to remove this watermark. .Oxford Collocations Dictionary for students of Enqlish OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS Please purchase PDF Split-Merge on www.

or as expressly permitted by law. It furthers the University's objective of excellence in research.OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS Great Clarendon Street. scholarship. or transmitted. without the prior permission in writing of Oxford University Press. the Universities of Oxford and Lancaster and the British Library ISBN 0 19 4312437 1098765 Text capture and processing by Oxford University Press Typesetting by Oxford University Press Printed in China Please purchase PDF Split-Merge on www.verypdf. at the address above You must not circulate this book in any other binding or cover and you must impose the same condition on any acquirer This dictionary includes some words which have or are asserted to have proprietary status as trademarks Dr otherwise. Their inclusion does not imply that they have acquired for legal purposes a non-proprietary or general significance nor any other judgement concerning their legal status. in any form or by any means. or under terms agreed with the appropriate reprographics rights organization. stored in a retrieval system. . Chambers. Oxford University Press. Longman. Oxford OX26DP Oxford University Press is iii department of the University of Oxford. and education by publishing worldwide In Oxford New York Auckland Bangkok Buenos Aires Cape Town Chennai Dar es Salaam Delhi Hong Kong Istanbul Karachi Kolkata Kuala Lumpur Madrid Melbourne Mexico City Mumbai Nairobi SaDPaulo Shanghai Taipei Tokyo Toronto Oxford and Oxford English are registered trademarks of Oxford Universtty Press in the UK and in certain other countries © Oxford University Press 2002 Database right Oxford University Press (maker) First published . No part of this publication may be reproduced.2002 Fifth impression 2003 All rights to remove this watermark. Enquiries concerning reproduction outside the scope of the above should be sent to the Rights Department. In cases where the editorial staff have some evidence that a word has proprietary status this is indicated in the entry for that word but no judgement concerning the legal status of such words is made or implied thereby The British National Corpus is a collaborative project involving Oxford University Press.

verypdf. . symbols and labels Please purchase PDF Split-Merge on to remove this watermark.CONTENTS Iist of usage notes and special pages preface acknowledgements introduction guide to the entries the dictionary study pages between ideas into words using a noun entry using a verb entry using an adjective entry common verbs IV V VI VII-XI XII-XIII 1-892 446 and 447 52 S3-5 S6-7 58-9 S I 0-1 I S 12 512 513 513 S 14 SI5 S 16 893-7 natural disasters criminal justice education driving politics jobs money key to the study pages inside front cover key to abbreviations.

.rv List of usage notes peer Crimes Currencies Days of the week Financial indicators Flowers Health practitioners Illegal drugs Jobs Languages Meals Months Organizations Performing arts Playing cards Points of the compass Professiona'is Ranks in the armed forces Religions Seasons Sounds Subjects of study Swimming strokes Weights and measures Works of art 177 184 191 562 316 234 243 437 450 487 506 541 563 98 217 598 619 641 688 731 763 760 488 37 crime currency day per cent flower doctor drug job language meal month organization performance card direction professional rank religion season sound subject stroke measure art List of special pages Speciall pa~e Business Clothes Colours Computers Food and cooking Fruit Illnesses Meetings Music Sport on:page at e'1t{Y business clothes colour computer food fruit illness meeting music sport _ c 91 126-7 133 144 319 332 392 490-1 513 739 Please purchase PDF Split-Merge on to remove this watermark.verypdf.

Jonathan Crowther and Diana Lea.verypdf. you will find the Guide to the Entries (page xii-xiii) and the Study Pages (between pages 446 and 447)very helpful. Moira Runcie January 2002 It is our hope that this dictionary Please purchase PDF Split-Merge on www. teachers and students have become increasingly aware of the importance of collocation in English language learning.v Preface In recent years. However. In the introduction that follows. will provide you with invaluable assistance in expressing your ideas cogently in idiomatic English. I wish to thank the three Managing Editors. Sheila Dignen. Over the years. In particular. striving to ensure that it was in its design as helpful and accessible to users as possible. The Managing Editors worked on the policy for this dictionary. Diana Lea explains the principles that were established through consultation and experiment to determine which collocates to include and where they should be listed. it is difficult for them to put these principles into practice without the benefit of an up-to-date. corpusbased dictionary of collocations. a large number of lexicographers and editors have been involved in this project and I wish to take this opportunity to thank them all for the contributions they have made. If you wish to explore the dictionary's potential as a learning tool. no matter how convinced learners are in principle of the importance of collocation. We at Oxford University Press were determined to provide such a dictionary but it has taken us many years to produce the dictionary that we feel best meets the needs of students and to remove this watermark. .

vi Advisory Board Dr Keith Brown Professor Guy Cook Dr Alan Cruse Ms Moira Runcie Professor Gabriele Stein Dr Norman Whitney Professor Henry Widdowson Managing Editors Jonathan Crowther Sheila Dignen Diana Lea Editors Margaret Deuter James Greenan Joseph Noble Janet Phillips Lexicographers Colin Hope Gillian Lazar Fiona Mcintosh Carole Owen Valerie Smith Project administration Julie Darbyshire Julia Hiley Publlishing Systems Manager Frank Keenan Data capture and typesetting Bill Coumbe Tim Teasdale Keyboarders Anna Cotgreave Kay Pepler Ben Pritchett Design Page design: Peter Burgess and Holdsworth Associates.. Stonestield Design Illustrations Harry Venning Thanks are also due to those who helped with administration and keyboarding for shorter periods during the course of the project: Anne-Marie Amphlett. Abigail Pringle. . Katrina Ransom Please purchase PDF Split-Merge on www. Isle of Wight Study pages: Sarah Nicholson Cover to remove this watermark. Stephanie Donaghy. Elizabeth Aracic. Richard Morris.

This is because most single words in the English language . language that is collocationally rich is also more precise. Pollu.s combinations such as these . A student who talks about *strong rain may make himself understood. there is a whole range of nouns that take the verb see in a way that is neither totally predictable nor totally opaque as to meaning. to a learner they are anything but. in English you say strong wind but heavy rain. it also has nothing whatever to do with wood or trees. can be called collocation. With the back-up help of a good monolingual learner's dictionary (such as the Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary) if need be. the one that expresses most exactly what she wants to say. What is collocation? Collocation is the way words combine in a language to produce natural-sounding speech and writing. but something quite precise. even when basic intelligibility does not seem to be at issue. it takes a greater degree of competence with the language to combine them correctly in productive use. but what needs to be done about it? Looking up the entry for pollution in the Oxford Collocations Dictionary and skimming down to the verbs section offers the choice of avoid/prevent. Both sentences are perfectly 'correct' in terms of grammar and vocabulary. This idiom is not only fixed in form. which mayor may not matter. and some that shade into each other by degrees. the following two sentences: This is a good book and contains a lot of interesting details. but possibly not without provoking a smile or a correction. For example. The precise meaning in any context is determined by that context: by the words that surround and combine with the core word by collocation. Between these two extremes. And whilst all four of these words would be recognized by a learner at pre-intermediate or even elementary level. For the student. cut/limit/minimize/reduce or monitor. She already has a stock of useful vocabulary.especially the more common words . No piece of natural spoken or written English is totally free of collocation. himself much more clearly and be able to convey not just a general meaning. some quite distinct. but which communicates more (both about the book under discussion and the person discussing it)? Please purchase PDF Split-Merge on to remove this watermark. What is missing are the words that can link these high-content vocabulary items together into a coherent whole . All these combinations. But. Why is collocation important? Collocation runs through the whole of the English language. the student can choose the most appropriate verb.not see the wood for the trees. To a native-speaker these combinations are highly predictable.that are vital to communicative competence in English.tion is a problem. It would not be normal to say *heauy wind or *strong rain. especially high-content nouns like environment. A student who chooses the best collocation will express. ozone layer.vii Imagine a student writing an essay on the environment. He will certainly be marked down for it in an the totally fixed and idiomatic . perhaps even more importantly than this. pollution. combat/contrel/fighi/tackle. . for example. And it i.a narrative or an argument. This is a fascinating book and contains a wealth of historical detail.see a man/car/book .embrace a whole range of meanings. apart from those at the very extremes of the cline. She knows the themes she wishes to cover and the ideas and arguments to get across. Compare. more nativespeaker-like. choosing the right collocation will make his speech and writing sound much more natural. These run from the fairly 'weak' collocation see a film (which elementary students learn as a 'chunk' without pausing to reflect that this is not quite the literal meaning of see) through the 'medium strength' see a doctor to the 'stronger' collocations of see danger/reason/the point.particularly in the 'medium-strength' area . Combinations of words in a language can be ranged on a cline from the totally free .verypdf.

Primary attention was given to what might be called 'moderately formal language' . and British English was chosen. starting from the words they already know . an enjoyable holiday. But they are still hampered by trying to provide a whole range of information about any word besides its collocations. an aspect of grammar that even advanced students may be reluctant to put to full productive use. For fast-changing areas of language. It manages this by not attempting to account for every possible utterance. rather than tneoretical. and teach some useful collocations in the process.from the fairly weak (see a to remove this watermark. register labels and example sentences showing words in context. By focusing on the specific rather than the general. But its productive power is limited by the degree to which it generalizes in order to come up with 'grammatical rules'. a collocations dictionary is also able to 'pre-digest' a lot of the grammar involved. it has a lot of power in dissecting the meaning of a text. Exceptions to this rule are idioms that are only partly idiomatic: not see the wood for the trees may have nothing to do with wood or trees. even if this is not the usual dictionary citation form.verypdf. for the most part. are idioms. splits up meaning into individual words. through the medium-strength (see a doctor. of course.corpus information was supplemented by using the Internet as a resource. such as computing . Use the collocations dictionary systematically and you become much more aware of the extent to which English makes use of the passive. and in what particular contexts. The main source used was the 100 million word British National Corpus. Consideration was also given to the kind of texts that students might wish to write. only for what is most typical. collocation by collocation basis. or with minor modifications to make them more accessible (but without. extremely complicated). or even regular. The questions asked were: is this a typical use of language? Might a student of English want to express this idea? Wouldthey look up this entry to find out how? The aim was to give the full range of collocation . collocations exercises in coursebooks cannot fulfil this role. altering any collocations). burning ambition. direct equivalent. By covering the language systematically from A-Z. Its power is more limited when it comes to constructing texts.the language of essay Please purchase PDF Split-Merge on www. A grammar provides an analysis of the general patterns that exist in a language. Which collocations are included in this dictionary? The approach taken to this question was pragmatic. for productive use. most of which were either taken directly from the authentic texts included in the corpus. For example at the entry for baby. Modern dictionaries are increasingly giving attention to collocation. in how many (and what kind of) sources. with grammar patterns clearly explained. highly intelligent) to the strongest and most restricted (see reason.particularly rich in collocation . blindingiy oboiousi-: for around 9. The second question asked (Might a student of English want to express this idea") led to a focus on current English: language that students not only need to understand but can be expected to reproduce.viii Why use a Collocations Dictionary] A normal dictionary. presenting collocates in their most typical form in context. a collocations dictionary allows students to build up their own collocational competence on a 'need-to-know' basis. . whether monolingual or bilingual. you will find the collocation be teething. although they do a useful job of raising the profile of collocation as an essential feature of the language. Goodlearner's dictionaries give as much help as they can with usage. Totally free combinations are excluded and so. students were better concentrating on one variety of English. reflecting the fact that this verb is always used in the progressive tenses. but drive a hard bargain is very much about bargaining even if the expression as a whole can be considered an idiom. The corpus also supplied many of the example sentences. A collocational dictionary doesn't have to generalize to the same extent: it covers the entire language (or a large part of it!) on a word by word. From this.or know in part Occasional. compilers of the dictionary were able to check how frequently any given combination occurred. It was felt that. The first question (Is this a typical use of language?) required! that all the collocations be drawn from reliable data.000headwords.

the individual collocations are given at the entry. your death. It also happens that certain sets of words share all or most of their collocations. you might be looking for the verb to use when you do what you need to do in response to a challenge.' is to indicate that any figure may be substituted for 'three' or 'five' in these expressions. In addition. but its members are predictable.llocations in the usage note. This set may be quite large. etc. When framing their ideas. In cases where some of the collocations are shared. one of the groups of collocates is given as 'three-minute. an acquaintance. the dictionary includes 25usage notes. breathing. etc. Youwould be unlikely to start with the adjective heavy and wonder what you could describe with it (rain. There is another area of collocation that might be called 'category collocation'. 'The full range of collocation'.business. or measurements of time. and a crossreference directs the user to the shared co. science. but others apply only to an individual member of the set (for example. Youmight think of rain and want to know which adjective best describes rain when a lot falls in a short time. even though small and little would seem to be synonymous. for example. In order to show how these collocations are shared by a number of headwords. seasons). pick and choose. sport. damage. . informal collocations and those very frequent in spoken language. because they are all words for nationalities. history. as well as implying collocations of different strengths. that is. At the entry for walk. the dictionary includes some of the most important collocations from some specialist areas. Technical. gunfire?) Similarly. the expense)." the 'etc. particularly law and medicine: collocations from popular fiction. and a few of the most frequent collocations from British journalism. This is particularly true of very strictly defined sets such as days of the week.The 9.treating all subjects .com to remove this watermark. these are the precise words that combine with each other: small fortune cannot be changed to little fortune. also covers all the following types of combination: adjective + noun: bright! harsn/intense/ strong light quantifier + noun: a beam/ray of light verb + noun: cast/emit/gite/prooide/shed light noun + verb: light gleams/glows/shines noun + noun: a light source preposition + noun: by the light of the moon noun + preposition: the light from the window adverb + verb: choose carefully verb + verb: be free to choose verb + preposition: choose between two things verb + adjective: make/ keep/ declare sth safe adverb + adjective: perfectly/not entirely/ environmentally safe adjective + preposition: safe from attack plus short phrases including the headword: the speed Of light. but it also applies to slightly less rigid. informal and journalistic uses are labelled as such. five minutes'.ix and report writing. but still limited sets such as currencies. people generally start from a noun. months and points of the compass. for example) the cross-reference replaces all other information in the entry.verypdf. safe and sound Most of the collocations in the dictionary can be called 'word collocations'. The third question asked (Woulda student look up this entry to find this expression?) led to the exclusion of noun collocates from verb and adjective entries. weights and measures and meals. each treating the collocations of a particular set The entries for the individual members of the set include a cross-reference to the usage note. (this list could go on for half a page) at the level of the educated non-specialist.000headwords include most of the commonest words in the language that upper-intermediate students will Please purchase PDF Split-Merge on www. where a word can combine with any word from a readily definable set. and formal letters . A full list of the usage notes and where they may be found is given on page IV. In cases where all the collocations are shared (months. But you would not choose meet and then choose what to meet (a challenge. particularly useful in treating more personal subjects such as feelings and relationships.

but rather 'sense dis. the collocation lose is given. and the remaining exercises range across the whole dictionary. as are combat. or for brainstorming vocabulary for an essay. The collocations in each entry are divided according to part of speech. jobs and money. control.) Collocations are also labelled if they belong to a particular field of language such as law or medical. (In the example above from pollution. For example. .com to remove this watermark. The next few exercises take users systematically through the different sections of the entries for nouns. The dictionary indicates where this is so: for example. (Exceptions to this rule are collocates labelled taboo where the label applies to the single word and to any combination it occurs in. There are also two pages of exercises in the central study section addressing this notorious area of difficulty.for example. verbs and adjectives. non-collocational information has largely been excluded. when they have different collocations and need to be treated separately. at bargain. For a full list of the usage labels used in this dictionary. The first of these aims to show the overall concept of the dictionary by looking at a single entry (idea) in some detail.though neither do nor drugs are informal in themselves . a short explanation of the meaning may be given. Register information is given when any pair of words in. These are not full definitions.. The dictionarv also includes ten special pages on different topics such as business. Other information in this dictionary The focus of this dictionary is very much on collocation. both literal and figurative meanings of a word may share collocations. A full list of special topic pages and where to find them is given on page iv Please purchase PDF Split-Merge on www.x already know. Because this is a type of dictionary that may be totally new to many students it is recommended that users familiarize themselves with how the dictionary works by working through some of the exercises in the photocopiable study section in the centre of the dictionary. This is because these verbs have no real collocations of their own. do. and so on). The most frequent usage label used in the dictionary is figurative . and appear in the entries for those nouns. just detailed enough to allow the senses to be distinguished. fight and not merit entries of their own. and (figurative) The project seems to have lost its way. the phrase drive a hard bargain has the gloss (= force sb to agree to the arrangement that is best for you). followedby the examples: She lost her way in the fog. within each part of speech section they are grouped according to meaning or category. Somevery common words . the collocations of the literal sense are often carried over: that is. give and take. at way. Examples would be do drugs (informal) . plus some words that they will start to encounter as they move to a more advanced level of English. With strong collocations that are slightly idiomatic.criminators'. is intended for productive use. Definitions of headwords are given only insofar as they are necessary to distinguish different senses of the same word. including politics. avoid and prevent are roughly synonymous. meetings and sport. more specific usage restrictions such as 'in football' or 'used in journalism' are given in brackets. have. How to use this dictionary This dictionary. testing collocations linked to various themes. Many collocate groups have illustrative examples showing one or more of the collocations in context.or hear a lecture (formal). These pull together collocations from the different topics and can be used as the basis for topic work in class. Two pages of exercises get students thinking about the common verbs make. combination take on a different register from the two words separately. It is a feature of English that when the meaning of a word is extended and used in a non-literal sense.such as the verbs make and do . In addition to these labels.verypdf. see inside the front cover. They themselves are the collocations of lots of nouns. The groups are arranged in an order that tries to be as intuitive as possible: in this case from the 'strongest' form of action (avoid/prevent) ·to the 'mildest' (monitor). most typically for help with writing. In order to make the collocational information as comprehensive and accessible as possible.

. looking for ways to present collocations to their students). and all who wish to write fluent and idiomatic English.verypdf.xi It is hoped that this dictionary will be of use not only to students of English of upperintermediate level and to remove this watermark. Please purchase PDF Split-Merge on www. but the whole dictionary has been designed to be accessible. The Guide to fueEntries (pages xii-xiij) is there as a quick reference. academics. translators. but also to teachers (both non-native speaker and nativespeaker teachers. to give help as needed. and (we hope) enjoyable to use. businesspeople.

ii!1of paper/ll'lperworrk The en-:q.rn'lOu.xii Guide 10 Ih:e entries nouns Sense numbers and short definitions distinguish between the different of mountain.{. . VERB + MOUNTAIN '9~ne:rate I reduce• PHRASES a mou~t._EuropbUtie. • PHRASES {9}iftfbottom/top _ common phrases that include mountain vc-esr "".·'Ar· ~. large amou im·l.c.nto. great.-vealed aSOlut!o.·.' d~bfl paper I butter.ary generated anif}uutain ofpaperuiork. 2. . . ' to remove this watermark. T_hCY re-.: fciod~etc. e's . adjectives verbs that come before famous Please purchase PDF Split-Merge on www. ADJ..verypdf.ntam.

. see study pages 83-9 in the central section of the dictionary. other features of the entries A short use note shows a restriction on the use of the collocation pitch black.xiii verbs Phrasal verbs are treated separately at the end of the entry. For more help with to remove this watermark. ~ • arlseocracy. verb and adjective entries.verypdf. Please purchase PDF Split-Merge on www.

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