IMAGEBUILDING TC Media in NGO Image Building. By Lorenzo Nava Index 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) Message VS Slogan.

Communication and Policy Making the News Media and Press Releases Organising Media Events Events planning made easy Some tips on media and communication Chapter 1 Message VS Slogan.
Targeting an audience implies that the message you wish them to receive is clear, understandable and close to the heart of this audience. The right message will determine whether the public will support you…or not. As easy as that, as obvious as that Easy right? So it implies you know what a message is. Do you? Maybe a little help on this. A message is not: • • • a campaign’s programme about your plans. A list of issues you wish to address A slogan or a motto.

Don’t get me wrong, it doesn’t mean they are not necessary, those too are a must in developing a campaign’s communication plan.

“A message is a simple statement that will be repeated over and over throughout the campaign to persuade your target group” What is close to the public’s heart and what message will they listen to.
Remember what the public cares mostly about. 1) What is close to their hearts and really matters to them 2) From what sources do they usually gather information Think now in your area what issues are close to the heart of the average person, I can speak for my area and the list would look something like this: 1. 2. 3. 4. How are they getting along with their husband, wife, boyfriend, girlfriend or whatever? How are their children or parents doing, either in school or in life? How are they doing in their jobs or whether or not they will have enough money to get by? How is their football team is doing, why do they keep losing and whether or not they will be able to see the next game? what my campaign is all about?


For the average person's list of priorities what my organisation does is really not that important. Everything else on the list is much more important, and it should be if you ask me. The business world through marketing and advertisement tackles the first four topics on the above list in order to be close to the public, bombarding with information, spots, posters, messages related to those priorities, in order to sell their product. Why shouldn’t we do the same? In nowadays world, competition doesn’t mean produce more, produce better, competition means catch the public’s attention, get your information through, and for an organisation to get a message to break through the wall of information is not so easy… but its not impossible! Remember this you can be working hours, days, months, developing a message for your campaign, so much work, for a maximum of two minutes of the public’s attention, maximise the use of these few seconds and do not waste them. This is a must. You could have written the best possible publication, pamphlet, poster, broadcast, but if it doesn’t reach the hearts, whatever you give or say might be put in the bin in less than 15 seconds, what a waste indeed.

Characteristics of a Good Message
What a makes a good message? SHORT Very likely the public does not expect to meet you, or read anything about you, it could actually be perceived as something annoying and disturbing to what whatever they are doing, looking for, or going to in that precise moment. Deliver your message in less than a minute, or you lost them. TRUTHFUL AND CREDIBLE A believable message is a good message, many organisations have a secret (or not so secret) plan to change the world and make it a better place, grandiose plans often feed fuel to the public’s apathy, so be real and feet down to earth tackling tangible issues with real solutions. You strive for people to believe you and that what you do is necessary and good, so back up information with evidence, experience, knowledge, personal information. If you say you understand an issue and can’t demonstrate why or how, it’s a total waste of time. PERSUASIVE AND IMPORTANT TO THE PUBLIC Talk to their hearts not to their minds, bring to them topics which they already think about on an everyday basis, so that when your message got across the public might think “finally!” . Remember after all your task is to convince them to support you. CLEAR AND SPEAK TO THE HEART Whatever message you wish to deliver to the public, make it easy, make it clear. So many campaigns scare people or try to impress the public with technical terms, so distance themselves from the public, adding to the general apathy, the public’s mind must not work to understand what you just said, it must be a cupid’s arrow straight to the heart. 1) avoid abstract ideas 2) Talk about people, things and real life situations 3) Create a visual image in their minds

Those who reach for the heart and feelings of the public often succeed more than those who appeal to common sense and reasoning. Which by all means does not imply to be simpleton idealists with no intellectual basis to your programme, nor that you should imply you are dealing with idiots, it simply means get your campaign close to the core values of the person in front of you, so that its clear you are close to them. TARGETED If you have a campaign speaking to everyone, then you are really speaking to no one. There are people who would support you as well as people who wouldn’t even bother to listen to you, understand first of all who is who. Get your message out to your likely supporters , create a basis, but don’t take their support for granted, the more clear is the information you provide, the more likely you are to succeed. What about developing the message in such a way to reach “the other river bank” ? some would say focus on those who would support you, but then again if you work only with those willing to support you means you don’t really bring a real change about, who you want is the others, and to get out a message they would understand. REPEAT AGAIN AND AGAIN Once you choose what message will convince your target group to support you, then repeat it again and again and again, at any chance you got. High chances that the public is not paying attention to you. Do not imply that if you say something this something is heard, or if you tell something do not imply the message got through and was digested, might just as well be forgotten. For creating an imprint with the public the message must be repeated, to hear it in different ways, contexts, yet hear it. Once I heard that a human being to learn a new word has to see and hear this word in 27 different ways, then it makes an imprint on the brain. If you change you are only confusing. Chapter 2 Communication and Policy To accomplish more one must enlist the support of others... To move others in our direction we must understand them, work within their processes, and adapt our tactics and messages to their needs. newspapers, magazines, radio, TV, Web and email services; public spaces like posters, banners and leafleting; specialty audiences such as newsletters, classrooms, conferences and protests; advertising; and most powerful of all, one on one. Take the opportunity to issue a news release and hold a news conference. Provide complete copies of your presentation to reporters. Provide them with challenging ideas, with obtainable policy changes they might actually adopt. Nurture conversion and befriend the converted. People who are most susceptible to conversion include the deep thinker, the recently retired and the parent.

Visibility is easy- just do things that will get noticed, be visually oriented in your activities and news events, and specialize in the dramatic. Credibility is harder, honesty in conviction and action; and steadfastness of purpose. Bureaucrats, researchers, governments and politicians Learn how to work with each group. Bureaucrats know the system inside out and are the grunts that make government work; or not work. They can help you tremendously. Researchers are the folks who put together the details of government policy. Feed them information. Discuss with them the details of government thinking. Politicians (especially Ministers) are influential in the public arena, and set the broad strokes of government policy, but can and are thwarted by their own bureaucrats from time to time. Knowledge is power. Injustice hates the light of day. It is always better to speak from a position of knowledge, than only from the feelings inside Lobbying is just another word for politics, anyone engaged in work for social change should also spend time lobbying all levels of government It is worth trying to influence governments to do the right thing Get your message out. Say it once, say it twice, say it a thousand times, and say it again. The positive message is more productive, but the negative (anti) message is important too. Say who you are, say what you want, say how to get there. It is important to hit all sectors of the media with your consistent message. We meet the mass media on their own terms, using as best we can this distorting channel to get our message out. we build our own media networks : email, Web sites, newsletters, posters, banners, public events and more. Be creative There are always those within government and business who are upset at the how things are being done. Listen carefully to those you talk with on the inside. help them expose the bad, thank them for their courage, defend them vigorously if they are caught. It pays to remember that there are a diversity of political parties- not just the one in power today. Work with them all. Use the political parties one against the other, to compete for your vote and affections, step by painfully slow step. Help the politicians who help you. Parties are made up of people. Work with them. Be the wind and current that moves the water and causes change. Sense the direction, and work with the flow, moving the debate always closer to your views and positions. Form alliances to bring forward the big ideas that can gather wide support, Slogans and symbols are powerful motivating factors for people, Choose your slogans carefully to encapsulate your strategies clearly. Find great artists to work with, who will turn your 1000 words into that one powerful image. . Include your logo in every visual communication. Also include your Web address and phone number! Web sites and email lists are your most powerful communications tools in the 21st Century. They are cheap, widely accessible, uncensored and under your control. Use them wisely. Use them widely.

Chapter 3 Start Making the News

“Flip through the news and you probably won't see or hear much about nonprofit organizations and activists. Why? Part of the answer is as simple as it is ironic: Most activists are too busy saving the world to tell journalists about it.”
Step 1 – What makes the news? Read as much as possible, news, tabloids, magazines, listen to the radio, watch tv news, news websites. Don’t imply you know them all already, look at them as a professional draw approximate statistics of what makes the news in your area, you will then have a general idea of the media is interested on… and what the public listens to and may want to hear. This will make your job easier to prepare stories about your NGO for the media, and for the target groups you wish to reach. Step 2 -- Learn how to get your “stories” to the journalists When you have a story about your organization which might hit the news, tell journalists about it. The most common way to do this is by phone-with a follow-up e-mail. If you're persistent, you can reach almost any journalist on the phone. "Once you have a conversation, you've started a relationship," says John Allison, "Once you've had a conversation with someone, the story becomes a bit more real." "We're in an impatient business," "We get lots of phone calls..To get the attention of a media person, you need to get to the news aspect fairly quickly." "pitch" your story to them as quickly as possible. Also, prior to calling, you should fax or mail journalists about two pages of written background material. If you're calling more than a couple journalists about a news story, you should prepare a "news release," which is a one-page explanation of your "news," prepared specifically for journalists. News releases are written like news in the newspaper or on TV, with short paragraphs and quotations. Most of the time should be spent on the headline and first paragraph. The heart of your story-as well as any visual imagery for television-should be described in the headline. "One "Give me the news right away. Give me the headline." Follow-up call and all of it may not matter unless you make follow-up calls to make sure journalists know about your event. Faxing, mailing, or e-mailing a release to a reporter does not guarantee that he or she will see it. Mail gets lost, chewed, ignored, or buried. At some outlets, the faxes pile up into oblivion unless a journalist makes a special effort to retrieve one. Comment: At least half the time, reporters will not be able to locate your faxed news release when you call. You should immediately fax it again and call again immediately after sending it to make sure it was received the second time.

Step 3 -- Become a Master Interviewee The key to successful interviews with journalists is to keep it simple and interesting. In most interviews, you should stick to one or two central messages, drawing on a couple supporting points for each message. You should repeat your messages for emphasis. Soundbites are the type of speech commonly found in the news, especially TV news. They are defined by how long they take to deliver (five to 12 seconds) and the style of language the contain (action verbs). Often the most quotable soundbites are linked to imagery. For example, activists in New Mexico donned large Pinocchio noses to illustrate their opinion that officials were stretching the truth about the safety of a nuclear waste dump. Their soundbite: "The truth about the governor's position is as plain as the nose on my face." Tips to Be a Master Interviewee Practice answering questions in advance. (Have your friend play the role of reporter.) Speak slowly and give brief answers to questions. Pretend you're Henry David Thoreau: Simplify, simplify, simplify. Tell a reporter what you think is the most important point you've made. Develop different styles of communicating for print, TV, and radio reporters. Realize that it's okay to be nervous; anxiety can actually add vigor and clarity to your thoughts--and, besides, everybody gets nervous. Refer to concrete examples, personal experience, and clear images. Remember that reporters want stories, as well as data. For television, look at the reporter or camera operator--not directly into camera. Warm up your voice before your interview. (Sing to your dog or something.) Never assume journalists agree with you though they will often act as if they do. Eliminate insider jargon and acronyms from your speech. Never say "no comment;" if you cannot talk about a topic, explain why. If you don't want to answer a hypothetical question, simply say so. Suggest questions that reporters should ask of your opponents or critics. If you don't have an answer to a question, say so and try to track down an answer later. Don't worry about being a "media personality." Be yourself.

Step 4 -- Create a media strategy for your organization If it contains nothing else, your media plan should state why you want media coverage. you should identify the audience you want to reach and when you want to reach it. Then you should list media outlets that will reach your audience. Your final task in developing your media strategy is to figure out how to convince your target media outlets to cover you at a time that makes strategic sense for you. Your media strategy should be part of another, longer organizational document: your strategic communications plan. This should explain how you want your organization and your issue to be perceived by your community in the long-term. It should explain how all your organization's communications efforts-from lectures and newsletters to op-eds and annual reports-advance the long-term goals of your organization. Your strategic communications plan should explain how your entire public profile fits together to present your issues and organization to citizens. Step 5 -- Compile a media list The best way to begin to put together a media list is to call groups in your community that work on a similar cause and ask for their lists. You can take what they've done and build on it; any media list can be improved.

So, while you can get by with a local list of about 12 major media outlets, names of a contact at each, and his or her phone and fax number, you should aim higher. Create an exhaustive list that includes all the news outlets in your area, including all neighborhood publications, and even newsletters of community groups. For each, try to include: the name of the outlet, multiple contacts at each, phone and fax numbers, the street and e-mail address, call letters, channel, format (live, taped, talk show, etc.), deadlines, relevant comments, and a detailed history of interactions with your organization. "A call doesn't bother me," says Cooper at the Philadelphia Inquirer. "It doesn't bother me, either, to be asked what we'll do with [a story idea]." Daily Newspapers. There are many different ways to get covered by large metropolitan dailies. Take advantage of as many as you can. - News. If you have hard news contact the city desk or a reporter who covers your issue area. Also call the photo editor, if your organization is up to something that's visually interesting. - Features. Features are lengthy human interest stories that aren't necessarily connected to the "news" of the day. Unlike news stories--which are usually written on one day and published the next--features often take a couple weeks or more to develop and write. Contact the feature page or, preferably, specific feature writers with your ideas. - Letters-to-the-Editor. Write letters in response to news stories that affect your work. The letters page is one of the most widely read sections of the newspaper. Take a moment to write a 100 word letter, but don't bog down trying to make it perfect. Just get it done. (Most newspapers prefer to receive letters by e-mail.) - Guest Column. While the pundits whose work appears in the commentary section may not be read by the masses, you can be sure that most policy junkies make a point to read them. You can join them, if you publish a guest column. Such a column-often called an "op-ed"-gives you the chance to go into more depth (about 750 words) about your ideas, "I like to talk to local people," says John Allison at the Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. "I can often steer the person in the most fruitful direction. I can say, 'Don't do this; do that instead.'" - Local TV News. More people get their news from local television programs than any other source. That's one reason why there's intense competition to land stories on these shows. To break into the local news your story has to have strong visual appeal and you have to be persistent. (Yes, you can get covered even if your story isn't about mayhem!.) Contact the assignment editors at your local TV stations. In your pitch, emphasize visuals. - News radio. This means that even large metropolitan areas may have only one commercial radio station--plus possibly a couple public radio stations--with staff reporters who might cover your story or event. Find out which stations have news departments and pitch your story to the news director or to specific reporters. - Talk radio. Talk radio can be a communications force. It attracts a devoted band of listeners, many of whom are active in the community. Identify the shows that make sense for you and call the producers or, in smaller markets, the host.

- Other local media outlets. Here's a list of other local news outlets--along with (in parentheses) whom to contact at each: weekly newspapers (the editor or reporters), magazines (the editor or freelance writers), TV public affairs programs or TV talk shows (producers), news services (news editor), pop radio (disk jockeys). Step 6 -- Start publicizing your cause in the news The key to getting news coverage of your organization is to take advantage of the full spectrum of news media outlets in your community. It's your job to identify, create, or tailor stories about your organization to suit the different needs of different journalists. "People at nonprofit organizations see the news,". "They see what's going on, and they know if a service they provide relates to it.” Just because you didn't get covered one day doesn't mean you won't make the news the next. On a slow news day, anything can be news. Also remember that, over time, your job will get easier as you develop relationships with journalists in your community. Chapter 4 Media and Press Releases The impact of any event or action your group plans can be greatly enhanced by media attention. Larger events relevant to the surrounding community can reach an audience of hundreds of thousands if covered by a TV station or daily paper. Media attention can put you in contact with people in your community working on similar issues who will lend support. A good rule of thumb is to spend 10% of your organizing time on attracting press. For small events, you need spend only a few minutes on press outreach. Send a personal note to an editor you know at your campus paper and follow up with a few calls

Suggestions for attracting the media to larger campus events
• Make a list of places to send press releases. Include the "Assignment Desk" at all local TV news stations (including cable) and daily newspapers. Include the "news editor" at key campus publications, local weekly papers, and radio stations with big news departments. For each outlet, include its name, address, phone number, and fax number in your list. 10 days before your event, mail a press advisory to weekly papers or TV shows and follow up in 3 days. Mail your press release call them before the event. Use a formal, upbeat style. Don't read a long pitch. Pause frequently, so that the reporter will have a chance to give you feedback. That way you can tell whether he or she is actually considering covering your event. Make sure you take neat notes on whether the reaction you get is "no way," "maybe," or "probably." The day of the event, call each media outlet (except weeklies) in their first hour of business for the day At your event, staff a table marked "PRESS." Hand each reporter literature and sign them in so that you can find out later if they run a story. Befriend and cultivate good relations with the media. If possible, designate one person to follow up with reporters who seemed particularly receptive.

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Press Release Suggestions
A press release should include the rationale for an event, what you are trying to change, and all relevant information that you would want to be considered by a journalist, but keep it brief. Include your strongest facts or stances. Reporters may use your exact words and text of your release. One page with all event information is standard. At the top of your press release, include the date you want the information to first be announced (usually the day of the event, never later). Immediately below, include the names of at least two press spokespeople, one of which must be available during business hours. Right below that, write the title, time, date, location, directions, and names of participants in your event. Have a group of people has a review the drafts of the press release. This group will be able to divide the work of followup calls. The rest of the release should explain everything so simply and clearly that your aunt or your grandfather would understand what you were trying to accomplish.

What about press conferences?
A press conference is a formal presentation of your case designed exclusively for the press. The key question to ask when deciding whether to have a press conference is, "Will reporters come?" A press conference announcement only needs to be one page long, usually with the information about time, location, topic, participants, etc. spelled out in outline form. Make sure reporters receive it two days before the event. Follow up calls should be made to key reporters and then on the morning of the event. Chapter 5 Organising Media Events

Making an "event" of your cause is vital to garnering news coverage. news media television, rarely cover ideas, isolated opinions or abstract views some creativity, you can transform an idea or an opinion about a cause into an event-with a visual component-that can be covered. STEP ONE -- REFINE YOUR MESSAGE
identify one simple message to one phrase (e.g. Don't drink and drive.) build your media event-with images, slogans, soundbites, signs, location-around it. "Simplify, simplify, simplify." which words and phrases communicate best with your target audience

you need to embellish this event with appropriate visual imagery, location, and timing. create your own event. In any case, creating strong visuals for the news media is critical.

Reporters generally work regular hours. down staffs on weekends and after deadlines on weekdays, The news value of an image-based stunt-dressing in costume, holding a candlelight vigil-can be increased substantially by staging it when a major story breaks in the news media about your cause, and local news outlets are looking for "local angles" and local images.

The location for a media event should maximize its chances of being covered and help communicate the message your are sending.

take advantage of the diversity of the media. Although the most powerful news media are very similar (witness network television news), there are other outlets that specifically seek stories that the major media ignore or serve specific audiences that you may want to reach. Don't ignore wire services, neighborhood newspapers, alternative weeklies, community radio, and others.

"I might have 30 seconds to spend on a news release," says Paul Day "hit over the head with ideas" important information should "leap off the page." keep a news release short and clear. one page, what's unique and visually interesting. Spend 75 percent of your time writing the headline and first paragraph. Citizens Against Pepsi Contact: Dr. Manny Salzman (303) 296-9359 February 4, 2003 Aaron Toso (303) 292-1524

Often you need not send a press release to all media outlets you've got on file. , target specific media outlets that will reach your target group. Who should receive the release? At newspapers, send it to a reporter who covers your issue. ), send the release to the city editor or the editor. At television stations, assignment editors are the point of contact. news director at radio stations. Send releases by fax, mail, or Internet

all of it may not matter unless you make follow-up calls to make sure journalists know about your event. Call well before your event and, possibly, again on the morning of your event. Be aggressive, persistent, and polite.

You goal in an interview is to stay "on message." you answer the question in a way that highlights your central message.

-Question: Don't you think TV stations air crime stories because that's what people want? -Answer: People want balanced news, not crime every day as the lead topic for most TV news programs. -Question: Are you going to eat rice for dinner? -Answer: Sometimes I'm so sick after watching all the crime on TV news-even though crime rates are falling-that I'm not able to eat anything for dinner
To pull this off you must practice ahead of time. Find a friend who will be the reporter and role play.

a press conference is usually the wrong way to attract the media. It's often a better idea to stage an event and have a spokesperson available to give individual interviews as requested. a press conference is called for when you expect many news outlets to cover an event or an announcement. a press conference should last about 20 minutes, plus 10 minutes for questions, with a maximum of four speakers. Start on time and have a sign-in sheet for reporters. A moderator should cut off presenters who run on too long. Practice the entire press conference in advance. distribute a folder of easy-to-read information at your event. 10 pages of material in this "press packet," including biographies of speakers at your event, two recent articles about your cause,

Take time to evaluate your media event. Don't take it personally if you received scant coverage. definition of news is "what's in the newspaper," and this changes each day with the competition. eight fleeting inches of ink in the daily newspaper can be next to worthless if it is not linked to a strategy for winning your campaign IDEAS FOR CREATING NEWSWORTHY VISUAL EVENTS creative and aggressive, but not stupid. Nonprofits in Action Recognize when your organization is doing something visually interesting, and publicize it! , especially if it happens to be a slow news day. Remember, the news media are always looking for new ways to cover annual holidays. Expose the Actual Problem Disabled activists in Denver demonstrated the need for access to the Capitol by abandoning their wheelchairs and trying to crawl up the Capitol steps. Display a piece of the actual problem-offering politicians water from a contaminated site, publicly exposing elements of poverty, and the like. Making the Most of a Petition Instead of quietly delivering petitions to politicians, pro-choice activists in Kansas City received substantial media coverage by simply draping taped petitions over the railings of the Capitol rotunda. Cameras Love Costumes Activists in Boulder, Colorado, dressed in pig costumes to make the point that the Rocky Flats nuclear bomb plant was a "pork-barrel waste of money." Chapter IV Events Planning Made Easy These are some things you need to consider when planning an event:

Who? Who is your target audience--members of your group, the general public, the media, or some combination? What are their interests, needs, and any special considerations you need to keep in mind when you plan a program for them? Who is available to help plan and put on the event? What? What specific content or kind of event do you want to put on? What do you want the event to accomplish for the participants? What do you want the event to accomplish for your organization? What is the event you have in mind going to cost? (You will want to prepare a detailed budget, including all speakers and performers' fees, food and lodging, transportation, equipment and facility rentals, materials, publicity, printing, postage, and any other anticipated costs.) What resources (money, materials, facilities, etc.) do you have to work with?

Are there any sources that might be able to help you with money or material assistance? When?
When is a good time to hold the event so it will be accessible to the most people? Are there any conflicting events, holidays, or other things you need to schedule around? How much lead time do you need to schedule facilities, get publicity out, arrange for speakers, performers, etc., and acquire necessary materials and services? Where? Is your facility easy to find and easy to get to for most people? Is it accessible for people with disabilities? Does it have the equipment and services you need?

Those pesky details... Timing--It's a good idea to work out a timeline when you start, so that everyone understands what has to be done when and how their part fits into the whole. Publicity--What is the best means of reaching your target audience? What publications do they read, and can you afford to advertise there? Where do they go regularly that you can post flyers? Can you borrow or buy a mailing list, or include a flyer in someone else's mailing?

Money--Is there anyone who might co-sponsor your event and lend financial (or other) support? Will cash flow be a problem (that is, will you need to pay for things before the anticipated income comes in?), and is there someone who can loan you startup costs? Follow-up--After the dust settles, it's important to get together with your group and evaluate the event. What went well? What would you want to make sure to do again the same way next time? What could have gone better? What would you recommend doing different in the future? Write it all down for future members' reference. Don't forget to give yourselves the appreciation you deserve for a job well done! Chapter 7 Some tips on Media and Communication

Definition: Written, spoken, and visual communications with the public-at-large serve to bolster morale and garner support for the movement.


Description - can be written, painted, drawn, printed, mimed, gestured, spoken - can be posted in secret or unrolled in public protest - can be pre-printed or written on existing structures (ie., walls, sidewalks) - leaflets and pamphlets distributed to public to persuade, booklets describe general position - can be home made - can be homemade - Music lyrics can be a call to action or call of protest - Radio broadcast can be streamed.

Cost Low Expense, Medium Time.

Slogans, caricatures, and symbols Banners, posters, and displayed communications Leaflets, pamphlets, and booklets Newspapers and journals Recorded music, radio, and television Skywriting and earthwriting Internet Websites Mass e-mail

Medium Expense, Medium Time.

Medium expense, medium time High expense High Time Low expense High Time

- skywriting with airplanes High Expense, - groundwriting in fields with ploughed dirt, in sand, High time or by plantings - use of this is difficult to trace - can reach an international audience immediately - use of this is difficult to trace - can reach an international audience immediately Low expense Low time Low expense Low time


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Notes from Making the News: A Guide for Activists and Nonprofits. “Eleven Steps to Organizing a Media Event” By Jason Salzman. Event Planning Made Easy by Mary McGhee Article courtesy of

Let the World Know: A Beginner's Guide to Getting Media Coverage by Jason Salzman This article is courtesy of Cause Communications Microradio Micropower Broadcasting - A Technical Primer by Stephen Dunifer

S a y i t o n t h e R a d i o by Skipp Porteous Article courtesy of Start an Alternative Campus Newspaper (In a Nutshell) by Rich Cowan (co-founder of The Thistle at MIT) What is a Message ? by J. Brian O'Day
Notes from: Communications and Policy By Peace, Earth & Justice [ ]

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