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13.1 Launching 13.1.1 Introduction Large ships are built in docks and are launched down inclined and cambered ways one end, usually the stern enters the sea first. Because, the stern of the ship is more buoyant. Sliding ways are built around the ship, the gap seperating them from the fixed graund ways is filled by a layer of grease to which the weight of the ship is transferred from the building blocks before the launch. After the ship begins to enter the water, buoyancy builds up at the stern until it reaches a value sufficient to pivot the entire ship about the fore poppet. At that point the force on the fore poppet is very large and stability can be critical. The ship continues down the ways until it is floating freely or dropped off the end of the ways. If launched in a restricted area, its progress into the water is impeded by drags which are arranged so as gradually to bring the vessel to a stop before it strikes the far bank. In this procedure, what might go wrong? The grease might be too slippery or not slippery enough. It might be squeezed out by the pressure. Instead of the stern lifting, the ship might tip the wrong way about the end of the graundways and plunge. The fore foot might be damaged by dropping off the end of the ways or it may dig into the slip when the stern has lifted. The ship might be insufficiently strong locally or longitudinally or the ways may collapse. The breaking effects of the drags might be too much or too little. The ship might be unstable at some instant. Calculations are carried out before arranging the launch to investigate each one of these anxieties. An assessment must be made of the weight and center of gravity position at the time of launch (see Figure 1). As the ship enters the water , the waterline at various distances down the ways can be noted on the profile. The immersed sectional areas can be read off from the bonjean curves, and the buoyancy and its longitudinal center are computed (Figure 2). The ship will continue until the moment of weight about the fore poppet equals to the moment of buoyancy about the same point. The data are usually presented as a series of curves called the launching curves (Figure 3). Thus, a set of six curves is prepared to predict the behaviour of the ship during the launch in a safe condition.

d a c b weight Fore poppet

buoyancy

G The slope Sliding ways

Graund ways

Aft poppet

After end of ways

Figure 1. Ship and ways geometry.

The moment of weight about the after end of the ways (W. The moment of buoyancy about after end of the ways (FB. The buoyancy (FB) which increases as the ship travels down the ways. The difference between the weight and buoyancy curves at the position of stern lift is the maximum force on the fore poppet.c) At the point at which the moment of buoyancy about the fore poppet equals the moment of weight about the fore poppet.a) which is also constant. the least distance between the two curves of moment gives the least moment against tipping about the end of ways. Crossing of the weight and buoyancy curves before the after end of ways. are as folows: The weight (W) will be constant. . The curve of moment of buoyancy about the after end of the ways must lie wholly above the curve of moment of weight. The moment of weight about fore poppet (W. Bon-jean curves for the immersed sectional areas. the stern lifts. The moment of buoyancy about fore poppet (FB.d).W Bon-Jean Curves G Figure 2. indicates that the fore poppet will not drop off the end of the ways.b). These curves plotted against distance of the travel down the slip and the important features of these curves.

p. Typical launching curves. namely.p. Construction of launching ways.1. Moment of buoyancy about f. Force On f. 13.2 Construction of launching curves Center of gravity position of the ship is estimated and then two moments of w eight curves produced. moment of weight about fore poppet and moment of weight about after end of ways. Buoyancy Least moment against tipping Moment of buoyancy about AEW Moment of weight about AEW Ship floats Stern lifts C.p. . LBP e h k y x Sea level f x r Figure 4. Buoyancy and center of buoyancy at any position of travel is determined by placing the relevant waterline over profile of the ship with Bon-Jean curves drawn on and integrating in the usual fashion. Weight Max.G over AEW Travel down slipway Forces Figure 3.Moments Moment of weight about f.

The camber of an arc of a circle is given by. ie. slope of chord. r = Radius of camber. = Declivity of the ground ways. e = Distance of the fore poppet abaft the forward perpendicular. f ! k2 8r . LBP = Length between perpendicular. f = Camber of ways of length k. h = Initial height of the fore poppet above water.In the above picture. f y! 2 . let: = The initial slope of the keel.

k 2 x 2 8r y! k 2 .

hF x y ! hF x x x¸ kx x¸ ¨ ¨ h F x y t ©E ¹ ! h F x x t ©E ¹ 2r rº rº ª ª If there is no camber. it gives the negative draft at the after perpendiculars. Moment of W about f. The height of the fore poppet above the water is approximately as follows: kx 2r On the other hand. There is the correct trim where the curves of moment about fore poppet cut. At all times. Buoyancy %1 %2 %3 %4 %5 Trim Figure 5.p. it will give the height of the keel at the fore poppet above water. . µr¶ is infinite. the fore poppet is raised µy¶ above the chord and the keel has moved through an angle of µx/r¶. Buoyancy and moment of buoyancy are then calculated for several trims about the fore poppet ( see Figure 5). the moments of weight and buoyancy about the fore poppet must be equal. If µt¶ is equal to (-e). If µt¶ is equal to (L-e). Trim calculation. Correct trim Moment of FB about f. after stern lift.k 2 x kx ! x 8r 8r 2r After travelling a distance µx¶. the height of a point µt¶ above water abaft the fore poppet is.p.

a-FB. it increases the moment against tipping but also inreases the load on the fore poppet. Originally. Pressure distribution on the ground ways. r W lW Pfp Pap Figure 6. This increases the buoyancy force and causes an earlier stern lift than would be the case without camber. Pfp and Pap can be calculated according to the center of gravity of ship as follows: The mean pressure on the keel. On the other hand. And. the total load on ways is (W-FB) and moment of ways load about fore poppet is (W. Pm ! W FB lW The maximum load on the ground ways is the initial one µW¶ before stern lift. Pm ! W FB lW bW where. The total load on the ground ways is the difference between weight and buoyancy (WFB). Dividing by the length in contact gives a mean load per unit length and dividing by the width of ways gives a mean pressure. If the length of ways in contact is µlW¶ at any instant and the load per unit length at the fore poppet and after end of ways are Pfp and Pap respectively. The curve of load per unit length is a trapezoid because of an uneven weight distribution of the ship. the mean pressure on the keel. Furthermore. camber was probably meant to offset the sinkage of the slip as the ship¶s weight grew. The mean pressure. ! W lW and also Pm ! Pfp Pap 2 ¢ ¡ £ . The radius correponding to this camber is 22500 m.13. lW is the length of ways and bW is the width of ways. It has another important effect in rotating the ship to dip the stern deeply into the water.1.d). after stern lift.3 Pressure on the ground ways Typically. the declivity of the ground ways is 1 in 20 and the camber a half a metre in a ground ways length of 300 m from fore poppet to after end.

Then. W FB ! 0.5 v lW v .

fp Pap P ¥ Solving the above equations for Pfp and Pap. Pfp ! Pap ! 4 6 v .

FB 2 v .

a FB d W W lW lW 6 lW 2 v .

a FB d W 2 v .

FB W lW Or. r! lW Pfp 2 Pap v 3 Pfp Pap 3Pm v . let be µr¶ the distance of the center of pressure distribution about fore poppet.

lW 2r tons / m 2 lW 3Pm v .

instead.2 r lW tons / m 2 lW And. ¤ The moment of way load about f. flexibility of the ways and the effects of bottom panel deflection may be wise. Apart from the assumption of linear variation in pressure the above method of calculation assumes the ship and slipway to be rigid.. Pressure may be reduced by champfering the ends of the ways and may be physically limited by using deformable packing or collapsible cushions. Pfp ! Pm Pap ! Pm This is a satisfactory solution while Pfp and Pap are positive and the load per unit length can be represented by a trapezium. Pap becomes negative. W a FB d 2 When lW . Pfp becomes negative and when is greater than W FB 3 W a FB d 1 is less than lW .p. W a d ! 1 2 1 2 lW v Pfp lW v . that the distribution is triangular (Figure 7). the trapezoidal presumption is not permissible. There can not be a negative load so far W FB 3 these conditions. It is assumed. It has been suggested that the simple method predicts ways end pressures which are unrealistically low and a more rigorous treatment allowing for ship elasticity.

ap Pfp P 2 3 .

Pap W a FB d W FB W 2.

FB 2 lW Pap ! W W 3 3lW .

FB 3.

a FB d 2 3?lW .

W a FB d A W FB Pfp W a FB d W FB Pfp ! 1 lW 3 2 ¡ 3.

a FB d W W FB W 2.

FB W 3.

1.4 Dynamics of launching The force accelerating the ship down the groundways is. Pressure distribution in triangular form. 13. approximately in the following form: . a FB d Figure 7. at any instant.

W FB sin E way friction water resis tan ce drag forces ! net force .

W FB sin E Q .

The coefficient of friction µµ ¶ is usually less than 0. V is the velocity of travel and K is a constant determined from . where fitted.02 although. the creation of the stern wave and to the resistance of locked propellers. Water resistance is due to the hull friction. The slope of the ways for small angles may be taken as sin = tan = and cos = 1. In the above equation.W FB cos E KFB 2 / 3V 2 Q d ! net w force (W-F B)sin (W-F B)cos Fs (W-FB) Ff Figure 8. it can be slightly higher according to the temperature. Forces acting on the ship and ground ways In the Figure 8. at the commencement. µ ¶ is the slope of the ways at the center of gravity of the ship. water brakes or masks etc. the part of the water resistance.

w is the weight of the chains and Q d 0. The equation of motion of the ship. In the term of drag forces due to the chain drags.40-0. is For a particular ship. the effects of entrained water can be expressed as a fraction µz¶ of the buoyancy.80 depending upon the state of the slipways. is then : . before it floats.similar water breaking devices.

W FB sin E Q .

W FB cos E KFB 2 / 3V 2 Q d ! net w force ! .

A component force diagram is shown in Figure 9.W zFB g dV dt This differential equation can not be solved mathematically because of the presence of FB. by equating the net force to the mass times acceleration. taking into account each of the factors at intervals of travel down the slip and a distance-time relationship estimated from it. Ship of rest Ship floats Stern lifts .

FB W E Q .

1 Dynamic calculations The force accelerating the ship down the groundways till entering the water is as follows: Fs ! W sin E Q W cos E where W is the weight of the ship and Q is the coefficient of friction.1. movement is possible not until tan " Q . Then. Integration of each component force-distance curve gives the work-done in overcoming that resistance. Velocity at any point of travel may therefore be checked by relating the kinetic energy at that point to the loss of potential energy minus work done in overcoming friction and resistance. FB W KF B 2/3 V2 Force Qd After the ship has become waterborne.4. ¦ ¦ Fs ! W tan Q W ! W . sin =tan and cos =1 may be taken. 13. As the slope of the ways is small. the first two components of the expression become zero.

. Diagram of force components.tan Q ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ § Net force Distance Travelled Figure 9.

accelerating of the ship.The equation of motion of the ship ignoring the water resistance and drag forces. is then. a! F dV d 2 S ! 2 ! g s dt W dt or a ! g . before it is waterborn.

sin E Q cosE m / s for small angles of slope a ! g .

dV dS and a ! V ! dt dt V ! a v t ! g v t v .tan E Q The velocity of the ship after µt¶ seconds is then.

tan E Q m / s S and. The ship tips or drops off the end of the ways into the water. ships may be built on an even keel broadside on to the water and consigned to the water sideways.1. ii. V=0 and the constant C=0 S 1 1 And. The ship slides down the ways which are built well down under the water. There are three common methods of sideways launching: i. ¨ Here. for S=0. dt ! dS t ! ´ dS V V 0 . V 2 ! 2 a v S V ! 2 ´ a dS C 0 13.5 Sideway launching When the ship is small or water front space is not a great premium. for µt¶.

Stability at large angles and watertightness are therefore important considerations. the ship takes to the water violently and may roll heavily -on entry. In all of these methods.iii. . Conventional calculations are not performed. Declivity of ways is usually of the water of 1 in 8 in order to give a high speed of launch to clear the end of the ways. the ship may roll thirty degrees or more. The ship is built on piles which are made to collapse by a sideways push to allow the ship to fall into the water. Waves may cause damage on adjacent shares.

part of the weight of the ship is being borne by the blocks. The object of dry docking is to properly support the ship while it is out of the water. workboats and dockside lines.13. pumping of the drydock can commence. Docking is a slow evaluation.2 Docking The repair and maintenance of the underwater hull. Preperation is critical to the success of all phases. Landing the ship on the blocks is a critical step and its carefully approached. As the water level falls after pumping out commences in the drydock. hull structural damage etc. An error during any phase may lead to catostrophe: ship tilting. Now consider a transverse section of the ship which has been inclined to a small angle by an external force. The ship is carefully pushed or pulled into the dock by tugs. and this creates an upthrust at the stern. openings and sea connected systems of ships are often necessary to perform in drydock. There are three distinct phases to drydocking: preperation. The dock master must carefully evaluate the type of ship to be docked and where to place the support on the ship. The force `P` acts upwards through the keel (K) and is equal to the weight being borne by the blocks. but after the stern lands on the blocks the draft aft will decrease. This will continue until the ship takes the blocks overall throughout its length. On entering the drydock the ship is lined up with its centerline vertically over the centerline of the keel blocks. part of the ship is supported by the blocks(P) and part of the ship is supported by the buoyant force. The interval of time between the stern landing on the blocks and the ship taking the blocks overall is referred to as the `critical period`. The weight of the ship (W) acts downwards through the center of gravity (G0 ). docking and undocking. During this period. it must have a positive initial GM. T T W P M W1L1 x T W G0 Gv B0 B1 P T T T FB ! W P The main purpose is to calculate the effective metacentric height for any instant during the drydocking process. The upthrust causes a virtual lose of metacentric height and it is essential that positive effective metacentric height be maintained during the critical period. there is no effect on the ship`s stability so long as the ship is completely waterborne. Once the ship is in the correct position over the blocks. When a ship enters a drydock. As the ship lands(usually stern first). For equilibrium the force of buoyancy must now be . This causes a virtual rise in the center of gravity and a decreased metacentric height.

Their resultant force (W P ) acting downwards through the virtual center of gravity `Gv` such that.T T T T (W P ) and will act upwards through the initial metacenter `M`. T T W v G0 Gv v sin J ! P v KG v v sin J T T T W v G 0 G v ! P v KG v ! P v . T T W v y ! P v x or .

KG 0 G 0 G v T P v KG 0 G0 G v ! T T W P The virtual height of the center of gravity of the ship is then. W P v G v M v sin J . T KG 0 v W Gv M ! KM T T W P The upward force at the keel due to docking or grounding causes a loss of stability. After application. the righting moment is. the righting moment at inclination µJ ¶ before the application of µP¶ is T T T ( W G 0 M sin J ). Therefore. T T KG 0 v P KG 0 v W KG v ! KG 0 T T ! T X W P W P The virtual metacentric height of the grounded ship is.

Blocks will not be of an even height and are subject to crush.1 Features of floating docks Features of principal concern of floating docks are. . the load distribution is further affected by the buoyancy distribution along the dock. Load distribution between dock and ship Behaviour of blocks Strength of floating docks Stability Basically. but in reverse. In a floating dock. the hull and its openings must be tested for watertight integrity before the ship is floated and leaves the dock. i) Load distribution: It is assumed that the load distribution along the blocks follows the weight distribuiton of the ship except at the after cut up and at any other gap. Undocking can be just a precarious as the docking phase if not done carefully. Undocking follows the some basic procedures as docking. Additionally.2. Shearing force on a girder is obtained by integrating the shearing force along the length. The difference between the total buoyancy and ship¶s weight plus weight of dock and contained water gives the net loading. creep and instability. 13. docking is the placing of an elastic ship with an uneven weight distribution on to an elastic set of blocks supported in turn by an elastic floating dock or a relatively rigid graving dock.

iii) Strength of floating docks: Dock behaviour longitudinally. iv) Stability: Since a list developing before the ship is in contact with the blocks completely along the keel can be extremely dangerous and can dislodge the blocks. Measurements of the loads in dock blocks have shown that a stack will take many times the load of its neighbour by being only a little higher. A floating dock is trimmed approximately to the trim of the ship. moisture content and surface condition. age. There is a critical stability condition when the ship is just clear of the water and the restoring waterplane for both ship and dock is provided only by the dock walls. Great care is needed to ensure that blocks are all of even stiffness. Reinforced concrete docks do not suffer much elastic distortion and breakage is not used as a measure of behaviour. it is normally demanded a minimum GM of 1. The problem is analysed as an unevenly loaded beam on an elastic foundation for which programs are available. is checked continuously during lift by measuring the breakage.6 m. grain. . strict pumping patterns are imposed. depending on defects. the larger the ship. In this conditions. if the dock is made of steel.ii) Block behaviour: It is not surprising to find wide variation in the behaviour of a stack of wooden dock blocks. The number of blocks to ensure a mean deflection of stacks of x is given as: Number of blocks=2*ship¶s weight / x*block stiffness In general. instead. When the pontoon is lifted clear. Free surface effects in a floating dock are also large. the closer the blocks are together and side blocks intruduced. the waterplane is much larger.

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