Lappeenranta university of technology

Faculty of technology
Department of energy and environmental technology
BH10A0200 Bachelor’s thesis and seminar in energy technology

THE PERFORMANCE AND THE CHARACTERISTIC FIELD OF A
CENTRIFUGAL COMPRESSOR

In Lappeenranta 7.10.2008

Essi Paavilainen

Ente 4

0296198

ABSTRACT

Lappeenranta university of technology
Faculty of technology
Department of energy and environmental technology

Essi Paavilainen

The performance and the characteristic field of a centrifugal compressor

Presented in bachelor’s thesis seminar in Lappeenranta university of technology 13.10.2008

02.10.2008

28 pages
5 figures
5 tables
2 appendices

Examiner: Jari Backman
Instructor: Jari Backman

Keywords: compression, centrifugal compressor, characteristic field, performance, air humidity

The basic calculations related to the compression process of a centrifugal compressor are examined
in this study. The effects of air humidity are considered, and the characteristic field of a
compressor is presented. Points of a characteristic field are calculated as an example.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
1. INTRODUCTION............................................................................................................................3
1.1 A centrifugal compressor ...........................................................................................................3
1.2. The manufactures ......................................................................................................................4
2. THE PERFORMANCE OF A CENTRIFUGAL COMPRESSOR .................................................5
2.1. Primary data ..............................................................................................................................5
2.1.1. Isentropic efficiency ..........................................................................................................5
2.1.2. Polytropic efficiency ..........................................................................................................6
2.2. The change in specific enthalpy in a real compression process ................................................7
2.3 The axial power need .................................................................................................................9
2.4 Electromechanical efficiency and total efficiency ...................................................................10
2.5 The Change of specific enthalpy in an isentropic compression process ..................................11
2.6 The rotational speed .................................................................................................................11
3. THE INFLUENCE OF AIR HUMIDITY TO THE CALCULATIONS .......................................12
3.1 Relative humidity .....................................................................................................................12
3.2 The influence of air humidity to the gas constant ....................................................................13
4. THE CHARACTERISTIC FIELD OF A RADIAL COMPRESSOR ...........................................14
4.1 Relative characteristic field ......................................................................................................14
4.1.1 Coordinates........................................................................................................................15
4.1.2 Speed curves......................................................................................................................16
4.1.3 Efficiency curves...............................................................................................................16
4.1.4 Other curves ......................................................................................................................16
4.1.5 Surge line...........................................................................................................................16
4.1.6 Choking line ......................................................................................................................17
4.2 Qualitative characteristic field..................................................................................................17
5. REVIEWING AN EXAMPLE OF CHARACTERISTIC FIELDS...............................................18
5.1 Primary data .............................................................................................................................18
5.2 Data points in the characteristic field .......................................................................................19
5.3 The calculations........................................................................................................................21
5.3.1 Air humidity ......................................................................................................................21
5.3.2 The polytropic efficiency and the compression process ...................................................22
5.3.3 The isentropic efficiency and the compression process ....................................................23

5.3.4 The axial power need and the rotational speed .................................................................24
5.4 The results ................................................................................................................................25
6. SUMMARY ...................................................................................................................................26
REFERENCES...................................................................................................................................27

APPENDICES
Appendix1. Exemplary calculations
Appendix2. Calculations in all chosen points of the characteristic field of the
compressor TB150-0.8S

ºC] V volume [m3] cp specific heat capacity in constant pressure [J/kgK. bar.INDEX OF USED SYMBOLS Symbols M molecular mass Ns specific speed [-] R gas constant [J/kgK.1/min] ωvap water vapour humidity [-] Sub-indexes air air aks axial cr critical el electro-mechanic i specific in in the intake out in the outtake [kg/mol] .mmAq. kg/min] qv volumetric flow rate [m3/min. kJ/kg] m mass [kg] n amount of substance [mol] p pressure [Pa. kJ/kgK] T temperature [K. bar] qm mass flow rate [kg/s. atm] p’ pressure for water vapour [Pa.m3/s] η efficiency [-] µ ratio of vapour molecular mass to air molecular mass [-] π pressure ratio [-] ρ density [kg/m3] φ relative humidity [-] ωsp angular speed [1/s. kJ/kgK] h enthalpy [J/kg.

p polytropic s isentropic tot total u universal vap vapour water water humid air humid air .

In a centrifugal compressor the fluid is first accelerated into a certain speed and then. it is important to understand and interpret correctly the performance and the characteristic field of a compressor. Compressors working in a small pressure ratio can also be referred as blowers. a liquid or a gas. a suction eye. keeping the rounding speed of the fluid mainly radial.1 A centrifugal compressor A compressor is a piece of machinery that compresses a fluid. that flows in the compressor into greater pressure. A characteristic field published by a compressor manufacturer. In this study. Different efficiencies have to be considered in the calculations and working with humid air affects the process. as the speed of the fluid is reduced in a reversible manner. is calculated as an example. The influence of air humidity in the performance of the compressor is considered as well. Calculating a simple compression process is straightforward and the characteristic field of a compressor can be mastered with the same equations. 1. The main parts are an impeller and its vanes. the pressure of the fluid rises. The calculations related to the performance of a centrifugal compressor are examined in this study. INTRODUCTION When working with turbomachinery. but it is possible to calculate the compression process a bit more accurately with small additions to the original equations.3 1. a centrifugal compressor designates a kinetic compressor working in one phase. KTurbo. As the pressure of the fluid rises. the fluid flows through the compressor from lower pressure into higher pressure. The main parts of a centrifugal compressor are presented in figure 1. (Wirzenius 1968. a volute casing and a discharge. 52-53) .

which includes a lot of other components. High-Speed Tech. whose purpose is for example blowing air to an air conditioning system. A characteristic field exposes a lot of compressor data to the consumers. are Neuros. In this study some points of a characteristic field by the compressor manufacturer KTurbo are calculated with basic default data. The calculated data is then revised in the light of other information published by the manufacturer. Atlas Copco and Piller.2. .4 Figure 1. The parts of a centrifugal compressor [1] 1. AenTL. Some compressor manufacturers publish the performances of their products and even characteristic fields through the Internet. Siemens Turbomachinery Equipment manufactures compressors for almost all purposes. The compressor itself is seldom visible for the user. because it is inside a casing. The trend in manufacturing compressors seems to be manufacturing whole systems. The manufactures Some manufacturers working in the field of manufacturing high-speed centrifugal compressor technology like KTurbo. the manufacturer whose compressor is calculated in this study. where a compressor is only one part of the whole system.

the used fluid is air. First the characteristics of the fluid are needed and the pressure and temperature of the fluid in the intake must be known. s (Tin − Tout . Isentropic efficiency is defined by calculating the change in specific enthalpy in the real compression process and comparing it to the change in specific enthalpy in an ideal compression process.5 2. Other important values are the volumetric flow rate qv and either the polytropic efficiency ηp or the isentropic efficiency ηs of the compression process in the calculating point. The desired pressure ratio π has to be known as well. and the pressure ratio is mainly between 1 and 2. (1) . Primary data To calculate the compression process of a centrifugal compressor. some primary data has to be known. which has no losses. 2. 2. The obtained pressure rise is dependent on the characteristics of the compressed fluid. Isentropic efficiency The isentropic efficiency expresses how much the compression process resembles an isentropic compression process. In the calculations done in this study.1. When the value of efficiency is one. Isentropic efficiency for a compression process can be calculated with the equation ηs = c p . THE PERFORMANCE OF A CENTRIFUGAL COMPRESSOR The performance of a compressor is a wide-ranging term indicating the accessible pressure ratio and input power of the compressor on a certain volumetric flow rate of the fluid. The performance of a centrifugal compressor is usually announced in a characteristic field.1. Calculating the performance of a centrifugal compressor begins with calculating the basic compression process of the compressor. s ) c p (Tin − Tout ) . where uniform rotational speed curves are presented in pressure ratio – flowing speed plane. the compression process is an ideal process.1. Isentropic efficiency is calculated throughout the whole compressor system.

2. 2001) 2. (Schobeiri M.6 where c p . 223) It is possible to have the same value of polytropic efficiency for two different compressors working in the same conditions. Tin is the intake temperature. (Saari J. and so calculated through the whole system. the more the isentropic and polytropic efficiency values differ. Tin pin (3) The polytropic efficiency is better for compressor comparison than the isentropic efficiency.1. Figure 3 presents how . Tout. The greater the pressure ratio. because the value of the polytropic efficiency does not change as much as the value of the isentropic efficiency does. but different from isentropic efficiency. the polytropic efficiency is defined across a differential part in the system. Tin pin (2) where pout is the outtake pressure. 2005. Polytropic efficiency can be calculated by assuming that in an ideal process the temperature ratio is relative to the pressure ratio according to equation Ri Tout pout c p = . s is the specific heat capacity in average temperature of an ideal isentropic compression process. Polytropic efficiency The polytropic efficiency expresses how much the real compression process resembles an ideal compression process. the polytropic efficiency is included in the equation (2) by adding it to the exponent according to the equation Ri Tout pout η p ⋅c p = .s is the outtake temperature in an isentropic compression process. pin is the intake pressure and Ri is the specific gas constant of the fluid. When calculating a real compression process. c p is the specific heat capacity in constant pressure computed in average temperature of a real compression process and Tout is the outtake temperature in a real compression process.

2. Changes in isentropic efficiency for turbine and compressor.90. The change in specific enthalpy in a real compression process Because the equation (3) includes the pressure ratio. which can be calculated using the equation . the equation can be expressed as Tout = Tin ⋅ π Ri c p ⋅η p . polytropic efficiency is constant 0. (4) Because the specific heat capacity must be defined in the average compression temperature T . because it gives a greater value to the efficiency. [2] It seems that the compressor manufacturers often prefer the use of isentropic efficiency in their characteristic fields. 2. 2001) Figure3.7 the isentropic efficiency changes for a compressor and a turbine in conditions. (Saari J. where the polytropic efficiency is constant.

the specific heat capacity c p can be calculated with a third degree polynomial fit cp = a + b ⋅T + c ⋅T 2 + d ⋅T 3 . With the calculated value of the specific heat capacity in constant pressure the outtake temperature can be calculated more carefully. c and d are constants and they are in the region 200K ≤ T ≤ 1800K for dry air a = 0.0617·10 -8 d = -22.9273·10 -6 c = 68. 14) a = 0. The average compression temperature has to be also recalculated with the new outtake temperature. The change in specific enthalpy ∆h can be calculated with the equation (Saari J. b. (6) where a. 2 (5) the outtake temperature must first be estimated. (7) . When the first assumption for the outtake temperature is made. and the whole process of defining the outtake temperature should be repeated long enough so that the estimateed outtake temperature is the same as the outtake temperature given by the calculations in desired accuracy. 1996.868·10 -8 d = -88.443·10 -11.4395·10 -6 c = 22.1495·10 -12 and for water vapour (Backman J. 2001) ∆h = c p ⋅ (Tout − Tin ) .982076 b = 16.180768 b = 17.8 T = Tout + Tin .

The amount of substance n can be determined as n= m . Density can be determined with the equation ρ= m . V (10) where m is mass and V is volume.9 2. V is the volume of the fluid in the intake and Ru is the universal gas constant. (8) The pressure of the fluid can be determined in the intake of the compressor.3 The axial power need The mass flow qm of the fluid at the intake can be determined with the volumetric flow rate qv and density of the fluid ρ at the intake according to the equation qm = qv ⋅ ρ . M where m is the mass and M is the molecular mass of the fluid A specific gas constant Ri is determined as (11) . V (9) where n is the amount of substance of the fluid. where the thermodynamic equation of state of a perfect gas can be used p= n ⋅ Ru ⋅ Tin .31451 J/mol K. which has the value 8.

the total efficiency ηtot can be determined as well. equation for the density of the fluid can be determined as the equation ρ= pin . Total efficiency can be calculated with the equation ηtot = ηel ⋅η s .4 Electromechanical efficiency and total efficiency If the total power need Ptot is known for the compressor in some point. (16) . (14) 2. the electromechanical efficiency ηel can be determined for the compressor in that point with the equation ηel = Paks . After processing the thermodynamic state equation of a perfect gas (9) and including the equations (10). Ptot (15) When the electromechanical efficiency is determined for the compressor. Ri ⋅ Tin (13) To calculate the axial power need of the compressor Paks can be calculated using the equation Paks = qm ⋅ ∆h .10 Ru . M Ri = (12) where Ru is the universal gas constant and M is the molecular mass of the fluid. (11) and (12) into it.

The change of specific enthalpy in an ideal isentropic compression process ∆hs can be calculated with the equation (7). the temperature in the outtake of an isentropic compression can be calculated with the equation (4). the first set of calculations should be done in the design point. where the polytropic efficiency has the value 1. where the relative speed is 1 and the efficiency of the rotational movement is usually at its best. what the outtake temperature would be if the compression process was ideal. First. but the outtake temperature is lower after an ideal compression than the temperature after a real compression process.11 2. The temperature rises somewhat. The calculated isentropic outtake temperature is the second estimated temperature and the calculating process of defining the isentropic outtake temperature should be repeated long enough so that the estimated temperature is the same as the calculated isentropic outtake temperature in desired accuracy. and the specific heat capacity in the average temperature of the isentropic compression can be calculated with the equation (6). The isentropic efficiency can be calculated with the equation ηs = ∆hs . ∆h (17) 2. Because an ideal isentropic compression gives the value 1 to both polytropic and isentropic efficiencies. .5 The Change of specific enthalpy in an isentropic compression process The compression process must be calculated with the isentropic efficiency as well as with the polytropic efficiency. one has to estimate. so that the rotational speed of the compressor could be calculated.6 The rotational speed To calculate the rotational speed as correctly as possible. The average temperature between the intake temperature and the estimated isentropic outtake temperature can be calculated with the equation (5).

75 . 3.8 in the design point (Wirzenius A. Air humidity influences the values of air molecular mass. 120). the specific gas constant of air and the specific heat capacity of air. 85-86). Humid air can be considered to be a mixture of dry air and water vapour. .0. In this study.5 (18) The angular speed is the speed at which a rotationally symmetric solid turns one unit. 1978. but the effects of air humidity have to be considered as well. The rotational speed in other points can be calculated by multiplying the rotational speed of the design point with the relative speed in the desired point. The pressure of the vapour in the air can not be greater than the pressure of saturated water vapour. 9).1 Relative humidity The amount of water vapour in air is defined by the pressure of the vapour in the air. qv 0.6 and 1. THE INFLUENCE OF AIR HUMIDITY TO THE CALCULATIONS The calculations in this study are made considering the compressed fluid to be air. 1978. 86). ωsp = N s ⋅ ∆hs 0. Angular speed ωsp for a centrifugal compressor can be calculated with the equation (Wirzenius A.12 The specific speed Ns for a centrifugal compressor is in the design point in between 0. In this study the water vapour is assumed to be near liquefying and humid air is treated as a perfect gas. 1996. 3. 1968. the calculations have been made with the specific speed Ns being 0. otherwise the water is in liquid or solid state. Relative humidity states the relation between the pressure of the water vapour in the air and the pressure of saturated water vapour (Backman J. The angular speed can be turned into rotational speed dividing it with a whole revolution (Wirzenius A.

The water vapour pressure is expressed with a regressional exponential correlation for the region 273. pcr = 220.64bar and Tcr = 647. (19) where pvap is the water vapour pressure in the air.13 ϕ= pvap p 'vap . The equation for water vapour humidity is (Backman J.14 K and the constants are a1 = -7.14 K p 'vap (T ) = pcr ⋅ e T / T ( a τ + a τ 1. (20) ⋅ p 'vap where µ = Mwater/Mair. (21) where τ = 1-T/Tcr. the molecular mass and gas constant can be calculated for the air-water vapour mixture.7811 a4 = 22. p’vap is the pressure of the saturated water vapour and φ is the relative humidity.9393 a6 = 1.83991 a3 = -11.2 The influence of air humidity to the gas constant and the specific heat capacity After calculating the water vapour humidity.85823 a2 = 1.6705 a5 = -15.16 K ≤ T ≤ 647.5 + a τ 3 + a τ 3.12) ωvap = µ p 'vap p ϕ .5  5 1 2 3 4 6  cr  .5 + a τ 4 + a τ 7. The molecular mass for air-water vapour mixture M can be calculated with the equation .77516 3. 1996.

The values given in a characteristic field are measured by using the compressor in sufficient amount of points. A characteristic field can be executed in either relative or qualitative way. but they both can be calculated with the same equations.1 Relative characteristic field . 4. The mole fraction of water vapour in the humid air can be calculated with the equation xvap = pvap p . that all curves can be calculated with good accuracy. The most common way to express the performance of a compressor in changing circumstances is to use a characteristic field.humid air = xvap ⋅ c p . (23) With the mole fraction of water vapour in humid air. It is important to be able to regulate both the intake and the outtake of a compressor. the specific heat capacity for humid air can be calculated with the equation c p .water vapour mixture. (24) 4. ωvap + µ (22) The gas constant for humid air can be calculated with the equation (12) where the molecular mass M is now the molecular mass of air.vap + (1 − xvap ) ⋅ c p . 1996.14 M= 1 ( µ M air + ωvap M vap ) . 13) The specific heat capacity for water vapour can be calculated with the equation (6) using the constants for water vapour. (Backman J. THE CHARACTERISTIC FIELD OF A RADIAL COMPRESSOR A compressor is seldom used in only one pressure ratio and volumetric flow rate.air .

speeds and pressure ratios of the compressor are defined relatively to the values measured in the design point. When the conditions in the design point are known.15 In a relative characteristic field the best working conditions are found in the design point. All other volumetric flow rates.1 Coordinates The coordinates in a relative characteristic field are relative volumetric flow rate on the x-axis and relative pressure ratio on the y-axis. 1988. Pressure ratio in a selected point can be calculated by multiplying the pressure ratio in the design point with the relative pressure ratio in the selected point. 45). Figure 4 gives an example of a relative characteristic field.1988. Both of the coordinates have the value 1 in the design point. .1. 45). all the points in the characteristic field can be calculated by multiplying the values with the ratios given in the characteristic field. With a similar multiplication the volumetric flow rate in a desired point can be calculated (Larjola J. In a relative characteristic field there are uniform speed ratio curves in a relative pressure ratio. relative flow rate –plane (Larjola J. Figure4. Example of a relative characteristic field [3] 4.

1.2 Speed curves Speed curves are curves of uniform speed in the characteristic field.16 4.4 Other curves A characteristic field may include a range of other curves as well. but for the user of the characteristic field it is useful to get all needed information straight from the characteristic field. but isentropic efficiency gives greater values of efficiency. 4. Isentropic and polytropic efficiency curves look similar in a characteristic field. polytropic efficiency or total efficiency in some cases there are no efficiency curves in the characteristic field. A compressor can be regulated by adjusting the rotational speed of the compressor (the rotational speed of the electric motor). total efficiency levels with the shortest running time. 45). These other curves give information like relative power need or relative axial power.5 Surge line . but when making the measurements for a characteristic field of a compressor. 4. the efficiency can be given as isentropic efficiency.3 Efficiency curves Efficiency curves are given as the values of efficiency. the speeds are given as relative speeds. The speed curves give the most important data in the characteristic field.1. Total efficiency curves seem a bit different from isentropic and polytropic efficiency curves. Depending on the purpose of the characteristic field.1. where the relative speed in the design point has the value 1. so they are sometimes the most correct. 1988. because they show at which rounding speed the desired output conditions can be attained (Larjola J. 4.1. All the other information given in the characteristic field can be calculated with the basic values given in the characteristic field separately. In a relative characteristic field.

the volumetric flow rate does not grow (Larjola J. but on the right side of the characteristic field the restricting line is the overheat line. . Most characteristic fields however include elements of both. efficient way. but on the right side of the characteristic fields presented in this study. relative and qualitative characteristic fields.1. mainly to the impeller blades. However outside the design point the flow is not as efficient.2 Qualitative characteristic field A qualitative characteristic field is similar to a relative characteristic field. choking means that although the pressure ratio changes for smaller. and when the flow brakes off the blades.1988. on the left side of a characteristic field in the characteristic fields presented in this study. If surge lasts for a long time.17 Surge line is a line. 4. 48). Choking is a phenomenon which happens when flowing speed reaches the value of the speed of sound in either the intake or the outtake of the compressor. In the design point the flow of the fluid follows the blades of the impeller in the designed. 37) 4. In the characteristic field for the compressor TB150-0. This method has been used in the characteristic fields provided by KTurbo calculated in this study. it may cause serious damage to the compressor. When a compressor is used with too small volumetric flow rate and too high pressure ratio. (Airila 1983. surge immerses.8S provided by KTurbo there is not a choking line. In practice. with the one difference that the values in a qualitative characteristic field are given as the real values itself. In compressors surge can reverse a flow. it is called surge. approximately perpendicular to the speed curves.6 Choking line Choking line is approximately aligned with the surge line. not relative to the values of the design point. In example the coordinates can be given qualitatively and speed curves relatively.

g is the acceleration of gravity. This unit can be changed into Pascals with equation p = g ⋅ ρ ⋅h .1 Primary data In the characteristic field of compressor TB150-0. temperature and relative humidity) in the intake and the maximum electromechanical efficiency of 95% and the actual characteristic fields (KTurbo. the state of air (pressure. 5. Other primary information are the volumetric flow rate. 2008).8S from KTurbo.8S.18 5. because it is commonly used among compressor manufacturers. a characteristic field by KTurbo has been calculated in this study. REVIEWING AN EXAMPLE OF CHARACTERISTIC FIELDS To receive a full figure of the usage and practicality of a characteristic field.8S. . (25) where p is the gauge pressure in Pascals. The density of water in 20 ºC temperature is 998. Figure 5 presents the characteristic field of the KTurbo compressor 150-0.2071kg/m3(Water density calculator). which was given in millimetres of water. The efficiency given in the characteristic field was first assumed to be the isentropic efficiency. The outtake pressure was then calculated by summing the intake pressure and the gauge pressure together. the outtake pressure was calculated with gauge pressure. The axial power in the KTurbo compressors of the 150 serie is 150 hp (KTurbo 2008). The revised characteristic field is a characteristic field of a turbo blower TB150-0. ρ is the density of water and h is the height of water.

The design point was a point. were chosen from every other constant speed curve.6 and ending with rotational speed 1. and the other speeds were calculated by multiplying them with the relative speed. According to this.The characteristic field of KTurbo compressor TB150-0. The points were chosen ranging from the choking line up to the surge line. When the efficiency curves were too far .2 Data points in the characteristic field The data points in the characteristic fields.19 Figure5. The data points were mostly chosen in places. the calculations in this study were first made in the design point. beginning with relative speed 0. 5. in which the calculations were made.0. to get minimum inaccuracy to the calculations. where the volumetric flow was 80m3/min and the outtake pressure was 8000mmAq (KTurbo 2008). where the constant speed curves meet the efficiency curves. In the characteristic field this point is referred as point 3 (figure 5).8S [4] The rotational speed in the characteristic field was given as relative speed.

8S. Figure 6 presents the chosen points in the characteristic field of the KTurbo compressor 150-0. Further in this study these 9 points. the points were chosen aligned with the given efficiency curves.20 apart. .8S. The chosen data points in the characteristic field of compressor TB150-0. relative speed and isentropic efficiency were determined for every data point from the characteristic field. gauge pressure. Figure6. which is executed with the same equations are presented in appendice1. a cross marks a calculated point. The primary data for the calculated 9 points is presented in table 1. of which most specific information is available. gauge pressure and the volumetric flow rate in 9 points of the characteristic field (marked separately with numbers in figure 6) were known as well (KTurbo. [5] Values for volumetric flow rate. 2008). Values of total efficiency. The given 9 points were calculated as well as other chosen points. total power need. are calculated as an example. The calculation in other points.

21 101325.00 998.34 48.00 998.1622 0.7510 0.60 58.1514 1.00 998.94 70.6700 RH [%] 36.15 293.01905 p out [Pa] 179664.1 Air humidity To take into account the affects of humid air.00 998.15 pin ρwater [Pa] [kg/m3] 101325. .5 160079.3 The calculations The compression process is calculated in the selected points according to chapters 2 and 3.15 293.9838 0.5 160079.00 36.7470 0.2108 1.6850 0.2 ηs [-] 0. the water vapour humidity could be calculated with the equation (20). Primary data for 9 points in the characteristic field of the compressor TB150-0.7440 0.7455 0. 5.21 101325. As the relative air humidity was known.00 36.00 36.00 36.00 36.00 qv qv [m /min] [m3/s] 56.2 140681.21 Table 1.028964 kg/mol and for water 0.15 293.01801534 kg/mol.00 998.1297 0.00 36.21 p gauge [mmAqx1000] 8 7.00 36.15 293.0324 1.7510 0.15 293.7455 0.00 36.33 3 5.15 92.2 140681. first the changes that air humidity causes to the molecular mass and to the specific gas constant have to be calculated.15 293.21 101325.21 101325.00 998.17 80. The value used for air molecular mass is in this study 0.00 998.3.98095 8 6 6 6 4.21 101325.8S T in 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 [K] 293.00 998.5 140681. The specific gas constant was calculated according to the equation (12).7 179664.7450 0.21 101325. The water vapour pressure was determined in the intake temperature according to the equation (21).98 80.01905 4.21 101325.15 293.80 69.9946 1.3 179477.00 998.55 36.0432 1.15 293.01905 4.21 101325.1514 0. The molecular masses for water and air were determined from a molecular mass table. The molecular mass for humid air could be now calculated according to the equation (22).3 160079.

029 0.005 0.029 0.2 293.622 0. The calculated values for water vapour pressure.2 293.029 0.005 0.029 0.018 0.2 The polytropic efficiency and the compression process The polytropic efficiency was estimated for every point at first.49 2338.315 8. The average temperature was then calculated according to the equation (5).00 101325.018 0.622 0.49 2338.622 0.00 101325. The outtake temperature was then calculated with the estimated value for the polytropic efficiency according to the equation (4).005 0.00 101325.2 293.005 0.622 0.018 0.968 287.029 0.968 287.622 0.029 0.029 0.00 101325.3.029 0.315 8.018 0.005 0. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 T in pin [K] [Pa] p'vap (Tin) [Pa] 293.029 0.315 8.018 0.005 0.029 0.2 293.315 8.018 0.00 2338.968 287. The change in the specific enthalpy during the compression process was then determined according to the equation (7).2 293.029 8.968 287.00 101325.968 5.00 101325.029 0.315 8.018 Mair Mhumid air Ru [kg/mol] [kg/mol] [J/mol K] 0.622 0.2 101325.49 µ ωvap Mwater - - [kg/mol] 0.49 2338.2 293.22 Table 2.968 287. The calculation process was then repeated to get an accurate value for the outtake temperature. .029 0.005 0. The specific heat capacity in constant pressure in the average temperature was determined according to the equation (6) for dry air and water vapour and the specific heat capacity in constant pressure and average temperature for humid air was calculated according to the equation (24).029 0.968 287. The outtake temperature had to be estimated as well.49 2338.029 0.968 287. The polytropic efficiency was estimated to be smaller than the isentropic efficiency in all of the calculated points.315 8.2 293.315 8. The mole fraction of water vapour in the humid air was calculated according to the equation (23).49 2338.00 101325.018 0.622 0.005 0.49 2338.49 2338.968 287.00 101325.315 Ri [J/kg K] 287.029 0. molecular masses and gas constants.029 0.622 0.622 0.2 293.49 2338.005 0.018 0.315 8.029 0.

estimated Taver cp.23 Table 3.238 70.204 362.756 0.008 0.704 0. The specific heat capacity for humid air was calculated according to the equation (24).008 0. The real outtake temperature was then calculated according to the equation (4) with the polytropic efficiency of value 1.879 1. The change in specific enthalpy in isentropic process was determined according to the equation (7) with the values calculated for ideal isentropic compression process.219 312.248 347.007 1.016 1.248 347. the outtake temperature and the change in specific enthalpy.008 0.014 1.436 331.679 352.293 362.873 1.874 1.646 335.879 1.008 1.766 0.vap cp.721 327.885 70.518 1.aver.185 38.008 0.016 1.876 1.876 1.288 331.879 1.3 The isentropic efficiency and the compression process As the efficiency was alleged to be the isentropic efficiency. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 T in ηp xvap T2.008 0.15 293.885 327.aver.204 362.662 39.15 293.339 60.009 1.humid air T2 ∆h [K] [-] - [K] [K] [kJ/kg K] [kJ/kg K] [kJ/kg K] [K] [kJ/kg] 293. The isentropic efficiency was then determined according to the equation (17).009 1.436 331.15 293.199 320.398 314. The whole process of calculating the compression process from polytropic and isentropic point of view had to be repeated so that the calculated isentropic efficiency received the same value as the isentropic efficiency determined from the characteristic field.air cp. isentropic compression process has to be estimated.008 362.015 1.793 312. .015 1.014 362. The isentropic outtake temperature calculation process was repeated to get an accurate value for the outtake temperature in an ideal isentropic process. The specific heat capacity in the average temperature was determined according to the equation (6) for dry air and water vapour.aver.679 352.646 335.877 1.15 293.014 1.008 1.899 55.008 0.472 347.811 320.008 0.007 1.336 5. The calculated values for the specific heat capacity in constant pressure and average temperature.762 0.472 347.15 293.422 54.767 0.685 0.3.677 327.15 293.009 1. With the outtake temperature the average temperature could be calculated according to the equation (5).15 293.288 331.008 1.008 0.766 0.873 1.15 293. the compression process had to be calculated with the isentropic efficiency as well.761 0.148 70.414 322.016 1.007 1.293 362.765 0.015 1.15 0.026 43. The outtake temperature for an ideal.

480 313.15 293.791 344.874 [J/kg K] 1.15 293.893 333.399 52.4 The axial power need and the rotational speed The density of humid air was calculated according to the equation (13).015 1.007 1. the outtake temperature.007 1.036 [-] 0.876 1.810 333.893 333. The electromechanical efficiency was calculated according to the equation (16).s.estimated Ts. The mass flow could be determined according to the equation (8).227 41. and the total power need was calculated according to the equation (15).air cp.810 321.811 333.7455 0. In other points the rotational speed was calculated by multiplying it with the value of relative speed. isentropic compression process.s.480 307.8 is used for the specific speed.15 [K] 344. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 T in Ts.021 313.810 321.036 29.3.7475 0.aver.036 29.876 1.humid air T2s ∆hs ηs [K] 293.480 [J/kg K] 1.15 293.873 1.227 41.791 344.502 41.013 1.013 [K] 344.15 293. electromechanical efficiency and total power need As the values for total efficiency were known in only the 9 points calculated here.15 293.879 1.810 321.810 321.aver.6700 5.877 1.893 344.015 1.480 313.007 1. 5.021 318.aver.5 Total efficiency.7450 0.893 344.014 1.7470 0. The calculated values for the specific heat capacity in constant pressure and average temperature.879 1.007 1.015 1.480 307.006 [J/kg K] 1.971 319.810 [kJ/kg] 52. .3. The angular speed was changed into rotational speed by dividing it with the whole circle (2π).006 1.15 293.227 29.7510 0.810 [K] 319.014 1.811 333. The axial power need was calculated according to the equation (14).502 52.810 321.007 1. where the value 0.014 1. the electromechanical efficiency and total power need could only be determined accurately in those 9 points.24 Table 4.480 307. the change in specific enthalpy for an ideal.7440 0.013 1.15 293.810 333.7510 0. and the isentropic efficiency.810 321.vap cp.aver cp.873 1. The angular speed was calculated in the design point according to the equation (18).6850 0.s.006 1.879 1.15 293.007 1.

988 91.684 0. some kind of relation for the electromechanical efficiency can ve attempted to determine. and the axial power need could be calculated in those points. The electromechanical efficiency did not respond enough to changing the primary values. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Paks [kW] ηel - Pel [kW] ωsp [1/s] relative speed [-] N [rpm] ηtot 78.59346 16047. relative speed. The total efficiency and the total power need in those 9 calculated points seem reasonable (KTurbo 2008).7 0.09754 0. This lead to calculations giving electrical efficiency values up to 98.874 0.64233 19257.914 52.59346 22925. rotational speed and total efficiency. The values for axial power need.6766 11.964 27.74786 17308.933 0.97 0. the accuracy of the characteristic field had to be questioned.755 0.4847 2400.694 0.4066 12.381 0.681 0.5277 13. electromechanical efficiency.4 The results As the total power need was given in 9 points of the characteristic field.868 98.689 0.647 0.550 82.67 0.74 14.9242 20288.618 111.845 114.1574 17.8%. total power need.917 0.84 21779.049 69. the electric efficiency would have received even greater values. As the axial power was calculated with the efficiency in the characteristic field assumed as isentropic efficiency. the value of electric efficiency became too great. so that even when the inaccuracy of choosing data points and calculations was readjusted.894 76.93837 22237.866 0.367 70.65 0.08638 22237.2801 9.95 0.29743 0.885 0.117 107.925 0. angular rotational speed. Had the efficiency in the characteristic fields been the polytropic efficiency.52485 9.912 0.865 0.25 Table 5. As the calculations did not meet the given values. the axial power became too high in some of the given points.222 19.845 0.471 32. The 9 points by the manufacturer however were not enough to give any kind of reliable relation to the electrical efficiency.35409 19371.97 1 0.074 60.978 0.306 49.291 112. .662 5.814 123.656 0.960 46.

the information received from a characteristic field should be regarded with a reservation. it takes a relatively long time for the efficiencies to settle in different points. The calculations in this study were made with Microsoft Excel –a spreadsheet software. which are often affected by the phenomena that occur when the compressor is used near its constraint function values. 6. .8S. too few reliable values remain to base more calculation and presumptions on.26 When a characteristic field is measured for a compressor. SUMMARY The facts presented in this study. However the value of total efficiency settles relatively fast compared to the other efficiencies. The curves in the characteristic field are results from delicate measurements. The characteristic fields are both informative and useful for anyone who has to work with compressors. help to understand and interpret the values and curves given in a compressor’s characteristic fields. When assumed that the total efficiency data is the most accurate in the characteristic field for compressor TB150-0. and close to the choking line and surge line it might cause problems to run the compressor long enough. However.

5. (2007) Course material for LUT course Termiset virtauskoneet (electronic studying environment at LUT) (referred 26.com/english/main. On the reversed Brayton cycle with high speed machinery. (1983).frostburg.html. Lappeenranta. 3. available at: http://antoine.9. Tampere. (update information not available) (referred 26.fi/books?id=F11h6EnMc0AC&pg=PA223&lpg=PA223&dq=polytropic+efficie ncy&source=web&ots=7mGN1LgXb5&sig=ptB03mHqXDNsEFCyLU7CYFtB9iM&hl=fi&sa=X &oi=book_result&resnum=4&ct=result. Finland.kturbo. (2008) (internet publication) available at: http://www. Kompressorikirja. pp. et al.edu/chem/senese/javascript/water-density. (2005) Turbomachinery flow physics and dynamic performance.2008) Water density calculator (internet publication). 1996. (1996). pp. Finland. edition.2008) Larjola J.27 REFERENCES Airila M.469 Turunen-Saaresti T. KK Laakapaino. Radiaalikompressorin suunnittelun perusteet.4.fi/~saari/index.html (updated 16.6.html (updated 17/2001) (referred 26. (1988). Teknillinen termodynamiikka. (1978).103 KTurbo INC. (2001). Korpivaara Oy Hydor Ab. Kustannusyhtymä.323 .9.2008) Schobeiri M.9.google.2008) Wirzenius A. laaja/suppea Luentomateriaali (internet publication) available at: http://www2. Research papers. Aalef Oy. (internet publication) available at: http://books.203 Backman J. 1st edition. (update information not available) (referred 25.2008) pp. Keskipakopumput.63 Saari J. Lappeenranta pp. Helsinki.2008) (referred 25.lut. Finland. Dec 19. pp.

com/english/main. information: (Turunen-Saaresti T.edu/me330_colver/new_page_2_files/image004. 2002. updated 16.iastate..2008. figure alteration by Essi Paavilainen [5] http://www.5.4. visited 25. EN C-154. 2007) [3] Backman J..jpg.2008 .html . visited 26. updated 16.2008 [2] figure by Essi Paavilainen. Larjola J.15 [4] http://www.4. visited 25.28 REFERENCES FOR FIGURES [1] http://www3. pp. LTKK.5.me.kturbo.2008. figure alteration by Essi Paavilainen . studymaterial.com/english/main.kturbo.9.2008 . Kaasuturbiinikytkennät ja niiden laskenta.html .

9393⋅(1− ) +1.140 K 647. The height of water can be changed into Pascals with the equation (25): p = g ⋅ ρ ⋅ h = 9. 49 Pa ⋅ = 0.77516⋅(1− )   647. 49 Pa          647. 29 Pa = 179664.140 K  The water vapour humidity can be calculated with the equation (22): ωvap = µ p 'vap p ϕ ⋅ p 'vap = 0.140 K 647.140 K 647.140 K   293. 29 Pa The water vapour pressure can be determined in the intake pressure according to the equation (21): p 'vap (T ) = pcr ⋅ e T / T ( a τ + a τ 1.14 K /293.8S are presented in this appendice.15K (−7.Appendix1.15 K )1.7811(1 ⋅ − 293.15 K )3  647.15 K )+1.36 The molecular mass for humid air can be calculated with the equation (22): .15 K 293.15 K 293.140 K 647.2071 3 ⋅ 8 mmAq ⋅1000 = 78339.85823⋅(1− 293.5 + a τ 3 + a τ 3.5 4 +22. Exemplary calculations The complete calculations made in the point 1 in the characteristic field of the compressor TB1500.5 −11. 005 0.5 + a τ 4 + a τ 7. 0 Pa + 78339.5 7.5  5 1 2 3 4 6  cr  = 22064000 Pa ⋅ e = 2338.83991(1 ⋅ − 293. 29 Pa s m The outtake pressure can be calculated by summing together the intake pressure and the gauge pressure: pout = pin + pgauge = 101325. 49 Pa 0.15 K 3. 01801534kg / mol 2338.6705⋅(1− ) −15.81 m kg ⋅ 998. 028964kg / mol 101325 Pa − 2338.

M= 1 1 ( µ M air + ωvap M vap ) = (0. 008) ⋅1. 008 101325.1495 ⋅10−12 ⋅ (327. 31451J / molK = = 287. 028877 kg / mol If the outtake temperature is guessed to be 362K.879 kJ kJ kJ + (1 − 0.575 K 2 2 The specific heat capacity c p for dry air can be calculated with the equation (6): c p . 982076 + 16. 4395 ⋅10−6 ⋅ 327. 028877 mol / kg The specific gas constant can be calculated for humid air with the equation (12): Ri = Ru 8. 622 ωvap + µ = 0.928 J / kgK M 0. 028964kg / mol + 0.air = 0. 005 + 0.868 ⋅10−8 ⋅ (327.575 K + 22. 36 ⋅ 2338. 49 Pa = 0. air = a + b ⋅ T + c ⋅ T 2 + d ⋅ T 3 = 0. 00 Pa The specific heat capacity for humid air can be calculated with the equation (24): c p .15 K = = 327. 008 ⋅1. 575 K ) 2 −88. 009 = 1. 008895kJ / kgK The mole fraction of water vapour can be calculated with the equation (23): xvap = pvap p = ϕ ⋅ p 'vap pin = 0. 622 ⋅ 0. 005 ⋅ 0. 01801534kg / mol ) 0.575 K )3 = 1. 016 kg ⋅ K kg ⋅ K kg ⋅ K The outtake temperature can be calculated with the equation (4): .humid air = xvap ⋅ c p . the average temperature can be calculated with the equation (5): T = Tout + Tin 362 K + 293.vap + (1 − xvap ) ⋅ c p .

422kJ / kg These calculations should be repeated for as long as the isentropic efficiency receives the value that it has in the characteristic field.015kJ/kgK. where the value of the polytropic efficiency is 1: Tout = Tin ⋅ π Ri ⋅η p cp 0.15 K ⋅1. the average temperature is 327.15 K ) = 70. The outtake temperature in an ideal. 7731 = 362. 016kJ / kgK ⋅ (362.15 K ⋅1.Tout = Tin ⋅ π Ri c p ⋅η p 0.287928kJ / kgK 1. isentropic process can be calculated with the equation (4). 422kJ / kg If the estimated outtake temperature in an ideal. isentropic process is 362K.893K The value for the change in specific enthalpy will be 52.502kJ/kg when calculated with the equation (7). The isentropic efficiency can be calculated with the equation (17): ηs = ∆hs 52.765 = 293. The change in specific enthalpy can be calculated with the equation (7): ∆h = c p ⋅ (Tout − Tin ) = 1. The density of humid air can be calculated with the equation (13): .016 kJ / kgK ⋅0. 472 K The average temperature is calculated again with the estimated value now being 332. 7455 ∆h 70. 472 K − 293.575K and the specific heat capacity is 1.287928kJ / kgK 1. These three equations are calculated again for as long as the estimated temperature and the calculated temperature are the same with desired accuracy.015 kJ / kgK ⋅1 = 293.195K.502kJ / kg = = 0. 7731 = 344.

34m3 / s )0.15 K The mass flow can be calculated with the equation (8): qm = qv ⋅ ρ = 0. 737 1/ s ⋅ = 22925rpm 2 ⋅π 2 ⋅π The rotational speed in point 1 is calculated by multiplying the rotational speed in the design point with the relative speed in point 1: N1 = 0.95 ⋅ 22944rpm ≈ 21800rpm Electro-mechanical efficiency is calculated with the equation (16): ηtot = ηel ⋅η s ⇔ ηel = ηtot 0.1284kg / s ⋅ 70.5 (1.5 The angular speed is turned into rotational speed by dividing it with the whole circle: N = ωsp ⋅ 60min / s 60min / s = 2400. 074kW The angular speed in the design point was calculated with the equation (18): ωsp = N s ⋅ ∆hs 0. 7455 The total power need can be calculated with the equation (15): . 200kg / m3 = 1.75 = = 2400.8 ⋅ (52502 J / kg )0.868 η s 0. 200kg / m3 Ri ⋅ Tin 0. 422kJ / kg = 79. 737 1/ s qv 0.75 0.1284kg / s The axial power need can be calculated with the equation (14): Paks = qm ⋅ ∆h = 1. 94m3 / s ⋅1.ρ= pin 101325. 647 = = 0. 287928kJ / kgK ⋅ 293. 0 Pa = = 1.

868 Ptot ηel .117 kW 0.ηel = Paks P 79. 074kW ⇔ Ptot = aks = = 91.

00 998.35 135272.00 998.15 293.08 1.15 293.47 140681.45 122775.7375 0.7500 0.00 36.6900 0.06 1.00 998.2108 qv [m3/s] 0.39 139748.21 2.00 998.19 141427.00 998.9676 48.68571 101325.75 179664.00 36.21 4.74286 101325.00 36.29 160079.00 36.69524 101325.3135 60.31 138629.00 36.15 293.7568 69.15 293.21 2.00 998.00 36.9568 36.21 3.41 0.38 129862.00 36.00 998.04 1.6 101325.7200 0.00 998.00 998.5 127624.00 36.4 43.46667 101325.15 293.6216 62.15 293.5243 39.7500 0.21 2.21 2.00 998.00 998.93 127624.7440 0.21 8 101325.21 2.80 0.29 179477.21 4.00 36.21 3.5297 59.58 128743.APPENDIX2.00 36.00 998.7100 0.19 140681.21 2.15 293.1514 48.6850 0.00 36.1622 69.47 0.94 1.21 8 101325.77 0.21 2.7450 0.00 998.62 124267.15 293. calculations in all chosen points of the characteristic field of the compressor TB150-0.21 6 101325.98095 101325.57143 101325.15 293.15 293.00 36.81 ηs [-] RH [%] 0.99048 101325.15 293.00 36.6108 24.87 0.83 0.38 129676.2811 46.56 140867.7400 0.00 998.00 36.15 293.00 998.7400 0.34 0.15 293.9838 80.00 36.92 0.01905 101325.13333 101325.45714 101325.6800 0.54 0.7650 0.47 160079.00 36.21 3.00 998.7470 0.01 131355.19 122215.15 293.73 0.00 36.21 6 101325.21 4 101325.25 1.74 141054.15 293.227 28.21 2.6324 75.06 136577.47 160079.89524 101325.8108 63.4054 64.00 36.0381 101325.00 998.1514 58.3405 57.19 140681.00 998.2108 24.05714 101325.15 293.3784 19.21 3.85714 101325.81 0.15 293.21 3.21 2.15 293.00 998.6900 0.00 998.00 36.00 36.92381 101325.15 293.15 293.00 998.7600 0.00 998.28 136764.33 126505.00 36.15 293.00 36.3 129676.00 998.80952 101325.21 3.00 998.00 36.41 1.01905 101325.23 1.00 998.7600 0.58 0.7455 0.77143 101325.7600 0.9946 36.00 998.15 293.00 36.91429 101325.7200 qv [m3/min] 36.00 36.00 36.21 3.21 6 101325.8 101325.29 129676.00 36.55 0.15 293.0324 51.21 4.15 293.15 293.15 293.00 36.21 2.89524 101325.7100 0.00 36.00 36.7600 0.66 0.4216 70.7300 0.00 998.49 0.96 0.00 36.58 128184.21 7.15 pin ρwater p gauge [Pa] [kg/m3] [mmAqx1000] 101325.25 125386.21 2.3189 55.7297 72.21 3.3784 43.8S T in [K] 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 293.00 998.21 1.65 140867.72 133593.7300 0.81905 101325.00 998.15 293.00 998.2108 92.4162 51.60 0.00 998.18 1.98 1.15 .24762 101325.73 0.7455 0.7100 0.15 293.29524 101325.34286 101325.00 998.21 2.32 1.80 1.15 293.7300 0.7300 0.86 0.7400 0.61905 101325.00 998.21 3.21 2.21 2.6 35.00 998.2757 29.75 129303.1 132660.09524 101325.33 0.09 1.15 293.00 998.00 998.6700 0.68 138256.7650 0.8541 75.7000 0.21 4.7510 0.00 998.15 293.21 4.08 123334.21 2.00 36.00 998.4 139562.1297 70.01 0.15 293.23 137510.15 293.00 36.00 36.90476 101325.00 998.15 293.15 293.00 36.19048 101325.99 0.4919 50.21 3.1514 32.42 0.7622 39.21 2.06667 101325.21 4.60 0.0378 73.26 1.17 1.02 140494.6750 0.15 1.7500 0.00 998.89524 101325.00 998.74 141986.00 36.15 293.01905 101325.15 293.0811 31.6760 0.7400 0.2 101325.52 0.00 36.15 293.00 36.15 293.0381 101325.00 36.7500 0.15 293.38 130609.6800 0.7200 0.21 4.00 998.4216 25.7000 0.15 293.0649 48.0432 80.15238 p out [Pa] 179664.21 128930.00 56.00 36.21 2.67 0.00 998.68571 101325.7375 0.7510 0.00 36.3838 65.21 3.00 36.15 293.21 4.

00 36.7450 0.3189 76.21 998.15 293.7300 0.02 191415.22 169592.8216 97.24762 6.21 998.2378 39.00 36.32 1.02 0.8919 51.38 1.15 293.91 152805.66 1.15 293.7390 0.19 171457.7300 0.86 0.6 98.95 147955.60 0.15 293.55 162504.07 0.4811 75.15 293.15 293.00 101325.00 36.9405 74.4541 38.0216 44.21 998.00 36.1892 86.99 0.92 0.19 173882.00 101325.00 101325.83 151686 153178.1619 7.7300 36.00 101325.15 293.7838 61.00 36.7100 0.00 101325.21 998.08571 7.08 154110.00 36.79048 5.21 998.38095 6.00 36.03 0.7300 0.1027 79.6730 0.21 998.03 170711.90476 6.15 293.00 36.6800 0.21 998.173 36.44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 293.53 1.00 101325.2381 9.00 101325.21 998.6900 0.15 293.69524 5.2381 5.00 101325.15 293.52 1.00 36.32381 4.15 293.15 293.29524 5.21 998.7200 0.44 1.15 293.21 998.95238 5.0432 42.15 293.83 0.00 36.40 1.21 998.55 1.3027 92.21 998.7619 4.21 998.00 101325.64 0.7514 49.46667 5.2 9.7000 0.00 36.00 36.7400 0.15 293.00 101325.7500 0.21 998.49 148701.7400 0.00 36.7300 0.89 166794.15 293.00 36.00 101325.7514 67.7500 0.93 0.82 .8381 4.47619 6.88 147022.65 1.27619 143665.5027 84.45 1.00 101325.00 36.15 293.15 101325.48571 5.08571 7.00 101325.6 53.21 998.97143 7.0054 55.28 192161.00 101325.12 1.00 101325.00 101325.96 182835.21 998.21 998.35 1.00 998.00 36.7600 0.1784 53.26 1.40952 7.23 1.00 101325.00 36.10476 5.15 293.21 998.17 187311.00 36.15 293.25714 5.28 1.21 998.00 36.7400 0.8 154670.00 101325.21 998.2162 85.7400 0.07 176679.21 998.7600 0.00 101325.1135 1.11 1.7619 4.6600 0.15 147955.6700 0.9892 49.57 1.00 36.00 101325.13 159146.00 101325.21 998.21 998.44762 5.15 293.7375 0.90 0.49 149820.21 998.7300 0.7375 0.22 168846.00 36.45714 4.50476 4.49 1.15 293.15 293.21 998.00 36.4541 59.74 0.90 0.21 998.60 1.33 155229.7450 0.89524 7.27 0.21 998.21 998.00 101325.15 293.7676 81.15 293.44 1.00 101325.7000 0.15 293.21 998.00 36.66667 4.973 89.7500 0.11 170711.63 1.15 293.5892 46.5784 55.00 101325.39048 5.67 150193.21 998.74 151312.0757 82.00 101325.00 101325.15 293.27 171643.00 36.43 1.15 293.88 157095.80 0.00 36.15 293.69524 8.00 101325.21 4.21 998.84 163809.6500 0.00 36.00 101325.00 66.13 1.0865 67.7400 0.00 36.00 36.00 36.15 293.7540 0.15 293.00 101325.21 998.21 998.82 172203.00 101325.68571 6.15 293.00 36.15 293.00 36.76 159333.00 101325.00 36.71 0.2703 31.7650 0.00 36.32381 8.14286 5.5135 86.34 155043.53 144971.00 36.4541 83.39 1.21 998.00 36.00 101325.7500 0.8324 64.18095 7.77 0.00 101325.00 36.45 158027.04762 9.1892 61.52 166794.00 101325.00 36.15 293.00 36.92381 6.7500 0.21 998.68 189923.00 36.8703 96.21 998.15 293.19 191788.15 293.15 293.15 293.21 998.8486 48.39 160825.00 101325.6800 0.21 998.8 95.00 101325.00 101325.7450 0.8757 90.6680 0.00 36.21 998.21 998.7200 0.7100 0.00 101325.07619 6.9297 86.21 998.00 36.7375 0.99048 5.27 164742.00 101325.00 101325.8486 94.15 293.15 293.00 101325.15 293.68571 6.6900 0.61 1.78095 9.17 154856.

3185 1.968 0.626 0.966 0.029 0.547 0.315 0.775 0.3884 1.029 8.690 0.029 0.547 0.449 1.315 0.029 8.029 0.029 8.029 0.547 0.029 8.315 0.547 0.388 1.49 2338.018 0.963 1.140 647.140 647.018 0.029 0.49 2338.029 8.029 0.140 647.756 0.005 0.49 2338.029 0.2172 1.757 0.704 0.2062 1.029 8.029 0.140 647.029 8.622 0.018 0.029 0.547 0.029 0.005 0.3093 1.4013 Tcr τ [K] 647.746 0.49 2338.005 0.799 0.315 0.029 8.140 647.2596 1.700 0.140 647.6010 1.765 0.49 2338.018 0.622 0.029 8.005 0.315 0.3774 1.622 0.140 647.029 8.3645 1.315 0.018 0.005 0.49 2338.547 0.622 0.758 0.029 8.622 0.547 0.029 0.2761 1.622 0.109 1.315 0.005 0.018 0.030 1.622 0.029 8.401 1.49 2338.501 1.029 8.928 0.592 0.49 2338.315 0.247 1.622 0.622 0.547 0.029 8.005 0.005 0.2890 1.547 0.029 8.018 0.742 0.730 0.622 0.385 π [-] 0.49 2338.029 0.029 8.622 0.645 0.547 0.547 0.018 0.547 0.685 0.315 0.737 0.747 0.770 0.018 0.029 0.2706 1.315 0.029 0.622 0.547 0.315 0.622 0.622 0.315 0.3350 1.029 0.029 8.018 0.018 0.49 2338.005 0.49 2338.2485 1.766 0.749 0.547 0.497 1.315 .488 0.547 0.018 0.49 2338.49 2338.140 647.029 8.547 0.547 0.005 0.315 0.018 0.765 0.49 2338.005 0.140 647.49 2338.315 0.761 0.029 0.018 0.140 647.005 0.315 0.029 0.140 647.018 0.005 0.018 0.029 0.029 0.140 647.771 0.029 8.547 0.547 0.005 0.029 0.2651 1.49 2338.2117 1.622 0.49 2338.140 647.860 0.2816 1.018 0.140 647.315 0.622 0.740 0.728 0.029 0.018 0.547 0.547 0.315 0.029 8.140 647.792 0.622 0.029 8.187 1.315 0.547 0.622 0.140 647.49 2338.5799 1.005 0.49 2338.762 0.029 8.723 0.622 0.622 0.005 0.49 2338.018 0.768 0.3866 1.140 647.005 0.5799 1.029 8.018 0.49 2338.029 0.308 1.018 0.315 0.018 0.005 0.767 0.029 0.315 0.49 2338.569 0.622 0.005 0.3903 1.005 0.315 0.2798 1.547 0.622 0.005 0.029 8.315 0.140 647.693 0.622 0.315 0.018 0.547 0.140 647.622 0.140 647.49 2338.029 8.752 0.005 0.5799 1.qm ηp [kg/s] [-] 1.622 0.005 Mvap Mair Mhumid airRu [kg/mol] [kg/mol] [kg/mol] [J/mol K] 0.005 0.622 0.029 0.140 0.622 0.029 8.547 0.49 2338.622 0.3682 1.7232 1.622 0.315 0.622 0.005 0.018 0.029 8.2375 1.029 8.140 647.029 0.029 0.029 0.622 0.018 0.005 0.688 0.140 647.273 1.3498 1.029 0.140 647.018 0.018 0.547 0.029 8.315 0.547 0.733 1.029 8.2964 1.005 0.018 0.005 0.029 0.029 8.49 2338.49 2338.018 0.2724 1.018 0.029 8.005 0.7713 1.123 1.713 0.3958 1.49 2338.720 0.547 0.140 647.547 0.622 0.211 1.005 0.029 8.702 0.547 0.2798 1.760 0.315 0.297 1.3792 1.2264 1.018 0.180 1.029 8.005 0.749 0.029 0.622 0.018 0.315 0.315 0.018 0.029 0.140 647.547 0.315 0.140 647.3571 1.315 0.005 0.547 0.018 0.622 0.49 2338.3921 1.140 647.3903 1.622 0.018 0.140 647.3845 1.3884 1.622 0.49 2338.140 647.773 0.547 p'vap (Tin) µ [Pa] 2338.029 8.029 8.029 8.3479 1.140 647.710 0.140 647.315 0.029 0.029 8.547 0.723 0.029 8.49 2338.547 0.622 0.029 0.49 2338.018 0.739 0.750 0.49 ωvap 0.547 0.005 0.140 647.029 8.761 0.766 0.029 0.140 647.029 0.315 0.005 0.2596 1.7731 1.315 0.140 647.49 2338.140 647.018 0.018 0.029 8.005 0.718 0.315 0.3884 1.029 0.315 0.415 1.147 1.622 0.49 2338.140 647.005 0.029 0.029 0.49 2338.315 0.513 1.018 0.005 0.49 2338.504 0.622 0.49 2338.875 0.029 0.547 0.686 0.622 0.622 0.029 0.315 0.029 0.140 647.140 647.018 0.622 0.140 647.140 647.029 0.005 0.2798 1.547 0.49 2338.475 1.547 0.005 0.140 647.547 0.315 0.315 0.002 0.603 0.018 0.49 2338.315 0.029 8.547 0.315 0.005 0.703 0.622 0.005 0.49 2338.029 8.49 2338.040 0.871 0.49 2338.005 0.315 0.005 0.7731 1.018 0.018 0.49 2338.140 647.547 0.547 0.029 0.

49 2338.140 647.080 0.315 8.029 0.018 0.547 0.140 647.4786 1.784 1.4602 1.656 1.005 0.764 0.7437 1.547 0.140 647.315 8.029 0.739 1.5081 1.49 2338.140 647.315 8.018 0.140 647.547 0.977 1.029 0.622 0.005 0.315 8.770 0.005 0.018 0.6167 1.622 0.622 0.622 0.075 0.140 647.622 0.4970 1.140 647.029 0.622 0.315 8.029 0.029 0.315 8.773 0.029 0.029 0.49 2338.029 0.029 0.018 0.792 1.018 0.029 0.682 1.4179 1.49 2338.6940 1.49 2338.140 647.746 0.029 0.018 0.697 0.730 0.8486 1.018 0.029 0.029 0.630 1.982 0.547 0.547 0.315 8.622 0.018 0.029 0.315 8.622 0.018 0.140 647.622 0.5872 1.622 1.622 0.8044 1.759 0.761 0.029 0.49 2338.029 8.005 0.005 0.140 647.029 0.029 0.587 1.622 0.029 0.018 0.547 0.700 0.756 0.622 0.547 0.029 0.029 0.005 0.029 0.029 0.029 0.140 647.547 0.622 0.547 0.029 0.018 0.315 8.49 2338.140 647.005 0.547 0.6737 1.018 0.622 0.018 0.118 1.029 0.622 0.6995 1.5210 1.029 0.140 647.029 0.005 0.681 0.739 0.315 8.029 0.720 0.315 8.547 0.622 0.037 0.315 8.547 0.005 0.005 0.005 0.029 0.029 0.018 0.858 1.029 0.140 647.547 0.622 0.018 0.547 0.005 0.6461 1.029 0.49 2338.140 647.018 0.029 0.315 .547 0.547 0.49 2338.961 0.029 0.005 0.140 647.622 0.622 0.018 0.5265 1.5118 1.315 8.005 0.140 647.710 0.005 0.547 0.49 2338.547 0.140 647.018 0.49 2338.622 0.766 0.6848 1.622 0.716 0.707 0.6922 1.315 8.726 0.315 8.7161 1.49 2338.018 0.029 0.547 0.018 0.029 0.49 2338.6259 1.917 1.315 8.622 0.018 0.743 0.005 0.315 8.315 8.029 0.622 0.49 2338.140 647.547 0.344 1.315 8.547 0.755 0.315 8.029 0.315 8.5504 1.005 0.029 0.1.992 0.8965 647.547 0.315 8.547 0.018 0.005 0.49 2338.5596 1.547 0.140 647.6038 1.315 8.220 1.547 0.018 0.029 0.315 8.773 0.005 0.5302 1.49 2338.005 0.029 0.029 0.029 0.315 8.547 0.753 0.49 2338.315 8.018 0.029 0.018 0.005 0.315 8.690 0.029 0.49 2338.018 0.315 8.49 2338.547 0.49 2338.029 0.018 0.622 0.758 0.49 2338.029 0.029 0.770 0.005 0.005 0.5725 1.029 0.763 0.140 647.018 0.547 0.005 0.140 647.029 0.685 0.029 0.018 0.140 647.766 0.49 2338.140 647.622 0.753 1.315 8.005 0.753 0.49 2338.029 0.849 0.49 2338.958 1.315 8.029 0.6664 1.749 0.547 0.315 8.622 0.029 0.622 0.005 0.140 647.547 0.315 8.018 0.622 0.49 2338.029 0.104 1.140 647.547 0.622 0.482 1.005 0.005 0.029 0.547 0.778 0.622 0.760 0.029 0.029 0.622 0.622 0.289 1.5283 1.725 1.315 8.622 0.764 0.49 2338.4308 1.670 1.749 0.49 2338.49 0.005 0.029 0.005 0.49 2338.018 0.315 8.622 0.018 0.018 0.029 0.622 0.140 647.49 2338.763 0.005 0.671 0.8891 1.029 0.736 0.4676 1.820 1.029 0.140 0.49 2338.140 647.547 0.005 0.539 1.029 0.232 1.765 0.547 0.140 647.140 647.4933 1.337 1.622 0.315 8.49 2338.029 0.140 647.756 0.622 0.515 1.140 647.5707 1.029 0.005 0.4823 1.547 0.018 0.018 0.029 0.315 8.018 0.49 2338.029 0.140 647.49 2338.018 0.6848 1.029 0.029 0.005 0.547 0.622 0.140 647.547 0.018 0.140 647.005 0.029 0.49 2338.49 2338.029 0.005 0.005 0.547 0.140 647.356 1.547 0.029 0.49 2338.140 647.140 647.140 647.029 0.018 0.547 0.029 0.029 0.5320 1.029 0.4510 1.315 8.018 0.622 0.315 8.029 0.029 0.018 0.029 0.936 1.315 8.005 0.6461 1.49 2338.49 2338.746 0.029 0.49 2338.4602 1.886 1.192 1.767 0.018 0.005 0.005 0.8744 1.005 0.547 0.729 1.029 0.140 647.49 2338.622 0.622 0.140 647.710 1.315 8.885 0.921 0.005 0.8928 1.726 0.49 2338.690 0.622 0.315 8.029 0.547 2338.

200 362.405 321.303 310.007 1.992 0.931 1.006 1.870 1.872 1.992 0.436 322.472 70.007 1.586 315.754 22.733 314.873 1.872 1.153 314.013 316.048 1.200 320.008 287.972 310.871 1.811 1.188 313.118 1.008 287.899 318.008 287.226 1.200 332.013 322.992 0.006 1.016 362.131 306.172 1.992 0.006 1.027 307.436 60.968 0.aver.646 312.040 31.200 331.584 1.893 1.873 1.200 328.992 0.608 1.008 287.034 1.016 362.673 1.aver.873 1.014 332.821 314.736 1.015 347.992 0.008 287.992 0.008 287.992 0.014 335.165 1.873 1.estimated [kJ/kg K] [K] [kJ/kg] [K] 1.044 40.873 1.873 cp.008 287.968 0.992 0.242 1.014 333.679 55.014 331.882 311.110 309.968 0.264 308.871 1.885 43.662 321.200 325.213 312.462 1.008 287.872 1.008 287.humid air T2 ∆h Ts.006 1.013 324.estimated Taver cp.aver.213 39.248 320.876 1.013 321.992 0.180 312.013 322.194 40.992 0.871 1.875 1.992 0.931 1.595 1.110 32.968 0.873 1.968 0.992 0.968 0.992 0.423 1.274 25.139 309.014 329.992 0.014 333.714 40.985 1.653 313.008 287.871 1.008 287.613 319.992 0.773 312.200 352.654 .873 1.008 287.992 0.299 315.009 1.873 1.968 0.653 41.180 38.415 1.219 1.006 1.317 313.793 1.946 308.252 1.968 0.006 1.968 0.008 287.007 1.006 1.081 1.336 321.013 323.926 29.007 1.034 1.419 314.992 ρhumid air T2.871 1.378 310.200 347.007 1.008 287.692 1.052 1.810 1.006 1.200 362.006 1.256 314.006 1.008 287.811 1.200 326.455 1.998 304.200 333.008 1.992 0.322 31.293 1.992 0.008 287.008 287.008 287.008 287.968 0.968 0.008 287.968 0.932 1.200 316.008 287.200 325.624 1.992 0.131 26.264 30.992 0.497 307.008 287.455 1.870 1.006 1.200 324.584 1.702 322.569 308.968 0.548 29.940 1.013 327.007 1.855 320.455 1.992 0.007 1.968 0.548 307.810 1.992 0.968 0.899 333.992 0.992 0.526 310.968 0.200 331.226 1.791 1.200 329.008 287.200 317.968 0.497 29.968 0.200 323.013 322.200 333.968 0.422 344.013 326.849 1.008 1.air cp.040 308.008 287.893 1.599 321.311 39.155 319.355 1.998 23.014 331.712 1.200 318.141 1.754 304.026 321.968 0.681 1.006 1.006 1.200 332.723 311.472 70.013 321.518 322.234 321.339 1.007 1.992 0.015 352.200 331.014 332.200 322.871 1.097 1.873 1.874 1.992 0.200 324.098 313.200 323.008 287.006 1.019 39.773 39.vap [kg/m3] [K] [K] [kJ/kg K] [kJ/kg K] 1.870 1.008 287.871 1.731 1.200 334.493 1.992 0.873 1.014 331.872 1.130 1.992 0.200 319.339 333.027 29.823 1.200 321.007 1.013 315.207 1.200 331.968 0.472 327.200 332.968 0.873 1.325 27.008 287.311 312.811 1.203 28.006 1.398 1.014 333.968 0.926 307.006 1.992 0.200 335.737 1.560 305.013 315.873 1.066 321.538 1.014 332.098 41.325 306.968 0.574 1.677 1.471 1.552 321.008 287.199 1.968 0.014 328.013 319.008 1.006 1.735 1.274 305.819 23.872 1.200 327.013 322.560 24.879 1.968 0.008 287.879 1.198 1.009 1.204 70.465 1.946 30.360 1.123 1.Ri xvap xair [J/kg K] 287.871 1.200 316.992 0.992 0.516 1.013 320.992 0.511 313.148 344.870 1.992 0.013 316.200 322.448 312.992 0.968 0.203 307.008 287.968 0.992 0.200 322.006 1.200 322.006 1.447 322.819 304.876 1.968 0.234 23.992 0.203 1.185 333.007 1.870 1.013 324.194 313.008 287.200 347.206 1.968 0.248 54.968 0.679 320.879 1.401 1.013 317.249 1.599 309.529 309.008 287.322 308.006 1.007 1.008 287.008 287.968 0.877 1.968 0.096 1.891 309.013 323.526 35.008 287.968 0.014 334.200 315.007 1.602 319.871 1.992 0.871 1.013 318.234 304.518 1.785 313.008 287.992 0.968 0.472 327.606 1.588 1.019 312.288 312.008 287.646 39.992 0.689 1.811 317.176 1.968 0.015 347.006 1.871 1.452 1.882 37.838 1.992 0.008 287.014 331.013 325.599 33.016 362.006 1.968 0.112 320.714 312.810 1.007 1.386 316.870 1.968 0.288 38.044 313.968 0.968 0.968 0.009 1.992 0.810 1.968 0.008 1.871 1.200 362.811 1.008 287.968 0.303 34.200 315.200 333.006 1.200 332.529 32.569 30.008 287.014 332.422 344.006 1.008 0.529 313.885 314.204 327.008 287.810 1.200 321.008 287.013 325.

008 0.015 1.008 0.015 1.237 330.876 1.322 353.864 342.200 1.015 1.008 1.968 287.992 0.200 1.067 81.781 324.053 324.685 322.748 343.220 352.080 314.007 1.880 1.968 287.992 0.200 1.200 1.879 1.008 0.009 1.859 326.593 333.968 287.235 358.008 0.871 48.992 0.125 51.747 354.325 331.955 57.878 1.007 1.367 347.444 327.877 1.916 372.968 287.017 335.007 1.878 1.736 323.992 0.968 287.158 344.016 1.992 0.968 287.008 0.992 0.200 1.568 342.968 287.964 344.008 0.736 357.015 1.016 1.220 352.014 325.008 0.200 1.756 329.200 1.016 1.992 0.237 346.968 287.008 0.992 0.015 1.992 0.008 1.732 324.875 1.880 1.654 318.008 0.259 335.016 1.968 287.576 323.009 1.007 1.949 318.968 287.016 1.508 338.547 324.831 371.509 .336 65.015 1.890 356.968 287.875 1.680 344.007 1.535 337.878 1.877 357.875 1.423 63.500 369.995 337.878 1.014 1.992 0.200 1.878 1.014 1.570 337.360 315.832 342.968 287.877 357.570 65.008 0.604 360.992 1.008 1.015 1.968 287.008 0.968 287.200 1.881 1.007 1.955 355.992 0.753 63.008 0.916 372.992 0.943 325.955 355.942 340.200 335.007 1.992 0.015 1.015 1.014 1.968 287.878 1.795 364.968 287.200 1.008 0.631 80.877 1.008 1.008 0.008 0.890 356.454 339.711 72.008 1.235 358.008 0.008 1.200 1.008 0.992 0.873 1.968 287.008 1.887 339.608 326.062 342.015 1.200 1.925 67.992 0.992 0.942 341.008 0.008 0.007 317.495 68.992 0.812 367.200 1.758 320.007 1.200 1.008 0.736 357.992 0.968 287.992 0.832 342.007 1.980 42.016 1.878 1.369 334.992 0.329 315.689 332.874 1.009 335.992 0.795 364.968 287.200 1.568 342.348 351.992 0.603 348.016 1.200 1.909 327.876 1.992 0.015 1.489 371.014 1.781 62.878 1.968 287.187 61.992 0.361 340.748 343.200 1.563 326.520 325.008 0.992 0.968 287.968 287.413 354.533 333.488 358.200 1.007 1.008 0.992 0.008 0.604 360.009 335.675 323.009 1.008 0.154 323.017 1.015 1.968 287.008 0.036 333.680 344.762 64.968 287.015 1.065 1.200 1.371 343.536 345.812 367.992 0.200 1.362 340.570 337.992 0.508 338.716 338.008 0.260 318.008 1.874 1.200 1.991 317.891 324.713 65.576 330.973 328.008 0.008 0.008 0.968 287.138 52.008 0.008 0.875 1.263 346.008 0.876 1.318 50.015 1.014 1.237 346.606 317.320 332.802 316.008 0.717 339.874 1.200 1.303 350.875 1.557 318.968 287.361 340.008 1.536 345.014 1.200 1.287.194 319.992 0.015 1.201 354.968 287.448 323.877 1.669 330.413 354.981 330.488 358.008 0.255 317.009 1.008 1.747 354.200 1.015 1.322 353.015 1.123 351.914 325.200 1.015 1.008 1.968 287.443 326.875 1.008 0.992 0.007 1.980 350.008 0.836 328.992 0.968 287.007 1.008 0.008 0.008 0.968 287.992 0.007 1.008 0.015 44.016 1.968 287.968 287.707 64.007 1.250 335.631 355.200 1.226 321.467 340.992 0.968 287.200 1.377 326.267 51.948 46.200 1.454 339.014 1.015 1.555 77.968 0.558 343.062 342.946 62.875 1.200 1.009 1.859 317.875 1.002 354.316 351.400 50.200 1.008 1.134 50.558 343.065 359.007 1.200 1.500 369.992 0.008 1.234 336.200 1.619 50.875 1.015 1.992 0.631 355.303 350.878 1.008 1.200 1.527 329.717 343.968 287.016 1.877 1.992 0.968 287.968 287.439 49.936 79.753 52.014 1.201 354.078 66.992 0.992 0.992 0.881 1.002 354.810 75.555 52.802 330.780 332.980 314.874 1.992 0.008 0.875 1.007 1.968 287.864 342.008 1.015 1.008 1.964 344.200 1.831 371.944 356.371 343.200 1.200 1.968 287.009 1.878 1.489 371.854 318.200 1.200 1.016 1.445 43.928 59.200 62.008 0.952 51.367 347.843 319.310 339.875 1.007 1.852 54.877 1.200 1.008 1.008 1.875 1.877 1.009 1.968 287.002 54.944 356.442 330.192 325.881 1.490 332.319 325.014 1.605 328.158 344.065 359.200 1.992 0.415 318.986 45.968 287.968 287.200 1.522 61.

703 1.7 7.900 0.493 23.420 58.227 76.416686 0.900 0.013 322.aver.872 1.873 1.241 1.6 10.708389 0.900 0.480 313.416 39.873 1.006 1.616261 0.111 41.7 12.811 307.94 22237.6 9.871 1.28 18340.502 79.84 5.876055 0.005 1.67664 0.307 302.005 1.526 20.865 0.265959 0.133588 0.900 0.281 36.242 26.873 1.689 0.900 0.639038 0.575 14.811 41.899017 0.014 333.75 16047.422824 0.005 1.012 309.006 1.137 305.964 1.067 22.673 17.873 1.874 0.7 8.21 13755.455 21.515814 0.540 307.6 6.006 1.719 17.012 312.656982 0.012 309.97 11.s.306 49.845 114.013 321.586 63.647983 0.867 303.721 306.006 1.689 28.575 38.034 20.52774 0.367 70.791 52.005 1.052 65.007 1.962965 0.013 314.013 321.712 23.159 24.005 1.036 69.900 0.810 29.2801 0.75 16047.543 21.013 316.900 0.662 0.75 16047.014 333.379 301.524851 0.75 16047.967085 0.648002 .015 344.700 306.773 30.227 52.665986 0.740 22.393 26.75 16047.21 13755.495538 0.281 23.65 0.013 319.900 0.28 ηtot 0.580 1.678578 0.601 307.900 0.940 21.013 314.088 24.900 Pel [kW] 91.666037 0.013 314.814 123.013 313.330112 0.345 65.810 41.465 18.7 7.200 25.528 39.052564 0.378 304.7 9.7 10.612006 0.013 318.688 307.21 13755.006 1.894 1.005 1.871 1.15744 0.006 1.049 1.67 0.006 1.aver [K] 319.006 1.900 0.455 21.75 16047.811 20.013 313.005 1.870 1.036 27.456803 0.134 19.293 29.442 306.684 0.21 13755.005 1.294952 0.580 1.681 0.015 344.656 0.097538 0.177 307.893 52.845 13.502 112.630013 0.871 1.870 1.055 1.75 17308.872 1.430 59.822 305.013 321.868 0.755 9.21 16047.096 22.6 5.005 1.810 41.75 16047.893 57.60837 0.885 12.918 22.750 25.550 82.803 304.988 0.007 1.013 321.013 322.735 26.421 1.28 18340.900 0.092 303.262 40.871 1.612021 0.013 315.222 26.423 20.013 322.870 1.7 11.471 27.529 1.7 6.314 16.647 0.540 307.833 1.900 0.694 0.252 19.495 1.007 1.67501 0.118 26.117 107.6 6.237 34.053 38.012 310.690 42.701 303.59 22925.912 0.654 29.7 7.21 13755.931 29.900 0.480 307.666007 0.013 320.75 16047.134 306.900 0.008 17.35 19371.074 1.654 1.aver.579 301.7 13.683976 0.871 1.305808 0.683962 0.913 27.21 13755.297 29.399 98.242931 0.humid air T2s ∆hs Paks ηel [J/kg K] [J/kg K] [J/kg K] [K] [kJ/kg] [kW] 1.657023 0.663777 0.872 1.6 9.900 0.480 307.6 8.123 24.006 1.8 8.688538 0.879 1.662 41.092 303.870 1.036 46.900 0.7 7.914 1.661 23.54274 0.810 43.900 0.954 16.639043 0.900 1.64 19257.872 1.810 29.480 301.074 60.006 1.900 0.131 22.61509 0.7 12.960 1.518 1.206 16.526 1.656999 0.419 307.134 38.012 310.005 1.900 0.601 21.372491 0.803 303.900 0.688485 0.013 321.005 1.007 1.21 13755.455 21.873 1.7 8.3 13755.006 1.823804 0.012 311.013 321.876 1.aver.871 1.015 344.853 12.140 1.75 16047.648024 0.674 303.21 13755.871 1.8 8.006 1.824 66.242 1.28 18340.8 9.013 313.013 319.346944 0.6 8.684 0.97 2400.870 1.013 314.6 6.803 303.584 21.674972 0.21 13755.747 1.013 315.005 1.7 9.75 16047.243965 0.006 1.900 0.006 1.240 1.162 1.900 0.28 18340.873 1.341 20.917 0.900 0.196 306.006 1.876 1.136 1.522624 0.870 1.971 319.780899 0.21 13755.871 1.620989 0.s.900 0.879 1.873 1.013 317.7 9.034 20.92 20288.971 1.147 19.062 27.014 333.902 cp.vap cp.871 1.226 27.227 111.16598 0.872 1.480 313.007 1.75 16047.575 14.123 304.736 65.873 1.48472 0.081 28.021 313.489 43.738 1 14.110 1.77631 0.900 0.8 8.608 16.013 314.618 1.006 1.148 42.75 18340.900 0.005 1.423 35.900 0.341 1.978 0.28 18340.005 1.178 301.116 307.684016 0.674977 0.873 1.447 1.666029 0.013 320.8 9.013 313.681127 0.8 N [rpm] 21779.013 313.900 0.429 31.374 1.41451 0.639043 0.7 6.127 1.005 1.301 43.900 0.705 11.641 37.872 1.873 1.870 ωsp relative speed [1/s] [-] 19.158 1.007 1.355 64.900 0.198 21.6 5.741 37.013 321.95 17.663708 0.819 1.874 1.75 16047.337 15.21 13755.893 52.032 1.013 321.911 302.480 307.156 37.006 1.006 1.606 22.6 5.496 1.7 6.006 1.005 1.871 1.021 318.203 28.254 23.931 29.390 1.75 16047.513 1.224 37.304 33.159 58.249 25.75 16047.052 29.09 22237.471 32.545 303.air cp.629987 0.483 0.933 0.6 7.291 1.40657 0.656998 0.005 1.900 0.674972 0.873 1.922 17.Ts.871 1.75 16047.877 32.267 1.873 1.006 1.s.008742 0.677 59.013 319.57128 0.900 0.175 1.647653 0.879 1.621006 0.810 29.870 1.925 0.381 1.607499 0.59 16047.900 0.287 303.877 1.481 303.930 59.

921 35.9 0.123 351.900 0.204 314.70787 19.059 86.35 22925.9 0.997 48.900 0.82 20632.877 1.873 1.35 22925.046 59.786 37.9 0.82 20632.716 338.263 346.259 335.900 0.008 1.82 22925.014 1.013 1.11316 20.874 1.741 34.675044 0.900 0.169 38.63488 12.778 41.199 46.82 20632.316 39.036 333.448 77.874 1.369 334.959 120.914 325.875 1.605713 0.965 312.243 56.378 310.887 339.35411 14.006 1.620977 0.849 59.976 312.35 22925.116 130.9 0.007 1.684001 0.118 81.572 315.32927 10.625 59.900 0.734 0.681 97.013 1.296 311.014 1.899 86.35 22925.91331 13.452 95.900 0.980 350.9 0.015 323.014 1.871 313.01109 14.876 1.35 22925.9 0.28 18340.0428 14.353 90.015 1.007 1.603 348.090 37.874 1.28 18340.82 20632.877 1.014 1.991 58.50413 13.875 1.82 20632.9 0.880 1.34381 11.527 329.259 313.877 1.316 351.9 0.875 96.881 1.28 20632.9 0.875 1.250 335.006 1.308.857 36.878 1.006 1.078 74.018 316.006 1.61032 13.015 1.98208 17.48372 16.878 1.147 33.551 33.467 340.593 333.007 1.007 1.97682 11.512 82.657001 .463 49.663778 0.939 38.875 1.014 1.857 309.877 1.013 1.014 1.880 1.82 20632.838 311.007 1.878 1.62657 14.953 311.723 36.059 58.8 0.35 22925.689 332.362 84.660 88.82 20632.66555 10.693 129.756 316.399 133.504 309.900 0.21028 13.362 340.593 9.900 0.546 317.013 1.909 327.007 1.017 51.875 1.967 118.82 20632.663717 0.942 341.684038 0.878 1.054 39.432 121.663759 0.014 1.594037 0.9 0.615 46.269 50.419 63.007 1.33217 15.900 0.443 326.875 1.198 63.696 85.007 1.732 95.007 1.014 1.749 322.80044 16.900 0.910 70.592 52.49228 16.015 1.8 0.639015 0.39105 12.28 18340.843 54.28 18340.006 1.433 316.237 330.694 133.669 330.014 1.199 46.675 43.43938 15.802 330.28 18340.43132 20.900 0.15629 22.014 1.8 0.900 0.348 351.876 1.51096 10.28 18340.23932 11.499 41.900 0.067 85.8 0.006 1.747 55.094 79.576 330.82 20632.9 0.8 0.665 95.877 1.900 0.831 33.006 1.808 316.780 332.82 20632.335 102.014 1.032 309.410 311.878 1.900 0.900 0.35 22925.870 67.006 1.674994 0.605 328.666037 0.942 340.900 0.448 45.665984 0.006 1.8 0.797 310.688513 0.007 1.674 42.612037 0.900 0.444 327.919 312.630003 0.014 1.35 22925.859 326.877 1.014 1.900 0.900 0.015 1.234 336.675014 0.014 1.623 116.717 339.014 1.014 1.30209 12.843 315.065 321.50477 23.90703 12.008 1.693 311.82 20632.879 1.149 37.013 1.083 54.900 0.90169 18.756 329.900 0.85905 22.670501 0.82 20632.670523 0.423 40.9 0.595 113.900 0.657039 0.700 314.630 95.006 1.593 313.9 0.702 127.900 0.297 132.747 110.330 1.61738 11.517 42.831 133.686 47.053 61.113 87.563 326.874 1.258 135.878 1.652 133.717 343.82 20632.847 93.875 1.987 31.007 1.900 0.007 1.008 1.82 20632.875 1.82 20632.509 30.863 311.611963 0.955324 10.007 1.007 1.617 51.35 22925.877 1.35 22925.594 37.60123 0.014 1.014 1.35 22925.630019 0.155 36.9 0.820 47.877 1.35 22925.39285 15.835 105.198 59.013 1.244 56.014 1.590 83.60214 0.014 1.014 1.863 83.300 43.875 1.900 63.006 1.008 1.441 308.891 47.900 0.665967 0.433 318.657041 0.014 1.014 1.448 120.28306 11.014 1.666009 0.35 22925.875 1.35 22925.007 1.905 117.675037 0.656998 0.621 120.66603 0.83163 15.014 1.900 0.836 328.574 57.35 0.214 35.876 321.570 39.900 0.014 1.006 1.900 0.621027 0.14197 17.647965 0.014 1.900 0.741 34.900 0.135 134.007 1.014 1.546 316.585006 0.468 86.462 53.876 1.8 0.218 94.28 18340.192 314.99305 12.880 1.535 337.433 316.007 1.220 66.989 40.880 1.28 18340.008 1.075 95.98918 10.015 1.900 0.900 0.877 1.602998 0.007 1.310 339.007 1.678603 0.732 114.390 47.35 22925.675029 0.006 1.900 0.015 1.578 57.030 310.9 0.875 1.900 0.648007 0.28 18340.989 93.288 86.233 322.665122 0.656972 0.007 1.497 122.666 58.007 1.78864 19.878 1.181 92.638996 0.998 45.670462 0.797 310.657027 0.666 43.900 0.900 0.900 0.006 1.732 324.463 47.875 1.137 322.375 48.007 1.014 1.442 330.018 38.230 316.900 0.8 0.995 337.287 119.325 120.900 0.43567 14.008 1.206 319.860 73.8 0.9 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 18340.497 86.283 33.900 0.493 310.8 0.

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