine. if the equivalentforce the point of couple are ofthogonal.4i + 4k)/9 and \6p : and CD have centerlines defined by }'or : gi (-7i + 4j . 3. ProblemsI55 Computer 7 Fig.'ris the straightportion and a thermometer mounted on the wall at E.12b..4k)/9 and can vary in length from 9 in.AB and CD. Fig. P3.G6 Two cylindrical ducts.

the magnitudS^and and the e"quivalent of the original force system'Use application in the xa plane of the resultant tti progru* to solve(a) Prob. 3.C5 A body is acted upon by a system of n forces. Write a computer program that can be used to determine the lenglhs of AB and cD that minimize the distance of between the a.. 3.113.C6 . ProblemsI55 Computer 7 Fig. The ducts ari to be connected by two flexible itbo*r and a straight center portion.12b.G6 Two cylindrical ducts.[. Write a computer program thai catr be used to calculate the equivalent force-couple system 'at tfie orisin of the coordrnateaxesand to determine.C5 . P3. to 36 in. Assume that the elbows are of negligible length and that AB .'ris the straightportion and a thermometer mounted on the wall at E.(c) Prob' 3'127' 3.(b) Prob.4k)/9 and can vary in length from 9 in. if the equivalentforce the point of couple are ofthogonal. Fig.3. The centerlines of the ducts are parallel to each other but are not perpendicular to the walls. P3. enter a room through two parallel walls.AB and CD.4i + 4k)/9 and \6p : and CD have centerlines defined by }'or : gi (-7i + 4j .

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