MOST DIFFICULT WORDS LIST IN GRE EXAM Compiled By: N.Karthick, M.

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abase = lower, humiliate abash = humiliate, embarrass abdicate = give up power or position abeyance = postponement, temporary suspension abhor = detest, loathe abjure = renounce, to formally reject or abandon ablution = cleansing, washing abortive = unsuccessful, interruptive while incomplete abrogate = cancel, to abolish by authority absolve = acquit, to forgive or free from blame abstruse = difficult to comprehend abut = touch, border on abysmal = deficient, sub par accede = yield, express approval, agree to acclimate = accustom oneself to a climate acclivity = ascent, incline accolade = applause, praise accost = to approach and speak to someone accouter (BRITISH = accoutre) = equip acme = summit, highest point acquiesce = to agree, comply passively acrid = harsh, bitter, pungent, caustic acrimonious = caustic, bitter actuate = induce, start acumen = sharpness of insight adamant = insistent, uncompromising, unyielding adduce = offer as example adjunct = addition, something added, attached, or joined admonish = warn gently, caution, or reprimand adroit = skillful, accomplished, highly competent adulation = applause, high praise advent = arrival adventitious = accidental aegis = that which protects affect = influence affray = public brawl agape = openmouthed, wonder aggrandize = exaggerate, to make larger or greater in power aghast = horrified

N.Karthick, M.E (Manufacturing), Madras Institute of Technology Campus, Anna University, Chennai.

alacrity = swiftness, speed, cheerful willingness, eagerness allay = to reassure; to lessen, ease, or soothe allege = assert without proof allegory = fable, symbolic representation alliteration = repetition of the same sound allude = refer to indirectly amenable = agreeable amiss = wrong, out of place amity = Friendship amorous = strongly attracted to love; showing love amorphous = shapeless amortize = to diminish by installment payments amphibian = creature that lives on land and water amphitheater (BRITISH = amphitheatre) = oval-shaped theater ample = enough, specious, abundant amplify = enlarge, increase, intensify amuck = murderous frenzy anachronism = Anything occurring or existing out of its proper time anarchist = terrorist anathema = curse, ban ancillary = supplementary, subsidiary, subordinate angular = Sharp-cornered or sharp angled animadversion = critical remark animus = hate annals = historical records annul = cancel, nullify anodyne = pain soothing anoint = consecrate, to apply oil, especially as a sacred rite anomaly = deviation from the rule, irregularity anonymity = state of being anonymous, having no name antediluvian = ancient, obsolete, pre historic anthropomorphous = Nonhuman having or resembling human form or quality antithesis = direct opposite apathetic = unconcerned, indifferent aphasia = inability to speak or use words aphorism = maxim, old saying aplomb = poise, confidence apocalyptic = ominous, doomed apocryphal = a doubtful authenticity, not genuine, fictional apoplexy = stroke apostate = one who abandons one's faith apothegm = a short saying

N.Karthick, M.E (Manufacturing), Madras Institute of Technology Campus, Anna University, Chennai.

apotheosis = Deification, glorification appall (BRITISH = appal) = horrify apparition = phantom appellation = title, name apposite = apt appraise = assess, evaluate the value approbation = praise, official approval apropos = Appropriate arable = suitable for cultivation arbiter = judge archaic = Antiquated, from an earlier time archetype = original model archipelago = group of islands ardor (BRITISH = ardour) = great emotion or passion argot = slang aria = operatic song arraign = indict, to call to court to answer a charge array = arrangement arrogate = seize without right, to demand or claim arrogantly arroyo = gully artifact (BRITISH = artefact) = an object made by human, of historical interest artifice = trick artisan = a skilled handicraftsman ascendancy = powerful state ascribe = to attribute aseptic = sterile ashen = resembling ashes, or deathly pale asinine = stupid askance = to view with suspicion, scornfully askew = crooked, tilted asperity = roughness of temper aspersion = slander, false rumor, damaging report assail = attack assay = to analyze or estimate assent = to express agreement assiduous = hard-working, diligent, persistent assuage = lessen (pain), to make less severe, ease astringent = causing contraction, severe, harsh asunder = apart, into different parts atelier = workshop atone = make amends for a wrong audit = formal examination of final records

N.Karthick, M.E (Manufacturing), Madras Institute of Technology Campus, Anna University, Chennai.

augury = prophecy or prediction of events august = noble, dignified, awe-inspiring, venerable authoritarian = dictator, extremely strict, bossy autocrat = dictator or a high ranking government officer aver = to declare to be true aversion = intense dislike aviary = cage where birds are kept avow = declare avuncular = like an uncle awry = crooked, askew, amiss axiom = self-evident truth, premise, postulate azure = sky blue bacchanal = orgy, drunkenly festive badger = To pester badinage = banter, teasing conversation bagatelle = nonentity, trifle baleful = hostile, malignant, harmful with evil intentions balk = hesitate, refuse, shirk, prevent banal = trite, overly common bandy = discuss lightly bane = poison, nuisance, something causing ruin banter = to tease playfully and in good humor bard = poet baroque = ornate bask = take pleasure in, sun bastion = fort, fortification, stronghold bauble = A trinket, trifle beatific = supremely happy, angelic, saintly beatitude = state of bliss begrudge = resent, envy beguile = deceive, seduce, mislead behemoth = monster, huge creature beholden = in debt belabor (BRITISH = belabour) = to assail verbally, to insist repeatedly or harp on beleaguer = besiege, to harass, plague benighted = un enlightened benison = Blessing berate = to scold harshly bereft = deprived of beset = harass, surround besmirch = slander, sully bestial = beast-like, brutal

N.Karthick, M.E (Manufacturing), Madras Institute of Technology Campus, Anna University, Chennai.

bestow = to give as a gift, grant bevy = group bicameral = having two legislative branches bicker = quarrel, to have a petty argument bifurcated = divided into two branches, forked bilious = ill-tempered bilk = swindle, cheat, defraud bivouac = encampment blanch = bleach, whiten, to take the color out blandish = to coax with flattering, grovel blase = bored with life blatant = glaring, obvious, showy blight = decay, afflict, destroy blithe = Joyful, cheerful, or without appropriate thought bludgeon = to hit someone several times with a heavy object bode = portend bogus = forged, false bolster = To support or make something strong bombast = pompous speech bountiful = abundant, plentiful bourgeois = middle class brackish = salty brazen = bold, shameless, impudent breach = breaking of a rule, agreement, or law broach = bring up a topic of conversation brusque = curt, rough and abrupt in manner bucolic = rustic bulwark = fortification burgeon = sprout or flourish burlesque = farce burly = husky, brawny burnish = To make brilliant or shining cabal = plot, a secret group seeking to overturn something cache = hiding place cadaver = corpse, dead body cadaverous = haggard cajole = encourage, coax, flatter callow = inexperienced calumny = Slander, false and malicious accusation canard = hoax, a lie candor (BRITISH = candour) = frankness, honesty of expression canine = pertaining to dogs

N.Karthick, M.E (Manufacturing), Madras Institute of Technology Campus, Anna University, Chennai.

canny = clever and able to think quickly, especially about money or business canvass = survey, examine thoroughly capricious = fickle, impulsive, whimsical, without much thought captious = fond of finding fault in others carafe = bottle cardinal = chief careen = swerve, to lean on one side caricature = cartoon, exaggerated portrait carnal = of the flesh, sensual carnivorous = meat-eating carp = to find faults, complain constantly carrion = decaying flesh cascade = small waterfall castigate = criticize, punish, chastise casuistry = clever argument to trick people cataclysm = catastrophe, disaster catalyst = something that causes change without being changed cathartic = purgative, purifying, cleansing catholic = universal, worldly caucus = a small group within an organization or a meeting of such a group cauterize (BRITISH = cauterise) = to sear cavalcade = a procession or sequence cavil = quibble, raise trivial objections cede = transfer ownership, to surrender possession of something celerity = quick moving or acting censorious = condemning speech, severely critical centripetal = tending toward the center cession = Surrender, as of possessions or rights chafe = abrade chagrin = shame, embarrassment, humiliation chalice = goblet, cup champ = to chew noisily chaotic = in utter disorder chary = cautious, watchful, extremely shy chaste = pure, virgin chasten = castigate chastise = to criticize or punish someone chattel = piece of personal property chauvinist = a man who thinks men are better than women cherubic = sweet, innocent chicanery = trickery, fraud, deception chide = scold, express disapproval

N.Karthick, M.E (Manufacturing), Madras Institute of Technology Campus, Anna University, Chennai.

chimerical = imaginary, impossible choleric = easily angered, short-tempered churlish = rude, ungracious cipher = zero circumlocution = roundabout expression circumscribe = To confine within bounds circumspect = cautious, wary circumvent = evade, avoid, to go around citadel = fortress or stronghold clairvoyant = who can see the future, having ESP clamor (BRITISH = clamour) = noisy outcry cleave = to split or separate, to stick, adhere cleft = split clemency = forgiveness, merciful leniency clique = a small group cloister = refuge, to confine, seclude cloven = split coalesce = combine, to grow together coddle = to pamper, baby, treat indulgently codicil = supplement to a will cogent = well-put, convincing, logically forceful cogitate = ponder cognate = from the same source, related cognizant = aware cognomen = family name, any name, nickname cohere = To stick together cohort = an associate collate = to sort or put in proper order colloquy = conference collusion = conspiracy, collaboration, complicity commodious = spacious complaisant = Agreeable, friendly complement = To make complete, perfect complicity = guilt by association, knowing partnership in wrong doing comport = to conduct oneself composure = Calmness of appearance compress = to reduce, squeeze compunction = remorse, regret conch = spiral shell concordat = Agreement concur = To agree condescend = patronize, talk down to, to treat someone as though you are better

N.Karthick, M.E (Manufacturing), Madras Institute of Technology Campus, Anna University, Chennai.

condiment = seasoning condolence = sympathy for the family or friends of a person who has recently died conflagration = large fire, big, destructive fire confluence = flowing together, meeting of two streams, meeting place confound = bewilder, to baffle, perplex congeal = solidify, as a liquid freezing, to become thick or solid coniferous = bearing cones conjecture = hypothesis, speculation, prediction conjure = summon, to evoke a spirit, cast a spell consanguinity = related by blood, kinship consecrate = make holy, dedicate to a goal, to declare sacred consequential = important consort = spouse constituent = electorate, component, part constraint = something that limits what you can do construe = interpret or to explain contagion = infectious agent continence = self-control, self-restraint contingent = conditional contort = twist contrite = apologetic, deeply sorrowful and repentant for a wrong controvert = dispute contumacious = rebellious contusion = A bruise conundrum = enigma, puzzle or problem with no solution, riddle convivial = sociable, festive, fond of eating, drinking, and people convoke = convene, summon, to call together coquette = woman who flirts cordon = bond, chain corollary = consequence corpulent = fat correlation = mutual relationship, association corroborate = to confirm, verify corrugate = to wrinkle or draw into folds cortege = procession coruscate = sparkle coterie = small group, group of people with a common interest or purpose countenance = facial expression, to favor, support covenant = agreement, pact cower = showing fear, to cringe in fear crass = crude, unrefined craven = cowardly

N.Karthick, M.E (Manufacturing), Madras Institute of Technology Campus, Anna University, Chennai.

credence = Belief, acceptance of something as true or real creed = Belief or principle crestfallen = dejected crevice = crack cringe = cower, to shrink in fear cruet = small bottle cuisine = cookery, style of cooking cull = pick out, select culmination = climax, final stage culpable = blameworthy, guilty, responsible for wrong culvert = drain cupidity = greed curator = in charge of a library or museum curmudgeon = boor, cranky person curry = seek favor by flattery cynosure = celebrity dally = procrastinate, to act playfully or waste time dank = damp daunt = to frighten, subdue dauntless = courageous deadpan = expressionless debase = to degrade, or lower in quality or stature debauch = to corrupt, seduce from virtue or duty debonair = sophisticated, affable debutante = a girl debuting into society decadence = deterioration, decay (e.g. moral or cultural) decant = pour decapitate = kill by beheading deciduous = shedding leaves, short-lived, temporary declivity = a place that declines or slopes downwards decorous = seemly, proper, tasteful, socially correct decrepitude = enfeeblement decry = castigate, to belittle, openly condemn defamation = slander deference = courteously yielding to another, respect, honor defile = pollute, to make unclean or dishonor deflect = turn aside defray = pay deft = skillful, dexterous defunct = extinct, no longer existing, dead deign = condescend deleterious = harmful, destructive, detrimental

N.Karthick, M.E (Manufacturing), Madras Institute of Technology Campus, Anna University, Chennai.

delirium = mental confusion, ecstasy deluge = a flood, to submerge, overwhelm delve = dig, explore (of ideas) demagogue = An unprincipled politician, leader demean = to degrade, humiliate, humble demeanor (BRITISH = demeanour) = behavior demented = deranged demur = take exception, to express doubts or objections demure = sedate, reserved denigrate = defame, to slur or blacken someone's reputation denizen = dweller denouement = resolution depose = testify, to remove from a high position deposition = testimony depravity = immorality, sinfulness deprecate = belittle, disparage depreciate = To lessen the worth of depredation = preying on, plunder deranged = insane, delirious, maniacal derelict = negligent deride = To ridicule, to mock, make fun of derivative = copied or adapted, not original descry = To discern, to discover or reveal desecrate = profane, to abuse something sacred desiccate = dehydrate, to dry completely desolate = forsaken despondent = depressed, feeling discouraged and dejected desuetude = disuse desultory = without direction in life, at random, rambling, unmethodical determinate = Definitely limited or fixed, conclusive dexterous = skillful, adroit dialectic = pertaining to debate diatribe = long denunciation, bitter verbal attack dichotomy = a division into two parts didactic = instructional diffidence = shyness, lack of confidence dilettante = amateur, dabbler diminution = Reduction dirge = lament with music, funeral hymn disabuse = correct, to free from a misconception disburse = pay out discomfit = To put to confusion, discomfort

N.Karthick, M.E (Manufacturing), Madras Institute of Technology Campus, Anna University, Chennai.

disconcert = confuse disconsolate = inconsolable, unable to be consoled, extremely sad discordant = harsh-sounding, badly out of tune discrete = separate, distinct discretion = prudence discursive = rambling, wandering from topic to topic disdain = to regard with scorn and contempt dishevel = muss disingenuous = deceptive, sly and crafty disinter = unearth disinterested = Impartial disjointed = disconnected, incoherent, being separated disparage = belittle, speak disrespectfully about disparate = various, dissimilar, different in kind disparity = difference, contrast, dissimilarity dispirit = discourage, to dishearten, make dejected disputatious = fond of arguing disquisition = elaborate treatise dissimulate = to disguise dissipate = scatter dissolute = profligate, immoral dissonance = Discord distaff = the female branch of a family distend = swell, inflate, bloat distrait = preoccupied, absent-minded distraught = distressed, very worried docile = domesticated, trained, tame doggerel = poor verse dolorous = gloomy dolt = a stupid person domineer = to rule over something in a tyrannical way dotage = senility, mental decline doughty = brave, dauntless dour = sullen and gloomy, stern and severe dregs = residue, riffraff droll = amusing in a wry drone = speak in a monotonic voice dross = waste matter, worthless impurities duenna = governess dulcet = melodious, pleasant sounding duplicity = deceit, treachery, dishonesty, double-dealing duress = coercion, imprisonment

N.Karthick, M.E (Manufacturing), Madras Institute of Technology Campus, Anna University, Chennai.

dwindle = To diminish or become less dyspeptic = suffering from indigestion, gloomy and irritable earthy = crude ebb = recede, to fade away ebullient = exuberant, full of enthusiasm and high spirits ecclesiastical = churchly eclat = brilliance eclectic = joyful edify = instruct morally and spiritually educe = draw forth, evoke efface = To obliterate effete = worn out effluvium = noxious smells effrontery = insolence effulgent = brilliant effusion = pouring forth effusive = expressing emotion without restraint elation = exhilaration, joy elegiac = sad elicit = provoke eloquence = fluent and effective speech elucidate = make clear, clarify emaciated = underfed, gaunt emblazon = imprint, brand embroil = involve, cause to fall into disorder embryonic = rudimentary emend = correct emeritus = retired, but retaining title emollient = cream for softening, making supple enamored (BRITISH = enamoured) = charmed, captivated enclave = area enclosed within another region encomium = warm praise encumber = burden, to hinder, restrict motion endemic = Peculiar to some specified country or people enervate = weaken, sap strength from engender = generate, to produce engross = captivate enigmatic = puzzling, inexplicable enjoin = urge, order, command ennui = boredom, lack of interest and energy ensconce = to hide safely, settle comfortably enthrall (BRITISH = enthral) = mesmerize, to captivate, enchant

N.Karthick, M.E (Manufacturing), Madras Institute of Technology Campus, Anna University, Chennai.

entity = being, existence entreat = plead, beg enunciate = verbalize, articulate epicure = gourmet, person with refined taste in food and wine epigram = saying, short, witty saying or poem epilogue = The close of a narrative or poem epithet = name, appellation, phrase epitome = A simplified representation epoch = era equestrian = one who rides on horseback equine = pertaining to horses equity = impartiality, justice equivocal = Ambiguous, open to two interpretations erode = wear away, to diminish errant = wandering, mistaken escapade = adventure eschew = avoid, to abstain from espouse = to support or advocate estranged = alienated, separated eulogy = high praise euthanasia = mercy-killing evanescent = fleeting, very brief, short-lived evince = attest, demonstrate, to show clearly eviscerate = disembowel ex officio = by virtue of position exacerbate = worsen exasperate = irritate, vex excision = removal excoriate = to denounce exculpate = to clear of blame or fault execrable = very bad, abominable, utterly detestable exegesis = interpretation exemplary = outstanding, serving as an example exhort = strongly urge exhume = uncover, to remove from a grave exigency = urgency exiguous = scanty exonerate = free from blame exorcise = to expel evil spirits exotic = Foreign, romantic expatiate = to discuss in detail, elaborate expatriate = who does not live in one's own country

N.Karthick, M.E (Manufacturing), Madras Institute of Technology Campus, Anna University, Chennai.

expedient = advantageous, convenient, efficient expiate = atone, make amends for expletive = oath expunge = erase, eliminate completely expurgate = to purify by removing obscenities extant = existing extemporaneous = unrehearsed extenuate = To diminish the gravity or importance of extirpate = seek out and destroy extol = praise highly extraneous = not essential, unnecessary extricate = Disentangle, free extrinsic = not inherent or essential, coming from without extrovert = an outgoing person extrude = force out exuberant = joyous, happy exude = emit, ooze exult = rejoice fabricate = construct facet = aspect facetious = joking, sarcastic, witty facile = very easy factious = causing disagreement factitious = artificial factotum = handyman fallible = Capable of erring fallow = unproductive, unplowed fastidious = meticulous, careful with details fathom = understand, to measure the depth of fatuous = inane, stupid faux pas = false step, mistake fealty = Loyalty febrile = feverish, delirious fecund = fertile, fruitful, productive feign = pretend, give a false impression felicitous = very appropriate, pertinent fell = to chop, cut down ferment = turmoil ferret = rummage through fervid = fervent, passionate fervor (BRITISH = fervour) = intensity fester = decay

N.Karthick, M.E (Manufacturing), Madras Institute of Technology Campus, Anna University, Chennai.

festive = joyous fete = to honor fetid = foul-smelling, putrid, stinking fetter = to restrain, to bind fiat = decree fickle = always changing one's mind fidelity = Loyalty filch = steal something of little value filial = of a son or daughter finicky = meticulous, fussy firebrand = agitator fissure = a crack or break fitful = irregular flaccid = limp, flabby, weak flagellate = whip flagrant = outrageous, shameless flail = whip flair = a natural aptitude flamboyant = Characterized by extravagance flaunt = to show off fledgling = just beginning, struggling flippant = Having a light, pert, trifling disposition flora = plants florid = ruddy, with too much decoration flout = to show disregard for the law or rules fluster = confuse foible = weakness, minor fault foist = palm off a fake foment = instigate foray = raid forbearance = Patient endurance or toleration of offenses forte = A strong point fortitude = patience, courage fortuitous = happening by luck, fortunate foster = encourage fracas = noisy fight fractious = wayward, unruly, disorderly fraudulent = Counterfeit fraught = filled frenetic = harried, neurotic frenzied = feverishly fast, hectic fret = worry

N.Karthick, M.E (Manufacturing), Madras Institute of Technology Campus, Anna University, Chennai.

fritter = squander frivolity = playfulness frond = bending tree fruition = realization, completion fulminate = denounce, menace fulsome = excessive, insincere funereal = mournful, appropriate to a funeral furtive = stealthy fusion = union, coalition gainsay = to deny gall = bitterness, nerve galvanize = excite to action gambol = Playful leaping or frisking gamut = range gargantuan = large garner = gather garnish = decorate garrulous = talkative, loquacious, wordy gauche = awkward, crude gaunt = thin, emaciated genealogy = ancestry genesis = beginning genre = kind, category genuflect = kneel in reverence germinate = To begin to develop into an embryo or higher form ghastly = horrible gibe = heckle glean = gather glib = insincere manner glower = stare angrily gnome = dwarf-like being goad = encourage gorge = stuff, satiate gory = bloody gossamer = thin and flimsy gouge = overcharge, scoop out grapple = struggle grimace = expression of disgust grisly = gruesome grovel = crawl, obey guffaw = laughter guile = deceit, trickery

N.Karthick, M.E (Manufacturing), Madras Institute of Technology Campus, Anna University, Chennai.

gustatory = relevant to the sense of tasting gusto = Keen enjoyment guttural = throaty hackneyed = trite haggard = gaunt halcyon = serene hale = healthy hallow = to make holy hamper = obstruct hapless = unlucky harangue = a pompous speech harbinger = forerunner harbor (BRITISH = harbour) = give shelter, conceal harridan = hag or an ugly old woman harry = harass haughty = arrogant hedonism = the pursuit of pleasure in life heedless = careless hegira = a journey to a more pleasant place heinous = shocking, wicked hermetic = airtight, sealed heterogeneous = composed of unlike parts, different hew = to cut with an ax hiatus = interruption hibernal = wintry histrionic = overly dramatic hoary = white, old holocaust = widespread destruction homily = sermon hone = sharpen horde = group hortatory = inspiring good deeds hovel = shanty, cabin hoyden = tomboy, boisterous girl hubris = arrogance hummock = knoll, mound humus = soil hypothetical = theoretical, speculative ichthyology = study of fish idyllic = natural, picturesque ignominious = Shameful illimitable = limitless

N.Karthick, M.E (Manufacturing), Madras Institute of Technology Campus, Anna University, Chennai.

imbue = infuse, dye, wet immolate = sacrifice immune = Exempt, as from disease immure = build a wall around impair = injure impale = pierce impassive = calm, without feeling impeccable = faultless impecunious = indigent, having no money imperious = domineering impertinent = insolent, rude imperturbable = calm impervious = Impenetrable impetuous = quick to act without thinking impetus = stimulus, spark impinge = encroach, touch impious = not devout in religion implacable = doubtful, dubious implausible = unlikely, inconceivable impolitic = unwise imponderable = difficult to estimate importune = urgent request impregnable = totally safe from attack imprimatur = sanction improvident = lacking foresight or thrift imprudent = unwise impugn = criticize impunity = exemption from harm impute = charge inadvertent = unintentional inalienable = that which cannot be taken away inane = vacuous, stupid incandescent = brilliant incantation = chant incapacitate = disable incarcerate = to put in a jail incarnadine = blood-red in color incendiary = burning easily, flammable inception = The beginning inchoate = just begun incipient = beginning to exist incisive = keen, penetrating

N.Karthick, M.E (Manufacturing), Madras Institute of Technology Campus, Anna University, Chennai.

inclement = harsh incognito = disguised incommunicado = unable to communicate with others inconsequential = Valueless incontrovertible = Indisputable incriminate = accuse incubus = nightmare inculcate = instill, indoctrinate, to teach incumbent = obligatory, required incursion = raid indefatigable = never getting tired indenture = bound to another by contract indicative = suggestive, implying indict = charge with a crime indigenous = Native indigent = very poor indisputable = not disputed, unquestioned indolent = lazy indomitable = invincible, fearless indubitable = unquestionable ineffable = inexpressible ineluctable = inescapable inexorable = relentless, inflexible infallible = incapable of making a mistake infantile = childish, immature infernal = hellish infidel = nonbeliever infirmity = ailment, disease influx = inflow infraction = violation ingenuous = naïve and unsophisticated ingrate = ungrateful person ingratiate = pleasing, flattering, endearing inimical = adverse, hostile, unfriendly inimitable = peerless iniquitous = unjust, wicked injurious = harmful innocuous = Harmless innovate = to invent, modernize innuendo = indirect and subtle criticism inopportune = untimely inordinate = excessive

N.Karthick, M.E (Manufacturing), Madras Institute of Technology Campus, Anna University, Chennai.

inscrutable = cannot be fully understood insensate = without feeling insinuate = to suggest, imply, say indirectly insipid = flat, dull, lacking flavor insolent = insulting insouciant = nonchalant insubordinate = disobedient insular = narrow-minded, isolated insuperable = insurmountable insurgent = rebellious insurrection = uprising, rebellion integrity = decency, honest, wholeness integument = a covering inter = bury interdict = prohibit interloper = intruder, meddler in others' affairs interminable = unending intermittent = starting and stopping internecine = mutually destructive interstice = a small space between things intransigent = uncompromising intrepid = fearless introspective = looking within oneself introvert = To turn within inundate = flood invective = verbal insult inveigh = to rail against, protest strongly inveigle = lure inveterate = habitual, chronic, long-standing invidious = incurring ill-will invoke = request assistance or protection iota = A small mark or part irascible = irritable iridescent = showing many colors irresolute = hesitant, uncertain irreverent = disrespectful itinerant = Wandering, unsettled jaded = spent, bored with one's situation jaundice = disease of yellowish discoloration of skin jejune = barren jettison = to throw overboard, abandon jingoism = extremely aggressive and militant patriotism

N.Karthick, M.E (Manufacturing), Madras Institute of Technology Campus, Anna University, Chennai.

jostle = push, brush against juggernaut = unstoppable force ken = range of comprehension kismet = fate knave = con man knead = massage knell = sound of a funeral bell lacerate = tear, cut lachrymose = tearful lackadaisical = Listless, idle lackey = servant lackluster (BRITISH = lacklustre) = dull, dreary, colorless laity = laymen lambent = softly radiant lampoon = satirize, to attack with satire languor = Lassitude of body or depression lapidary = relating to precious stones larceny = theft of property largess = generous donation latitude = freedom from narrow limitations laudable = Praiseworthy lave = wash lax = loose, careless lectern = reading desk legerdemain = trickery levity = Frivolity, humor lexicon = A dictionary libertine = one without moral restraint licentious = lewd, immoral limn = portray, describe limpid = transparent, clearly understood lionize = treat as a celebrity lissome (BRITISH = lissom) = agile, supple litany = list lithe = moving and bending with ease litigation = lawsuit litotes = understatement for emphasis loathe = abhor, hate loiter = dawdle, loaf loquacious = Talkative lout = goon lugubrious = sad, sorrowful

N.Karthick, M.E (Manufacturing), Madras Institute of Technology Campus, Anna University, Chennai.

lull = moment of calm lunar = related to the moon lupine = wolf-like lurid = glowing, shocking luscious = Rich, sweet, and delicious luxuriant = lush macabre = gruesome machination = plot or scheme maelstrom = whirlpool, agitated state of mind maim = injure malapropism = comical misuse of a word malcontent = one who is forever dissatisfied malediction = curse malefactor = evildoer, culprit malodorous = fetid, foul-smelling manacle = shackle manifold = multiple, diverse marauder = plunderer maritime = Situated on or near the sea martial = warlike, pertaining to the military martinet = strict disciplinarian masochist = one who enjoys pain masticate = chew matriarch = matron maudlin = weepy, sentimental maul = rough up mausoleum = tomb maverick = a person who resists adherence to a group mawkish = sickeningly sentimental mayhem = mutilation meander = to wander aimlessly without direction medley = mixture megalomania = mental state with delusions of wealth and power melee = riot mellifluous = sweet sounding mendacious = Untrue mendicant = beggar menial = humble, degrading mercurial = changeable, volatile, quick meretricious = Alluring by false or gaudy show metaphor = figure of speech comparing two different things mete = distribute

N.Karthick, M.E (Manufacturing), Madras Institute of Technology Campus, Anna University, Chennai.

mettle = courage, capacity for bravery miasma = toxin microcosm = The world on a small scale mien = appearance, demeanor migratory = Wandering from place to place with the seasons minatory = threatening minion = subordinate minutiae = trivia mire = marsh mirth = jollity, laughter miscegenation = intermarriage between races miscellany = mixture of items miscreant = one who behaves criminally mishap = Misfortune missive = letter or note mnemonic = related to memory modicum = a small amount modish = chic mollify = to calm or make less severe molt = to shed hair, skin periodically molten = melted monastic = related to monks monolithic = large and uniform monotony = A lack of variation moot = disputable, previously decided morbid = abnormally gloomy mordant = biting, sarcastic mores = moral standards, customs moribund = near death mortify = humiliate mote = speck, small particle motley = diverse, many colored mottled = spotted mountebank = charlatan muffle = stifle, quiet mulct = defraud multifarious = diverse, many-sided munificent = generous muse = ponder muster = to gather one's forces myriad = innumerable naiveté = a lack of worldly wisdom

N.Karthick, M.E (Manufacturing), Madras Institute of Technology Campus, Anna University, Chennai.

nascent = incipient, coming into existence natal = related to birth necromancy = sorcery, black magic Nemesis = implacable foe, often victorious opponent neologism = new word or expression neophyte = beginner nether = located under or below nettle = irritate niggardly = stingy nihilism = a belief in nothing, extreme skepticism noisome = harmful, stinking nomadic = moving from place to place non sequitur = an irrelevant conclusion noncommittal = neutral, circumspect nonentity = person of no significance nonplus = bring to a halt by confusion nubile = marriageable nugatory = useless, worthless nuptial = relating to marriage oaf = awkward person obdurate = unyielding obeisance = homage, deference obelisk = tall column, monument obfuscate = bewilder, muddle, to confuse obituary = eulogy objurgate = to chide, scold oblation = offering, sacrifice oblique = indirect obliquity = perversity obliterate = destroy obloquy = slander, abusive language obsequious = fawning, servile, overly submissive obsequy = funeral ceremony obstinate = stubborn obstreperous = noisy, unruly, troublesome obtuse = stupid, dull occlude = block, to shut odious = despicable, hateful odoriferous = pleasant odor offal = inedible parts of a butchered animal offertory = church collection ogle = flirt

N.Karthick, M.E (Manufacturing), Madras Institute of Technology Campus, Anna University, Chennai.

omnivorous = eating everything onerous = burdensome onus = burden opalescent = iridescent, displaying colors opportunist = One who takes advantage of circumstances opprobrious = abusive, disgraceful opprobrium = disgrace opus = literary work of musical composition ordain = appoint orifice = a small opening orison = prayer ornithologist = scientist who studies birds orotund = pompously said ossify = harden ostensible = apparent, seeming ostentatious = pretentious, showy overt = open to view overweening = arrogant, forward pacifist = one who opposes all violence paean = a song of praise palaver = babble, nonsense paleontologist (BRITISH = palaeontologist) = one who studies fossils palette = board for mixing paints pall = to become dull or weary palliate = to make less serious, ease pallid = pale, sallow, lacking color or liveliness palpable = touchable, obvious, real palpitate = beat, throb paltry = scarce, pitifully small or worthless panache = flamboyance, flair pandemic = spread over a whole area or country pandemonium = din, commotion pander = cater to people's baser instincts panegyric = praise panoply = full suit of armor pantomime = mime papyrus = paper paradox = seemingly in contradiction paragon = model of excellence or perfection paramour = lover parapet = rampart, defense parasite = one who lives at another's expense

N.Karthick, M.E (Manufacturing), Madras Institute of Technology Campus, Anna University, Chennai.

pariah = outcast parley = conference, discussion paroxysm = outburst, convulsion parry = avert, ward off, reflect parsimonious = stingy partisan = supporter parvenu = newcomer, social climber passe = outmoded pastiche = imitation of another's style pastoral = rustic patent = the right to make or sell a new invention pathos = emotion, feeling of sadness patrician = aristocrat patricide = murder of one's own father patrimony = inheritance or heritage derived from one's father peccadillo = a minor fault peculate = embezzle, steal peculation = theft of money or goods pedagogue = dull, formal teacher pedant = a person who is too interested in formal rules and small unimportant details pedantic = bookish pediatrician (BRITISH = paediatrician) = a child doctor pediment = triangular gable on a roof or façade pejorative = insulting, having bad connotations pell-mell = in a confused manner pellucid = transparent, easily understood penance = voluntary suffering to repent for a wrong penchant = inclination penitent = repentant pensive = sad penumbra = partial shadow in an eclipse penurious = stingy perdition = damnation, complete ruin peregrination = wandering peremptory = dictatorial perennial = enduring, lasting perfidious = treacherous ( of a person ) perforce = by necessity perfunctory = careless, done in a routine way perigee = point when moon is nearest to the earth peripatetic = moving from place to place perjury = lying
N.Karthick, M.E (Manufacturing), Madras Institute of Technology Campus, Anna University, Chennai.

permeable = penetrable pernicious = destructive peroration = conclusion of an oration pert = flippant, bold pertinacious = persevering pertinent = Relevant, applicable perusal = reading carefully petrify = calcify, shock petty = trivial petulant = irritable, peevish philistine = barbarian, narrow-minded person philology = study of words phlegmatic = sluggish, someone who is calm picaresque = roguish, adventurous pied = mottled, brindled pillory = punish by ridicule piquant = tart-tasting, spicy pique = sting, arouse interest pithy = concise, to the point pittance = alms, trifle placid = Serene, calm plaintiff = injured person in a lawsuit plangent = plaintive, resounding sadly platitude = trite remark, stale platonic = nonsexual plebeian = common, vulgar plebiscite = referendum plenitude = Abundance plethora = overabundance plumb = measure poignant = pungent, sharp, emotionally moving polemic = a controversy politic = expedient, prudent, well devised polity = methods of government poltroon = coward polyglot = Speaking several tongues portend = omen portend = signify, augur portly = large, dignified potable = suitable for drinking potentate = sovereign, king prate = babble

N.Karthick, M.E (Manufacturing), Madras Institute of Technology Campus, Anna University, Chennai.

prattle = chatter, foolish talk preamble = introduction precept = principle, law precipice = cliff, edge precipitous = steep precocious = advanced precursor = forerunner predilection = inclination, preference premeditate = plan in advance preponderance = predominance preposterous = ridiculous, illogical presage = omen, indicate in advance presentiment = sense of foreboding preternatural = abnormal prim = formal, prudish primogeniture = first-born child primordial = existing at the beginning, rudimentary primp = groom privation = lack of usual necessities or comforts probity = integrity, complete honesty proboscis = snout proclivity = inclination, tendency prod = urge prodigal = wasteful prodigious = marvelous, enormous profligate = licentious, prodigal, corrupt profusion = overabundance progenitor = ancestor progeny = children prognosis = forecast prognosticate = foretell prolix = long-winded, wordy promontory = headland, cape promulgate = publish, disseminate propagate = To spread propellant = rocket fuel propensity = inclination prophylactic = preventive propinquity = nearness, kinship propitiate = satisfy, to win over propitious = auspicious, favorable propound = propose

N.Karthick, M.E (Manufacturing), Madras Institute of Technology Campus, Anna University, Chennai.

prosaic = uninspired, flat, dull proscenium = platform, rostrum proscribe = prohibit, to condemn proselytize (BRITISH = proselytise) = recruit, convert prosody = study of poetic structure protean = changing readily protract = To prolong, extend provender = dry food, fodder provident = having foresight, thrifty proviso = stipulation prude = puritan prudent = cautious, careful prurient = exhibiting lewd desires puerile = Childish pugnacious = combative, quarrelsome puissant = strong pulchritude = beauty pummel = beat, attack punctilious = careful in observing rules of behavior or ceremony pungent = sharp smell or taste purblind = obtuse, dim-sighted purgatory = limbo, netherworld purloin = To steal purport = claim to be purview = range, understanding pusillanimous = cowardly putative = reputed putrid = dirty, rotten quaff = to drink heartily quagmire = difficult situation quail = shrink, cower quaint = old-fashioned qualms = misgivings quandary = dilemma, difficulty quarry = prey, game quay = wharf queasy = squeamish quell = suppress, allay querulous = complaining quibble = to argue about insignificant and irrelevant details quiescent = still, motionless, at rest quintessence = The most essential part of anything

N.Karthick, M.E (Manufacturing), Madras Institute of Technology Campus, Anna University, Chennai.

quip = joke quirk = eccentricity Quixotic = impractical, romantic quizzical = odd quorum = majority rabid = mad, furious raconteur = story teller raiment = clothing rampant = unbridled, raging ramshackle = dilapidated, falling to pieces rancor (BRITISH = rancour) = resentment, dislike rankle = cause bitterness, resentment rant = rage, scold rapacious = grasping, avaricious, greedy rapprochement = reconciliation ratiocination = reasoning raucous = Harsh sounding ravenous = extremely hungry raze = destroy reactionary = related to, or favoring reaction realm = kingdom, domain recalcitrant = resisting authority or control recant = retract a statement recidivism = habitual criminal activity reciprocate = To give and take mutually recondite = known to only a few reconnaissance = surveillance recreant = coward, betrayer of faith recrimination = countercharge, retaliation rectitude = moral uprightness recumbent = reclining redolent = fragrant redoubtable = formidable, steadfast redundant = repetitious reek = smell refectory = dining hall refraction = bending, deflection refractory = obstinate regal = royal regale = entertain regimen = government rule, systematic plan rehabilitate = To restore to a former status

N.Karthick, M.E (Manufacturing), Madras Institute of Technology Campus, Anna University, Chennai.

relegate = assign to an inferior position remediable = capable of being corrected reminiscence = remembrance of past events remiss = Negligent remnant = residue, fragment remonstrate = to protest or object remorse = guilt rend = to tear apart render = deliver, provide rendezvous = a meeting rendition = version, interpretation renegade = rebel, dissident renege = break a promise reparation = amends, atonement repartee = witty conversation repellent = causing aversion repercussion = consequence repine = fret replete = complete reprehensible = blameworthy, unacceptable reprieve = temporary suspension reprimand = rebuke reprisal = retaliation reproach = blame reprobate = morally unprincipled person reprove = to criticize or correct repudiate = to reject as having no authority requiem = rest, a mass for the dead requite = to return in kind rescind = revoke, cancel resilient = the quality of springing back respite = interval or relief resplendent = shining, splendid restitution = act of compensating for loss or damage restive = nervous, uneasy retaliate = revenge retinue = group of attendants retort = quick replay retrench = reorganize, to regroup retribution = reprisal retrieve = reclaim retroactive = applying to an earlier time

N.Karthick, M.E (Manufacturing), Madras Institute of Technology Campus, Anna University, Chennai.

retrograde = regress revelry = merrymaking revere = honor reverent = respectful reverie = daydream revile = to criticize with harsh language revulsion = aversion ribald = coarse, vulgar rife = widespread, abundant rigor = harshness rime = white frost risible = laughable risque = off-color, racy rococo = ornate, highly decorated roil = to disturb or cause disorder roseate = rosy, optimistic roster = list of people rostrum = stage for public speaking rout = vanquish rubicund = ruddy, having healthy reddish color ruffian = brutal person, bully ruminate = reflect upon rummage = hunt ruse = trick rustic = rural sacerdotal = priestly sacrosanct = sacred sagacious = wise sallow = sickly yellow in color salubrious = healthy salutary = good, wholesome sanctimonious = self-righteous sang-froid = coolness under fire sanguinary = gory, murderous sanguine = cheerful sapid = interesting sapient = wise, shrewd sarcophagus = stone coffin sardonic = scornful sartorial = pertaining to clothes sate = satisfy fully saturnine = gloomy

N.Karthick, M.E (Manufacturing), Madras Institute of Technology Campus, Anna University, Chennai.

satyr = demigod, goat-man saunter = walk in a leisurely manner savant = scholar savoir-faire = tact, polish savor (BRITISH = savour) = enjoy scarify = criticize schism = a division or separation scintilla = very small amount scintillate = sparkle scoff = ridicule scurrilous = abusive, insulting scurry = move briskly scuttle = to sink sebaceous = like fat seclusion = solitude secular = worldly, nonreligious sedition = treason, resistance to authority sedulous = diligent seethe = fume, resent semblance = likeness senescence = old age sensual = related to the physical senses sententious = concise, trying to appear wise sepulcher (BRITISH = sepulchre) = tomb sequacious = eager to follow, ductile sequester = to remove or set apart seraphic = angelic, pure serendipity = making fortunate discoveries serenity = calm, peacefulness serrated = toothed, with a zigzag edge serried = saw-toothed servile = slavish, obedient shibboleth = password shoal = reef shrew = virago sidereal = pertaining to the stars simian = monkey like simper = smile foolishly, smirk sinecure = well paid position with little responsibility sinewy = fibrous, stringy sinuous = Curving in and out skinflint = miser

N.Karthick, M.E (Manufacturing), Madras Institute of Technology Campus, Anna University, Chennai.

skittish = excitable skulk = sneak about skullduggery (BRITISH = skulduggery) = trickery slake = to calm down or moderate slander = defame sleight = dexterity slither = slide sloth = laziness slough = to discard or shed slovenly = sloppy sluggard = lazy, inactive person smattering = superficial knowledge smirk = smug look snivel = whine sobriety = composed sobriquet = nickname sodden = soaked sojourn = trip, visit solace = consolation solecism = ungrammatical construction solicitous = considerate, concerned soliloquy = A monologue solstice = furthest point solvent = financially sound somatic = pertaining to the body somber (BRITISH = sombre) = Gloomy somnambulist = sleepwalker somnolent = Sleepy sophist = person good at arguing deviously sophomoric = immature and overconfident soporific = sleep inducing sordid = foul, ignoble, dirty and unpleasant spasmodic = intermittent spate = sudden outpouring spawn = produce specious = false but plausible spectral = ghostly splenetic = peevish sporadic = occurring irregularly sportive = playful spry = nimble spume = foam

N.Karthick, M.E (Manufacturing), Madras Institute of Technology Campus, Anna University, Chennai.

spurn = reject squalid = filthy staccato = marked by abrupt, clear-cut sounds staid = demure, sedate, boring stanza = division of a poem steadfast = loyal, immovable stentorian = extremely loud stigma = mark of disgrace stilted = formal, stiff, unnatural stoic = indifferent to pain or pleasure stoke = prod, fuel stolid = impassive stratagem = trick stratum = layer stricture = negative criticism strident = rough, harsh, caustic, loud stultify = inhibit, enfeeble stupor = lethargy stymie = hinder, thwart suave = smooth sub rosa = in secret sublimate = to repress impulses sublime = lofty, excellent subliminal = subconscious, imperceptible substantiate = verify substantive = substantial subterfuge = cunning, ruse succinct = Concise succor (BRITISH = succour) = help, comfort succulent = juicy, delicious succumb = yield, submit suffuse = pervade, permeate sully = stain sultry = sweltering sunder = split sundry = various superannuated = retired supercilious = arrogant superficial = shallow and phony supernumerary = subordinate supplant = replace supple = Easily bent

N.Karthick, M.E (Manufacturing), Madras Institute of Technology Campus, Anna University, Chennai.

surly = rude, crass surmise = to guess surmount = overcome surreptitious = secretive sustenance = supplying the necessities of life suture = surgical stitch swarthy = dark (as in complexion) Sybarite = pleasure-seeker, lover of luxury sycophant = flatterer, flunky sylvan = rustic synchronous = happening at the same time synthetic = artificial, imitation taciturn = who does not talk much tainted = contaminated, corrupt talisman = an object supposed to bring good luck talon = claw of an animal tantalize = tease tantamount = equivalent taper = candle tarn = small lake tarry = linger taurine = bull-like taut = tight, stretched tawdry = gaudy, cheap temerity = boldness temperate = moderate tempo = speed temporal = limited by time, secular, not lasting forever tenacious = persistent tendentious = biased tenet = doctrine, principle tensile = capable of being stretched tentative = provisional tenuous = thin, insubstantial tenure = status given after a period of time tepid = lukewarm terrapin = turtle terse = concise, brief testy = petulant tether = tie down, tie with a rope theocracy = government by the priests therapeutic = medicinal

N.Karthick, M.E (Manufacturing), Madras Institute of Technology Campus, Anna University, Chennai.

thespian = actor thrall = slave threnody = a sad poem or song, dirge throes = anguish throng = crowd thwart = to block or prevent from happening timbre = tonal quality, resonance timorous = fearful, timid tirade = scolding speech Titanic = huge tithe = donate one-tenth titular = in name only, figurehead toady = fawner, sycophant tocsin = alarm bell, signal torpid = lethargic, inactive tortuous = with bends or turns touchstone = standard traduce = slander transcend = To surpass transient = fleeting, temporary translucent = clear, lucid, almost transparent transmute = To change in nature or form travail = work, drudgery travesty = caricature, farce, parody tremulous = trembling, fearful trenchant = incisive, penetrating trepidation = fear tribunal = court tribute = a gift or statement showing respect trite = commonplace, insincere troglodyte = cave dweller truckle = yield truculent = fierce, savage, tending to argue a lot truism = self-evident truth tryst = meeting, rendezvous tumult = commotion tundra = treeless plain found in Arctic or sub arctic regions turbid = muddy, clouded turbulence = violent agitation turgid = Swollen, not flowing turpitude = Depravity, evil tutelage = guardianship

N.Karthick, M.E (Manufacturing), Madras Institute of Technology Campus, Anna University, Chennai.

tyranny = oppression tyro = beginner umbrage = resentment unassuming = modest uncouth = uncultured, crude unctuous = insincere undulate = surge, fluctuate uniformity = sameness unkempt = messy in appearance unobtrusive = inconspicuous, not blatant unsavory (BRITISH = unsavoury) = distasteful, offensive unscathed = unhurt unseemly = unbecoming, improper unsullied = spotless untenable = cannot be achieved upbraid = to scold sharply ursine = bear-like usurp = seize, to appropriate usury = overcharge, lending money at illegal rates of interest uxorious = a doting husband vacillate = To waver vacuous = inane, empty, not showing intelligence or purpose vagary = whim vagrant = An idle wanderer vainglorious = conceited valor (BRITISH = valour) = bravery vanguard = leading position vapid = vacuous, insipid variegated = many-colored vassal = subject vaunted = boasted, bragged vehement = adamant venal = willing to do wrong for money vendetta = grudge, feud veneer = false front, façade venerable = respected because of age venial = excusable vent = small opening, outlet venturesome = bold, risky veracious = truthful, accurate verdant = green, lush verisimilitude = appearance of being true

N.Karthick, M.E (Manufacturing), Madras Institute of Technology Campus, Anna University, Chennai.

verity = Truth vernal = related to spring versatile = adaptable, all-purpose vex = annoy, to irritate viand = food vicarious = substitute, surrogate vicissitude = changing fortunes victuals = food vie = compete vignette = scene, decorative design vilify = defame vindicate = free from blame virile = manly virulent = deadly, poisonous visage = facial expression viscid = thick, gummy viscous = sticky, gluey, thick vitiate = spoil, ruin vitreous = glassy vitriolic = scathing, burning vociferous = adamant, clamoring volition = free will voluminous = bulky, extensive, or great quantity wallow = indulge, luxuriate wan = sickly pale wane = dissipate, wither warranty = guarantee of a product's soundness wary = guarded, careful wax = increase, grow weather = endure the effects of weather or other forces welter = confusion, hodgepodge whet = stimulate, to sharpen wily = shrewd, clever winsome = charming wizened = shriveled wraith = ghost wrangle = loud quarrel wry = twisted, amusing yoke = join together, unite zephyr = gentle breeze, west wind

N.Karthick, M.E (Manufacturing), Madras Institute of Technology Campus, Anna University, Chennai.

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