The Study of Monitoring the Outermost Islands of Indonesia Using Airborne Lidar Bathymetry A. Rimayanti1, T. Patmasari1, T.

Fayakun Alif2 Center for Boundary Mapping, BAKOSURTANAL, rimayanti@yahoo.com 1 Center for Boundary Mapping, BAKOSURTANAL, aryomassari@yahoo.com 2 Center for Basemap Marine and Aeronautical Chart, goeh98@yahoo.com
1

Abstract Indonesia as an archipelagic state has approximately 13.487 islands with 92 small outermost islands that spread over in all provinces in Indonesia. These small outermost islands have an important value because of its strategic position where the basepoints which form the Indonesian Archipelagic baselines were placed. The baselines are used to define various maritime jurisdictions, including territorial seas, contiguous zones, exclusive economic zones and continental shelves. The issues of global warming which arise nowadays give many impacts such as sea level rise. The sea level rise may cause the submergence of the small islands. Thus the small islands especially the small outermost islands which have strategic value need to be maintained. One alternative that can be used to solve the problem is to apply a technology which is cost effective, fast and accurate such as Airborne Lidar Bathymetry. This paper will examine monitoring of the small outermost islands of Indonesia using Airborne Lidar Bathymetry.

Key words: outermost island, Lidar bathymetry, Indonesia

The Study of Monitoring the Outermost Islands of Indonesia Using Airborne Lidar Bathymetry European Lidar Mapping Forum, November 2011

I.

Introduction

Figure 1. Map of Indonesia (Bakosurtanal, 2011) Indonesia as archipelagic state in addition to having a vast ocean and a long coastline which is one of the longest coastlines in the world, Indonesia also has many islands including the small out outermost islands that have assets of natural resources and environmental services with an enormous potential for development economy. In fact, these small outermost islands have more strategic values because of its strategic position as the basepoints which form the Indonesian Archipelagic baselines. The archipelagic baselines ch are used to define various maritime jurisdictions, including territorial seas, contiguous zones, exclusive economic zones and continental shelves. The strategic position of the Indon Indonesia which connect the Indian Oceans and the Pacific Oceans and in the middle of Asia Continent and Australia Continent makes Indonesia’s small outermost islands in dangerous position in the enforcement of sovereignty. The strategic position of the small outermost islands enforces the government to immediately clarify the boundaries with the neighboring countries. This is very important . because most of the bordering area are in the sea and in the small outermost islands. So areas that it needs a good management of all stakeholders including the policy makers. The issues of global warming which arise nowadays give many impacts such as sea level rise. Among the many impacts of global warming, only sea-level rise physically sea displaces people and their communities. Understanding the impacts of global warming is Understanding especially important since the sea level rise may cause the submergence of the small he islands. Thus the small islands especially the small outermost islands which have strategic values need to be maintained. One alternative that can be used to monitor the impact of sea level rise onto the small outermost island is to apply the technology such as Airborne Lidar Bathymetry. This paper will examine the monitoring of the small outermost islands of Indonesia using Airborne Lidar Bathymetry.

The Study of Monitoring the Outermost Islands of Indonesia Using Airborne Lidar Bathymetry European Lidar Mapping Forum, November 2011

II.

Outermost Islands in Indonesia

Indonesia’s sovereignty over the islands, by law, doesn’t depend on location or small/large islands, or whether populated islands or not. Indonesia’s sovereignty over all its territory and sovereign right and jurisdiction over all matters which entitled to Indonesia, or its interest in the high seas and international seabed, is essentially the same for the entire region, nation and state. (Djalal., Hasjim, 2011). As mentioned above Indonesia is an archipelagic state which has so many islands, there are almost 14.000 islands. The government of Indonesia will register 13.487 islands including small outermost islands to the United Nation next year. This is to confirm the existence of these islands as part of Indonesia. According to the Presidential Regulation Number 78 Year 2005 of the management of the small outermost islands, there are 92 outermost islands in Indonesia. These outermost islands as mentioned above adjacent to neighboring countries. According to the Presidential Regulation Number 78 Year 2005, small outermost island is the island with an area less than or equal to 2000 km2, which has basepoint that connect archipelagic baselines in accordance with national and international law. Outermost islands as mentioned above serve as the front line of sovereignty and jurisdiction of Indonesia. The management of the outermost islands has the objectives: a. Maintain the territorial integrity of Indonesia, the national security and defense and create the stability in the region. b. Utilize natural resource in the framework of sustainable development c. Empower the community to increase the welfare. During this time, there are some problems relating to the management of outermost islands including the existence and the continuity of the existence of the islands itself, the welfare of the community in the islands and the isolated island location. Due to the global warming which engulf the world including Indonesia and gives impact such as sea level rise which could sinking the small islands, the government of Indonesia must take some real management actions so that the existence of the outermost islands as the front line of the Indonesian boundary line with neighboring countries can still well preserved. The geospatial data and information are needed as one of tools in the management of outermost islands. The geospatial data and information can be obtained from technology such as Airborne Lidar Bathymetry.

The Study of Monitoring the Outermost Islands of Indonesia Using Airborne Lidar Bathymetry European Lidar Mapping Forum, November 2011

Figure2. The Outermost Islands in Sumatera, Indonesia (Bakosurtanal, 2011) 2.

III. 3.1

Airborne Lidar Bathymetry What is Lidar? Lidar which is known as Light detection and ranging is a mapping technology that can be used to obtain height and depth information of features. According to NASA Lidar is an active remote sensing which employs light pulses instead of radio waves. Lidar is collected from planes and produces a rapid collection of point (± 7000 per second) over a large collection area. area There are three technologies which are integrated in Airborne Lidar such as: Laser ranging for accurate distance measurement, Satellite positioning using the Global Positioning System (GPS) Aircraft attitude measurement using an inertial measurement unit (IMU) to record the precise orientation of the sensor.

(i) (ii) (iii)

These three technologies are working together and collected data with the same time. As mentioned above, Lidar is an active sensor so it allows Lidar to be collected at night when the air is clearer and also in the fair weather. Mainly there are two types of Airborne Lidar System, Airborne Lidar Topography which is used for topographic surface mapping collect elevation data through elevation model and mapping, Airborne Lidar Bathymetry which is used for water depths mapping. Both system in

The Study of Monitoring the Outermost Islands of Indonesia Using Airborne Lidar Bathymetry European Lidar Mapping Forum, November 2011

the measurement using aircraft or helicopter as vehicle to put the Lidar tools which emit the laser beam and uses light waves.

Figure 3. Lidar Technology (Fayakun, 2010) Lidar is similar to radar (radio detection and ranging) except that is Lidar based on discrete light pulses and measured travel times. The location and elevation of the reflecting surface are derived from 1) the time difference between the laser pulse which is being emitted and returned, 2) the angle and 3) the location and height of the aircraft (Guenther, 2000). While the time delay between the transmitted pulses and the detection of the reflected signal are taken as a distance of an object. 3.2 The Principle of Airborne Lidar Bathymetry Airborne lidar bathymetry is also known as Airborne Lidar hydrography in term of nautical charting. Airborne Lidar bathymetry involves the use of a pulsed laser transmitter with both green and infrared (IR) output beams.

The Study of Monitoring the Outermost Islands of Indonesia Using Airborne Lidar Bathymetry European Lidar Mapping Forum, November 2011

Figure 4. The Characteristic of the Green and IR Pulse (Guenther, 2000) Green is selected because of the wavelength which can penetrate the coastal water and for sea bottom detection while the IR can be used for detection of the sea surface location. The transmitter laser pulses partially travel to the water surface, some of the energy reflects back to the receiver. The remaining energy which propagates through the water column reflects off the sea bottom back to the airborne receiver. The water depths are determined from the time differences between the surface return and the bottom return while the distances to the sea surface and bottom can be calculated by measuring the times of flight of the pulses to those locations by knowing the speed of light in air and water.

Figure 5. The Principle of ALB (Irish, J. L., 2000)

The Study of Monitoring the Outermost Islands of Indonesia Using Airborne Lidar Bathymetry European Lidar Mapping Forum, November 2011

3.3

Factors Affecting ALB Many factors contribute to the ability of ALB in penetrating the area in its path, this ability depends on the medium in which the pulses are emitted. Several factors which affect the strength of Lidar pulse in water are: a. Environmental factor: water clarity The most significant limitation for ALB system is water clarity, which limits the maximum surveyable depths. The maximum surveyable depth is the greatest depth, at a given time and location for which depth measurement can be obtained. This requires that the bottom-return signal be reasonably strong and free from excessive noise (Guenther, 2000). In many areas, if the water is too dirty for a survey to be successfully performed on a given day, it may only be necessary to return to the site at several days later to find the acceptably clear water. b. Turbidity The energy of light through water medium, its intensity will be influenced by: - Absorption and or conversion into other energy - The scattering energy into all direction Both components will reduce the energy and directly proportional to the depth. The reduction of the energy caused by absorption and scattering is known as turbidity. In optically clear water, ALB sensors have successfully measured to depths to 70 m (Sinclair, 1999). c. The composition of sea bottom Vegetation in the sea bottom influences the reflectivity of sea bottom and reduction of depths penetration. The penetration ability of Lidar pulse depends on the composition of sea bottom (sand, phytoplankton, mud, etc). Phytoplankton and other particle matter have an effect on how light is absorbed and scattered in the water. Phytoplankton contains chlorophyll which absorbs light at the violet and red side of the spectral range, at the same time as allowing green light to experiences the deepest water penetration (Mcnair., Gordon, 2010). d. Weather The weather condition such as the rainfall, strong wind and the high tide influence the ability of laser light penetration and the ability of depth penetration.

The Study of Monitoring the Outermost Islands of Indonesia Using Airborne Lidar Bathymetry European Lidar Mapping Forum, November 2011

Figure 6. Light Penetration in Coastal Water (Mcnair., Gordon, 2010)

Monitoring the Existence of the Outermost Islands of Indonesia using ALB As mentioned above the outermost islands of Indonesia need to be well managed because of its strategic roles and position in the Indonesian archipelago. To be well managed needs a tool which is effective, efficient, faster, accurate and off course low cost. The management of the outermost islands of Indonesia will covers the collection of hydrographic depths to determine the position and condition of the islands and also shoreline. One tool that can be used to manage it is by using Airborne Lidar Bathymetry. Currently the mapping system using laser beam which is carried out by aircraft is still the most efficient mapping system compared with conventional mapping, photogrammetry and remote sensing. The ALB can collect ± 7000 per second over a large area. This condition makes lidar faster and accurate. Although the ALB is efficient, the use of ALB in Indonesia is still minimal because in any ways recording requires a significant financial cost to lease the aircraft and most of the uses done by mining company. But to obtain the efficient and accurate of ALB, the paper try to study the performance and the ability of ALB to monitor the outermost islands of Indonesia. As mentioned above one of the limitations if using the ALB is weather condition and water clarity. Indonesia which is in the tropical climate having temperature varies from season to season and the main variable in Indonesia’s climate is not temperature or air pressure, but rainfall. The significant rainfall throughout Indonesia is produced by the prevailing wind patterns which interact with local topographic condition. The rainfall in some areas will affect in the water clarity and the turbidity. Beside these two things, the rainfall will also affect the movement of the aircraft to retrieve the data from one point to another point so it impedes the schedule time. To be able to perform the measurement using the ALB based on the water clarity and turbidity, one step which can be done is to identify mentioned factors for the small outermost islands of Indonesia. Here are examples of water quality from three outermost islands of Indonesia, Makalehi and Mantehage and Bangkep. These islands are located in the Sulawesi Island as Main Island.

IV.

The Study of Monitoring the Outermost Islands of Indonesia Using Airborne Lidar Bathymetry European Lidar Mapping Forum, November 2011

Water Quality of Makalehi
FID 0 1 2 Shape * Point Point Point Latitude 2.7455 2.7385 2.7297 Longitude 125.1663 125.1779 125.1646 Temperature 28.9 28.9 29.4 Salinity 3.66 3.67 3.67 Ph 8.13 8.15 8.19 Turbidity 1 1 1 Clarity 4.2 9.1 8.7

Water Quality of Mantehage
FID 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 Shape * Point Point Point Point Point Point Point Point Point Point Point Point Point Point Point Point Point Point Point Point Point Point Point Point Point Administration P. Kepar P.Tapok P.Tepi P. Rotan P. Mariam Buku Limau P. Siadong P. Bakau Gosong Bakau P. Mulut P. Mulut Gosong Kupit P. Lima P. Seliu Tg. Lancur P. Goal Tg. Mentigi P. Batumana Busung Arah Tg. Tikar Karang Kijang Tg.Binga Tg. Tinggi P. Lengkuas P. Burung Temperature 29.5 29.2 29.7 29.2 29.6 29.3 29.8 29.5 23.6 29.5 29.4 30.4 29.1 29.3 29.4 29.3 29.2 29 29.1 29 29.7 29.9 29.5 29.3 29.3 Conductivity 52.1 50.8 52.2 52.2 52.6 52.3 52.7 52.4 52.9 52.6 51.6 50.3 52.8 52.2 52.6 52.3 51 50.7 51.7 50.9 50.2 51.9 52.5 52.1 52.4 Turbidity 2 7 1 1 1 1 2 1 2 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 2 0 1 1 2 1 1 2 2 Clarity 2,8 2 3,5 5 6,8 11 7 11 11 4,3 5 4 9,3 3,2 3,1 1,5 3 2,2 5,3 2,5 3,5 5,3 3,6 4,5 2 X 108.241306 108.209861 108.199389 108.272194 108.28825 108.399194 108.419778 108.419583 108.419583 107.051417 107.085222 108.035722 107.356556 107.51375 107.342528 107.372556 107.672389 107.543278 107.538944 107.5725 107.582389 107.620333 107.711056 107.617972 107.626667 Y -3.14975 -3.145333 -3.21775 -3.223056 -3.229389 -2.807694 -2.790417 -2.673306 -2.673306 -2.536611 -2.546889 -2.574972 -3.080722 -3.231722 -2.878139 -2.919722 -3.239528 -3.755806 -2.8545 -2.794833 -2.739056 -2.601694 -2.548194 -2.538139 -2.564306 Salinity 3.44 3.34 3.44 3.47 3.47 3.45 3 3.49 3.49 3.47 3.4 4.45 3.49 3.44 3.47 3.45 3.36 3.33 3.41 3.37 3.35 3.42 3.47 3.44 3.45 Ph 8.2 8.2 8.22 8.2 8.22 8.22 8.21 8.22 8.24 8.18 8.17 8.3 8.19 8.31 8.23 8.27 8.32 8.29 8.31 8.27 8.31 8.35 8.32 8.34 8.34

The Study of Monitoring the Outermost Islands of Indonesia Using Airborne Lidar Bathymetry European Lidar Mapping Forum, November 2011

Water Quality of Bangkep
NO 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 Station RRA 23 RRA 24 RRA 22 RRA 26 RRA 18 RRA 17 RRA 57 RRA 15/KA 1 RRA 15 RRA 14 RRA 5 RRA 1 RRA 11 RRA 8 RRA 10 RRA 16 RRA 32 RRA 30 RRA 29 RRA 28 RRA 33 RRA 42 KA 2 RRA 40 KA 3 RRA 37 RRA 27 KA 4 RRA 55 RRA 54 RRA 51 RRA 49 RRA 47 RRA 46 KA 5 RRA 48 RRA 45 RRA 44 X 123,0665 123,0597 123,1386 123,1841 123,1490 123,2813 123,3257 123,2647 123,3407 123,4772 123,6298 123,7484 123,7625 123,8663 123,5938 123,4537 123,4519 123,6021 123,6185 123,5604 123,5172 123,4177 123,4809 123,3606 123,3298 123,2422 123,0064 123,0699 123,0478 122,8464 122,7819 122,7508 122,9564 123,0772 123,1408 123,2484 123,2783 123,3255 Y -1,9260 -1,8286 -1,7964 -1,8006 -1,9248 -2,0676 -2,0949 -1,9834 -2,0110 -1,9881 -1,9421 -2,0265 -2,1007 -2,0040 -2,0564 -2,1192 -1,6849 -1,7105 -1,6393 -1,5533 -1,4809 -1,5160 -1,5856 -1,5184 -1,5491 -1,6490 -1,7403 -1,5100 -1,4084 -1,5913 -1,4812 -1,3338 -1,1964 -1,1697 -1,1971 -1,2307 -1,1763 -1,2121 Administratio n Taduno Tabulang bone-bone P. Bangku Pulau P.ganemu P.silumba P. saluka mandibelu P.bulutan teropot kec Gasueng P.Tanalan P.dekendek P. jodoh P. burung P. bandang Matanga Umbuli Kendek P. Popisi Tg. Curahtu Bato-bato Bobu Tl. Tinakun Tg. Pinalun Rip. Melati Tl. Peling Unu Tg. Kambani P. Sabalade P.tikus Lukpanenete Sabang Sambolangan Montok P. Bakalan P. Bakalan Temp 28,80 28,50 29,00 28,90 28,90 29,30 29,20 28,70 29,30 2,00 28,70 28,40 29,20 29,00 28,60 29,80 30,10 27,90 28,00 28,30 28,60 28,90 28,70 29,00 28,60 29,10 29,30 29,70 28,80 29,30 29,60 31,10 28,60 29,40 29,10 28,70 28,70 29,10 SAL 3,51 3,23 3,53 3,56 3,57 3,58 3,58 3,59 3,55 3,56 3,58 3,59 3,45 3,60 3,59 3,58 3,54 3,53 3,55 3,56 3,60 3,54 2,25 3,53 3,50 3,48 3,52 3,46 3,43 3,53 3,45 3,44 3,57 3,66 3,58 3,35 3,54 3,53 TURB 0,00 80,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 119,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 1,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 1,00 0,00 0,00 111,00 3,00 2,00 6,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 34,00 0,00 2,00 0,00 1,00 0,00 1,00 0,00 0,00 CL 2,10 3,00 4,50 1,80 1,60 1,50 2,00 14,00 2,00 2,10 2,60 1,70 2,60 3,50 3,00 2,90 2,00 2,80 4,50 2,50 3,70 1,80 2,50 6,80 16,00 2,80 1,50 13,00 4,60 4,50 6,20 2,00 2,60 2,40 1,60 2,80 2,00 4,80 PH 7,80 7,91 7,90 7,95 7,90 8,03 7,95 7,88 7,94 7,95 7,92 7,84 7,84 7,92 7,93 7,97 8,05 7,85 7,88 7,88 8,05 7,95 7,95 7,95 7,98 7,94 8,02 7,90 7,80 8,01 7,95 8,99 7,77 8,07 8,06 7,92 8,02 7,95 DO 4,90 4,94 5,16 4,79 4,57 4,84 4,94 4,91 5,05 7,76 6,47 5,53 5,19 5,10 5,33 5,14 5,35 5,32 5,81 5,51 6,34 5,39 6,01 5,81 7,73 8,10 8,32 8,08 6,38 5,77 6,27 9,00 9,73 7,73 7,81 8,32 8,39 8,34 DEPTH 2,10 3,00 4,50 1,80 1,60 1,50 2,00 17,00 2,00 2,10 2,60 1,70 2,60 3,50 3,00 2,90 2,00 2,80 4,50 2,50 3,70 1,80 3,90 6,80 95,00 2,80 1,50 80,00 4,60 4,50 6,20 2,00 2,60 2,40 1,60 2,80 2,00 4,80

The Study of Monitoring the Outermost Islands of Indonesia Using Airborne Lidar Bathymetry European Lidar Mapping Forum, November 2011

From the data above, it can be concluded that the water quality of Makalehi Island, Mantehage Island, and Bangkep Island are in stable condition, where the lidar pulse can penetrate the water. Therefore, the ALB can be applied in Indonesia, especially in these outermost islands and its surrounding. Conclusion To be able to know whether the ALB is capable to be applied in Indonesia especially to monitor the existence of the outermost islands of Indonesia, the water quality data and the weather factors should be included as the affecting factors. From the samples of the water quality data of the three outermost islands of Indonesia, Makalehi Island, Mantehage Island, and Bangkep Island it can be concluded that the ALB can be used as one of the alternative mapping system for monitoring outermost islands which can be applied in Indonesia. By some notes that for the measurement can be best done in the dry season which extends from June to October. As mentioned above, the ALB depends on the weather factor, as it will relate to the quality of generated data. V.

VI.

References 1. Djalal., Hasjim, Menjadikan Pulau-Pulau Kecil Terluar sebagai Pusat Pertumbuhan, Jakarta, 2011. 2. Fayakun., Teguh, Survei Airborne Lidar Batimetri, Pusat Pemetaan Dasar Kelautan dan Kedirgantaraan, Cibinong, 2010. 3. Guenther, G. C., Cunningham, A. G., LaRocque, P. E., and D. J. Reid, Meeting the accuracy challenge in airborne lidar bathymetry. Proceedings, EARSeL Symposium 2000. Dresden,Germany, 2000. 4. Irish, J. L., An Introduction To Coastal Zone Mapping with Airborne LIDAR : The Shoals system, US Army Engineer Research and Development Center Coastal and Hydraulics Laboratory,USA, 2000. 5. McNair., Gordon, Coastal Zone Mapping using Airborne Laser Bathymetry, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, 2010. 6. Presidential Regulation Number 78 Year 2005 of the Management of The Small Outermost Islands. 7. Schmid, Keil, “Lidar 101: An Introduction Lidar Technology, Data, and Applications.” Charleston, SC: NOAA Coastal Services Center, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Coastal Services Center, 2008. 8. Sinclair, M., Laser hydrography – commercial survey operations, Proceedings, US Hydrographic Conference ’99. Mobile, Alabama, USA, 1999 9. http://coastal.er.usgs.gov/capabilities/airborne/index.html by November 2, 2011.

The Study of Monitoring the Outermost Islands of Indonesia Using Airborne Lidar Bathymetry European Lidar Mapping Forum, November 2011

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