Patrick Neuschafer @24431 Rupa Antony @27443 Maryam Bin Ghelaita @34745 Alya Al Shamsi @31084



Case Summary: DLNA: The Problem:
The DLNA aims on creating a system of allowing different devices within a home to communicate with each other seamlessly, when members of the household are in or outside the house. In order to accomplish this, they must create way for these devices to transfer and share data in various file formats with ease. Currently, they are setting guidelines to ensure that DLNA members create PC’s, consumer electronics and other devices, that are compatible with the prescribed file formats. This process of implementing devices into homes would take a long time, and often families may purchase products that are not from members of the DLNA. Hence, there needs to be a simpler method of implementing the vision of digital homes immediately. to connect to each other. The device contains a converter that automatically converts file formats as required by the destination device, upon file transfer, without altering the source file. Technological Utility: Allows users to connect to devices via password access, once they are connected to the home network. Customization: Once the technology has developed further, users can customize their user profiles (Lead User Toolkit), which will be detected through their personal devices, such as laptops and mobile phone. Devices around them, such as music players and TV set top boxes, respond based on the individual’s preset preferences, when their personal devices are detected in the network location. There could even be group profiles, for preferences if there’s more than one member in an area. Security: Parents can lock access to certain devices, or certain controls of a device, using a child lock function. Mobile and Laptop apps, developed in the later phases for the device allow them to access and monitor devices from outside their homes. This allows them to ensure that there are no intruders in their homes, and that all devices have been turned off as well. Complementary Offerings: Besides having devices certified by DLNA, we would also have developers build applications to allows devices to interact with each other or customize device connectivity. For instance, developers could build an Alert app, that sets of an alarms, in any CE in the house is left switched on, after all household members

have left the house. Final Stage: In the final stages of the incremental innovations, the device itself is no longer the central innovation. Since the purpose of the device was to enable transition to DLNA certified devices, after this task has been accomplished, the router can be outsourced. The DLNA then focuses on merely developing connectivity and conversion software and providing DLNA certification.

The Solution A super router:

The DLNA could develop a router device, that not only allows various home devices to be connected to the internet with ease, but also allows these devices


How Does DLNA fit into Intel’s Strategy?
All DLNA certified devices must contain Intel microprocessors. This means that as DLNA gains installed base, Intel becomes a STANDARD. Once the major players in the industry for PC’s, CE’s and other home appliances start using Intel, other firms will follow. Hence, the proposed innovation for DLNA allows Intel to become a standard quicker, as it allows the DLNA guidelines to be adopter more easily in the market. If Intel does not use such a strategy, and produce more INTEL INNOVATIONS, their product may not be the market leader, and could get over take by their competitor, AMD. Hence, their use of various innovations helps them gain MARKET SHARE.



How Does DLNA fit into Intel’s Strategy?
Intel’s TICK TOCK Model For Innovation: Intel uses a so-callled Tick Tock model, for innovation, where they research and gain customer feedback the first year, and release an innovation the next year.
Hence, they use INCREMENTAL INNOVATION, to assure their market share. The use the Moore’s Law, and other such methods, to constantly provide faster, and better products. This graph shows Intel’s incremental innovations for ethernet technology.

The incremental innovation in this process involves supplying this router to end consumers in the beginning, and once they become aware of the DLNA standard, the device is removed from the market. The DLNA is one the Intel Incremental Innovations. With in this, the DLNA’s strategy to gain market share for Intel, involves making it a standard by using a product that allows more user to become aware of the benefits of having such a standard. in this manner, the DLNA certification is used more and therefore, Intel microprocessors are used more.

DLNA Innovation 2 Innovation 3 & so on.

Incremental Innovations

Increased Intel Market Share


DLNA & Product Innovation
Fluid Phase: The innovation dynamics of DLNA is product oriented. The rate of innovation starts really high within the company. The business structure is vertically integrated, and all the innovation in DLNA comes from within company itself. It is considered in the fluid phase since the focus on the products aspects is equally devoted. Transitional Phase: In the middle of the products developmental strategy, the rate of innovation lowers, and some of the products aspects like the production of application is outsourced, since the business structure becomes modularized. The transitional phase represents the time when the company tends to focus on the basic aspects of the product, while other complementary aspects such as personalization apps are outsourced allowing lead users and open source method to contribute in the product’s innovation. Specific Phase: The last phase in the product’s development is product’s certification. The company gets rid of the physical product. Its business structure become specialized as it specializes in cetrifying other technological products that fits with DLNA standards. The source of innovation comes from the firms who wants to certify their products and not DLNA, which bring the rate of innovation to its lowest rate within the company.

Rate of Major Innovation Fluid Phase

Transitional Phase

Specific Phase



Digital Home Network

S-curves for incremental innovation

Development Stage: -Intel must wait 2 years before the patent for the router is approved. -The technology for the device is developed in this stage.

-Phase I: -The router allows all PC’s, CE’s and mobile devices to connect to the internet, via password login. - Other devices can connect to each other, through a password pop up, that appears upon entering the home or turning the device on. -The device has a conversion mechanism that allows various devices to transfer and use files, from each other (installed base + complementary offerings)

-Phase II: -The router remains the same, except users can now connect to the device from outside their homes. (utility + installed base + complementary offerings) -In this phase, DLNA mobile devices such as laptops and mobiles phones will come

-Phase III: -In this phase, the router can be altered based on individual requirements of home members (lead user innovation). - Device settings, such as preferred tv channels, music stations and so on, are saved

-Phase IV: -The final focus is now mainly


Certification & Application

Yr 6

Yr 5

Personalization by the router device. When individuals enter the network, these settings are activated. (Utility) -DLNA members and nonmembers can develop custom apps for the on-the-go connectivity (installed base + complementary offerings)

continuing the DLNA certification of devices. -Along with this, the DLNA provides application for devices that allow seamless connectivity and file conversion, independent of the router, for non-DLNA devices.

Yr 3-4

Connectivity On-the-go with an app that allows them to monitor and engage with devices connected to their router.

Yr 1 - 2

The super router




Innovation Ecology for Digital Homes
Promotion Strategy: DNLA will take advantage of the long tail model by heavily advertising online through blogs, social networks like Twitter and YouTube channels. This means DNLA will cut costs that can be spent on manufacturing and distribution. Other promotion strategies will be advertising in magazines. Also, creating a reward or point system for customers who recommend the System to family or friends. There are many blogs focused on: Technology Gadgets Electronics IT Software These are the type of blogs DNLA will infiltrate.



Innovation Ecology
Manufacture: The manufacturing of the product will be vertically integrated for most of the products like the “Super Router”. Which will be limited licensed to avoid any copying. Most of the manufacturing will take place in developing countries to take advantage of the low costs e.g. China. The design of the products and applications will be carefully patented to avoid imitations. However, the design and overall look will be in the DNLA main office. Creating apps. For smart phone users where by they can easily check up on their appliances via. The world wide web. Connectivity on the go will follow moderate licensing this will allow users to create apps. But DNLA will charge them.

Distribute: DNLA will follow two methods of distribution to assure the product is available for their consumers that are willing to pay. There wont be a DNLA outlet.

1. Manufacturer to Major Chain: Since DNLA will be vertically producing the products it will directly sell them to chains like Wall Mart and other major electronic chains. 2. Manufacturer to direct marketing: DNLA will take it upon them selves to conduct door to door leaflet marketing. Also, they will create sales face to face.



Design Dominance

Superior Technology
Intel’s chips are the best in delivering increased computing power. It can be customized for any device, and is enviromentally sustainable. Another superior technology that makes the chip more attractive is its ability to bring more value to the products that are made of it. Devices that has Intel chips will have DLNA standards, which will allow a device to connect to any other devices with ease. It will be give the device the ability to convert file formats automatically as required by the destination device, upon file transfer, without altering the source file.

Management of Customers’ expectations
DLNA will be market oriented. Based on the new devices and new features available in the market along with the analysis of customers’ needs, DLNA will try to update the router at the first phase, and then the DLNA standards requirements as it starts the products certification phase.

Complementary Assets
DLNA is a complementary asset to the chips. DLNA’s complementary assets are Apps that allows users to monitor and engage with devices at home + Custom apps for the on-the-go connectivity + Apps that allows for personalization and profiling of each user. All in all, it gives Intel’s chips a wide range of complementary assets that makes it more attractive to the customers.

Firm’s Credibility

Factors that will lead to Intel’s Design Dominance

Intel has been in the semiconductor industry for so long, and it has many well known and major players in the technological industry as their customers already, which encourages other firms to buy Intel’s chips.

Installed Base
Taking the lead in chips innovation captured most of the marketshare in the semiconductor industry. To dominate the market, Intel is trying to enter a new market that can make the chip more valuable. The DLNA approach that will be able to do that will include a router at the first phase which will make customers aware of the idea of DLNA and home connectivity. As the customers will see how useful and time efficient the device is, alot of firms will be encouraged to use Intel’s chips to be able to have DLNA’s unique features in their new products. As most firms starts buying Intel’s chips, the firm will shift its efforts from creating a router to certifying products and devices that has DLNA standards, which allows the devices to do the router’s functions without the need of a router.

Switching Cost
The switching cost of Intel chip’s customers will increase as the customers have more and more of DLNA’s certified products. Most major technological firms will have to use Intel chips to have DLNA features to be built in, and switching to any other chip manufaturer would mean that the consumers’ home devices that have DLNA standards may not be compatible with their older Intel built in devices. Futhermore, the customers of those firms will have to get rid of any DLNA certified devices to start all over with the competitors new system.



Compatibility of all home devices together with the use of a conversion system that does not alter the source file.

As the installed base increases, so does the efficiency and effectiveness of the product which increases its value. Complementary goods will allow users to engage more with their home devices and appliances, which will also increase the value and installed base as well. The ability of the router to convert any type of file, and transport it from one device to another is basically a step towards making the product a standard. The first phase which is the introduction of the router will make the customers aware about the product. Its technological utility will be able to attract a lot of customers. The size of the installed base will encourage the producers to create complementary goods such as the apps for the connectivity on the go, and custom apps for profiling and customization. Then comes the certification phase, where producers will be tempted to certify their products, and contribute in creating more apps. The Availability of complementary goods, and certification of products of major technological firms will increase the firm’s credibility even further, and will attract more customers creating a larger installed base, which makes it a standard. Firms who have adopted DLNA standards already have years’ worth of DLNA certified products that have been sold to their customers. Customers will not be willing to buy products that are not compatible with their older ones. The firm does not have the ability to retrieve the products that were sold in the past to make them compatible with the new ones. Therefore, they would most probably prefer to stick to their previous plan to please their customers. As mentioned earlier, the standardization of DLNA is directly linked to the standardization of Intel chips.

DLNA Innovation 2 Innovation 3 & so on.
Innovation becomes a standard

More Devices Use Intel



I.P. for DLNA
-Phase I: Basic Super router In this stage, the device is fully owned by DLNA, but in order for it to interact with other devices, it needs to be patented, with LIMITED LICENSING. Hence, this stage requires 2 yrs development. This helps them protect the device, which is new in the market, and would be copies, without protection. -Phase II: Connectivity On-the-go: The device is still used, but they also allow other developers to create applications for the device. Hence, licensing needs to be more flexible, is the router is patented with MODERATE LICENSING. -Phase III: Personalization: In this stage, they allow users to customize and save settings for their network profile. At this point, the device is still patented, but its function can altered and improved by lead users, through the Personal Profile App (Lead User Toolkit). Hence, the IP strategy is MODERATE LICENSING, as users need to alter certain aspects of the device function. This reduces R&D costs for the firm, and increases HR know-how. -Phase IV: Certification & Application: Since the focus here is standardization, the device is outsourced to other companies to develop, while DLNA focuses on certifying PC’s and CE, and creating apps for devices, that are copyrighted, through LIBERAL LICENSING. The certification allows DLNA devices to become the dominant design. This is a low cost method of generating revenue. Although the any company can adopt the DLNA guideline, the certification is charged.

I.P. for DLNA Certfication & Intel
Since DLNA certification needs to become standardized, it is trademarked, but companies are openly provided the DLNA guidelines. Hence, on the whole, there is LIBERAL LICENSING. Intel Chips on the other hand are patented, as the technology is unique and can be duplicated if left open. According to their website, “Intel depends on sound patent systems worldwide to protect intellectual property (IP) and enable the development and deployment of new technologies.” These is an level of flexibility, so that can allow other companies to collaborate with them. Hence, Intel’s IP strategy is MODERATE LICENSING.

Intellectual Property Strategy

I LIMITED LICENSING DevicePatented. Program- Copyrighted. This helps maintain revenue and protect themselves from being copied.

II MODERATE LICENSING Device- Patented. Program- Copyrighted. But, they generate revenue by charging developers for license to create applications.

III MODERATE LICENSING Device- patented. Program- Copy righted, but developers can build applications. Increase HR know-how, Reduce R&D costs.

IV LIBERAL LICENSING Certification- Trademarked Program- OSS



Competence Enhancing Innovation
The DLNA (Digital Living Network Alliance) is new advancement for home networking using guidelines that allows different devices to share media between each other within a home ecosystem. It is competence enhancing since it is based on a Ethernet system but what will make it more advanced are its capability for users to share and customize their network system according to their needs. The innovation will have many incremental innovations that will establish a install base that becomes a standard which converts the different file formats into one standard file format which makes it user friendly and people would be able later on to control their homes using any mobile devices whether internal or externally.

Open Innovation Funnel other firms market

New Market

DLNA certified network install base creates an installed based that allows many companies to use only one standard

Internal technology base

Current Market

Open Innovation
By using the DLNA system its guidelines define how different standards will inter operate and how data can be handled that will also reduce the amount of standards to be used in home network system. The innovation is open since it deals with networking and other devices that has their file formats and at the same time since it should become a installed base in the market the DLNA guidline have to cooperated with the other companies so that those companies will not destroy this system with new disruptive innovations. As stated in their extensive ecosystem there is a joint development model of DNLA that will be a benefit for other manufacturing companies. The joint marketing efforts will allow for smaller investments that will be made by larger number of interested vendors that will educate consumers to the advantages of DLNA certified products. The investment in the DLNA will support new applications and value added functionality. This will create consumer satisfaction once the system allows for high quality video viewing within seconds and a overall control within the home.
External technology base Internal & external venture handling How companies will develop together further incremental innovations to make this DLNA a dominant Design innovation.

Individual network devices

The advantage of being open is that the platform can grow very largely through the help of becoming a standard that is accepted by many consumers through awareness and the acceptance of other companies without destroying their business. The DLNA is made to create a user friendly and efficient digital file handling in homes by creating a unified file format or by using a multimedia device such as a router that converts the different file formats into one that can be shared in the homes. The DLNA offers a richer set of features and functions to ensure a duality multimedia experience. By that the further incremental innovation will be based on menu sharing, where one can customize their home networking by using their mobile device at the same time application can be developed already within the other devices that makes the usage handy.


INNOVATION CONCEPT_INTEL DIGITAL HOMES Competence Enhancing Innovation + Incremental Innovation
Business Model Analysis and open Innovation
DLNA has specific standards that devices must support where the guidlines defines mandatory and optional standards for specific devices to follow. how ever for consumers to experience a complete digital sharing of all sorts of formats the access and creation of file encoding is critical in its development process. It is important to create a large ecosystem of partnerships and improving research and development to increase the revenue for this digital home networking.

Once DLNA becomes more known with a user friendly design other companies will see its benefit for their devices and will migrate to this new install base. Of course the encoding device will have to be patented and trademark has to be used for the logo and the processor. The device can belong to Intel but to create a large install based and cocreator inputs companies should work together to enhance the overall innovation that would allow for application for phones, investment in passwords and home controlling. The advantage of joint ventures with other products is its revenue that would increase the value of the products in the market and it will not hinder the development of the products technology it will actually enhance its maturity. As described by Intel and the Digital homes the DLNA has established a board of companies such as Sony Electronics, Philips, Hawlett Packard, Matsushita Electric Industiral, Microsoft Corporation, Intel Corporation, Nokia, Samsumg Electronics.

Experimential Innovation


New Revenues

Sale/Divest Spinoff License

Process Innovation

Lead User Innovation
Incremental innovations are necessary for this innovation to grow faster and create a large install base. DLNA is a competence Enhancing Innovation that allows faster digital market it will take a while for people to get to know the innovation however to make its utility user friendly a multimedia devices such as a router that encodes and communicates to all the devices must be lunched and protected. Applications, product, mobile handling, user profiling, process innovation are the first incremental innovations that has to follow after advertisement investment. DLNA will bring solutions to enhance home networking and file sharing that makes convenient for consumers to use. Once users see its importance and its easiness to become a lead user innovation people have to become addictive and mature.

Internal Development Costs

Revenue Growth

Market Revenue

Market Revenue Internal and External Development Costs

networking for homes. When it is firstly lunched into the

Product Innovation Application Innovation Disruptive


Cost and time savings from leveraging external development

Closed Business Modesl

Open Business Modesl

Technology Adoption life cicle

Main Street



INNOVATION CONCEPT_INTEL DIGITAL HOMES Competence Enhancing Innovation + Incremental Innovation
Business Model Analsis and innovation Diffusion
It is important to create good business model by understanding that the market in which DLNA is lunched is depended on customer adaption. At the very beginning in the birth year 2.5% of the customers are very adventurous who would adapt to the new network fairly quickly they are so called innovators. From there 13.5% are people who would sign up into social systems. The analysis is important to understand who would use the newly developed multimedia device encoder. In America 8 million households have networks at home and 2.1 million households use digital home applications comparing it to western Europe where 6 millions household have home networks from which 2 million households used digital home applications. That shows that digital homes are still in early stage with a growth potential. It is essential at the beginning when the company starts on the web to make people believe in its expertise and as early potential clients get familiar with the new service the faster customer satisfaction can be created.

Lead Users using MHN
The client who would need such device that encodes and enables communication between the different devices at home, to be able to have fast home networking, are those who use a lot of devices. To ensure a predicted solution for the customer problem or need since the marketplace has faced such general need to be able to view your HD movies on your TV directly shared by your laptop, MHN encounters them before due to large varieties of media file formats with different qualities to be able to handle them from different mobile devices. To further create another level of incremental innovation, an application has to be lunched into the market that replaces the encoding router, that allows for customizing of the digital home networks. By this the user can create their own profile that is based on their needs. Once the users become more familiar with the DLNA, Intel will be able to increase or keep a large market share since more devices are bought that implement their processor ships in it.
Printers PC Desktop

multi-home-networking DLNA-multi-home-networking

Needs and Clients behaviours
To identify different need for multi- network communica-

Home company

Cumulative adopters

tion system between devices such as the MHN we need to see what are the future developments in entertainment and multimedia devices. Companies are able to innovate
Mobile Phone





specific products that uses the MHN system that enables reliable and efficient file sharing and networking. Be able to control your homes activities and temperature control all through the use of MHN will be future clients. Households becomes more complex due to the development of many
Large Houshold and Multimedia Users

Late Majority Early Majority Early Adopters Innovators Time


new devices thus new incremental innovations towards the clients behaviour will be necessary and research in customer behaviour will be essential. It becomes the platform for the future for inelegant homes and since digital era has become the future industry for products everyone will eventually migrate to DLNA- (multi- home-networking) system.

16% 2.5%

Potential Clients

Potential Clients

5th Generation: The System Integration & Networking Model
Since Intel has various innovations, and limited employees, the 5th generation model is most appropriate model, as it allows employees to learn from various different innovations. It allows to enhance the speed and efficiency of innovation and product development across the system within the company and with its members. In this manner, collaboration between other companies and different innovation teams build even a larger install based and larger market share.

Advantages for MHN/ DLNA
The 5th generation offers the company to be able to be flexible in organisational structure for rapid and effective decision making. It also offers the company to make good established external joint ventures and collaborations that also enables a larger database and at the same time codevelopment with suppliers and companies that will implement the DLNA guidelines by using the Intel microchips in their devices.

Team Structure
The structure in the company should encourage team working where awards are giving to different groups. Each

New idea


professional group as a department will be working towards success. The individual will be rewarded when the whole group compete with other departments. The group is able to input their ideas towards new incremental innovations that will make the company more integrated and the generation of many ideas will encourage each department for




Microchip Team

Microchip Innovation Team

Development Centre

example the manufacturing department could have an idea that will be accepted by the managing team and the rest of the department that would award this group. Brainstorming will be within each group and than will be shared with the others to get more input or additional feedback. The structure will be flat that will encourage inter-disciplinary working and learning. It will make the company very interrelated with each department allowing higher efficiency and creativity for new innovations.



Ethernet Innovation Team

Creative Department



Forces in the Competitive Strategy

Threat of New Entrants Although Intel and AMD have other competitors, they still are monopolizing the IDM semiconductor industry. Threat of new entrants is pretty low since intel’s installed base is large, and it is a capital intensive industry. Also, its new DLNA approach that will make its relationship with its customers socially complex will stablize its place even more in the industry.

Porter’s Five Forces

Bargaining Power of Customers Customers’ bargaining power is very low since the number of customers is really high as well as the demand, while the number of producers is very low.

Competitive Rivalry The major competitor to Inel is AMD. They are the only companies that are innovating in the semiconductor indusrty. Yet, Intel still remains at the forground. Other Competitors in the IDM industry are Samsung, Texas Instruments, Toshiba, TSMC, ST Microelectronics, Renesas, Sony, and others. However, they are just immitators so they dont impose any threats on Intel. Bargaining Power of Suppliers Supplier’s bargaining power is very high since there are very few semiconductor companies in the IDM industry.

6th Competitive Force
Complementors (6th force)
Semiconductors is considered a complementor to any technological device, since it is the building block of many of them.

Threat of Substitute Products Intel can only be substituted when other IMD companies surpasses Intel’s innovations. DLNA is one of Intel’s innovations. DLNA’s approach is a substitute to the old complex methods of devices conectivity. There are no substitutes to DLNA’s approach that equals its advancement at the moment.

DLNA’s approach will be having a lot of complementors as well since it will be able to connect any type of technological device including electrical system in a later phase of its development strategy.



Intel Digital Homes: Human Resources
External Motivators: Aside from basic external motivators, such as salary and benefits, Intel could also increase the creative output at the firm by allowing those employees, who come up with successful innovations, to be awarded with stock option for their innovations, once its commercialized. Community based motivators: Although Intel encourages competition between groups, in their 5G organizational model, by offering rewards to the most creative team, most employees are rewarded for the team effort. This makes them want to work well with the team. Industry Structure The industry structure for microchips is vertically integrated, and the main manfuctures of semiconductors are Intel and AMD In order to retain qualified employees, reduce costs, and increase their level of motivation, Intel should promote from within the company, for higher positions. Intel could also have a point system for employees, where they earn points for every new innovation/ significant contribution they made to Intel’s innovation. Aside from this, Intel could conduct a yearly aptitude test, to see whether some employees are wrongly placed in certain departments, or have talents in other areas. Based on their, Intel may change their position in the firm. Organizational Structure Since Intel wants to allow autonomy among employees, the business structure would be shallow, allowing employees to take their ideas directly to their top managers without a high level of interference in the matter. They use the multiple hub & spoke model, where teams are led by single individuals, in order to empower them.

Intrinsic Motivators Enjoyment based motivators: Creative + Collaborative environment: At Intel, all employees, within team provide individual inputs. They are considered co-creators of their innovation. They are allowed enough flexibility to change their group, within the organization, if they do not find their current position challenging enough.

Hiring Policy: Since Intel requires employees who have a high level of technical know-how, they must mainly hire employees from universities. Since these employees need training in order to apply their knowledge to Intel’s organizational goals, they must have a flexible innovation model. Hence, the 5G model is the most apt model for Intel.



Firm’s Current Position
Strengths of Intel that gives it the potential to be sustainable and have a competitive advantage: Valuable
DLNA’s approach is valuable since it caters the modern life needs of the people as it makes life easier and saves time. It’s customer value increases as it increases the utility of other firms products who has Intel’s chips. It allows the users to utilize their devices and appliances to the fullest. It is also considered to be sustainable in a sense as it allows the owner of a device to know every aspect of his devices, and gives him the ability to control it anytime and from anywhere.

Company’s resources that are difficult to imitate: Tacit
Intel’s tacit knowledge is embedded in its reputation amongst its customers. Its ability to increase the microchips quality and respond to the market needs made it the world’s first semiconductor producer. The amount of products that uses intel’s microchips emphasizes Intel’s ability to retain customer loyalty. All of this made out of Intel a reputation that is hard to imitate.

may not seem obvious. On the other hand DLNA features are external, and can be visualized by the user. Relating both DLNA and the chip to Intel will make the users know about Intel’s chip more, which in turn will increase the installed base as it captures the end users knowledge.

Socially Complex
When the marketshare of DLNA increases, its creates a socially complex relationship in a sense that DLNA would have alot of major firms as customers who’s customers start seeing all devices as a unite system. This creates even more complex relationship as new opportunities might rise for these technological firms, which will make them more attached to Intel’s chips.

DLNA’s approach is considered to be rare and unique since it is not followed with any switching costs to its adopters. The adopters dont have to get rid of their older devices as the DLNA system will be able to work with them as well. Also, it spares the users the necessity of having to know the complex details that occurs when a file is transferred from one device to another or one medium to another.

Path Dependent & Casually Ambigious
Intel chip’s customers who are the purchasing firms are not the end users of the final product. They are manufacturers that uses Intel’s chips to produce their product. Although that is the case, Intel reputation has been able to reach some end consumers, but not all of them. Not all consumers care what kind of chip is being used in the product, they just care about the effectiveness of the end product itself. Intel is trying to reach its name to more end consumers by being involved in DLNA. A chip is internal to the user which

It creates good CSR with other technological companies since it does not lead to any decrease in their market sales or steal the market share. In the contrary, it adds value to their products which encourages the customers to buy more technological devices.

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