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With the advances of technology, security of the digital media has become a major challenge. One way to ensure safety and control over the unauthorized distribution of the media is to effectively hide some classified information in it so that the intellectual property rights of the owner can be proved as and when required. Watermarking is the technique to embed some data into the signal for identifying the copyright ownership and preventing piracy. By pre-processing the image watermark and hiding it in a carrier stream, a robust watermarking technique is presented, resisting all the signal processing manipulations and deliberate attacks. In digital watermarking, the signal may be audio, pictures, or video. If the signal is copied, then the information also is carried in the copy. A signal may carry several different watermarks at the same time. Digital watermarking is a technology that opens a new door for authors, producers, publishers and service providers for protection of their rights and interest in multimedia documents.
CHAPTER 1 Introduction
With the rapid growth of Internet, it is easier for digital data owners to transit multimedia files across the Internet. Thus, there is a huge increase in concentration overcopyright protection of media. Traditionally, encryption and control access techniques were used to protect the intellectual property rights. These techniques do not protect against unauthorized copying after the media have been successfully transmitted and decrypted. Cryptography guarantees confidentiality, authenticity, and integrity when a message is transmitted across the network. It does not protect against unauthorized copying after successful message transmission. Watermarking is an efficient way to protect copyright of media. Watermarking is a technique of embedding a special pattern, watermark, into a multimedia document so that a given piece of copyright information is permanently tied to the data. This information can later prove the ownership, identify a misappropriating person, trace the marked documents dissemination through the network, or simply inform users about the rights-holder or the permitted use of the data.
Motivation The technological advances have led to the multiple copying of digital media without incurring a loss in quality. These unlimited copying causes a considerable loss to the copyright holders. To enforce intellectual property rights and to restrain the unauthorized distribution of the media, some information is hidden in it for proving the ownership. Hence, the main motivation for taking watermarking as a research topic is to develop an effiective algorithm for embedding and extraction of the hidden information (watermark) for data files. The goal in this project is to embed the watermark in the audio signal imperceptibly by the exploitation of the statistical and the objective properties of the cover signal. The low frequency region and the energy of the signal segments are considered in this regard. Lastly, the robustness of the implemented strategy is evaluated against signal processing and intentional attacks which mainly include the desynchronization attacks and this defines the final aim of the undertaken project.
1. To develop an effective algorithm for embedding and extraction of the hidden information (watermark) for files. 2. To embed watermark imperceptibly by exploiting the statistical and the objective properties. 3. To evaluate robustness of the implemented strategy against de-synchronization attacks.
1.2 Digital Watermarking
With the advancements in technology and increased access to the digital media, the copyright protection of media has gained a lot of importance. To prevent piracy of media and its unauthorized distribution, the owner or the creator of the media needs to prove his intellectual property rights. This is where watermarking comes into picture. Watermarking is a strategy to embed some classified information into the media perceptually or non-perceptually to prove the ownership. Watermark is the data which is hidden into the digital media for proving the intellectual property rights. The main properties of the watermark include: 1. Imperceptibility 2. Undetectability 3. Resistance to all signal manipulations 4. Extractability to prove ownership 5. Unambiguity The watermark should be imperceptible in the manner that the changes made to cover object for embedding the watermark should not create a very high order of distortion. That is the quality of the cover object should remain unaffected despite the changes done in it for hiding the watermark thereby, making the watermark imperceptible. The watermark should also be undetectable when searched by any malicious user with an aim to destroy or remove it. Another property that the watermark needs to exhibit is its resilience to the signal manipulations and other deliberate attacks. It should be so embedded in the cover work that it is resistant to all changes made in the cover work. Lastly, the watermark should be extractable to some acceptable extents to prove the copyright ownership whenever required to do so. These attributes of the watermarks have to be taken into account before developing the algorithm for its embedding and extraction. Also, the watermark should be unambiguous so that no two parties may claim for the same
resilience to attacks and environment in which it is used. should be able to prove the copyright ownership most efficiently. Resistance to attacks 4 . when extracted. So it is designed according to the type of cover media. The division of the watermarking strategies has been done in following main streams on the basis of: 1. Cover Media 2. The taxonomy is shown in figure 1.media work. Watermark.3 Classification of Watermarking Techniques The watermarking techniques used to embed information are dependent on the requirements of the applications that the cover work is to be used for. 1. Extraction strategy 4. Domain 3.
Audio 4.Figure 1. Software In text watermarking algorithms. spacing between the letter. Video 5. Image 3.1: Taxonomy of Watermarking Techniques On the basis of cover media used: The watermarking algorithms are broadly classified into 5 categories depending on the cover work that is to be watermarked. These are: 1. Text 2. words and lines or the typing style is manipulated in a manner to embed the watermark. The changes reflect the embedding of 5 .
Audio watermarking is another domain of work where the watermark is embedded in the audio signal to curb the unlimited piracy of the media. human auditory system is more sensitive to changes in amplitude so the watermark embedding is carried out in the pixel values of image frames. Video watermarking involves the embedding to be done in the continuous image frames of the video or to the audio part of the signal or to both. There are two domains in which the watermarking is done namely: 1. This embedding of watermark is dependent on the Human Visual System (HVS). transform is applied to the image and then coefficients are changed to embed the watermark depending on the frequency region in which the watermark needs to be hidden. Exhaustive research has been carried out in this direction. Frequency/ Transform domain In spatial domain.watermark in the document. Time/ spatial domain 2. Software watermarking is done in order to discourage software piracy. Audio watermarking is comparatively difficult to implement due to the sensitivity of the Human Auditory System. The modifications are made to amplitude values of the samples or to the transform coefficients when any transform is applied to the audio signal. Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT). in images the pixel values can be modified and in audio the amplitude values can be manipulated. In frequency domain. Spatialdomain 2. For example. In transform domain. Image watermarking scheme has been the most popular research area in watermarking. Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) etc. Watermark can be embedded in the code part or in the data of the software. frequency domain In spatial domain. Watermark can be some classified textual information which when extracted can prove the copyright ownership. The main transforms in common use are: Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT). On the basis of domain: The watermarking algorithms can be broadly classified into two categories: 1. Since. 6 . the watermark is embedded by directly modifying the values of cover object. a transform is applied to the cover object and then manipulations are done to the transform coefficients in the required frequency band. changes are made to the pixel values of the image in order to embed the watermark which can be another image or any other signal.
This information can be any data derived from the media file. Non blind techniques 2. Semi blind techniques 3. Fragile 2. In comparison to blind strategy. Robust strategies are those which are resistant to all the deliberate and non deliberate attacks. They are capable of sustaining most of the attacks. The main disadvantage of this method is that extra bandwidth is required to send the original cover work as well along with the watermarked work. Robust The watermarking strategies come under the category of being fragile when they cannot sustain the signal manipulation and intentional attacks. In semi blind strategy. non blind watermarking algorithms are more resistant to attacks On the basis of resistance to attacks: In this category of classification. not exactly the original media is required for extracting the watermark. In the blind strategy. watermarking scheme is again classified into three types: 1. the watermark can be successfully extracted or detected even if the cover work is corrupted with attacks. It is divided into three broad categories: 1. Semi fragile techniques can sustain some attacks but they also fail against some of them. Blind techniques In the non blind strategy the original cover work is required to extract the watermark.On the basis of extraction strategy: This classification is done on the basis of the fact whether the original cover object or some extra information is required for watermark extraction. no extra information is required for the extraction of the watermark. some information derived from the original cover work. That is. Semi fragile 3. 7 .
lossy compression of the data (in which resolution is diminished). even if the modifications were strong. then the watermark still is present and it may be extracted. 8 . attacking-. although in some contexts the phrase digital watermark means the difference between the watermarked signal and the cover signal. In embedding. for example. embedding. Detection (often called extraction) is an algorithm which is applied to the attacked signal to attempt to extract the watermark from it. cropping an image or video. Then the watermarked digital signal is transmitted or stored. the extraction algorithm should be able to produce the watermark correctly.4 Digital watermarking life-cycle phases Figure 1. and detection and retrieval functions The information to be embedded in a signal is called a digital watermark. and produces a watermarked signal.2 : Digital watermarking life-cycle phases General digital watermark life-cycle phases with embedding-. attack. where pirates attempt to remove the digital watermark through modification. A watermarking system is usually divided into three distinct steps. If this person makes a modification. While the modification may not be malicious. If the signal was unmodified during transmission. The signal where the watermark is to be embedded is called the host signal. In robust digital watermarking applications. this is called an attack. There are many possible modifications.1. In fragile digital watermarking. and detection. or intentionally adding noise. the term attack arises from copyright protection application. usually transmitted to another person. an algorithm accepts the host and the data to be embedded. the extraction algorithm should fail if any change is made to the signal.
readily extracted by owner of image. 2. watermark should be perceptually invisible within host media. statistically invisible to unauthorized removal. resampling.1. DVD) Content protection – content stamped with a visible watermark that is very difficult to remove so that it can be publicly and freely distributed Unfortunately.e. recoverable from a document. 1998).6 Properties For better activeness. The following section describes some digital watermarking techniques. crapping etc. The watermark should be robust to different attacks. compression. Ownership Assertion – to establish ownership of the content (i. 1998). should provide the original information embedded reliably and also removed by authorized users. image) Fingerprinting – to avoid unauthorized duplication and distribution of publicly available multimedia content Authentication and integrity verification – the authenticator is inseparably bound to the content whereby the author has a unique key associated with the content and can verify integrity of that content by extracting the watermark Content labeling – bits embedded into the data that gives further information about the content such as a graphic image with time and place information Usage control – added to limit the number of copies created whereas the watermarks are modified by the hardware and at some point would not create any more copies (i. there is not an universal watermarking technique to satisfy all of these purposes (Memon & Wong. 1.e. Robustness :The watermark should be robust such that it must be difficult to remove. The following list details six purposes of digital watermarking (Memon & Wong. Perceptual transparency:This property describes that whether watermark is visible or 9 . retouching.5 Purpose of Digital Watermarking Watermarks added to digital content serve a variety of purposes. The content in the environment that it will be used determines the digital watermarking technique. For a digital watermark to be effective for ownership. The robustness describes whether watermark can be reliably detected after performing some media operations. robust to accidental and intended signal distortion like filtering. it must be robust. All these important properties of digital watermarks are described as1.
5. Especially. Attack refers to detection or modification of watermark. Similar to process in which artist signed their painting with a brush to claim their copyrights. In a 10 . watermarks are having some extra properties as unambiguity. inseparable from the works and able to undergo some transformation as works. Complexity property is concerned with amount of effort needed to extract or retrieve the watermark from content. Digital watermarking may be useful to setup controlled audio distribution and provide efficient means for copyright protection. Imperceptible watermarks are such that content remains same after applying digital watermarking technique. device control. All one has to do is to scan the print and extract the information from negative. Digital watermarking is playing a important role in many fields of applications such as broadcast monitoring. 4. For example.invisible to human sensor organ.7 Why to use it? First important application come into mind is copyright protection of digital media. Complexity: This is important property which is to be consider in real time applications like video.so. 1. distribution of digital audio over internet in MP3 format is currently a big problem. tamper resistance. Capacity : Capacity property of digital watermarks refers to amount of information that can be embedded within the content. proof of ownership. This is generally referred to as attack on watermarking. embedded watermark will allow to identify the owner of work. owner identification.It is easy to duplicate digital data exactly without quality loss. Hence. usually in collaboration with international registration bodies such as IDDN(Inter Deposite Digital Number). transaction tracking. The important point is that more data is used in watermark. 3. artist of today can watermark their work and hide some information say their name in the image. Digital watermarks can also serve as invisible labels and content link. fingerprinting. Security: Security property describes that how easy to remove a watermark. In addition to these properties. In addition with copyright protection. copy control. it is becomes easy to find out negative of a print. content authentification. watermark will become less robust. photo development labs may insert a watermark into the picture to link the print to its negative. Perceptible watermarks are visible to human while imperceptible are not. This concept is applicable to digital video and audio also.
then access a web based directory to find the company’s name and up-to-date address. A single PC based monitoring station can continuously monitor to 16 channels over 24 hours with no human interaction.completely different scenario. A graphic or audio file bearing digital watermark can inform the viewer or listener who owns to the item. Digital watermarks also serves the purposes of identifying quality and assuring authenticity.Broadcast monitoring This application identifies that when and where works are broadcast by recognizing watermarks embedded in these works.The system can distinguish between identical versions of songs. There are various applications of digital watermarking as broadcast monitoring. There are variety of technologies to monitor playback of sound recording on broadcast. proof of ownership. Digital watermarking also serves as a means of advertising within the digital media. owner identification. use a watermark reader to extract the digital signature. The technique Digital Watermarking is the recent research in the field of multimedia and internet copyright protection field. Out of these. 2.Watermarking video or music is planned by all major entertainment componies possessing closed networks. which are watermarked for different distribution channel. Resulted monitoring is assembled at central server and is now available to interested one . some important applications are described as- 1. The digital watermarking is alternative to these technologies due to it’s reliable automated detection. the digital watermarks may be used as a geometrical reference which may be useful for programs such as Optical Character Recognition(OCR) software. phone number and web and e-mail address. For instance. encoding happens at mastering level of sound recording. transactional watermarks are also considered. the user may download and view a digital image. Such system requires Monitoring infrastructure and watermarks to be present in content. copy control. Encoding According to the thinking of major music companies and major video studios.After completion 11 . transaction tracking.content authentication. The embedded calibration watermark may improve the detection reliability of the OCR software since it allows the determination of translation. device control and so on. In such downstream. Each song is assigned with unique ID from the identifier database. rotation and scaling.
This signature then can be checked to verify that it has not been alter.of all mastering processes. 4.This approach is being taken in Digital Video Disc(DVD). digital signatures can be embedded into the work and any modification to the work can be detected. 3. Content authentication The content authentication is nothing but embedding the signal information in Content. By watermarks. the human-assisted watermark key is available. We can add a secure module into copy or playback equipment to automatically extract the permission information and block further processing if required. Copy and playback control The data carried out by watermark may contain information about copy and display permissions.To enhance encoding of audio or video recordings requiring special processing. 12 . ID is encoded in sound recording.
Alice creates an original image and watermarks it before passing it to Bob. copies watermark Alice Send to Bob Image 1 Watermark Image Figure2. rights. which are intended to be somewhat visible (like the very light compass stamp watermarking this report). etc. digital watermarks are designed to be completely invisible.1: Image watermarking The purpose of digital watermarks is to provide copyright protection for intellectual property that is in digital format.CHAPTER 2 Image Watermarking A watermark is A pattern of bits inserted into a digital image file that identifies the file's copyright information (author. If Bob claims the image and sells copies to other people Alice can extract her watermark from the image proving her copyright to it. 13 . As seen above.). The name “watermark” is derived from the faintly visible marks imprinted on organisational stationery. Unlike printed watermarks.
While vendors of digital watermarking schemes do not publicly release the exact methods used to create their watermarks. The watermark is embedded redundantly over the whole image.The caveat here is that Alice will only be able to prove her copyright of the image if Bob hasn’t managed to modify the image such that the watermark is damaged enough to be undetectable or added his own watermark such that it is impossible to discover which watermark was embedded first. they do admit to using the following basic procedure (with obvious variations and additions by each vendor). 2. Minor modifications in the colour values of an image are subconsciously corrected by the eye. Figure2.1 Technical Details Digital watermarking technology makes use of the fact that the human eye has only a limited ability to observe differences. which will be protected by the watermarking.2 : Working 14 . A secret key (string or integer) produces a random number which determines the particular pixels. so that every part of the image is protected. so that the observer does not notice any difference.
which were issued when she registers with Digimarc and pays for a subscription. This technique uses a random number generator to select n pairs of pixels and slightly increases or decrease their luminosity (brightness level). firstly it must be able to resist intentional and unintentional attacks and secondly the embedded watermark must not detract from the quality of the image. A deeper examination of the image also allowed a villain to change the ID and thus the copyright of an already marked image as well as the type of use (such as adult -> general public content). watermarking software usually checks whether there is already a mark in the picture. but this check can be bypassed fairly easily with the result that it is possible to overwrite any existing mark and replace it with another one. The password checking mechanism could easily be removed by flipping a particular “flag” bit and the passwords had only 99 possibilities so it was short enough to be found by trial and error. With suitable parameters. Although the amount of secret information has no direct impact on the visual fidelity of the image or the robustness of the watermark. As an example of poor engineering. and the greater the chance of obvious visual artefacts being created. the secret key is used to identify the manipulated pixels and finally to decode the watermark. Patchwork even survives compression using JPEG. that is the range of all possible values of the secret information. Before embedding a mark. an early version of Digimarc’s watermarking software gave each licensed user an ID and a two-digitnumeric password. The key space. The quality of digital watermarks can be judged in two ways. In the process of extracting the watermark. Thus the contrast of this set is increased without any change in the average luminosity of the image. 15 . x must be large enough to make exhaustive search attacks impossible. the higher the risk of the quality of the image being reduced. The higher the resistance of a watermark against attacks. it plays an important role in the security of the system.One way of doing this is by “Patchwork”.
although resilience to flipping is easy to implement. Compare this Original Image with the attacked images below. and see if you can spot any changes in quality. Few watermarks survive flipping. 16 . Horizontal Flipping Many images can be flipped horizontally without losing quality.2 Methods used to test Watermark Robustness These are some of the methods that can be used to test whether a watermark can survive different changes to the image it is embedded in.2.
but can make watermarks undetectable as rotation realigns horizontal features of an image used to check for the presence of a watermark.Rotation & Cropping A small rotation with cropping doesn’t reduce image quality. Digital watermarking methods are often resilient only to uniform scaling. from 71% to 70% in quality like the example . Scaling Uniform scaling increases/decreases an image by the same % rate in the horizontal and vertical directions. Non-uniform scaling like the example at left increases/decreases the image horizontally and vertically at different % rates.g. 17 . JPEG Compression/Re-compression JPEG is a widely used compression algorithms for images and any watermarking system should be resilient to some degree to compression or change of compression level e. and then had its edges cropped to make the sides straight again. The example has been rotated 3 degrees to the right.
P. SysCoP. To the viewer a “mosaic” image appears to look the same as the original but a web crawler like DigiMarc’s MarcSpider sees many separate images and doesn’t detect that these separate images are parts of a watermarked image. (less than 256 pixels in height or width). JK_PGS (TALISMAN project – É. as a problem common to all image watermarking schemes is that they have trouble embedding watermarks into small images. but still enables the image to be viewed in eg: a web browser by chopping the image into subsections of equal size and putting it back together again. This means that the watermark cannot be detected. Stirmark StirMark is the industry standard software used by researchers to automatically attempt to remove watermarks created by Digimarc. If done correctly this method can completely obliterate a watermark.L. 18 . Mosaic A mosaic attack doesn’t damage the watermarked image or make it lose quality in any way. algorithm).Dithering Dithering approximates colors not in the current palette by alternating two available similar colors from pixel to pixel. however it can make an image appear to be “patchy” when the image is over-dithered (as in the elbow area of the image). Signum Technologies and EIKONAmark.F.
19 . no watermark from any vendor survives the test. sharpening/unsharpening etc.Stirmark attacks a given watermarked image using all the techniques mentioned in this report as well as more esoteric techniques such as low pass filtering. gamma correction. ie: the watermarks are all removed without degradation to image quality occurring. All vendors of digital watermarks have their products benchmarked by Stirmark and as of August 2001.
Digital audio watermarking is the scheme of embedding some relevant information in the audio signal so as to prove the copy right ownership. Its vertices are inaudibility. With this. 20 . It is certainly not possible to attain high robustness and high watermark data rate simultaneously. Only a few audio watermarking schemes have been reported till date. keeping the perceptual quality of the watermarked audio at an acceptable level. Audio watermarking is difficult to implement as compared to image watermarking due to high sensitivity of human auditory system (HAS). watermarking has gained a great interest. Hence. to achieve robustness against attacks.1 : Audio Watermarking: General Strategy The simplest visualization of requirements of the audio watermarking algorithms is the magic triangle. the protection of intellectual property rights has become one of the areas of main concern. This triangle is a perfect visual representation of the trade-offs between the watermark capacity and robustness.Chapter 3 Audio Watermarking With the development of the internet and increase in the need for the security and integrity of the data in transit on the network. The general strategy to implement audio watemarking is diagrammatically given as: Figure 3. robustness to attacks and watermark data rate. The main work in the field of watermarking has been focused on images and videos.
3. HAS has a fairly small differential range which means loud sounds can mask out the weaker sounds . As for an instance in steganography applications. the algorithms have to attain robustness to attacks. The slight perturbations in a sound file are detected even if they are as low as one part in ten million or 80dB below ambient level. The HAS is highly sensitive towards Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN). The requirements that have to be satisfied among all the three are very much application dependent. Hence watermarking of audio signals is more challenging as compared to watermarking of images or video.1 Human Auditory System The Human Auditory System is very sensitive to slightest changes in the audio due to its wider dynamic range. 21 . This is because the human ear can perceive amplitude distortion but it is relatively insensitive to phase distortion. On the other hand. The HAS perceives sounds over a range of power greater than 109:1 and a range of frequencies greater than103:1.Figure 3.2 : Magic Triangle capacity of the watermark has to be compromised.
Masking properties are exploited to embed additional bit stream into the cover audio signal without generating the audible noise thus keeping the watermark concealed. The main properties of the HAS mainly used in watermarking algorithms are frequency (simultaneous) masking and temporal masking. The HAS is generally modelled as a non uniform filter bank with logarithmically widening bandwidth for higher frequencies. Frequency domain Figure 3.The human ear acts as a frequency analyser that maps signal frequencies to locations along the basilar membrane. HAS is modelled as a bandpass filterbank. The bandwidth of each filter is set according to the critical band. which is defined as the bandwidth in which subjective response changes abruptly. Time domain 2. 3.2 Types of Audio Watermarking Techniques Digital audio watermarking techniques can be broadly classiffied into 2 categories based on the domain in which the watermarking is done: 1. Hence. containing strongly overlapping bandpass filters with bandwidths around 100 Hz for bands with a central frequency ranging between 500Hz to 5000 Hz for bands placed at high frequencies.4 : Taxonomy of Audio Watermarking Techniques 22 .
1.In time domain audio watermarking schemes. its algorithmic delay is very less. If the extracted bits and the inserted bits match then the watermark is successfully detected. 3. The following sections will discuss various audio watermarking techniques and the affect of various audio signal attacks on the robustness of the watermark when embedded by these techniques. The LSBs of these segments are modified according to the bit of the watermark that is to be embedded. the watermark can be embedded into it multiple number of times. echo hiding method. Time domain techniques can be further classified into two categories (a) when the audio signal samples are modified for embedding the watermarking (LSB Decoding method. The advantages of this method are: (a) As it is simple to implement.2 Time Domain Techniques When the watermark is directly embedded into the audio signal then they come under this category and they are broadly classified into two parts on the basis of how the watermark is embedded into the signal. It is a blind algorithm the original audio signal is not required for detection of the watermark. Given the extraordinary high channel capacity of using the entire audio signal for transmission. The audio signal is first divided into segments and a subset of the segments is selected. patchwork method). Quantization method. (b) when inaudible noise (watermark) is added on to the audio signal (addition of pseudo random sequence. phase watermarking method). the watermark is embedded by modifying the audio signal itself. modifications are done on the transform coefficients of the components of the audio signal. LSB Decoding Method The simplest and most straight forward technique of embedding the watermark is to embed it into the Least Significant Bits of the audio signal. 23 . (b) It has very high watermark capacity as stated earlier. In transform domain. Extraction of the watermark is performed by extracting the least significant bits of the selected segments.
Addition of Pseudo Random Sequence In this scheme.This technique takes into account the characteristics of the psycho acoustic model such that added sequence does not cause any audible effect on the audio signal. The shaping of watermark can be done in many ways. The disadvantage is: (a) It cannot survive the noise attacks if the additive noise is larger than the quantization step. In the extraction process. 3. Then the quantized value of each sample is modified based on the watermark bit to be embedded. Quantization Method This scheme divides an audio signal into samples and then quantizes a value for each sample. In the scalar quantization method a quantization step is decided on whose basis the quantized value of the sample is generated by using the quantization function. The detection process is exactly the reverse of the insertion process. one of them is filtering. This method can also be characterized as one which uses the information of the audio signal for embedding the watermark. (b) It is quite unlikely that the watermark would survive the analog to digital conversion and vice versa. In this method. it is shaped in such a manner that its addition to the signal is not heard. the audio signal is again 24 . It is with the use of quantization step only that the value of the sample is modifiied with regard to the bit being inserted. Before embedding the watermark. the audio signal is again divided into samples and the shaped pn sequence is added to each of the samples of the signal or some of the selected samples. 2. multiplicative etc. The method of addition of the watermark can be additive.Disadvantages being: (a) It is extremely less robust due to the fact that random changes of the LSBs destroy the coded watermark. the watermark is simply considered to be pseudo random sequence. The main advantages of this method are: (a) It is very simple to implement (b) It is a blind algorithm.
Here in this method the host audio signal is divided into smaller portions. either a d0 sample delay for bit 0 or a d1 sample delay for bit 1. binary messages are added by echoing the original signal with 2 delays. Cepstrum or Autocepstrum analysis are used for these purposes. x(n) = s(n) + a:s(n . The main disadvantages of this method are: (a) Its increased complexity due to the use of cepstrum analysis for detection. (b) It is quite robust against attacks. Each portion can be considered as an independent signal. Now embedding of the watermark into these independent signals takes place by introducing the bit delays. Echo hiding method Echo hiding embeds the data into the audio signal by introducing an echo in time domain. The nature of such echoes is to add resonance to the host audio. 4. so echoes ca be very easily detected and they provide a clue for malicious attack. The advantages of this algorithm are: (a) The watermark can be repeatedly embedded in the audio signal. The advantages of Echo hiding method are: (a) It is quite imperceptible and usually makes the sound rich. As for an instance.divided into samples and the watermark is extracted from the selected ones or all of them by the procedure reverse of what was followed for embedding. (b) This is a blind algorithm and is highly robust against desynchronization attacks. (b) As the human auditory system is quite sensitive. 25 . Now the extracted and the original and the extracted watermark can be compared to check for the successful detection. The disadvantage being: (a) The transmission cost of the audio signal goes very high. Extraction of the embedded message involves the detection of the delay.d) Here only 1 echo sound is being added but multiple echoes can also be added.
Its greatest advantage is: (a) Since the algorithm does not use the original audio signal for watermark extraction. having a wide frequency spectrum. 6. leaving the other patch intact. The threshold value is decided with the constant value that is used while embedding the watermark . It spreads the frequency 26 . it is a blind algorithm. In Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum techniques. In the embedding process. Spread Spectrum method The spread spectrum technique encrypts information by spreading the encrypted data across a large frequency spectrum. These two patches are nothing but the group of some samples each. Apart from the additive strategy. Disadvantage of this scheme is: (a) It is less robust against attacks if position of patches is known. In this technique the watermark is first shaped and then it is spread over the entire audio signal by the use of various spread spectrum techniques. In case of the addition and subtraction operated patchwork scheme. Two patches are pseudo randomly selected from the original audio signal.a constant value d is added to one patch and subtracted from another. multiplicative operations can also be used for the implementation of the patchwork method in which a single bit of the watermark is embedded into the signal by multiplying or dividing the sample values of one patch thus. (b) This scheme can also be implemented in transform domain  as well and in that case the modifications would be done on the transform coefficients of the samples in the patches . The code is modulated by a carrier wave and multiplied by the pseudo-random noise sequence. Patchwork method This scheme embeds a special statistic into the audio signal. spreading is accomplished by modulating the original signal with a sequence of pseudo random binary pulses known as chips. In the simplest patchwork strategy. The spread spectrum technique can also be implemented in the transform domain. the difference of the sample values of the patches is compared with the threshold value to decide whether the samples contain the watermark or not.5. The watermark is extracted at the receiver end by the comparison of energies of the two patches so as to say the expected values of the samples of the two patches are compared. the audio data is coded as a binary string.
Then inverse DCT is applied to the frames. DCT based Watermarking Watermark message is embedded into the host audio by modifying the DCT coefficients. The advantages of this technique are: (a) It is a simple to implement. The watermark is spread over so many components of the signal so that the energy of any component is very small and certainly undetectable. low mid and high. Its greatest disadvantage is: (a) This method is highly fragile against de-synchronization attacks. The transform domain techniques are more robust against attacks as compared to the time domain techniques but the drawback being the high computation requirement. the 27 . The watermark is fragile when embedded in the low or high frequency region so for robustness.spectrum  of the data over the available frequency band.3 Frequency Domain Techniques Audio signals are transformed from time domain to frequency domain to enable effective embedding of the watermark. (b) It is a blind algorithm. which can be regarded as addition of noise to the original audio signal. For extraction the watermarked signal is again multiplied by the same pseudo-random noise sequence. In case of embedding the watermark in high frequency region. Shaped watermark signal is then added to the DC or AC coe_cients of the transformed audio signal. Audio signals is divided into frames and DCT is applied to them individually. Various time domain techniques can be incorporated with the transform domain techniques to make more robust methods of audio watermarking. The DCT transform divides the signal into three frequency regions namely . it is embedded in the mid frequency range. This spread data sequence is attenuated and added to the original file. Transform domain techniques allow the embedding of the watermark in the perceptually significant components of the audio signal. The other reason for not embedding the watermark in the low frequency region is that it causes audible changes to the signal thereby. destroying its fidelity. 1. 3.
The common filters for watermarking are Daubechies Orthogonal Filters. The audio signal is transformed by wavelet transforms using wavelet filters. The advantages of this technique are: (a) It is highly robust against various signal processing attacks. The disadvantage is: (a) The complexity of the procedure involved for watermarking and extraction is quite high. The application of DFT divides the signal into two parts of phase and magnitude. The watermark is embedded into any of these parts of the DFT coeffcients depending upon the requirement of the application. DFT based Watermarking The methodology to embed the watermark in the audio signal is same as DCT. For extraction again the same DFT is applied to the signal and from the selected frames watermark is extracted.problem is of robustness only. Prominently the embedding is done in magnitude part only. In case the watermark is to be embedded in some frames then one way for the selection of these frames is on the basis of a secret key. DWT based Watermarking DWT based watermarking schemes are on the same pattern as DCT based schemes. Some or all of the frames can be used for embedding the watermark. Haar Wavelet Filter and Daubechies BiOrthogonal Filters. 3. For extracting the watermark. This key is used at the time of extraction also for taking out the selected frames. The signal is decomposed into several frequencies by these filters. (b) It is a blind algorithm. (c) This scheme is more robust to attacks than DCT based watermarking scheme. The audio signal is divided into frames and DFT is applied on them individually. 2. The chances of the removal of the watermark are very high by simple signal processing operations. DCT needs to be applied to the signal and then from the selected frames the watermark is extracted by following the procedure reverse to that used for embedding. On single 28 . Perform the inverse DFT on the frames to reconstruct the audio signal.
3.8 ms. If a raw audio file is converted to MP3 at a bit-rate of 128kbps than roughly 90% of the frequencies are removed. removing samples that don’t “fit in” amongst neighbouring samples. and are therefore removed. Audio Restoration programs Audio restoration programs are designed to remove hisses. Although the removal of digital watermarks is obviously not a purpose of these programs. they work remarkably well at doing so as the sample bits inserted to watermark the audio don’t fit in with their surrounding pixels. The original signal can again be reconstructed by applying the inverse DWT scheme. the signal is decomposed into two parts. The decomposed data thus obtained gives DWT coefficients. The part containing low frequencies is again decomposed into two parts. and replacing them with an average of the two neighbour samples. These are some of the ways watermarks can be removed from audio files MPEG1 Layer III (MP3) audio compression A digital audio compression algorithm that achieves a compression factor of about twelve while preserving sound quality. However specialised 29 . They do this by searching through the wavelength. Echo Hiding Removal Echo hiding relies on the fact that we cannot perceive short echoes. high frequencies and low frequencies. crackles and pops from audio recordings. The number of levels in which the signal can be decomposed depends upon application and length of signal. The echo delays are chosen between 0. What this lossy compression does is remove the frequencies not heard by the human ear from the audio.level decomposition.4 Methods used to test Watermark Robustness th The most common method of watermarking audio is to mark every x bit in an audio file depending on the random generator seed calculated from the watermarking key applied to the audio. eg: 1 millisecond(ms) and embeds data into a cover audio signal by introducing an echo characterised by its delay and its relative amplitude compared to surrounding samples. high frequencies and low frequencies. This means that a search for the watermark needs to find an unaltered length of samples that contains at least 2 watermarked bits to prove the watermarks existence.5 ms and 2 ms and the best relative amplitude of the echo is around 0.
even in classical music. either duplicated or deleted a sample at random in each chunk (resulting in chunks of 499 or 501 samples long) and stuck the chunks back together. can be used to detect and remove these echoes without effecting sound quality. and therefore the watermark is obliterated. 30 . Applications And Algorithms“.7 software which looks for echoes with a length between 0. In his paper titled “Audio watermarking: Features. we split the signal into chunks of 500 samples. ”In our first implementation. This turned out to be almost imperceptible after altering. Michael Arnold agrees with the Cambridge team stating that “one of the greatest challenges [of watermarking] is the robustness against the so-called jitter attack”.5 ms and 2 ms (as seen below). but the jitter prevents the marked bits from being located”. Zitter The simplest and most effective attack on any audio watermarking scheme is to add jitter to the signal.
Military applications 1. 2. 2. Some special watermarking technique uses color separation. Intelligent web browsers. Civilian applications 1. it is installed in server as application software that any authorized user who access to 31 .Embedding watermark is easy. Intelligence activities. Robust design of digital waetrmark withstand pirating attacks. 3. Image tampering detection.CHAPTER 4 ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES 4. 4. There are some military and civilian applications of digital watermarking also. So watermarks appears in only one of the color bands. Whenever the colors are separated from printing then watermarks becomes visible. 3.1 Advantages of digital watermarking The field of digital watermarking is not restricted to digital images. Implementation on PC platform is possible. There are some benefits of this technique as1. With such invisible fragile watermarks. Uniquely identifies author of copyrighted works. This approach is advantageous to journalists to inspect digital pictures from a photo stockhouse before buying an un-watermarked versions. In case of watermark embedding system. Copyright protection of each digital media in hardcopy or on internet. Therefore watermarks becomes strongly invisible. 2. implementation of web based image authentication This web based authentication includes watermark embedding and authentication system. Law enforcement for chain of evidence. There is an important advantage of invisible fragile watermarks. 3. This technique time and frequency masking properties of human ear to conceal the watermark and make it unaudible.Traitor tracing.
The distribution can be done through any network as FTP. Digital watermarking techniques is having advantages as we seen earlier. It is always possible to make it unreadable without any significant degradation of the data. Watermarking does not prevent image copying as much as it simply makes copied images easier to track down and detect ownership. In some researches. compressing and converting images from one file type to another may add noise to an image or diminish its watermark in such a manner that the watermark becomes unreadable. Resizing. Some watermarks vanish if someone manipulates the image in a program like Photoshop. Once image is distributed to externally. e-mail etc. then anyone can erase it by knowing the embedding algorithm. Again it is not clear that. in the meantime . if this drawback will be got around in future. if anyone is allow to read the watermark.It also have some limits also.2 Disadvantages of digital watermarking Digital watermarking is recent research field. 4. client can get authentication web page to get verification of images. The blind watermarking algorithm which is really robust is not in existence today. 32 . By knowing the exact content of watermark and algorithms to embeds and retrieve it. As a matter of fact. Another disadvantage is that owner can erase the watermark. the conclusion comes that not all watermarking techniques will be useful in resolving ownership disputes.the possibility of erasing the watermark or its part .once it’s content is known must be taken into account when designing a copyright protection system.server can generate watermark image. therefore it’s intrinsic limitations are not understood yet. The watermarks have been known to weaken or disappear by the time the images were processed for the Internet.
they have a strong interest in protecting their ownership rights. The watermarking problem is inherently more difficult that the problem of encryption. 33 . In the case of digital watermarking. Though much research remains before watermarking systems become robust and widely available. Digital watermarking has been proposed as one way to protect such interests. Various companies have projects in this direction solutions will soon be available. Especially applications related to copy protection of bills with digital watermarks. even if one cannot decipher or detect any hidden message contained in the medium. Since commercial interests seek to use the digital networks to offer digital media for profit. is a successful attack. usually by slightly distorting the medium containing it. An exhaustive list of watermarking applications is of course impossible. a successful attack often requires deciphering an enciphered message. Collateral technology will also be necessary to automate the process of authentication. It is very important to prepare the industry to the usage of digital watermarks and and it is very likely that fully functioning to convince them of the added value their products can gain if they employ digital watermarking technologies. merely destroying the watermark. However. it is interesting to note the increasing interest in fragile watermarking technologies.CHAPTER 5 FUTURE OF DIGITAL WATERMARKING The field of digital watermarking is still evolving and is attracting a lot of research interest. non-repudiable transmission and validation. since it is easier to execute a successful attack on a watermark.The enormous popularity of the World Wide Web in the early 1990's demonstrated the commercial potential of offering multimedia resources through the digital networks. In addition to technological developments. there is much promise that they will contribute significantly to the protection of proprietary interests of electronic media. marketing and business issues are extremely important and require in-depth analysis and strategic planing. In cryptography.
CHAPTER 6 CONCLUSION The large need of networked multimedia system has created the need of COPYRIGHT PROTECTION. Digital watermarking is the solution for the protection of legal rights of digital content owner and customer. Digital watermarking is the great solution of the problem of how to protect copyright. 34 . It is very important to protect intellectual properties of digital media. Internet playing an important role of digital data transfer.
IEEE International Conference on Multimedia and Expo.  Cano..  Arnold M.CHAPTER 7 REFERENCE  http://www.. Audio Watermarking Techniques.  Arnold M. pp. 2nd International Conference on Electrical and Electronics Engineering (ICEEE) and XI Conference on Electrical Engineering. Paci_c Rim Workshop on Digital Steganography.G..wekipedia. Dr. Audio watermarking: Features. Dobb's Journal. July 2003. vol. 2005. Issue 11. 1013-101. 26. 2001. Audio Watermarking. Applications and Algorithm.. 35 . H. pp. vol. 21-26.org  Kim.J. Analysis of Watermarking Schemes. 2001. Japan. 2. R. et al. Mexico.
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