MicrobiologyExcelsior Exam (ISM

Question Who observed cells in plant material? Who proved that microorganisms caused disease? Viruses cannot reproduce outside of a _____ ____ What finding was essential for Jenner's vaccination process? Answer Hooke Koch host cell A weakened microorganism may produce immunity

Recombinant DNA technology can be used to make what? human hormones, vaccines, drugs You are observing a cell through a microscope and note that it has no apparent nucleus. You conclude that it most likely has a........... A nucleated, green cell that moves by means of flagella is.... An agent that reproduces in cells but is not composed of cells and contain RNA as its genetic material is a.... A multicellular organism that has a mouth and lives in an animal host is a In the name Escherichia coli, coli is the specific..... You are looking at a white cottony growth on a culture medium. Microscopic examination reveals it is multicellular. You can conclude that the organism...... Members of what groups contain DNA? What groups have cell walls? You are observing a cell through a microscope and note that it has no apparent nucleus. You conclude that it most likely has a........... What is true about enzymes? What type of bond is between molecules of water in a beaker of water? What type of bond holds hydrogen and oxygen atoms in a molecule of H2O? What type of molecule contains the alcohol glycerol? What type of molecule is composed of CH2O units? Structurally, ATP is most like what type of molecule? What molecule has chemicals in genes? Which molecule is composed of a chain of amino acids? What are the primary molecules making up plasma peptidoglycan cell wall.

an algae virus helminth epithet - has DNA enclosed in a nucleus -has cell walls absorbs organic nutrients -is eukaryotic -bacteria -helminths -fungi -protozoa -bacteria -fungi -plantae peptidoglycan cell wall. - lover activation energy of reaction- are not used up in a reaction- are made of proteins Hydrogen bond covalent bond lipids carbohydrates nucleic acids nucleic acid proteins lipids

membranes in cells? Starch, dextran, glycogen, and cellulose are polymers of... What structure does light pass through after leaving the condenser in a compound light microscope? What are the steps of the Gram Stain? The counterstain in the acid-fast stain is a basic... The purpose of a mordant in the Gram stain is to prevent the.. The best uses of a negative stain is to determine... Simple staining is often necessary to improve contrast in what microscope? What microscope is used to see internal structures of cells in a natural state? What microscope achieves the highest magnification and greatest resolution? The light that hits the specimen is scattered and does not come directly from the light source in what microscope? What microscope takes advantage of differences in the refractive indexes of cell structure? What is the appearance of gram-positive bacteria after addition of the first dye in the Gram stain? What is the appearance of gram-negative bacteria after addition of the decolorizing agent in the Gram stain? What is the total magnification of a chloroplast viewed with a 10X ocular lens and a 45X objective lens? You suspect a 100 nm structure is present in a cell. What provides the lowest magnification that you can use to see this structure? Assume you stain Bacillus by applying malachite green with heat then counterstaining with safranin. Through the microscope, the green structures are... (51)You find colorless areas in cells in a Gram-stained smear. What should you do next? glucose specimen 1. Alcohol-acetane -2. Crystal violet -3. Safranin 4.Iodine dye crystal violet from leaving the cells cell size and shape electron microscope phase-contrast microscope electron microscope darkfield microscope phase-contrast microscope purple colorless 450X

scanning electron microscope


an endospore stain

What Gram reaction do you expect from acid-fast bacteria? Gram-positive Bacteria smears are fixed before staining to... The purpose of the ocular lens is to magnify the image from the.... What is true about gram-positive cell walls? kill the bacteria and affix the cells to the slide objective lens -maintains shape -sensitive to lysozyme -contains teichoic acids

What happens when a bacterial cell is placed in a solution containing 5% NaCl? Force of which a solvent moves across a semi-permeable membrane from a higher to a lower concentration is..fungi What Gram reaction do you expect from acid-fast bacteria? Gram-positive Bacteria smears are fixed before staining to.motile by means of flagella -2....have a semirigid cell wall 1. What is true about gram-positive cell walls? What happens when a bacterial cell is placed in a solution containing 5% NaCl? In bacteria.contains proteins prokaryotic 1.axial filament -2..ATP -3..peritrichous flagella -3. water will move out of the cell osmotic pressure By what mechanism can a cell transport a substance from a active transport lower to a higher concentration? Characteristic of the plasma membrane: The mitochondrion most closely resembles what type of cell? What is true of prokaryotic cells? What are some structures found in prokaryotic cells? What are some parts of the active transport process? 1.transports protein -2.. site of cell wall formation -3. Where are phospholipids most likely found in a prokaryotic cell? What is found in mitochondria and prokaryotes? What is found in Archaea? What is found in mycoplasmas? (73) What will happen if a bacterial cell is placed in distilled water with lysozyme? kill the bacteria and affix the cells to the slide objective lens -maintains shape -sensitive to lysozyme -contains teichoic acids water will move out of the cell chromatophores transporter proteins Fimbria DNA plasma membrane -the circular chromosome -the ATP generating mechanism -70S ribosomes Pseudomurein Sterol-rich cell membranes the cell will undergo osmotic lysis What will happen if a bacterial cell is placed in 10% NaCl the cell will plasmolyze ..compoed of phospholipid bilayer 4.Pili 1.. The purpose of the ocular lens is to magnify the image from the. photosynthetic pigments are found in...reproduce by binary fission -3. The difference between simple diffusion and facilitated diffusion is that facilitated diffusion requires (67)What cell structure has a role in the initiation of disease? Fimbria and pili differ in that pili are used to transfer.plasma membrane 4..flagella 4.selectively permeable -2.

.generates ATP it is oxidized in the Krebs cycle Krebs cycle protons are moved across a membrane -glycerol -acetone -ethyl alcohol -lactic acid glycolysis only What percent of the total ATP produced from the complete 89% catabolism of glucose is produced by aerobic respiration? What is true about beta oxidation? The oxidation of glucose with organic molecules serving as electron acceptors is. According to the chemiosmotic mechanism..3.. ATP is generated when. The bacteria are most likely using the peptides When oxygen is unavailable. -sulfur granules -lipid inclusions -metachromatic granules -polysaccharide granules propel the protozoan -dehydrogenase -cellulase -B galactosidase 38 1... What uses CO2 for carbon and H2 for energy? What uses glucose for carbon and energy? What has bacteriochlorophylls and uses alcohols for carbon? Cyanobacteria are an example of what? 1.with penicillin? What are some energy reserves? The bacteria on the outside of termite protozoa.involves the reduction of nitrate -4. in the Krebs cycle is inhibited -noncompetitive inhibition-feedback inhibitionby ATP.involves the Krebs cycle -2.. What are some end products of fermentation? A strictly fermentative bacterium produces energy by. this is an example of what types of inhibitions? allosteric inhibition A bacterial culture grown in a glucose-peptide medium causes the pH to increase.it is the method of catabolizing fatty acids2..requires cytochromes -3.involves the formation of 2 carbon units fermentation the final electron acceptors are different CO2 Chemoautotroph Chemoheterotroph Photoheterotroph Photoautotroph An enzyme.. citrate synthase. electrons to reduce CO2 come from. Aerobic respiration differs from anaerobic respiration in what respect? In green and purple bacteria.involves the formation of acetyl CoA.. What compounds are enzymes? How many molecules of ATP can be generated from the complex oxidation of glucose to CO2 and H2O? What is true about anaerobic respiration? What is the fate of pyruvic acid in an organism that uses aerobic respiration? Fatty acids are catabolized in the... Halobacterium produce ATP photophosphorylation by The addition of what to a culture medium will neutralize buffers .

acids? Salts and sugars work to preserve foods by creating a The term facultative anaerobe refers to an organism that uses What are some disadvantages of the standard plate count? hypertonic environment oxygen or grows without oxygen -cells may form aggregates -chemical and physical requirements are determined by media and incubation -requires incubation time -no incubation time -enumerate dead cells -large number of cells is required -some organisms are motile -decreased dissolved oxygen -NO2 produced from the electron transport chain -CO2 produced from the Krebs cycle -acid production from fermentation 36 7 What are some disadvantages of the direct microscopic count? What is used to determine metabolic activity? Thirty-six colonies grew in nutrient agar from 1. Phenolics differ from phenol in that phenolics are .. The cells in a population die at a constant rate Ethylene oxide Chlorhexidine -silver nitrate -Merthiolate -Mercurochrome -relatively odorless -more effective antibacterial .0 ml of undiluted sample in a standard plate count. A culture medium consisting of agar.. How many generations did the cell go through? The source of nutrients in nutrient agar is generation time Halophiles NAD+ Glucose consumption 5 peptone and beef extract Producers in the hydrothermal vents on the ocean floor use sulfide CO2 for their carbon source and what for energy? What best describes the pattern of microbial growth? What is a substance that can sterilize? What is used for surgical hand scrubs? Name some heavy metals. What is an example of a metabolic activity that could be used to measure microbial growth? An experiment began with 4 cells and ended with 128 cells. and beef heart is a __________ medium complex During which growth phase will gram-positive bacteria be log phase most susceptible to penicillin? The length of time it takes for a cell to divide is What group of microorganisms is most likely to spoil a freshwater trout preserved with salt? Name an organic growth factor.. How many cells were in the original sample? Most bacteria grow best at pH of A culture medium on which only gram-positive organisms grow and a yellow halo surrounds Staphylococcus aureus selective medium and a differential medium colonies is called a.. human blood.

. rDNA -Bacteria that produce bacteriocins are resistant to their own bacteriocins -the genes coding for them are on plasmids -Nisin is a bacteriocin used as a food preservative an inducible enzyme by a bacteriophage highly reactive ions What is true about bacteriocins? An enzyme produced in response to the presence of a substrate is called Transformation is the transfer of DNA from a donor to a recipient cell The initial effect of ionizing radiation on a cell is that it causes the formation of... According to the operon model.agents -nonirritating (126) What substances achieve sterilization? What is a limitation of the autoclave? What is a direct result of heat? What substance is the least effective antimicrobial agent? What are effective against nonenveloped viruses? Which concentration of ethyl alcohol is the most effective bactericide? What could be used to sterilize plastic Petri plates in a plastic wrapper? (136) Foods are preserved with.. RNA The leading strand of DNA is made. What is the most useful for disinfecting medical instruments? What is most resistant to chemical biocides? A sequence of nucleotides in DNA that codes for a functional product is a -Ethylene oxide -autoclave -formaldehyde -dry heat Use with heat-labile materials -breaking sulfhydryl bonds -breaking hydrogen bonds -denaturing enzymes soap -Ethylene oxide -Chlorine -Ozone 70% Gamma radiation -potassium sorbate -sodium propionate -sodium nitrate Quats Mycobacteria Gene The lagging strand of DNA is started by an ______ primer. repressor corepressor-repressor . tRNA.. rRNA.. for the synthesis of an inducible enzyme to occur. What are some products of transcription? continuously chromosome DNA polymerase mRNA.. Multiple replication forks are possible on a bacterial ____________ ________ joins nucleotides in one direction only.. the _______ must bind to the __________ Synthesis of a repressible enzyme is stopped by the ______________ binding to the operator substrate.

. An enzyme that cuts double stranded DNA at specific nucleotide sequences is An enzyme that cuts and seals DNA is In transcription. the next step in genetic engineering is inserting Ti into___________ What is a "hit or miss" method of making rDNA? Pieces of DNA stored in yeast cells are called a ... insulin.... proteins Agrobacterium protoblast fusion Library clone vector Southern blot site-direct mutagenesis Agrobacterium tumefaciens What organism degrades PCB's and has been engineered to Pseudomonas produce BT toxin? An example of gene therapy is insertion of the _______gene in a diabetic person's _________ cells The use of antibiotic resistance gene on a plasmid used in genetic engineering makes ____ ______ possible A specific gene can be inserted into a cell by what means? PCR can be used to identify an unknown bacterium because the. The DNA synthesized would be most similar to What is the mechanism by which the presence of glucose inhibits the arabinose operon? An enzyme that covalently bonds nucleotide sequences in DNA is.. Self-replicating DNA used to transmit a gene from one organism to another is a . cannot make _______ If you have inserted a gene in the Ti... A technique used to identify bacteria carrying a specific gene is called a. The DNA polymerase is from human DNA Thermus aquaticus and the template is from a human cell.. A population of cells carrying a desired plasmid is called a.. RNA tRNA..... ______ is copied to ______ A cell that cannot make _______. generation _________ The necessary ingredients for DNA synthesis can be mixed together in a test tube.electroporation -3. What technique is used to alter one amino acid in protein? (169) What organism naturally possesses the Ti plasmid? catabolic repression DNA ligase RNA polymerase the restriction enzyme transposase DNA.Conjugation differs from reproduction because conjugation transfers __________horizontally to cells in the same DNA..microinjection 4. pancreas direct selection 1.agrobacterium RNA primer is specific . An enzyme that copies DNA to make a molecule of RNA is.a gene gun -2..

. -a gene gun. protoplast fusion -they lack peptidoglycan in their cell walls.. -electroporation. ester linkages in phospholipids absorption of dissolved organic matter -can photosynthesize. -transformation. You suspect the organism is in which Archaea group? Into which group would you place a photosynthetic organism that lacks a nucleus and has a thin peptidoglycan Proteobacteria (Gram-negative bacteria) wall surrounded by an outer membrane? What indicates that two organisms are closely related? What is found primarily in the intestines of humans? What is most resistant to high temperatures? their DNA can hybridize facultatively anaerobic gram-negative rods Bacillus subtilis You discovered a unicellular organism that lacks a nucleus Archaea and peptidoglycan. -some produce methane from carbon dioxide and hydrogen. -are multicellular.. clone Into which group would you place a photosynthetic cell that lacks a nucleus? Into which group would you place a multicellular heterotroph with chitin cell walls? Bacteria Fungi You discovered a unicellular organism that lacks a nucleus and peptidoglycan. What is true about members of the Kingdom Plantae? What is true about the Kingdom Animalia? A taxon comprised of one or more species and below family is a.. -use organic energy sources genus rRNA genus What is true of Archaea? What characterizes Domain Bacteria? The outstanding characteristic of the Kingdom Fungi is... -have eukaryotic cells -use organic carbon sources.... -are multicellular.Foreign DNA can be inserted into cells by what means. You suspect the organism is in which .. -use inorganic energy sources. cells Genetically identical cells derived from a single cell is a. Bacteria and Archaea are similar in which of the following Possess prokaryotic cells ways? A group of cells all derived from a single parent is a. Enterobacter is the.. -some are thermoacidophiles.. The phylogenetic classification of bacteria is based on ____ sequences In the scientific name Enterobacter aerogenes.. -others are extreme halophiles Prokaryotic cells. have eukaryotic cells. Serological testing is based on the fact that _______ react specifically with an ________ Phage typing is based on the fact that _______viruses attack specific ________ strain antibodies.. antigen bacterial.. -they are prokaryotes.

You suspect the organism is in which Archaea group? Into which group would you place a photosynthetic organism that lacks a nucleus and has a thin peptidoglycan Proteobacteria (Gram-negative bacteria) wall surrounded by an outer membrane? What indicates that two organisms are closely related? What is found primarily in the intestines of humans? What is most resistant to high temperatures? their DNA can hybridize facultatively anaerobic gram-negative rods Bacillus subtilis You discovered a unicellular organism that lacks a nucleus and peptidoglycan.group? Into which group would you place a photosynthetic organism that lacks a nucleus and has a thin peptidoglycan Proteobacteria (Gram-negative bacteria) wall surrounded by an outer membrane? What indicates that two organisms are closely related? What is found primarily in the intestines of humans? What is most resistant to high temperatures? their DNA can hybridize facultatively anaerobic gram-negative rods Bacillus subtilis You discovered a unicellular organism that lacks a nucleus and peptidoglycan. The nitrate is reduced to nitrogen gas. This bacterium is using _________ _________ their DNA can hybridize facultatively anaerobic gram-negative rods Bacillus subtilis -difficult to culture in vitro. -gram negative anaerobic respiration . You suspect the organism is in which Archaea group? Into which group would you place a photosynthetic organism that lacks a nucleus and has a thin peptidoglycan Proteobacteria (Gram-negative bacteria) wall surrounded by an outer membrane? What indicates that two organisms are closely related? What is found primarily in the intestines of humans? What is most resistant to high temperatures? their DNA can hybridize facultatively anaerobic gram-negative rods Bacillus subtilis You discovered a unicellular organism that lacks a nucleus and peptidoglycan. You suspect the organism is in which Archaea group? Into which group would you place a photosynthetic organism that lacks a nucleus and has a thin peptidoglycan Proteobacteria (Gram-negative bacteria) wall surrounded by an outer membrane? What indicates that two organisms are closely related? What is found primarily in the intestines of humans? What is most resistant to high temperatures? What are some characteristics of spirochetes? You have isolated a bacterium that grows in a medium containing an organic substrate and nitrate in the absence of oxygen. -helical shape. -possess an axial filament.

-have eukaryotic cells. -most are aerobic -some have male and female reproductive organs in one animal... This bacterium is a ____________ Escherichia coli belongs to the... What is the best reason to classify Streptococcus in the Lactobacillales? Salmonella. The nonsulfur photosynthetic bacteria use organic compound as. -are multicellular -may have flagella or cilia. -transmitted by ticks. -are unicellular fungal. -are hermaphroditic What is true about helminths? What is true about protozoa? A lichen doesn't exist if the ______ and ______ partners are separated... Ammonia is oxidized to nitrate ion... Mycoplasma Actinomycetes and related organisms Haemophilus chemoautotroph proteobacteria What is true about the causative agent of Rocky Mountain -gram negative. the fungus provides the _________ In lichen. The first step in identification is a.. Actinomycetes differ from fungi because Actinomycetes laca a. algal holdfast carbohydrates soil the gastrointestinal route -dorsoventrally flattened.What lacks a cell wall? What forms conidiospores? Requirements for X and V factors are used to identify You have isolated a bacterium that grows in a medium containing only inorganic nutrients. Shigella.. In lichen. What characteristics of parasitic Platyhelminthes? . -an intracellular parasite The bacteria responsible for more infections and more different kinds of infections are.. You have isolated a prokaryotic cell. Caulobacter are different from most bacteria because they have ______ What should you do if you suspect a patient has tuberculosis? What is true about fungi? Streptococcus electron donors to reduce CO2 rRNA sequences gram negative facultatively anaerobic rods gram stain membrane bounded nucleus stalks Do an acid-fast stain -are heterotrophic. Yersinia. -are heterotrophic. -have eukaryotic cells... -in the genus Spotted Fever? Rickettsia. -may reproduce sexually. the alga produce_______ Lichens are important to ________ producers Transmission of helminthic diseases to humans is usually by... -divided into flukes and tapeworms.... and Serratia are all . -have eukaryotic cells. -few are pathogenic to humans.

.. -a human parasite viruses are not composed of cells They cannot reproduce themselves outside of a host -only found on enveloped viruses.. Lysogeny can result in. -mosquitos -some are capable of sexual reproduction. What is true about this organism? What way does viruses differ from bacteria? What provides the most significant support for the idea that viruses are nonliving chemicals? What is true about spikes? What is the criterion to classify viruses? Phage DNA is incorporated into host cell DNA is A naked infectious piece of RNA is a. -fleas. -produce oxygen from hydrolysis of water adult mitochondria vaccination What is true about algae? A definitive host harbors which stage of a parasite? The microspora and archaezoa are unusual eukaryotes because they lack... -size. Leishmania is an euglenozoa. and rediae are stages in nematodes the life cycle of. miracidia. -number of capsomeres lysogeny viroid A clear area against a confluent "lawn" of bacteria is called plaque a. -may cause hemagglutination -morphology... -Nucleic acid. -is transmitted by sandflies. -use light as their energy source.. -transduction of specific genes... -use CO2 as their carbon source. humans are the. -used for absorption. What is the most effective control for malaria? What multinucleated amoebalike cells produce fungus-like Plasmodial slime mold spores? What organism can grow photoautotrophically in the light and chemoheterotrophically in the dark? The cells of plasmodial slime molds can grow to several centimeters in diameter because they distribute nutrients by.. -kissing bugs. What arthropods transmit diseases while sucking blood from a human? -lice.Cercariae. Yeast infections are caused by. If larvae of Echinococcus granulosus is found in humans.. Euglena cytoplasmic streaming intermediate host Candida albicans -is flagellated. metacercaria.. An infection protein is a An envelope is acquired during which of the following steps? -acquisition of new characteristics by the host cell... -immunity to reinfection by the same phage prion release ..

-RNA polymerase. nonenveloped single stranded RNA virus most likely belong? Bacteriophages derive what from the host cell? Generally. -tuberculosis. . the host animal cell supplies.. nonenveloped single stranded RNA virus most likely belong? Bacteriophages derive what from the host cell? Generally. cold sores needle stick Picornavirus -nucleotides. -nucleotides Viruses that have reverse transcriptase are in _______ and Hepadnaviridae. -amino acids. -contain DNA or RNA but never both Picornavirus -nucleotides. -nucleotides Viruses that have reverse transcriptase are in _______ and Hepadnaviridae.An example of a latent viral infection is The most common route of accidental AIDS transmission to health care workers is. -amino acids. in DNA-containing virus infection.. -use the anabolic machinery of the cell. -tRNA -tRNA. -use the anabolic machinery of the cell.. This can result in . Retroviridae _______ What is true of viruses? Nontoxic strains of Vibrio cholerae can become toxic when they are in the human intestine with toxic strains of bacteria.. Retroviridae _______ What is true of viruses? To which group does a small. What are some diseases that spread by droplet infection? Mechanical transmission differs from biological transmission in that mechanical transmission doesn't What infection can cause septicemia? Transient microbiota differ from normal microbiota because transient microbiota are contain a protein coat. -common cold. in DNA-containing virus infection. To which group does a small. -measles involve specific diseases focal infection present for a relatively short time One effect of washing regularly with antibacterial agents is increased susceptibility to disease the removal of normal microbiota. the host animal cell supplies. -contain DNA or RNA but never both transduction reverse transcriptase RNA-dependent RNA polymerase opportunistic pathogen Symbiosis hospitalization microorganisms Diphtheria. -RNA polymerase.. This suggest that the toxin genes are acquired by An oncogenic RNA virus must have what enzyme? Most RNA viruses carry what enzyme? A commensal bacterium may be an _____ refers to different organisms living together A nosocomial infection is acquired during the course of Koch's postulates don't apply to disease because all diseases aren't caused by. -tRNA -tRNA. contain a protein coat..

-more potent than endotoxins. -IgA protease. the pathogen reproduces in the vector chronic primary infection acute inapparent What is true of biological transmission? A disease that develops slowly and last for months is A initial illness is a A short lasting primary infection is Infection characteristic of a carrier state is The science that deals with the point in time when diseases epidemiology occur and how they are transmitted is called. -composed of proteins. -capsules Invasims. -produced by gram positive bacteria viral infections allergic response to the host.What is a fomite? A hypodermic needle the pathogen may require the vector as a host. A sexually transmitted disease is an example of Gastroenteritis acquired from roast beef is an example of A needle stick is an example of a vehicle transmission droplet transmission direct contact vehicle transmission fomite The yeast Candida albicans does not usually cause disease antagonist bacteria because of What contributes to the incidence of nosocomial infections? The most frequently used portal of entry for pathogens is the What diseases are usually contracted by the respiratory route? How do most pathogens gain access through the skin? Kinase destroys ________ breaks down substances between cells.. ________ destroys neutrophils _______ lyse red blood cells What is true of exotoxins? Cytopathic effects are changes in host cells due to What contributes to symptoms of fungal disease? Methods of avoiding host antibodies Siderophores are bacterial proteins that compete with animal lapse in aseptic techniques.. -lack of insect control.. -formation of biofilms mucous membranes of the respiratory tract measles.. -pathogen may enter the host in the vector's feces. -pneumonia enter through hair follicles and sweat glands fibrin clots Hyaluronidase Leukocidins Hemolysins have specific methods of action. lack of hand washing. A cold transmitted by facial tissue is an example of.. -tuberculosis. -toxins. Influenza transmitted by an unprotected sneeze is an example of. -antigenic change transferrin .. pathogens may be injected by the bite of the vector.

alternative pathway. -Corynebacterium diphtheriae.Botulism is caused by an exotoxin. -swelling. -local heat The complement protein cascade is the same for the classical pathway. -pain. and lectin pathway C3 beginning with the activation of_____ Adherence of phagocytes to the lining of blood vessels is What is normally found in serum? What is an effect of complement activation? Defensive cells such as T cells identify pathogens by binding What are some effects of histamine? A _____ is a sign the body temperature is rising Complement fixation results in Neutrophils with defective lysosomes are unable to produce Activation of C5-C9 results in What is involved in adaptive immunity? What is involved in resistance to parasitic helminths? margination complement increased blood vessel permeability. -redness.. -opsonization. -opsonization. -Clostridium tetani. -increased phagocytic activity toll like receptors redness. it could easily be prevented by (298) What organisms can produce exotoxin? boiling food prior to consumption Staphylococcus aureus. therefore. The body's defenses against any kind of pathogen is What are some physical factors to protect the skin and mucous membranes from infection? Limulus amoebocyte lysate test nerve damage gram negative bacterial infections innate immunity tears. -cell lysis. -is an exotoxin superantigens parenteral route The mechanism by which gram negative bacteria can cross inducing TNF the blood brain barrier is by Injectable drugs are tested for endotoxins by the Endotoxins in injectable drugs could cause Antibiotics can lead to septic shock if used to treat. immune adherence toxic oxygen products leakage of cell contents lymphocyte Eosinophil . -saliva. -diarrhea. -layers of cells Removing microorganisms from the lower respiratory tract ciliary escalator is the function of the What are some characteristics of inflammation? pain. -Clostridium botulinum The symptoms of tetanus are due to the exotoxin produced Clostridium tetani by What is true of staphylococcal enterotoxin? Septic shock due to gram positive bacteria is caused by A needle stick is an example of what portal of entry? causes vomiting. -vasodilation. -swelling chill activation of C3b. -bacterial cell lysis..

--cells are processed in the thymus gland an antigen IgE IgM A chemical that elicits an antibody response and can combine with these antibodies a protein made in response to an antigen that can combine with that antigen (346) Patients with an inherited type of colon cancer called familial adenomatous polyposis have a mutation in the apoptosis gene that codes for Chemical signals sent between leukocytes are Natural killer cells Antigens coated with antibodies are susceptible to Cell death caused by perforin and granzymes is caused by Antigen-antibody binding may result in interleukins destroy tumor cells--destroy virus infected cells-destroy cells lacking MHC-I phagocytosis cytotoxic T lymphocytes complement activation-.opsonization of the antigen--agglutination of the antigens-neutralization of the antigen Parts of bacterial cells. -increases interferon activity.Macrophages arise from what? Bacteria have siderophores that capture iron. the antibodies that can fix complement are Definition of antigen Definition of antibody naturally acquired active immunity naturally acquired passive immunity interaction between CD$ and MHC II the variable portions of the H and L chains --it can inhibit the immune response. inactivated viruses. live attenuated bacteria What are normally used in vaccinations? . humans counter this by What are some effects of fever? Bacterial enzymes such as a catalase and superoxide dismutase can protect bacteria from A type of immunity resulting from vaccination is monocyte transferrins increases production of T cells. --the cells originate in bone marrow. toxoid. -increases transferrin production phagocytic digestion artificially acquired active immunity The type of immunity resulting from transfer of antibodies from one individual to a susceptible individual by means artificially acquired passive immunity of injection is Immunity resulting from recovery from mumps is Newborns immunity due to the transfer of antibodies across the placenta is T-cells are activated by The specificity of an antibody is due to Characteristics of cellular immunity Plasma cells are activated by The antibodies that can bind to large parasites are In addition to IgG.

vaccinated animals precipitation reaction an agglutination reaction Antibodies for serological testing can be obtained from A reaction between an antibody and soluble antigenforming lattices is called A reaction between antibody and particulate antigen is called An indirect version of what test using antihuman globulin may be used to detect patient's antibodies against Treponema pallidum? Toxoid vaccines such as the vaccines against diphtheria and tetanus elicit What type of vaccine involves host synthesis of viral antigens? Purified protein from B. while the one that was not vaccinated dies. or the patient may have had the disease and has recovered. This is an example of Dead Bordetella pertussis can be used in What is the third step in a direct ELISA test? (372) What uses red blood cells as the indicator? The circumsporozite antigen of Plasmodium can be used to Hypersensitivity is due to The chemical mediators of anaphylaxis are toxoid vaccine neutralization an inactivated whole agent vaccine Antihuman immune serum complement fixation produce monoclonal antibodies. vaccinate healthy people an altered immune response found in basophils and mast cells .If a patient shows the presence of antibodies against diphtheria toxin. decrease recurring infections. this indicates The patient may have been vaccinated. the suspect food is injected into two guinea pigs. monoclonal antibodies. or a recent transfusion may have passively introduced the antibodies. pertussis is a What type of vaccine is live measles virus? Immunofluorescence an antibody response against these bacterial toxins Nucleic acid vaccine subunit vaccine Attenuated whole agent vaccine A test used to identify Streptococcus pyogenes in a patient direct fluorescent antibody test is the What is a pregnancy test used to find the fetal hormone HCG in a woman's uterine using anti HCG and latex spheres? What is a test to determine patient's blood type by mixing patient's red blood cells with antisera? Passive agglutination reaction direct agglutination reaction What is a test to determine the presence of soluble antigens precipitation reaction in patient's saliva? Inactivated tetanus toxin is a To detect botulinum toxin in food. or the patient may have the disease Vaccinated humans. The guinea pig that was vaccinated against botulism survives.

hypodermic needles What is true of HIV Likely vaccines against HIV What causes damage to kidney cells in glomerulonephritis? HIV is transmitted by Drugs such as AZT and ddC that are currently used to treat stopping DNA synthesis AIDS act by What describes a cytotoxic autoimmune reaction? Clinical AIDS is diagnosed when MMR vaccine contains hydrolyzed gelatin. they contribute to the symptoms of certain diseases. the T cell response triggers viral multiplication. has selective toxicity penicillin bacteria . the primary method of transmission of HIV is heterosexual intercourse A hypersensitivity reaction occurs on a second or subsequent exposure to an antigen The symptoms occur within a few days after exposure to an antigen. they are cell mediated. the symptoms are due to lymphokines Type IV hypersensitivities Reactions of antigens with IgE antibodies attached to mast release of chemical mediators cells causes Hay fever is an example of Transfusion reactions are an example of Type I hypersensitivity Type II hypersensitivity Bone marrow can be a reservoir for future infection. protein core. homosexual activity. it doesn't affect eukaryotic cells. subunit. A person receiving this vaccine could develop an anaphylactic reaction if the person has Penicillin was considered a "miracle drug" because The first antibiotic discovered was Most of the available antimicrobial agents are effective against antibodies react to cell surface antigens the CD4 T cell count is <200 antibodies against gelatin It inhibits gram positive cell wall synthesis. HIV can be transmitted by cell to cell contact. viral infection of T-h cells results in signs elsewhere in the patient Glycoprotein.What may result from systemic anaphylaxis? Graft versus host disease will most likely be a complication of Cancer cells may escape the immune system because Autoimmunity is due to Immunotoxins can be used to treat cancer because they shock a bone marrow transplant tumor cells shed their specific antigens IgG and IgM antibodies poison cells Worldwide. antibodies against streptococcus complement fixation Human milk. heterosexual activity.

thus interfering with Use of antibiotics in animal feed leads to antibiotic resistant bacteria because the antibiotics kill susceptible bacteria. helminths) Advantages of using two antibiotics together Drug resistance occurs when antibiotics are used What would be selective against the tubercle bacillus? In the presence of penicillin. cephalosporins. but the few that are naturally resistant live and reproduce. may be transferred from one bacterium to another during conjugation. You would expect this drug to be effective against What are some bactericidals? Mebendazole is used to treat cestode infections. providing treatment prior to diagnosis. prevention of drug resistance indiscriminately Ethambutol because it inhibits mycolic acid synthesis osmotic lysis helminths Semisynthetic penicillin. vancomycin tetracylines DNA synthesis viral nucleic acid DNA synthesis their cells are structurally and functionally similar to human cells May be due to increased uptake of a drug. may be carrier on a plasmid Lessening the toxicity of individual drugs. streptomycin. a cell dies because it undergoes Niclosamide prevents ATP generation in mitochondria. rifampin penicillin Ethambutol. natural penicillin bacteria------(does affect protozoa. natural penicillins. Isoniazid.What antibiotics are bactericidal? What antimicrobial agent has the fewest side effects? Act by competitive inhibition What method of action would be bacteriostatic? Cephalosporins. Sulfonamide inhibition of RNA synthesis What antimicrobial agent is recommended for used against Amphotericin B fungal infections? More than half of our antibiotics are produced by Flucytosine would be most useful to treat Antibiotics that interfere with cell wall synthesis The antimicrobial drugs with the broadest spectrum of activity are Acyclovir inhibits Amantadine inhibits release of Fluoroquinolone inhibits Protozoans and helminths diseases are difficulty to treat because What causes drug resistance? bacteria candidiasis semisynthetic penicillins. and . bacitracin. therefore it would not affect The antibiotic actinomycin D binds between adjacent G-C transcription pairs. It interferes with microtubule formation. human cells. penicillin. aminoglycosides. fungi.

pimples herpes simplex. chicken pox. may be fatal herpes simplex epidemic herpetic keratitis fungicide mite chicken pox direct contact acne antibiotics cannot penetrate the blood-brain barrier rarely fatal. Microscopic examination reveals gram positive rods. diagnosis is based on immunofluorescent techniques clostridial neurotoxin antibodies elimination of the vector tetanus immune globulin tetanus toxoid the circulatory system Rabies The symptoms of tetanus are due to The treatment for tetanus is The most effective control of a vectorborne diseases is Treatment for tetanus in an unimmunized person is Treatment for tetanus in an immunized person is The most common route of central nervous system invasion by pathogens is through . throat.their progeny repopulate the host animal What are normal microbiota of the skin? The etiologic agents of warts is What are transported by respiratory route? What are causes by herpesvirus? Thrush and vaginitis are caused by The greatest single cause of blindness in the world is What causes ringworm? What is sensitive to penicillin? What infections are caused by S. and lower back. She most likely has Herpes gladiatorium is transmitted by (438) A 17 year old male pus filled cysts on his face and upper back. This infection is Encephalitis and meningitis are difficult to treat because Leprosy is Pityrosporum. chicken pox. microsporum. Chlamydia trachomatis it is contracted in utero. Staphylococcus. caused by Rhabdovirus. Haemophilus aegyptii. it is transmitted by direct contact hydrophobia is an early symptom. furuncle. Carbuncle. epidermophyton streptococcus Sty. Propionibacterium papovavirus smallpox. it is not fatal in bats. diagnosis may be based on the lepromin test. Corynebacterium. Aureus? What are some causative agents of conjunctivitis? Congenital rubella syndromeThe etiologic agent of fever blisters is Trifluridine is used to treat What is used to treat sporotrichosis? Scabies is a skin disease caused by a A patient has pus filled vesicles and scabs on her face. and mental retardation. may result in deafness. German measles keratoconjunctivitis. shingles Candida albicans trachoma Trichophyton. blindness. adenovirus.

listeriosis Undulant fever Brucellosis. anthrax. epidemic typhus. relapsing fever. and stiff neck. a nosocomial infection the intermediate host is an aquatic snail. One examination. What Gram stain of cerebrospinal fluid is most likely to provide rapid identification of the cause of her symptoms? What are caused by prions (452) A diagnosis of rabies is confirmed by a direct Streptococcal pneumonia is treated with Microscopic examination of cerebrospinal fluid reveals amoeba. it is caused by a flatworm Caused by bacterium Septicemia may result from Schistosomiasis . plague. microbial fermentation Septicemia What are treated with penicillin? What is a symptom of brucellosis? What are transmitted in raw milk? Characteristics of Bacillus anthracis Symptoms of gangrene are due to High incidence of what diseases is increased by unsanitary endemic murine typhus. What is the organism? A vaccine is available for What are acquired by ingestion? sheep scrapie. What is the organism? Microscopic examination of cerebrospinal fluid reveals gram-positive rods. tickborne typhus contamination through the parenteral route. it may be aggravated by antibiotics. caused by protozoan. anthrax found in soil.The most common cause of meningitis in children is Haemophilus influenzae A 30 yo female was hospitalized after she experienced convulsions. Creutzfeldt Jakob disease fluorescent antibody test antibiotics Naegleria Listeria tetanus. a parasite of birds causes swimmers itch in humans. listeriosis. listeriosis. symptoms include fever and decreased blood pressure. neisseria meningitis. the cercariae penetrate human skin. epidemic typhus. forms endospores. lymphangitis may occur pericarditis. the reservoir is cats. kuru. headache. hyaluronidase. is transmitted by the gastrointestinal route plague. Haemophilus meningitis. botulism Symptoms are due to bacterial endotoxin. she was alert and oriented and complained of a fever. and crowded conditions? relapsing fever (466) Toxoplasmosis can be congenital. a focal infection. pneumonia. rabies Poliomyelitis. transmissible mink encephalopathy. gram positive proteolytic enzymes. necrotizing exotoxins.

bacitracin inhibition scarlet fever. Connecticut. they cause neonatal sepsis anti inflammatory drugs caused by Staphylococcus aureus. they are present in healthy carriers. Toxoplasmosis. gram stain. Corynebacterium diptheriae. caused by streptococcus pyogens. diptheria. was due to bacterial infection? What is the usual cause of septic shock? What is true about Group B streptococci A patient persents with inflammation of the heart valves. transmitted by swimming pool water. a complication of tonsillitis serological test. she has had tuberculosis Mycobacterium tuberculosis parakeets cattle soil humans streptococcus pyogenes. plague A patient complains of fever. severe muscle and joint pain and a rash. What do you expect? What is evidence that the arthritis afflicting children in Lyme. she has tuberculosis. Tularemia. she is immune to tuberculosis.Human to human transmission of plague is usually by A characteristic symptom of plague is A predisposing factor for infection by Clostridium perfreinges is Arthropods can serve as a reservoir for Diseases transmitted to humans from domestic cats What can be treated with antibiotics respiratory route bruises on the skin gangrene Brucellosis Bartonella. pneumococcal pneumonia histoplasma she has been vaccinated. malaise. hemolytic reaction. The patient reports returning from a Caribbean Dengue vacation one week ago. and subcutaneous nodules at the joints. plague Lyme disease. fever. the recommended treatment is What is true about otitis media? Treatable with penicillin Endotoxin they cause gram positive sepsis. bordetella pertussis Corynebacterium diptheriae antigenic shift A diagnosis of strep throat is confirmed by Penicillin is used to treat What microorganism causes symptoms most like tuberculosis? A person can have a positive tuberculin skin test because What causes an infection of the respiratory system that is transmitted by the gastrointestinal route? What is the reservoir for Psittacosis? What is the reservoir for Tuberculosis? What is the reservoir for Histoplasmosis? What is the reservoir for Pneumocystis? What produces exotoxin? What produces the most potent exotoxin? The recurrence of influenza epidemics is due to . streptococcal sore throat.

Salmonella. it is treated by replacing water and electrolytes. Hepatitis A virus. What is the etiology? A patient has a paroxysmal cough and mucus accumulation. beef tapeworm. trichinellosis the large intestine vibrio What is true of salmonellosis? What disease of the gastrointestinal system is transmitted by the respiratory route? The symptoms of trichinellosis are due to the Poultry products are a likely source of infection by What feeds on red blood cells? What is true of staphylococcal food poisoning? The most common cause of traveler's diarrhea is probably Thorough cooking of food will prevent Most of the normal microbiota of the digestive system are found in What organisms is likely to be transmitted via contaminated shrimp? What organism is likely to be transmitted via contaminated Trichinella pork? What are transmitted by water? "Rice water stools" are characteristic of Cryptosporidium. it is often associated with poultry products Mumps encystement of larval Trichinella in muscles Salmonella enterica Entamoeba histolytica suspect foods are those not cooked before eating.What etiologic agents results in the formation of abscesses? Blastomyces Infection by what is often confused with viral pneumonia? Mycoplasma What causes a disease characterized by a red rash? Streptococcus Inahalation of arthroconidia is responsible for infection by Coccidioides what? Legionella is transmitted by Infection that begins in the lungs and spreads to the skin Microscopic examination of a lung biopsy shows thick walled cysts. capsule forming bacteria. it is a bacterial infection. sucrose it requires a large infective dose. it is characterized by rapid onset and short duration of symptoms Escherichia coli salmonellas. Cyclospora cholera . a healthy carrier state exists. What is the etiology of the symptoms? airborne transmission Blastomyces Pneumocystis Bordetella What respiratory infection can be contracted by ingestion? Tuberculosis What produces small "fried egg" colonies on a medium containing horse serum yeast extract? What is required for tooth decay? Mycoplasma acid producing bacteria. it can be prevented by refrigeration.

watery stools should be examined for Helicobacter can grow in the stomach because it Eukaryotes that cause gastroenteritis Hepatitis C Delicatessen meats Milk Oysters Beef (528)Predisposing factors to urinary tract infections Pyelonephritis may result from Cystitis is most often caused by The reservoir for leptospirosis is Trichomoniasis is primarily a Syphillis is treated with What can cause congenital infections or infections of the newborn? (535)Genital warts recurs at the Nongonococcal urethritis can be caused by Candidiasis can be caused by an Most nosocomial infections of the urinary tract are caused by Glomerulonephritis is The most common reportable disease in the United States is What is the most difficulty to treat with chemotherapeutic agents? Leukocytes at the infected site is a symptom of Cyclospora makes NH-3 Entamoeba. coli an immune complex disease gonorrhea Genital herpes trichomoniasis . Cyclos pora --diagnosed by PCR--incubation of 4 to 22 weeks-transmitted by the parenteral route--it is a flavivirus Listeria Campylobacter Vibrio E. The bacteria probably belong to the genus Feces from a patient with diarrhea lasting for weeks with frequent. streptococci. urethritis. syphilis initial site of infection Trichomonas vaginalis. Cryptosporidium.Most gastrointestinal infections are treated with Vibrio parahaemolyticus gastroenteritis is treated with The most common mode of HAV transmission is The easiest way to prevent outbreaks of gram negative gastroenteritis is to water and electrolytes tetracycline contamination of food during preparation cook food thoroughly Microscopic examination of a patient's fecal culture shows Campylobacter spiral bacteria. nongonococcal urethritis. systemic infections gram negative rods domestic dogs sexually transmitted disease penicillin genital herpes. toxemia. kidney stones cystitis. ureteritis. Mycoplasma homini. Candida albicans opportunistic infection E. Giardia. tumors.Coli diabetes mellitus. gonorrhea.

hair loss. Treponema on his chest. acid mine wash What animal would you expect to find a specialized organ termite that holds cellulose degrading bacteria and fungi? The addition of untreated sewage to a freshwater lake would cause the biochemical oxygen demand to Sludge digestion takes place under When does primary sewage treatment take place? Eighty one percent of microorganisms in the soil are increase anaerobic conditions the amount of oxygen doesn't make any difference bacteria Most of the microorganisms in the soil are found at a depth between 3 and 8 of Nitrosomonas and Nitrobacter are capable of What process is done by Rhizobium and certain cyanobacteria? What wastewater treatment process is responsible for removal of most of the BOD in sewage? Residual chlorine must be maintained in Sedimentation of sludge occurs in The product of what process contains the highest BOD? Zoogloea form flocculent masses in nitrification Nitrogen fixation Secondary sewage treatment water treatment primary sewage treatment Primary sewage treatment secondary sewage treatment . Diagnosis was made based on serological testing. Borrelia. salt evaporating pond. and a rash Rickettsia. she is complaining of itching and irritation. Streptococcus. mycoplasma. and feet. 100 degree water. What is the most likely treatment? Lymphogranuloma venereum Syphilis Syphilis cystitis ureaplasma. and rash on his chest. the VDRL test was negative. Cultures were Genital herpes negative for Neiseeria and Chlamydia. The etiology could be A 25 year old male presented with fever.What is caused by Chlamydia? What forms lesions similar to those of tuberculosis? What disease causes a skin rash. The patient then reported that he had an penicillin ulcer on his penis tow months earlier. This disease can be treated with A pelvic examination of a 23 year old female showed vesicles and ulcerated lesions on her labia. malaise. and feet. arms. What is probable? (552)Whare are some habitats for extremophiles? inside rocks. chlamydia Metronidazole A 25 year old male presents with fever. malaise. malaise. arms. and fever? Staphylococcus saprophyticus causes Nongonococcal urethritis can be caused by A patient is experiencing profuse greenish yellow foul smelling discharge form her vagina.

ethyl alcohol.Anaerobic respiration occurs in Filtration to remove protozoa occurs in Bacteria can increase the Earth's temperature by The bacteria contributing most of the bacterial biomass to soil are anaerobic sludge digestion water treatment producing CH4. genetically engineering strains degrade cellulose yogurt. Glutamic acid anaerobic fungal growth the survival of thermophiles modifying culture conditions. killing insects eggs and larva. it is a health hazard. which is a greenhouse gas actinomycetes The bacteria that grow first in the microbial succession in a anaerobic mesophiles compost pile are The release of phosphate containing detergents into a river increase algal growth would What is true about releasing untreated sewage into a river? Spoilage due to can leakage after processing is Spoilage of canned foods stored at high temperatures. mutating existing strains. it increases BOD spoilage by mesophile bacteria thermophilic anaerobic spoilage flat sour spoilage methyl alcohol. What could you do? Radiation is used for it decreases the dissolved oxygen. preventing . He asks you why the outer "skin" of the cheese is so much thicker than it was when he originally purchased the cheese. accompanied by gas production is Spoilage of canned foods due to inadequate processing NOT accompanied by gas production is What alternative fuels (energy source) is produced by bacteria? What food additives are produced by microorganisms? Wine is made from fruit juices by Commercial sterilization differs from true sterilization in that commercial sterilization may result in Microbial products can be improved by Cellulase attached to a membrane filter will What are produced using microbial fermentation? Methane made from biomass is produced by Ethanol for automobile fuel is produced from corn by As cheese ages it gets more Your friend says he had stored a semisoft cheese (blue cheese) in his refrigerator for three weeks. amylase. for foods that cannot be heated. protease. You tell him that You are growing Bacillus subtilis in a bioreactor and notice that the growth rate slowed and the pH has decreased. blue cheese anaerobic respiration fermentation acidic fungi have been growing Add oxygen killing Trichinella. methane Citric acid. isolating new strains. hydrogen. sour cream.

Duval on 2008-10-01 .sprouting Canning preserves food by Canning works to preserve foods because of Radiation works to preserve foods because of Fermentation works to preserve foods because of heating anaerobic environment and heat lethal mutations pH Created by: Christy L.

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