A Guide to Narratological Film Analysis

Manfred Jahn Full reference: Jahn, Manfred. 2003. A Guide to Narratological Film Analysis. Poems, Plays, and Prose: A Guide to the Theory of Literary Genres. English Department, University of Cologne. Version: 1.7. F1. Film as a narrative genre F1.1. There are three common terms referring to our subject: cinema, motion picture (movie), and film. Because 'film studies' is the generally accepted name of the discipline I will prefer the term 'film' but reserve the other terms for occasional variation. In the following, I will approach film in the framework of the genre taxonomy presented on the project page. In this taxonomy, film, like drama, is listed both as a narrative and a performed genre. Film is mainly realized in the framework of a performance, and like drama, it is related to a textual form (a 'script'). Therefore, just as in drama analysis, film analysis can build on the interesting (but at times problematic) relationship between 'text' and 'performance'. Because film can be fruitfully compared to drama and other narrative genres, such as the novel, the following account will systematically borrow from the concepts defined within both 'narratology' (the structuralist theory of narrative, presented in this project's narratology doc) and the theory of drama (drama doc). Ideally, the reader should already be familiar with these sections. However, for convenience, all main definitions will be repeated here, and, if necessary, adapted to suit the purposes of film analysis. Approaching film from a narratological angle is not a new idea, in fact the classic studies by Bordwell (1985), Kozloff (1988), Jost (1989), Chatman (1990), Deleyto (1996 [1991]), and Branigan (1992) show that this is a promising project whose synergetic potential is far from exhausted. F1.2. Because there are strong commonalities between film and drama, our basic definition largely duplicates the definition of a play:

a film is a multimedial narrative form based on a physical record of sounds and moving pictures. Film is also a performed genre in the sense that it is primarily designed to be shown in a public performance. Whereas a dramatic play is realized as a live performance by actors on a stage, a film is shown in a cinema (a 'film theater'), is not a live event, and can theoretically be repeated infinitely without any change. Like drama, film is anarrative genre because it presents a story (a sequence of action units, N1.2). Often, a film is an adaptation of an epic or a dramatic narrative (examples: Stanley Kubrick's adaptation of Anthony Burgess's novel A Clockwork Orange, Milos Forman's film of Peter Shaffer's play Amadeus).

Beyond being a form designed to be shown in public performance, film is related to two kinds of paper media: the film script and the storyboard. To capture the relationship between these types

of realizations, we will locally extend the tree diagram of genres presented on PPP's project page as follows:

F1.3. We are assuming that a film, like a play, is mainly a performative genre, that is, a genre designed to be performed, a genre that "comes to life" in a performance (cp. D1.5.2). Watching a film, like watching a play, is a collective public experience and a social occasion. (Watching a film or a theater performance on a television set is not quite the "real thing", rather, it has the status of a substitute performance.) Both drama and film are artifacts created in a process of collective and collaborative production, involving writers, producers, directors, actors, cinematographers, editors, and many more. F1.4. The 'written' filmic forms can be defined as follows:

film script / screenplay A text containing a film's action narrative and dialogue. A film script is either a "recipe" for making a film (to use Searle's characterization of play scripts) or a written record of a finished film.

Alternatively, the film script is also called a 'blueprint', and the professional reader (the film practitioner) a 'blueprint reader'. See Sternberg (1997: 50n60) for seven sources of this term. Using the terms suggested by Roland Posner (1997), the 'recipe' script is a pretranscript (preceding the final product or first performance), and the second is a posttranscript, written after (a transcription of) the finished product.

A storyboard is a comic-strip version of a filmic sequence. Like the physical film itself, a storyboard consists of a series of frames ('panels', in comic-strip terms) picking out a shot's main situation. Unfortunately, storyboards do not in general survive in printed or otherwise publicly accessible form. (However, a closely related fictional genre is the cinéroman.)

Like the film script, a storyboard can have either the status of a pre-transcript or a post-transcript (as defined above). In the following, I will freely use post-transcript storyboards (photographed from a TV screen) to substantiate definitions and sample analyses. For a storyboard-film script comparison of the famous cropduster scene of Hitchcock's North by Northwest see Giannetti (1993: 159-183; 353-357); for the rooftop chase scene of Vertigo, Auilner (2000: 39).

manner of speaking may be characterized by a parenthetical (also called "wryly"). below. for a storyboard version of the situation presented in the excerpt. ('interior') or EXT. as a rule of thumb. and the film script itself can serve as both a record and a reference. the practice of booksellers and publishers (Faber & Faber. F2. as well as an increased attention to the literary qualities of film scripts has led some commentators to elevate the film script to an autonomous literary genre (Sternberg 1997. inviting cognitive and linguistic analysis. Moving pictures: the visual code . Another point of interest. Macmillan) to offer a range of classic screenplays. name of location (JEFF'S APARTMENT). setting. which introduces the main character's friend: The excerpt begins with what is technically called a slugline.3 for a detailed account of the dramatic distinction between 'primary text' and 'secondary text'. and they are often hard to read for the nonprofessional. 3. is that the action text is characterized by a high incidence of specifically "visual sentences" (Epstein 2002). Nevertheless. Korte and Schneider 2000). also scene text (Sternberg 1997: 65). (One of its functional characteristics is that. contains the descriptions of characters and objects as well as the narrative report of the nonverbal action (this is the filmic equivalent of stage directions in drama). see F4. Film scripts are notorious for their technical jargon. time of day (lighting conditions). one page of text is approximately equal to one minute of performance time. See D3. ('exterior'. 2.5. out of doors). type of shot (CLOSEUP). The action text.) Consider the following excerpt from the screenplay of Rear Window. A film typescript has a unique standard format which is functional rather than attractive to read. usually either INT. Dialogue is introduced by a speech prefix. There are many excellent sources both in print and on the net (Epstein 2002 is particularly recommended).3. 4. A slugline usually consists of up to four specifications: 1. the technical terms that are used in them are very useful for film analysis.F1. More recently. This is not the place to tell anyone how to write a film script.

The four central categories are close-up. an extreme close shot. The smallest unit on a film's visual plane is a frame or cell showing a single picture. A shot is a sequence of frames filmed in a continuous (uninterrupted) take of a camera. If we cut to five minutes later. frame 1). The system works fine as long as the camera's focal length is normal (i.e. There is hardly any optical difference between the 'mountain range' of the surface of a small object as seen through an electronic microscope. it's a new scene. medium shot. 5 and 6. If both.5 in the drama section for a model of classical five-act tragedy. 3. it's a new scene. continuously. (If you want. Some common intermediate types are listed as well. neither wide-angle nor telephoto) and the reference object is a person. full shot. Nevertheless. The type of shot is much harder to determine when the object is not of standard human size or when the camera uses an unusual focal length. If one projects a sequence of twenty-four frames per second on a screen the human eye is deceived into seeing a moving image. look up D7.F2. i..e. A take stops when the camera stops rolling or goes offline. XCU) A small object or part of an object shown large (a speaking mouth.)  detail/extreme close-up (DS. the following terms are good enough for professional use and make up a main part of the vocabulary of the filmic visual code. at the same time and in the same place. Some authors go beyond this and speak of acts (a sequence of scenes containing a major segment of the plot). and long shot (frames 2. a sequence of acts make up a film.2. Finally. A sequence of shots makes up a scene.. a telephone receiver. i.e. F2. respectively).)  a scene is a sequence of action segments which take place. If we go outside from inside. an extreme long shot. it's a new scene. and a true mountain range. or from time to time. The units. Another fine operational definition is this one by Dana (2000): "An event that takes place entirely in one location or time. 2) the size of the object. as are the common technical abbreviations.1. "What's a new scene? A good rule of thumb is that when you jump from place to place.. it's a new scene" (Epstein 2002). Scenes can range from one shot to infinity and are distinguished by slug lines". Often a detail shot shows a plot-relevant . (Most of the graphics shown here were taken from CorelDraw libraries. The conventional system of shot types is based on two distinguishing features: 1) the camera's distance from the object.

a telephone number on an envelope. a bridge.g. pull back The camera moves in on or away from a stationary object.g. of a large object or a collection of objects (e. CS) Full view of. a human face (frame 2). In the absence of further specification. F2. zoom The camera moves in on or away from an object (zooming in. the camera is assumed to be shooting from a stationary position. For instance. The direct cuts are as follows: .g.. Normally used for moving through a location -. this is recognizable as apparent motion only because the object retains its original perspectival aspect (and the camera actually remains stationary). If the camera changes its position while filming we get the following types of 'dynamic shots':    pan The camera surveys a scene by turning around its vertical or horizontal axis. Most film professionals prefer push ins or pull backs to zoom shots for representing closing-in or distancing motion. showing her or him from the knees up (frame 4). The term semi-long shot is sometimes used to indicate a slightly closer view (e. close shot (CU. they are mere dots in the landscape.    F2. Sometimes the term semi-closeup is used to refer to a slightly wider shot showing the upper third of a person's body.3. e. People. Zoom shots are frequently used to direct attention to a particular stationary detail. crane shot Camera moves up or down on a crane structure. A cut marks the shift from one shot to another. buildings. showing his or her bodily stance (frame 3).g. It is identified by the type of transition which is produced.e.4. a dolly shot of a wedding party.      object -. long shot (LS) A view from a distance..a ring. the countdown display of a bomb detonator. American shot (AS) A three-quarter view of a person.. dolly shot A shot taken from a camera mounted on a wheeled platform (a dolly). a waitress balancing dishes (frame 5). etc. The two major kinds of cuts are 'direct' and 'transitional'.. typically. If people can be made out at all. close-up. are reduced to indistinct small shapes. zooming out) by smoothly extending or shortening its focal length. the facade of a house). frame 6).. the frame shot at right shows the camera in the process of zooming in on the necklace of mad Carlotta Valdes in Vertigo. extreme long shot (XLS) A view from a considerable distance (e. Normally. however. push in. "The camera dollies past a queue of guests waiting to be let in". medium shot (MS) A view of the upper half of a person's body. when present. tracking shot/pulling shot The camera follows (tracks) or precedes (pulls) an object which is in motion itself.g. the skyline of a city. Often used to establish a setting (establishing shot). frame 7). full shot (FS) A full view of a person.

although the visual channel contains a film's essential source of information. color values.) replacement of the current shot by the next. reactive) move from object A in the current shot to object B in the next. there is a brief pause.. A fuller account of the elements of the filmic visual code would also include lighting. fast pan (so fast that only speed lines can be seen). On the screen. telephoto. shooting straight and level (this is the default angle).. the sound track is not a necessary element -. the camera's tilt translates into the following principal angles:     straight-on angle The camera is positioned at about the same height as the object.e. or they may be used for intentional effect (an instance of the stylistic figure of 'baring the device'). However. this must not be taken to mean that sound -- . Jump cuts can be avoided or cured by inserting a 'bridging shot' (momentarily showing some other object or activity) which covers the lack of continuity caused by the gap.1. A good account of this is given in Giannetti (1993: 74-76).there are 'silent movies' but there are no films without pictures.6. perhaps. A limit case of the high angle shot is the aerial shot (a bird's-eye view taken from a helicopter or an airplane). The gap will make the picture "jump". A film's auditory sources of information are stored on a sound track (magnetic tape or digital medium).. fade out (to color) .  cut. fade in The end of a shot is marked by fading out to an empty screen (usually black). then a fade in introduces the next shot. F2.. Unlike the visual track.e. are based on an optical effect and usually signal a change of scene (F2. Sound: the audio code F3. (Roughly comparable. a shift from one shot to the next without any transition whatsoever. high angle The object is seen from above (camera looking down). The oblique angle can be combined with any of the other tilt angles. Using jump cuts is an easy way of cutting a long sequence short. Jump cuts are indicative of either careless editing. etc. or sideways (all to varying degrees).) swish pan A brief. film stock and graininess.1). F2. leaving out frames) in an otherwise continuous shot. i. suggestive of a sudden (possibly.5. filters. in contrast. Camera angles are a result of the camera's tilt (if any): upwards. low angle The object is seen from a low-level position (camera looking up) oblique angle The camera is tilted sideways showing a tilted view of an object. wipe A smoothly continuous left-right (or up-down etc. to the white space of a chapter ending in a book. Transitional cuts. Somewhat reminiscent of turning a page. F3. direct cut. a temporal and/or spatial re-orientation:     dissolve A gradual transition created by fading out the current shot and at the same time fading in the new shot (creating a brief moment of superimposition). straight cut An immediate shift to the next shot. jump cut Leaving a gap (i. downwards. lenses (standard. wide-angle).

the narrative world). sound. Following Chatman (1990: 134). Goffman (1986: 145).e. For another example.1. ambient sound A diegetic background sound such as the clatter of typewriters in an office or the hubbub of voices in a cafe.1) or. The following concepts relate sound to the current shot. i. Film analysis usually begins by identifying the different channels and sources of information in order to assess their individual contribution to. FCD: The Filmic Composition Device F4. the filmic composition as a whole. off screen Diegetic sound coming from a source located in the scene but not currently shown on screen. F4. filter Slightly distorted sound indicating. we will make a distinction between three main kinds of sounds (here treated as mainly self-explanatory terms): noise. an important part of .is in any way less important than the visual signs. speech or music coming from an identifiable source in the current scene ('diegetic' refers to 'diegesis'.1. Often. nondiegetic sound (Beaver 1994: supplied sound) Noise. cp. F3. it can also have a 'commentative function' (Chatman 1990: 134). slightly more narrowly. a film is a composition structuring a large amount of heterogeneous information flowing from different channels. (2) representation of a character's interior monologue (the character may be visible but her/his lips do not move). seeF5.2.2. we see waves breaking on a desolate sea-shore and we hear a full-orchestra playing VaughanWilliams's Sea Symphony. The following terms relate sound to what is present in the current scene:    diegetic sound (Beaver 1994: indigenous sound) Noise. See Kozloff (1988: 8-12) for a survey of controversial positions on picture vs. speech or music which does not come from a source located in the current scene.. bleed-over. Most technical terms correlate sound either to the current scene (F2. Narration and Focalization F4. for instance. to what is shown on screen. For instance. Both types are sound-oriented transitions. speech.3. we hear a weather report and we see that it comes from a car radio which somebody has just turned on. overlapping sound Sound anticipated from the next scene or sound lagging behind the previous scene.especially in the form of music and speech -. the speech of the remote party of a telephone conversation. Often the volume of ambient sound is turned up slightly when there is no other sound or a lull in the conversation. the meaning of the audio information is based on non-realistic but inconspicuous conventions. For instance. Composition.1. In order to tell a story. and music. Often. Nondiegetic sound usually creates mood and atmosphere.     voice over There are two major meanings: (1) Representation of a non-visible narrator's voice (voice-over narrator). and function in.

This is clearly a counterpart of the speaker in conversational discourse. incomprehensible. As a matter of fact. the narrator in novels and short stories. F4. sometimes to the extent of including written narrative texts and actual narrative voices. However. we need a theoretical agent whom we can assume to abide by the rules and maxims of co-operative storytelling or story-showing. an implied director. or illogical data (just like Grice's hearers do in a conversational setting. the scriptwriter who created the dialogue. a film narrates not by speaking but by arranging and composing information from various sources.this exercise is to assess the relevance. There is the author of the original narrative. a 'filmic composition device':  filmic composition device (FCD) The theoretical agency behind a film's organization and arrangement. an implied filmic author. giving a theoretical account of how we do that is far more difficult. and relevant information.1. a shower-narrator (Chatman 1990). edits. For this reason. that he alone composed and shaped it exactly as he wanted. the cinematographer who selected the appropriate camera angles. the FCD = director equation does not really work out straightforwardly. People tend to say that it is Hitchcock who tells the story of Rear Window. or.1.3. sufficient. Of course. a "grand image-maker" (Metz 1974). See Kozloff (1988: 44) for a survey of these terms (Kozloff herself settles on the term 'image-maker'). a filmic narrator. and composes this information for telling a filmic narrative. particularly neither the director nor a filmic narrator. F4. sufficient. especially when we are facing difficult. we will assume that a film involves its viewers in a "co-operative" undertaking similar to what is happening in an ordinary conversation involving speakers and hearers (Grice 1975). we began by defining film as a collaborative product (F1. A film shows us what the FCD has arranged for us to see. On this analogy. that he is the central authority behind all ofRear Window's elements. But is this factually true? And true for all films and all directors? For the purposes of film analysis. etc. in order to derive interpretive 'implicatures'). is a theoretical device that need not be associated with any concrete person or character. assumed to be guided by maxims of giving efficient. more neutrally. Various alternative terms have been suggested on "Who Really Narrates" the filmic narrative: the camera (of course). as film viewers we will actively exploit expectations in these matters. and reliability of the data. and relevant information. A film's FCD. it is quite natural to assume that the film's director has exactly the responsibility and authority that we have projected on the FCD. In order to exploit the Cooperative Principle for filmic communication. Seeing a film. After all. the baseline expectation that the film is going to be a functional and effective composition is already a crucial first step towards understanding and interpretation.3. I will call a film's primary narrative instance a 'filmic composer' or. that Rear Window is his film.2. the sound director who devised the . just as he can be blamed for all of its flaws. However. as defined above. the viewer approaches the filmic data on the assumption of encountering a wellformed composition guided by maxims of giving efficient. validity. Indeed. more aptly. The FCD selects what it needs from various sources of information and arranges. and on this basis it is evident that many parts of a film's overall information are contributed by sources other than the director.). we evidently cope with a flood of information. He can be credited with all its good points.

Narration F4. intertitles. comment. description.. The model shows three levels. Or. the composer who wrote the musical score. a narrator can be temporarily on-screen or permanently on-screen (however. organization. but the dotted line around the narrator's box indicates that this is an optional level that may be missing from some (or indeed many) films. shown in the act of producing his or her narrative discourse. If a film has a voice-over narrator. the narrator. or closing outlooks (prolepses) on the . on-screen narrator A narrator who is bodily present on screen. filmic narrators come in two kinds depending on whether they are visible on-screen or not.e. and they cannot complain if their acts. A lower-level agent is never aware of the existence of a higher-level agent. First. introductory written background histories.3.5 for the identical scenario in narrative prose texts). Because the FCD is the highest authority in the hierarchy. (For a borderline case consider a split-screen scenario. The hierarchy that determines the relative authority of these agencies is illustrated in the graphic on the right. or use a 'POV shot' (F4. and motives are misrepresented (cp.it can quote a narratorial voice. remember that not all films make use of narrators.8. Using the names of the real people who produced the film and identifying their individual contribution is often a hopelssly difficult task. a narrator can be temporarily off-screen or permanently off-screen.1. choice.1.3. we are better off if we refer to theoretical entities such as the filmic composition device (FCD). Rather than refer to the multitude of professionals who actually produced the film. Any higher-level agent dominates and frames any lower-level agent. Both are speaking parts but only the on-screen narrator is a speaking as well as an acting part. The characters do not know that they are characters in somebody's story. see N5. also voice-over narrator An unseen narrator's voice uttering narrative statements (i. If and when they are present.) Not covered by the two definitions above are narrators of written texts. and so on. The boxes basically symbolize thresholds of control and knowledge. the latter is not a likely configuration).2. Obviously. and the editor who put everything together on the editing table (and many more). views. quote.4 for more detailed definitions). all filmic information ultimately flows from its mediation.2. the FCD can freely adopt. and arrangement. for instance.   off-screen narrator. used by the FCD for purposes of its own. F4. narration. and represent data from sources at its disposal -. looked at differently. however. N2.4. talking to the (or an) audience.5.sound effects. F4. especially inserts. In order to tell the film's story. and the characters. that agent is also not aware that s/he is just a subordinate source of information among many (and possibly of questionable reliability).) to present a scene as seen from the point of view of a character.

they are either 'homodiegetic' or 'heterodiegetic':   In a homodiegetic narrative. narrators are situated in a discourse-HERE and a discourse-NOW.2. which generally postdate story-HERE and story-NOW (see N6. born 1957). because it opens with the following sequence: Frames 1 and 2 show the narrator's hands leafing through the pages the Kennedy Junior High School Yearbook of 1969.4. (See F5. F4. As in a novel or a short story. the 'narrative distance' between discourse-NOW and story-NOW is exactly 20 years. The first-person Wonder Years narrator narrates this particular episode in 1989. In a heterodiegetic narrative. learns.3 and N5. but by a mature actor (Daniel Stern. etc. Depending on whether narrators tell a story in which they were involved themselves. on retrospective narrationN5. Logically.1. the narrator's text is not spoken by the actor who plays young Kevin. and that is all we are ever going to see of him (in the whole series. Frame 3 zooms in on the picture of one particular girl.1. the narrator is generally only an off-screen voice-over presence.4. these elements are clearly also part of the filmic code. the story is told by a (heterodiegetic) narrator who is not present as a character in the story. F4. first shown 2 May 1989) is an exception. in the narratology script for a discussion of the implications of these types when situated in specific 'narrative situations'.).the moment when Kevin (Fred Savage). or a story about others. and frame 4 executes the flashback to the story's NOW (20 years ago) -. the story is told by a (homodiegetic) narrator who is present as a character in the story.) F4. that he has been partnered with quaint (three-pigtails) Margaret Farquhar for square-dance lessons. ff.2.3. however. Episode 21 ("Square Dance". In the TV series Wonder Years.2.3. much to his dismay. A great deal of a film's data can be described as the product of an efficient and relevant (hence cooperative) selection strategy called 'focalization': .1.10. aged twelve.3.1.2. Narratologically speaking. but the story itself is set in 1969.future fates of the characters. See N1. for a more detailed case study of another Wonder Years episode. as far as I know). Focalization F4. However.

a specific attribution needs careful interpretation and argument. Turning to an actual example. It even projects a picture onto an organic 'screen' called the retina. Focalized objects. Who is (in the position of) the focalizer? And 2) What is the object (thing or human being) that the focalizer focuses on? F4. But: the picture on the retina has not an independent medium: the picture that we see is the result of our cognitive processing of the contents of the retinal array. The basic concept in focalization theory is focus. The model sketched above (F4. we will often ask two questions: 1) Who sees?.2. this is the spatiotemporal position of the focalizer. consider the following storyboard sequence condensing an early scene from Hitchcock's Rear Window. attribute focalization to one of the following agents: (1) the FCD. Sternberg (1997: ch. (2) the narrator. (There may also be imported external sources.5.1. There are special filmic techniques of drawing attention both to focalizers and to focalized objects. dreams. Consequently.4. can benefit from focalization theory because the camera (including the sound recorder associated with it) are quasi-perceptual devices. sharpness of focus. etc. Questions that need to be raised frequently are: Why is this the character's view and not the narrator's or the FCD's? Could the narrator really have access to the kind of information that we get here? What does the character know and not know at this particular point? F4. in film analysis. which come encoded with their mode of focalization. spotlighting.this is the focalized object or 'center of attention'. i. in general. and 2) the object seen 'in focus' -. Deleyto (1996 [1991]). focalization The ways and means of presenting information from somebody's point of view. As a matter of fact. the human eye has a lens just like a camera has. See N3. channel) of filmic information? Or: Whose perception serves as the current source of information? Perception is here used as quite a general term which includes actual as well as imaginary perception (such as visions. Film analysis.2).2 for a detailed account of focalization in prose narrative. movement.e.3. (see Giannetti 1993: 50-52 on ways of marking what he calls dominant contrast).) When attributing focalization. often.3. centrality of position. are often marked by close-ups. zoom-ins. shifting focus. Focalization theory is of special importance in narratology because it sharpens the more general but fuzzy term 'point of view'. (3) a character. it is prudent to test all options.3. increased contrast. memories) and other states of consciousness.3. such as clips. Focalization can be determined by answering the question Whose point of view orients the current segment (track.3. . F4. Jost (1989).in narratological terms. on focalization in film. F4. and this term refers to two intricately related things: 1) the position from which something is seen -.) suggests that we can. in particular. determining a point of view as well as a point of audition. in particular. 9. The scene introduces Jeff's friend Lisa and establishes a problematical relationship.

"If only she was ordinary" (20).3. what we and the FCD see even in using Jeff's eyes is not the same as what Jeff sees? The film script. Assuming Jeff's position.Lisa (Grace Kelly) is first shown in closeup. cp. or assume. In the film. the camera shows us what Jeff sees (the focalized) -. of 'adopting' or 'assuming' a character's POV: . Frame 3 shows both protagonists in a medium shot. but do we really see what Jeff sees? Or could it be that even though the FCD lets us see what Jeff sees. Which focalization strategy is employed here? Neither Jeff nor Lisa nor a narrator (Rear Window doesn't have one) is in a position to see the couple kissing exactly as it is shown in frame 1. the camera gets close to. and to her high-style evening wear in particular. and flawless".3. so that's what we are we supposed to see. and from the point of view of plot analysis it is quite literally true that Jeff has to wake up to a full appreciation of Lisa. and the film presents his perception). As she moves around in Jeff's apartment.6. expressing his conviction that she will never make a suitable partner. In a sense. Frames 3 to 5 are typical shots covering the ensuing conversation. and in the background we can vaguely recognize the rear window of the film's title.7. tells us that frame 2 shows us a picture of a woman who "is now full figure. kissing Jeff (James Stewart) awake (frame 1. for instance.) F4. partly showing him. Let us review the filmic techniques of getting close to a character's POV. however. Indeed. he is heard to complain earlier. rather than the other way round. but does not quite move into. beautifully groomed.Lisa. Here is a challenging question: Frame 2 is evidently a POV shot. and then using a 'reverse angle shot' shooting over Lisa's shoulder (frame 5). The conversation itself is shown by the camera moving closely behind Jeff (frame 4). or fully adopt. F4. How is one to interpret these conflicting pieces of information? F4. partly showing what he sees. what is shown is an ironical inversion of the sleeping beauty motif: the princess kisses the prince awake. we gradually see more of her.5).8. to all intents and purposes a beautiful woman in a fashionable dress. also the script excerpt quoted in F1. the perceptual positions of the characters. the film's FCD is often ironic in subtle ways such as these. and I take it that is what we see.3. we know that Jeff has strong objections to Lisa in general. until finally she is presented in a full shot (frame 2). In frames 4 and 5. Hence frame 1 can only reflect a 'hypothetical observer' viewing position assumed by the FCD. Frame 2 presents Lisa from Jeff's POV (now Jeff is the focalizer. (See Deleyto 1996 [1991]: 227-8 for additional discussion of this scene.

annoyance. F4. and there follows a cut to another setup within his eyeshot.sneaking furtive glances at the forbidden. See F5.." as in "The Killers".3. It was a quarter past six" ("The Killers". his back or side profile may appear on an extreme margin of the screen. (Or vice versa: we may see the thing first and secondly cut to the character looking at it. But since most film-makers are males. The Complete Short Stories of Ernest Hemingway.3. A gaze shot is usually followed by a POV shot (or sometimes it is preceded by a POV shot. eye-line shot / match cut A sequence of two shots: a gaze shot followed by a POV shot. from that perceptual point of view.. over-the-shoulder shot The camera gets close to.1 for a case study of a film which uses POV shots exclusively. a text which is famous for its style of camera-like external views: The simplest film situation presents a bare visual record of what happened "out there. horror. we assume that he has in fact seen that thing. 218. point of view shot.). Many definitions in the preceding para involve the word 'gaze' -.) (159) Contrasting the 'neutral' style of "outside views" normally attributed to "The Killers" (see N3. To all intents and purposes. p.10.a concept which has acquired interesting ideological and psychological ramifications in film studies (Mulvey 1999 [1975]. Chatman points out that there are filmic techniques which underline "a character's point of view" and heighten "our association with him".]. The term refers to the voyeuristic aspects of cinema -... consider Chatman's (1978: 159) note on Hemingway's "The Killers". the viewing position of a character (frames 4 and 5. so too is the point of view of the camera: Everyone looks at the action through male eyes. in storyboard above) reaction shot A shot showing a character reacting (with wonder. but not fully into. 1987. however. As he looks into the background we look with him. And we have seen it with him. the erotic. In the context of these subjectifying filmic devices. etc. the gaze is often eroticized from a female point of view [. this seems to be the exact epic equivalent of an eyeline shot.]. .     gaze shot A picture of a character looking ('gazing') at something not currently shown.. the [film] director has two options. For example. to right or left or front or back. Kaplan 2000 [1983]). [. POV shot The camera assumes the position of a character and shows the object of his or her gaze.9.. The gaze fixes women in postures that cater to male needs and fantasies rather than allowing women to express their own desires and the full range of their humanity. New York: Scribner's. however: "George looked up at the clock.11).3.] If he wishes to underline a character's point of view.) to what s/he has just seen. F4. Consider. The other (or "montage") convention uses a simple match-cut: if in the first shot the character looks off-screen. A number of feminist film critics have written about "the male gaze" [. amusement. Shot 1 shows the face of a character gazing at something. As Giannetti (1993: 403) puts it. shot 2 is a POV shot showing us what s/he is gazing at. The actor can be so placed in the frame as to heighten our association with him. When the director is a woman. see 'eye-line shot' and the Chatman quote below).

The spinster sweeps into the room. above. Exercise: Analyze types of shot and composition of information in the following sequence (also from Rear Window): Given the definitions listed above. his eyes move slightly over. and the general light of dawn is coming up. smiling. As he drinks.11. EXT. INT. She lifts her drink in a toast to the imaginary man opposite her. NEIGHBORHOOD . JEFF'S APARTMENT . A small.(NIGHT) . pours two drinks. Question 1: Are there any mitigating circumstances to the male gaze presented in frame 2? Question 2 (difficult): does a POV shot like frame 2 exonerate the FCD of the male gaze? The spectator? F4. and place the hat on a chair.(NIGHT) . and subconsciously raises his glass in response. consider frame 4.(NIGHT) . it should be fairly straightforward to categorize frames 1 to 3. take his hat. above. out through the window.3. Jeff picks up his glass and drinks.12. is a typical example of a male gaze. He is still in his wheelchair. sound asleep.CLOSEUP A big head of Jeff.CLOSEUP Without taking his eyes from the scene. (32-33) F4. sympathetic smile. compare the relevant section of the script: INT. She pretends to kiss him lightly. with dinner for two. Then she shows him to a seat at the table. JEFF'S APARTMENT .Frame 2. She goes to the door. The rain has stopped.SEMI-LONG SHOT THE CAMERA HAS PANNED slightly to the woman's living room window. She sits down. and in pantomime admits an imaginary caller. in conjunction with the following passage from the script: DAWN .3. opens it. Jeff is explicitly accused of voyeurism by friends and acquaintances. The CAMERA PANS off his face. As a matter of fact. which is still dimly lit by the . disappears into an unseen kitchen and returns with a bottle and two glasses. The CAMERA COMES TO REST on the salesman's apartment and corridor. To help you along. candle-lit table is set up. Specifically.CLOSEUP Jeff gives a faint.

F5. fittingly entitled "Point of View". Case studies F5. pause a moment to allow a woman to proceed him. or a hand holding a clipboard (frame 9.). In 251 episodes.) F5.electric lights. In other words. There are neither gaze shots nor reaction shots. and a fade-out signals . The CAMERA PANS BACK into Jeff's sleeping face.1. N3.usually. It records his sensory responses to being wounded. and treated in post-operation. Private Rich.7). all the shots in the episode are strictly POV shots (F4. In the MASH episode. The perceiving subject or 'focalizer' is always the same character. from 1972 to 1983. 1946) in rather more convincing fashion. scene-opening and scene-closing shots coincide with particular states of the focalizer's consciousness -. For instance.2. the actor who plays him does not have to dress up. Her back is to the CAMERA and we do not see her face. of whose body we see nothing but an occasional boot.3.10). a fade-in signals waking up. using the terms introduced in this section. Fixed focalization: MASH 154 ("Point of View") The CBS TV series MASH ran through eleven seasons.) F5." As the storyboard sequence shows.1. Rich has a throat injury. down the corridor. In a novel. Discuss. examined.8. How would a narrator in a novel present what is going on here? If Jeff were awake. (51) If you are familiar with the film's plot you can probably explain the significance of this moment. how would he react? What happens to the spectators' awareness of the events? (The latter question is the really difficult one. "in this unique episode. the camera consistently assumes the point of view of a single character. consistent focalization of this type is known as 'fixed focalization' (N3.4).3.1. below).1.3. fixed focalization is supported and strengthened by a number of subjectifying features. They move away.18. and temporarily. repeating Robert Montgomery's famous experiment (The Lady in the Lake. the camera becomes the eyes of a young wounded soldier. and the most likely narrative situation to epxloit it is 'figural narration' (N1. (As a matter of fact. In episode 154. it portrayed life in a "Mobile Army Surgical Hospital" during the Korean War (1950-53). According to the Internet MASH guide.2. and the mirror trick that might show us his face is not used (N3. We see the salesman emerge into the corridor. that boot might well be an empty one. as he is wheeled in on a stretcher (frame 1). flown by helicopter to the 4077th . the clipboard is his only means of communication. operated on.

1. When the swelling goes down. your voice should come back.3.try to appear their best -. Okay. Pans and oblique angles reflect the movement of the focalizer's head and eyes (in frame 2 he watches the chief nurse at work. I know you're thinking. and so on. In 92. Army regulations. One does not have to be a confirmed MASH fanatic to appreciate the excellent quality of many of the episodes. consistent fixed focalization in film is cumbersome and has some very obvious drawbacks (Peters 1989. the camp commander (9). Kalter 2000: 144): PIERCE. In addition to no. F5. they explain how the camp is run. see also Branigan 1992: ch. The episode ends on a shot which shows some members of the camp seen through the frosted windscreen of a departing ambulance (frame 5) (cp. Other movements of the head (e. what I'm going to do is take that shrapnel out of your neck and put a tube in so you can breathe easier. I'm Captain Pierce.1).characters looking directly into the camera when talking to the focalizer -. but I'm gonna get you through this. The unusually high incidence of straight-on shots -.1. 92 and 191. Gombrich 1980: 249 [on creating the effect of perspective by showing partially obstructed views]). nodding/shaking yes or no) is also replicated by camera movement. in frame 4 he is spoken to by a fellow patient).' Well. Pierce (Alan Alda) introduces himself as follows (qtd. the focalizer.) All diegetic sound is strictly aligned with the spatiotemporal position of the focalizer's head. 5 for the topic of subjectivity in film in general. I particularly recommend nos. (This is largely a failure. and a case study of The Lady in the Lake in particular). In other respects.Pierce (frame 6).4. the MASH regulars -. In frame 6. Father Mulcahy (7). Colonel Potter. this one is largely a study in character. In Q5.they introduce themselves. however: shake your head "no" and watch what happens to your area in focus. Potter." Frank Burns's account of the . "The Novocaine Mutiny" (1976). Pierce and Winchester (8). Pierce. Rich. Consider the following shots: On the whole. F5.2 I am using this speech for explaining the concept of 'implicit autocharacterization' (N7. then consider what happens if this is imitated by a camera.. knows very little about the characters of this MASH unit.is clearly well suited to the type of close-up characterization aimed at in this episode. 'This guy looks as if he couldn't fix a bicycle tire. I can't.falling asleep or loss of consciousness. as in many episodes in which the camp is seen from a visitor's point of view. Hi there. 154. This is rather significant because evidently many viewers of the series know them very well.g.O. I want to peek under your bandage. Indeed. and "Radar" O'Reilly (10) -. "Frank has Hawkeye up on charges of mutiny for various infractions when Potter was away on leave and Frank was the C. they crack the usual dead-pan jokes.

(http://wwwpersonal.: the story of initiation -. Many effects are.umich. yearnings and frustrations".htm . is one of the absolute highlights of the series -. the narrating I). Homodiegetic voice-over narration: The Wonder Years. The haunting dream scenes are excellent material for a case study of what Kawin (1984: 41) calls 'mindscreen' technique. in fact. the split of a narrating person into two "versions": (1) the individual who acts as a narrator (mature Kevin Arnold. In 115 25-minute episodes it portrayed the formative years of Kevin Arnold (Fred Savage) aged twelve to eighteen. aged 13. story-NOW and narrative distance. As Katy Pearce puts it in one of the fine Wonder Years pages available on the net: What makes The Wonder Years so appealing is that many Americans can identify with what was happening in Kevin's life. above. Not only could those who lived through the 60's and 70's relate to the historical events.2.3. episode 24 The ABC series Wonder Years ran through seven seasons 1988-1993.edu/~kpearce/wy. These times really are wonder years. technically. On a more general scale.html ) F5. the series presents a miniature historical picture of life in America in the late nineteen-sixties and early seventies."mutiny" is presented as a Mitty-ish wish-fulfillment recollection. direct consequence of the perceptible distance (temporal andpsychological) between present and past self. our driver's license. and experience all these other pivotal stages on our trip through puberty and adolescence into adulthood.2.2. and in this section. F5. members of the 4077th steal away for cat naps and experience dreams that reveal their fears. . i. In particular.1. the episodes usually enact one of the standard story types described in N3. "Dreams" (1980). the time when we learn how the world and it's people work. In F4. Episode 191.tonline.2) is applicable to them as well.de/home/reynders/wy/episod24. The Wonder Years episodes are not only excellent examples of filmic homodiegetic narratives but everything that was said of typical first-person narrative situations in the narratology script (N3. Moreover.2. Most of us get our first kiss. amounting to a splendid demonstration of unreliable narration. F5. the experiencing I). above.a story about a young person's introduction into a new sphere of experience.e. Exhausted after two days without sleep.2. aged 33. I have made drastic cuts to the detailed post-transcript available at http://home. and (2) a character on the level of action (young Kevin. I will make an attempt to work out its special functions and effects. but almost anyone who was a teenager can relate to Kevin's personal adventures. even in its dreams. Indeed.4. Because the storyboard gives a good impression of the visuals.2. I already referred to a Wonder Years episode in order to illustrate 'homodiegetic narration' and establish concepts like discourse-NOW. aptly exemplifies what initiation stories are all about. The narrative voice (spoken by Daniel Stern) is a distinctive feature of the series."The 4077th can't escape the Korean War. Here is a brief sequence from the beginning of the episode showing Kevin reading a letter from his girl friend Winnie. Episode 24 of Wonder Years is entitled "Summer Song" and was first shown on 3 October 1989.3. Pearce's quote. we can recognize what theorists call the I-I structure of first-person narration. Kevin is the universal American teenager..

A multitude of different forms and channels is used for presenting the various bits of information and also the point-of-view indicators that tie them to different originating sources. He's also in training to be an Olympic diver when the next Olympics come. the narrator lends his voice to articulate the perceptions and thoughts of young Kevin. In the beginning. We've been. NARRATOR: Winnie wrote about how bored she was in Maine with her mom. Then he situates Winnie's letter and begins to read it out (parts of it are actually legible. In the foregoing passage. In other words. saying "She'd met somebody".. . the audio track that broadcasts young Kevin's voice has no other output than a single sigh.NARRATOR. some narratologists have claimed (Banfield 1982). Interestingly.he presents a block exposition mentioning dates and historical events (accompanied by appropriate visual clips). She deserved it . the narrator executes one of the most common narratorial functions -. KEVIN looks at a letter from Winnie.. I was pretty sure I hated him. however. By the end of that summer of 1969. The Mets were headed for first-place....] since they are impossibly divided between two distinct speakers (narrator and character) and anchorages".] F5. the narrator quotes Winnie by using the technique of 'free indirect discourse'." KEVIN sighs. [. And even though I'd never met the guy. For further tools of analysis in these matters see the narratology page's section on forms of speech and thought presentation (N8). see frame 2)..3. NARRATOR: She'd met somebody.. NARRATOR: His name was Chip. Woodstock was a household word.. still claim. actually. both in the immediate context and as visual data. His name is Chip and he's a lifeguard at the club my aunt belongs to. a lot of things had changed. "FID sentences are [.2.] But then. that free indirect speech is an "unspeakable form". What do you say? [Toolan hasn't seen Wonder Years.I guess.. Incidentally. And he was the All-State champ of everything. For instance. And Winnie Cooper's dad had moved to Chicago. "I've met somebody... Close shot of the letter... meaning that it cannot occur in ordinary speech.] unspeakable [. present a more complex interaction between the voices of the experiencing I and the narrating I. the original ('direct') version of this free indirect quotation is present as well.. As Toolan (2001: 135) puts it. Later scenes.

Fourteen. Forgive me! KEVIN. TERI. Guess.Beach Boys. "I'm thinkin' 'bout good vibrations" "She's givin' me excitations" Again we see that the narrating I's voice expresses the experiencing I's thoughts.an older woman! MUSIC -. My God. NARRATOR. however. Yeah! NARRATOR. A POV shot shows us Teri ("with an RI"). and focalization. Kevin picks up a stray straw hat.Not very surprisingly. gee.incredible! This was. Lemme see here.. Then again. My adolescent mind was spinning out of control.. speech presentation techniques. This was amazing! This was. NARRATOR. perhaps. So. KEVIN I was gonna guess fifteen. TERI. TERI. But can there be any future in this? Consider the following passage from the script: NARRATOR: Well I guess that was that. Explaining comic effects is more difficult than experiencing them. Strolling along the beach. Uh-oh. I'd heard about these feminine traps before. KEVIN. . asking him to give it back. frame 2). points of view. you want to sit down? KEVIN. How old are you? NARRATOR. Sure you were. Nondiegetic music ("Good Vibrations" by the Beach Boys) emotionally asserts how very taken Kevin is with her appearance (the song includes a line about "the way the sunlight plays upon her hair"). She brushes his leg with the back of her hand.. Seeing and hearing this scene everybody I know has a grin on his or her face. Who was I kidding anyway? This girl was definitely out of my league. uh. There was no right way to answer this one. But there is much more to it. she touched my leg! Was that an accident? TERI... But it can be done -with reference to channels of information. How old are you? TERI. narrative situation. Somebody addresses him (frame 1). How old am I? Well.. I'm fifteen. NARRATOR. the owner of the voice (Holly Sampson. the main story line of episode 24 is about our boy meeting a girl.

these.3] intentionally revealing the representation to be an artifact). The less this principle is disturbed the greater is the film's 'reality effect' (Barthes 1982). one generally assumes that the film creates a verisimilar or at least likely world. a fault in a "quoted" home movie clip).com . incomprehensible. especially on the net. Note that what may look like a goof to someone who has no understanding of the rules and practices of the medium is not a goof when it occurs: (1) in the context of a standard filmic convention (for instance.but that is a convention. it blocks the viewers' instinct to protect the assumption that the film shows a verisimilar world (their 'willing suspension of disbelief'). Consider one of the most obvious goofs. plausible. fairy-tales. but her/his lips do not move -. even allowing for special circumstances. nobody really cares.moviemistakes. for many peripheral audiences.3. The most common strategy in this case is to 'naturalize' the information so that it becomes interpretable according to common patterns of experience after all (Culler 1975). However. (I recently saw an advert for a DVD player whose main selling point was that it allowed easy detection of goofs. F5. How often can one see characters lugging around "heavy" suitcases which are evidently empty and thus not heavy at all. or possible. While this holds true for ordinary viewers.. Many goofs will simply be ignored by an ordinary audience. (2) embedded in a representational medium which is part of the fictional world itself (e. a filmic element may simply not seem natural. not a goof). In fact.g. by and large. Specifically. and viewing habits. and so on. (3) as a 'rhetorical' figure serving an ulterior purpose (e.3. interests. watching a film. Occasionally. compatible with what might count as a fact or a possible experience in our own world. As viewers we focus on the verisimilar world that we expect to see rather than the distractive or non-conforming detail that might undermine the reality effect.3. it is less valid for professional and enthusiast viewers.2. These assumptions are very helpful because we can actively exploit them when we are facing difficult. or illogical data.g. Of course. inhibits. Having said that . we will also locally suspend or modify normal assumptions and expectations for the purpose of dipping into the stranger worlds of dreams..2] a character is visible and we hear her/his voice.. visions. especially if looked at closely. alternate histories.cjb. If necessary. Above all.1. whose primary interest lies in immersing themselves in the fictional world.. too.F5. or undermines the reality effect. Verisimilitude and Goofs Film viewers come with a large number of (mostly unconscious) expectations about how the filmic medium presents a real or fictional story. goofs have become collectibles. a world that runs on laws of nature and logic and is. For two excellent internet sources on goofs see http://moviegoofs. cartoons. F5. ultimately work on laws of consistency and logic. science fiction. who have special obligations.net and http://www. in 'interior monologue voice over' [F3. if ultimately this comes across as a fault for which a professional must bear the blame then we have found a 'goof':  A goof is a production fault which disturbs. the 'heavy-suitcase goof' (not a technical term).) Indeed. an alienation effect [D6.

Goofs can be categorized according to verisimilarity violation (factual. in fact.Because goofs tend to go unnoticed by general viewers.htm . o Wonder Years: "Solar eclipses are gradual. cigarettes get extinguished or relighted...3. continuity goof A detail which shows that two supposedly continuous shots were not. shadows. a 'logic goof' a 'factual goof'. her calendar says 1974. sealed it. 'baring the devive' can also be an intentional effect of Brechtian anti-illusionism or alienation. Do not confuse with anachronies (like flashforwards or flashbacks. yet in an earlier scene he had finished it. o MASH: In one episode Colonel Blake's wife is identfied as Mildred. and so on. for an example from Hitchcock's Vertigo. factual goof A goof which defies the given world's known facts.tonline.2.uk/goofs.5). Such goofs occur easily in longrunning series like Wonder Years and MASH. area of responsibility (e. F5. The examples were culled from enthusiasts' web pages. below. you'll see that they are the same test". As will be demonstrated below (F5. which are rhetorical devices and donot upset a narrative's underlying chronology. etc. logic. o MASH: "Henry was given a discharge because he had enough 'points' but the points system wasn't used for doctors in the Korean War". the cognitive shock that comes with the recognition of a goof can also be exploited for entertainment purposes.co. In the following. and shooting conditions. However. there wasn't a divorce). The show actually plays in 1971". If you look closely. over time. See F5. . and somebody who is an only child in one episode sends greetings to his brother and sister in another.3.3. one character has two different blood types. He also gets a D on his second quiz.).4. This ever-present peril of the production process typically affects objects that are prone to short-term state changes. particularly http://www. no attempt has been made to create watertight (exclusive) categories. device goof A goof which inadvertently bares a technical device used in the take (typical case: a dangling microphone).html and http://home. N5. Not only were these written by different scriptwriters.3. chronology). continuous. material causes (mirrors. goofs are also shown paratextually (at the closing margins of the film or show).mash4077. apparently nobody took the trouble to draw up (and update) detailed character profiles. o Wonder Years: "Kevin gets a D on his first math quiz. editing). clouds move. Hence.1). usually for comic effect. they throw considerable light on the interpretive impact of media expectations. later she is Lorraine (no. candles typically burn out. and asked Kellye to send it out". Because the camera requires a temporal break between takes in order to move to a different position (and actors may need their makeup freshened up).      logic goof A goof which defies the given world's logic. o Wonder Years: "When Norma is putting her stuff in the car after being fired. but in this episode the eclipse was nearly a sudden event.de/home/reynders/wy/homepage. o MASH: "Hawkeye is in the Swamp finishing his letter to President Truman. another two Army serial numbers. flowers wilt.g. chronology goof (also anachronism goof) A goof which upsets the given world's chronology. Increasingly. like turning off a light". hence a 'chronology goof' can imply a 'logic goof'. and beverages get drunk up or replenished.

as the example shows. At any rate. one of them doomed.3. Perhaps the editing team assumed that nobody would notice because the focus of attention is on the characters. At one point the car drives away.] they show a young Kevin in his grandpa's car [. Without any cause or reason. This type of goof is particularly virulent when the text contains bits of foreign language. As Auiler (2000: 91) points out.. one is auditory. In the reflection of the rear window. Scottie and Judy are shown driving towards San Juan Bautista.. For an interesting case of a pseudo-goof. three channels/sources of information are concurrently open. The view presented in frame 2 could be the result of (inadvertently?) projecting the reverse side of the background footage. Both characters know this stretch of road because they have traveled it before. In the frame shown on the right.. not a goof. the missionary settlement where Judy will meet her fate :((. paralepsis goof. F5. goofs rule okay.].4. If you have a different explanation.. it was shot from the passenger's (not the driver's) seat. In the following sequence from Vertigo. Hitchcock used back projections for most of his car shots. and the POV would be the driver's (Scottie's).  Wonder Years: "In the beginning of episode 81 [.) Further goof types: out-of-character goof.). Scottie is driving on the left in frames 2 and 3. All backgrounds for Vertigo's many driving scenes were shot separately.5. fluff goof Distortion or mispronunciation of a line ("He was prone to fluff his lines"). then added later with the characters sitting in the sound studio's car mock-up. this would shift the car to the wrong side of the road. let me know. Two of them are visual. The first visual channel shows a suburban . as we see it now. from behind." Auiler says (2000: 110). metalepsis goof (character addressed by his real rather than his fictional name etc. When the back projection was filmed (this was in the very early stages of the production). hence fluffing should theoretically be a reality effect. "the projection shots in Vertigo are of the highest quality -and a slight difference in quality can make all the difference in preserving the audience's suspension of disbelief" (2000: 110). But one doesn't even have to know these details in order to identify the goof that surreptitiously undermines the verisimilarity of the sequence. "Though somehow car work is always obvious. in a different car. Here is an attempt to explain what really happened. Nevertheless. o F5. you can clearly see the camera and two men". (An interesting paradox of the fluff goof is that everybody fluffs in real life. consider a shot which is part of a TV commercial advertising the "Bayern Alpha" culture channel in Germany.3. against the light. the other relentlessly pursuing his horrible suspicion. You can verify this by printing out this page and looking at it.

a fault apparently perpetrated at the editing table. Amsterdam".g. At the same time. as is natural.org. "visited by over 8 million movie lovers each month". If.uk/ The British Film Institute. http://www. whereever your home may be (i. The auditory channel broadcasts a piece of classical music. Film websites     http://www.ac.apartment block.com/glossary. Includes many interesting links. even if you live in one of those ugly apartment blocks).the Concertgebouw is a Philharmonic Hall. Film script links from Google. that the 'wrong' text is actually quite compatible with (or. we can construe the message that ultimately makes pretty good sense of what is after all a carefully composed complex of information -. See. however. Hence one repair strategy is to impute an intention to it. "Crafty Screenwriting". and links on home page one level up. http://www.bfi. but not a satisfactory one because it does not get us anywhere. Excellent and witty introduction. in particular. then ironically)? Well. http://www.) http://home. one notes. to writing. On this basis. the book reviews. e. Very good general jump page.e. Indeed. http://www. F6. there is a jarring contradiction -.html The Online Film Dictionary.com .nottingham.    www. On the face of it. criticism. and the booklist (bibliography).uk/film/ Scope. one feels a strong impulse to come to grips. Pursuing a different tack. Could the apartment block actually be called "Concertgebouw" (and if not actually.com under Arts > Movies > Scripts > Downloadable. also to London's MOMI (Museum of the Moving Image).that the Bayern Alpha channel brings the music played by the Concertgebouw to your home. to make sense of.com Alex Epstein (2001). a "fully refereed on-line journal of film studies edited by staff and postgraduate students within the institute of Film Studies at the University of Nottingham".com/ The Internet Movie Database. and selling film scripts. The jarring effect created by it may be there for a purpose. Multi-lingual list of film terms (no definitions). . this is an Internet service at its best. from a professional.google. Hence the pseudo-goof effectively overcomes one's protective instinct to ignore TV commercials.craftyscreenwriting. (But apparently the site has ceased to exist. one understands the title as identifying the building. there is one aspect in particular that encourages us to make the best of the goof: it is too obvious.. the conflicting data -just as one tries to make sense of a seemingly nonsensical phrase such as Wordsworth's "The child is father of the man" (P3. See terms "rubber ducky" and "wrylies".de/ohei/index.8).imdb.dailyscript. one might say. this is the result of a factual goof.html Dana's "The Daily Script": Good definitions of technical terms.. formatting. not an apartment block. check here for a copy. isotopically linked to) the classical music coming from the audio channel. and no wonder.snafu. and with a bit of effort. The second visual channel shows an insert title saying "Concertgebouw. it is a naturalization of sorts. the articles archive. plus many additional film-related subjects. to storyboards.

t-online.H. Kaplan. Erving. Ithaca: Cornell UP. David. 1989. New York: Oxford UP. Peter. Literaturverfilmungen. 1994. Madison: U. Narrative Comprehension and Film. José Angel. E. Suzy. www. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall. Perf. Barthes. Posner. 1999 [1975]. Ithaca: Cornell UP. Claudia. Lyon: Presses Universitaires. Garcia Landa. November 20. Directed by Michael Dinner. Dir. Directed by Charles S. Dubin. 1992. ---. Feminist Film Theory: A Reader. Oxford. Peter's Wonder Years Guide. Frank. Coming to Terms: The Rhetoric of Narrative in Fiction and Film. Second IALS Conference. Possible Worlds. Paramount 1954. Frame Analysis. ed. by Cornell Woolrich. Dictionary of Film Terms. Korte. 11-17 Beaver. ed.geocities. Berkeley: U of California P. eds. 245-258. Jost.. Martin's Griffin. 1978. Adapted from "It Had to be Murder". Wonder Years. Raymond Burr..com/classicmoviescripts/ ). 1984. Tübingen: Stauffenberg. Kalter. "Point of View". 1982. Plenary lecture. Narration in the Fiction Film. 1993. "New Directions in Voice-Narrated Cinema". Columbus: Ohio State UP. Gombrich. Vertigo: The Making of a Hitchcock Classic. Feminism and Film. 1993. James Stewart. Franz-Josef. 6th ed. Actual Minds.craftyscreenwriting. Cambridge: Harvard UP. Boston: Northeastern UP. Cambridge: CUP. In: Todorov.htm Sternberg. References Auiler. episode 154.F7. Narratology. 1989. Francois. "The Published Screenplay -. In Albersmeier. "Standards of Truth: The Arrested Image and the Moving Eye". Jan Marie.dailyscript. Big City. 2000 [1983]. Christian. New York: Holt. Reynders. Susana. Alfred Hitchcock. 1980. Schneider. Ann.1: 89-105. 1990. Jay. 2nd ed. New York: Twayne. L'oeil-caméra: Entre film et roman. eds. Bruce. Story and Discourse: Narrative Structure in Fiction and Film. 315-339. Transcript available at Reynders (2002). Critical Inquiry 7: 237-273. Volker. Frankfurt: Suhrkamp. In: Herman. ed.com . New York: New York UP. Ralf. Oxford UP. London: Routledge. 1989. Grace Kelly. 2000. 1997. "The Daily Script" Glossary Page. Metz. 1999. 1986. "Is the Gaze Male?". written by Ken Levine and David Isaacs. 2000. Narratologies. Celestino. E. Bordwell. Rear Window. 1988. Seymour. ---. 1986. Mulvey. Bruner.de/home/reynders/wy/homepage. Sue. E. 1974. 1978. In Kaplan. In Thornham. "Performance and Transcripts: Towards a Theory of the Media". Goffman. Edward. Perry. Sarah. Laura. Invisible Storytellers: Voice-over Narration in American Fiction Film. Chatman. 119-138. "Visual Pleasure and Narrative Cinema". [1984. ed. Understanding Movies. Written for the Screen: The American Motion-Picture Screenplay as Text.2: 38-46. Arbeiten aus Anglistik und Amerikanistik 25. Jerome. 2002. McInernay. 2000. Roland. "An Outline of Film Voices".] London: Penguin. Film Language: A Semiotics of the Cinema. "The Lady in the Lake und das Problem der Ich-Erzählung in der Filmkunst". 1996 [1991]. Deleyto. Kawin. "Summer Song". 2002. Bright Lights. In: Onega. U of Freiburg. Kozloff. "Focalisation in Film Narrative". Roland. 1985. of Wisconsin P. MASH. Dan. Peters.html . Written by Mark B.com/glossary. Giannetti.A New Literary Genre?". . Epstein. Crafty Screenwriting. Barbara. Alex. London: Longman. 217-233. episode 24. David. The Complete Book of M*A*S*H. Internet: http://www. Ann. 1954. "The Reality Effect". 58-69. The Black/Marlens Company. Abradale Press. French Literary Theory Today. 2000. New York: St. Dana. 1997. Tzvetan. http://home. Louis. Roloff. Film Quarterly 38. Film script by John Michael Hayes (Classic Movie Scriptshttp://www. Branigan.

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