Necropsy Report

Killer Whale (Orcinus-orca) Orky II
Age 30 yrs — SeaWorld of California
Name: Orky II (male) Species: Killer Whale (Orcinus orca) Source: wild capture, 05-10-1968, Pedder Bay, British Columbia, Canada, age: est. 10 yrs Deceased: 09-26-1988, SeaWorld of California, age: est. 30 yrs Reported cause of death (per NMFS MMIR data): Acute Bronchopneumonia, Nephropathy Necropsy info: Diagnosis- Jim McBain, DVM (1988): Acute broncopneumonia. Diagnoses- Kent G. Osborn, DVM (1988): 1. death due to pneumonia, subacute plus regurgitation complicated by aspiration, following chronic illness associated with probable protein losing nephropathy (nephritic syndrome), see comments in necropsy report 2. severe weight loss with good food consumption following chronic illness associated with probable nephrotic syndrome, see comments in necropsy report 3. kidneys, membranous glomerulonephritis, resulting in protein loss, probable nephrotic syndrome, see comments in necropsy report. 4. kidneys, interstitial nephritis, lymphoplasmacytic, etiology undetermined. 5. lungs, bronchiolar pneumonia, subacute, multifocal, severe 6. thoracic lymph nodes, lymphadenitis, subacute, severe, associated with bronchiolar pneumonia. 7. aorta and medium sized arteries, atherosclerosis, minimal/mild. 8. thyroid, hyperactivity, see comments in necropsy report. 9. adrenal, minimal inflammation, lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate. 10. skin of jaw, acanthosis plus ballooning degeneration, complicated by secondary inflammation, neutrophilic inflammatory infiltrate, cause undetermined.

The Orca Project Corp

3/11/2012

www.theorcaproject.com

Orky II Additional history: Orky II sired 7 unsuccessful calves. All seven were with Corky II. Six occurred at Marineland of the Pacific, California, USA. The seventh (a miscarriage) occurred after arriving at SeaWorld of California. Orky II's unsuccessful offspring with Corky II: 1977-02-28 No Name survived 15 days brain damage 1978-10-31 Spooky survived 10 days pneumonia, colitis 1980-04-01 stillborn 1982-06-18 Kiva survived 46 days respiratory failure 1985-07-22 No Name survived 29 days asphyxiation 1986-07-27 miscarry 1987-08-01 miscarry (@ SeaWorld, CA) Orky II later successfully sired Orkid (with Kandu V at SeaWorld, CA) and Kayla (with Keneau at SeaWorld, TX)- both offspring were born in 1988.

Notes: Prior to reforms of the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA) in 1994, holders of marine mammals for public display were required to submit necropsy reports (animal autopsy reports) for deceased animals, making the documents available to the public and scientific community. Presently, marine mammal parks in the U.S. are only required to provide a “cause of death” to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) which maintains Marine Mammal Inventory Reports (MMIR). Details of marine mammal deaths are now a closely guarded secret at U.S. entertainment facilities. The Orca Project acquired the following documents from the National Marine Fisheries Service (U.S.A) via the Freedom of Information Act for deaths that occurred prior to implementation of the 1994 MMPA changes. For more information visit www.theorcaproject.com

Necropsy, Autopsy, Veterinarian, NOAA, NMFS, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Marine Fisheries Service, MMIR, Marine Mammal Inventory Report, MMPA, Marine Mammal Protection Act, Killer Whale, Orca, Shamu, Death, Die, SeaWorld, San Diego, California, Orky II, Orky 2

The Orca Project Corp

3/11/2012

www.theorcaproject.com

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SEA WORLD

GROGS NECROPSY REPORT

FACILITY: Sea World of California
GENUS/SPECIES :

PROSECTOR:

Jim McBain, D.V.M.

Orcinus orca
-

ID NUMBER: SWC-00-8726

AGE I

28+ years

SEX: male

EXTERNAL MORPHOMETRICS: (metric only)

TOTAL LENGTH:
G I R T H AT ANUS:

21 ft., 1.0 in. 7 ft., 8 in.

WEIGHT:
FLUKE WIDTH:

7600 lbs.

5 ft., 1 in.

GIRTH AT AXILLA; 12 ft., 4 in.

DORSAL FIN HEIGHT: 1 ft., 5 in.

HISTORY: This animal showed gradual but persistent weight loss for the last two months of its life, the most noticeable weight loss coming in the last 3-4 weeks. When the weight decrease was first recognized, the daily food intake was increased. This increase was to In levels far above what the animal had eaten at any previous time. spite of the major increase in food intake, the weight loss persisted. During the animal's last several weeks, it was kept on antibiotics to try to minimize secondary bacterial complications. Right up until a few hours before its death, the animal showed its normal appetite and The animal showed a list to one eide and a circular behavior. ewimming pattern just prior to its death. Vomiting occurred as the animal started agonal respirations and was a terminal event.

Code, in parentheses, for samples taken:

-_-___---------------------------------------------------------------GENERAL EXTERNAL APPEARANCE: (oral cavity, external nares, skin, eyes) This animal is very thin. There is a small proliferative lesion on the right ventrolateral surface of the lower jaw. There is a small ulcerated lesion on one fluke tip.
SUBDERMAL CONDITION: (blubber, muscles, lymph nodes) The blubber i~ 7.5cm thick on the ventral midline and 3.2cm thick on the lateral thorax.

C = culture; V = virology; M = metals; P = pesticides; E = electron microscope samples

PAGE 2

ID NO.

LOWER RESPIRATORY SYSTEM: (trachea, bronchi, lung^, lymph nodes) There is a small amount of gastric content present in the bronchi. The lungs contain multifocal nodules throughout the parenchyma. The nodules are firm and not circumscribed. These nodules contain varying amounts of exudate. There i what appears to be a cavity or bulla in s the left lung parenchyma that contains about 1/4 to 1/2 liter of The pulmonary gastric contents much like that found in the bronchi, lymph nodes are enlarged and dark red. CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM:

,

(heart, aorta, major v e s s e l s )
nly
2

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of serosanquinous

fluid. (esophagus, stomach, intestine, rectum, cecum, lymph nodes) The first' stomach contains a large quantity of partially ingested food. The lining of the first stomach shows streaks of hyperemia, The last compartment is diffusely hyperemic, No ulcers or erosions are preeent.
LIVER! (biliary system) Slight rounding of the hepatic margins is greaent.

DIGESTIVE SYSTEM:

GROSS SUMMARY: Acute bronchopneumonia resulting state associated with chronic weight loss.

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TENTATIVE DIAGNOSIS: Acute bronchopneumonia,

CONCLUSIONS: (after histology & clinical pathology review) This animal appears to have died from acute pneumonia which was caused by.diminished immune competence associated with chronic wasting. The

degenerative kidney lesions seen on microscopic examination, along ,with clinical laboratory test results, suggest the presence of a protein losing neghropathy, This type of kidney problem would produce a condition of chrsnic weight loss that would not readily respond to increased food intake.

SIGNED a

United States Department of Agriculture

Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service

Federal Bldg. Hyattsville, MD 20782

I

August 23, 1989 Ms. Ann Terbush, Chief Permit Division OPR&HP, NMFS, Room 7330 1335 East-West Highway Silver Spring, MD 20910 Dear Mr. Terbush: After reviewing the necropsy results of the killer whale "Orky" who died at Sea World in San Diego, we have determined that Orky's death is the result of a natural disease process and that no further investigation is necessary. It appears that Orky suffered from chronic interstitial nephritis, a degeneration of the kidneys. Such a condition is not uncommon in both humans and animals and results in decreased appetite and loss of weight. There was no sign of abuse and no indication that Orky was deliverately starved. The disease condition itself was responsible for the starvation appearance on necropsy. The investigation is closed, and we anticipate no further action in this matter. Sincerely,

Animal Care Staff Regulatory Enforcement and knfmal Care

e

APHIS-Protect~ng American Agr~culture

TI:! : FRCIM: [)ATE: RE:

Ed As.pe1. J i m M c E a i n , L). V . M . M a r c h 21, 1383, C r a i q Van N o t e ' z L e t t e r t o NMFS d a t e d 3;3/83

l l r k y w a a t F l a r i r ~ e l a n d f o r 1'3 y s a r s , ~ n o t 16 y e a r e a s s t a t e d tly 111-. Van N o t e , a n d ' = i r e d ~ i : . :f f s p r i n g , n o n e n f w h i c h ~ u l - v i v e d . o H e 1 - e z i d e l 3 a t S e a W ~ t r l l j fn1- 1 y e a r a n d 8 m o n t h e and ~il-ed t w o £ . I t h ctf w h i c l i s u r v i 1 ; e , 3 . T h i e i e n12t t h e r e c o r d n f a f a c i l i t y t h a t s t a r ~ ~ e ts a i ~ i m a l z . is The a)-limals are e a i d t o h a v e b=en il-I - e : - : c e l l e ~ 1 . 1 ~ ~ 1 l t a t- t h e t i m e n f t r a n s p n r t t n S e a W c ~ r l d t h f 1-om Mar i n e l a p d . I f i t i s ~ E S U ~ t h a ~t O r k y F waz in appa1-er1t t ~ c l o d h s 3 L t . h at. t h e t i n e of t h e mcqve, 20 m o n t h s i s 3 d e ! q u a t e t i m e f t z ~ l - a 1del;(fi-le1-ative 1 d i z p 3 ~ ~ move Tram 3 .zut~~li)lir,al 3 cli~iic.al s t a t u s . Sea 1 3 h a s 1 - 1 0 r e c . ~ z ~ ~ l -rd r ~ mM a 1 - i n ~ l a 1 - t d cf f CI.~-lr:j's w e i g h t nnluaz a weight taken a t the t i m e of the t 1- 3 1-1 :? p , : t . . I 11 mo~l-phc~oiet~-ic t a d f r o m w h i c h t o ~ z a l c u l a t eh i s w e i g l - l t a t t h e t i m e of t h e t l - a ) - ~ s p c l r t e:.:isti. . B a a e d n n my 1 4 y e a r s c3.f e::pe~-i?nt:.e w a r k i n g w i t h k i l l e r w h l e s , I f e l t t h a t lta, 0 0 i l l b & . w 3 :z a 1-1 a p p 1 - f a p r i a t ~ ; e s t i m a t e c~f; O l - k y f e w e i g h t and i~eed this e s t i n i a t e fell- F : U ~ - F C I E F S of m e d i c a l t r e a t m e n t .
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a Wlarld w e r e . j u s t . a s d i e t u l - b e d a s Mr. Van N ~ t e i t h w h is unkl- own, p e r s i s t e n ? w e i g h t 1 ~ s ~ T. e a m o u n t of l o z s t11.1t i t w a s f r l ~ ~ t r a t i nfcll- me, g t h e pei-s!=gn c h a r g e d w i t h 0 1 - k y ' s m e d i c s 1 c a r = , t.n tie c c ~ n f r n n t e c l w i t h a)-I a n i m a l t h a t w a c w a s t i n g i n :%]?ite hc91-1surningr a r n C 3 U ~ - ~m=nf 3 fc~r_~tj: h a t w e r e f a r g r e a t e r t h a n t t he h a d e v e r l - e ~ z e i v e c fa t Mar i r ~ e l a l - ~ d .
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';an I i a t e s t a k e s t h a t " C ~ T C V I - I a ~ t i n g . "i s 3 m e d i c a l e u p h e m i s m ' w~C ~ t a l - ' . ~ ? t i r ~ ~ h t ,s i m p l i : z 3 t i o n b e i n u t h a t O r k y w a s s t a 1 - ~ e d . I f -i Pi I- . V =c l i 1.1 s t t e w 1-1 1 c (211 1.1 1.t a r e d i c a 1 t e : t , d -z n . h~ w o u l d f i n d t h a t ~ t . = i k e n ~ ~ trt t e ~ i i t r l~rlti-UP, a s t h e y have d i s t i n ~ ~ t l y # ? . i fe i - e ~ i te t i r . l a = ~ q i e s . S t s l - , ~ ai tn n is a f ~ s n d ii t n n that 1-esu.lts ii-t:~rn ~ 1 - t 2 1 1 : - 1 1 - 1 d l ~p l - i , ~ a t i o nof f o o d . <e d i l h l - n n i ~ w a s t i n gi s l r ~ n q - t e r m w e i g h t I c t s s . ~ - e s ut li n g f 1-om arr u n c l e 1 - l y i n g d i s e a s e p r n c e s s . if M r . . Y 3r1 liclte w a c EO i i ~ c l i n e d , a E n 1 1 a m o u n t n f t h o u g h t m i g h t l e a d i - r i m t c l 1 - ~ . a l i z e h~qw Y ~ - o I > ~ e i~ w i t h h i s h starvatinn hypnthesi8. 1 7 r k y 'P d a i 1.y ~ ; 3 1 - ~ .t 5 e a Wt1tl-l.3 ~ 3 t h e 1 - e s p o n z i t t i l i t y n f p e o p l e a % ?.~II-:B hat.,+ d e i i i c a t e ~ 3t h e i r 11,;~s t o t h e c a r e ~ztf a n i m a l s . 1 . Van 1ictt.e is a i : ~ p a r = i - - ~ k l 1 . 1 1 1 3 w a i . ~ a t t h e S e a W ~ ~ r lt d a i n i n g c ( e p a 1 - t m e r l t y th r cannot v n i l a t e r a l l y d e c i d e hnw m u c h a n a n i m a l i s t n b e f e d . No c h a r i g e s i n a n y a n i m a l ' a d i s k c3r1 lsccur w i t h o u t t h e scrutiny and 3 p p 1 - ~ 4 v a lof t h e s e p a l - a t e a n i m a l c a r e d e p a r t m e n t . In addition, as s?aff. vetel-inal-ian, I wculd like t o poil-~to u t t h a t I a m a 1 . z ~ i n v a l v e d i n d e t e l - m i n i n g t h ? 3 m o l ~ n t st h a t t h e a n i m a l s a r e f e d . I hawe spent my ?adult l i f e t r y i n g t o p r e v e n t or t r e a t d i s e a s e i n animals. A t Sea WOI-ld, my majnlrnle ia nnt nnly i n the treatment of dizease but also a s a " h e a l t h advocate" for t h e animals.
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1 V a n Note a e k z " H o w c a n ' n o r m a l appetite and behavior' be I t h i n k I have ail-eady d e a l t i-econciled with chronic wasting." w i t h t h e a p p e t i t e q u e s t i o n , b u t i f a n F;::ample w r ~ u l d h e l p , I w c ~ u l d s u y g e a t h e 1 - e 3 d a d e s c r i p t i o n of d i a b e t ~ zm e l l i t u s . Oi-ky w a s n o t a f f l i c t e d with t h i s condition, but it i z a c l a s z i c wastirlg disease. T h i s d i z e a a e pi-eeente u s w i t h a ' p a t i e n t t h a t is l o s i n g abovew e i g l r t a t a n a l a i - m i n g 1-ate a n d o f t e n ( i n a n i m a l = ) h . 3 ~ a n at-el-ai_!,: appet-ite a l - ~ d f o n d concu.mptit:tl-,. F o r a n planation c ~ f !I-11:z ~ i t - l u a t i ~ i - : :I, a g a i n s u g g e s t t h a t M i - . VayNc!te refer t o that As f o r r e c o n c i l i n g " a p p a i - e n t " n o r m a l b e h a v i o r a n d medical t e x t . - ~ h ~ : ~ ' t i i la z t J 1 - 1 5 ! d i z ~ a z 2 , I a h s u r e t h a t M r . w: Van Note i s being l c n o w ~t h a t i t : ~ i m p l i s t i c ; H e , a e a n " a n i m a l p e l - s o n , " eel-tainly is 83:5r!\rn:<n fszai- a n i m a l = t t = t t t e t i . 3 . ~ i o l - a l l ym a s k i l l n e z s . H e may n~:~t_ I.:n~:lw, howece~-, t h a t +-hi= 1zhal-ac.te1-i~til2 is o f t e n d i e p l a y . ; d to F:: t l - e m e 1 1 - 1 c g t 3 , 2 e a r l s .

T t ~ a c l d e n s m e t~ Eee t h a t 1 V a n Nlztte wol-zlct i n d i r e c t l y s u g g e s t that the an.irna.1 c a r e and veterin3i-y staff cf Sea W~:li-ld o f I:alifol-nia w e r e l 3 c k i n g i i i i n t e g r i t y a n d - ~zeet h i s a s a p1-emise frlr ai-gl.ring a q a i n e t a permit ta move a k i l l e l - w h a l e f r o m a n l E Wol-lil il-I t h e ..rdyit_t~.!dly o w q u a l i t y f a c i l i t y i r ~ r a z i l to 'Sea United States. TO 121.171-11-1 ! r k y Ps d e a t h w i t h t h i s E O ~ t r f i r i l - ~ ~ ~ @ r , d o C a is u n f a i r t o . Ol-ky a l i d t h o s e m u . l t i t u d e s whn ~ Z s r e r t h e y e a r s tlecame ! ! i S .fl-~.?i-~CfE.
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OEC 1 9 1988

Zoological Pathology Consult K e n t G . 0sborn;DVM

ZPC t t r 8 8 N . 0 1 4 C 1 i e n t : S e a W o r l d , I n c . , C/O D r . N e c r o p s y D a t e : 9-26-88 M i c r o s c o p i c Exam D a t e : 12-6-38

J i m McBain

~r_ca S p e c i e s :O r c I g u ~ Common : K i l l e r w h a l e : Breed House : O r k y , SW88142

Sex:Male Age:Adul$,

30+ y e a r s

lY!3Xxas_y.

eral: T h i s is a ' t h i n animal.
S k i n : T h e r e i s a n i r r e g u l a r p r o l i f e r a t i v e l e s i o n on t h e right lat-eroventral surface of the lower j a w , e l l i p t i c a l , a p p r o x i m a t e l y 4 . 0 x 2 . 5 cm. T h e f l u k e h a s a n u l c e r a t e d l e s i o n on i t s l e a d i n g e d g e n e a r t h e t i p . Epidermis = 0 . 5 c m . Blubber a t midventral = 7 . 5 c m . Blubber a t lateral thorax = 3.2 c m .

m -

Bodv C a v i t i e ~ :No l e s i o n s r e c o g n i z e d (NLR)
Endocrine: T h y r ~ i dh a s n o r e c o g n i z e d l e s i o n s . 750 g m . P a s a t h v r o i d , n o t found Bd-~e~ala, NIIR. L = 300 g n ; R = 3 5 0 gm. P i t u i t x x , NLR
Cdm s m l a r Peric_ardium. c o n t a i n s a p p r o x i m a t e l y t w o l i t e r s of d a r k s e r o u s f l u i d Uea.rt NLR ; 2 4 . 5 k g Aorta. mainsvessels NLR

W~ZL~~UL :
L-ary-nx, trachea, bronchi.: NLR. T h e r e i s a s m a l l amount o f i n g e s t a , i n c l u d i n g f i s h bones a n d scales i n t h e b r o n c h i b n ~ a c o n t a i n s c a t . t , e r e d mu1 t i f o c a l n o d u l e 6 t h r o u g h o u t t h e parenchyma. .The n o d u l e s a r e firm, poorly cjrcumscribed, with small irregular quantities of thick exudate.

I m p r e s s i o n smears o f t h e nodules contain mixed i n f l a m m a t o r y c e l l s a n d mixed b a c t e r i a . The l e f t l u n g i s much more i n v o l v e d t h a n t h e right. Also i n t h e l e f t l o b e i s a 300 m l cavity containing gastric contents.

II&d,~_rn~J~a~-ic;
Ilymph-n~de&: T h o r a c i c lymph enlarged and prominent, mildly/moderately edematous.
P

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nodes a r e q u i t e dark red and A l l o t h e r nodes

Snle-

N L R ; N lymphoid f o l l i c l e s a r e p r e s e n t o on c u t s u r f a c e . 0 - 9 k g . H a r . r ~ wNLR; d a r k r e d i n r i b s

V m e nLtal:

KidneySNLR; L = 1 1 . 7 5 k g ; R = 1 6 . 2 5 k g I L r L n _ a r y R l a d d e r _ NLR; contains c l e a r , dark urine T3stes NLR; e p i d i d y m i s c o n t a i n s a m o d e r a t e amount o f Gemen. No m o t i l e s p e r m a t o z o a a r e p r e s e n t ( m i c r o s c o p i c exam by P a t t y S a r b e r o f t h e R e p r o d u c t i v e P h y s i o l o g y G r o u p In t h e Center for Reproduction of Endangered S p e c i e s , Zoological S o c i e t y o f San D i e g o ) . R = 5.2 kg

Di~estive: O r a l c a v j t v : n o t examined d u e t o r i g o r Esomh_ag_u_n: NLIR S_t.~)nac..: The main s t o m a c h g a s t r i c mucosa h a s mjld/moderate mllltifocal hyperemia. Pyloric s t o m a c h mucosa i s m i l d l y d i f f u s e l y h y p e r e m i c . C o n t e n t s are normal. No u l c e r s a r e p r e s e n t . S m a l l a n d L a z ~ e I n t e s t i n e s : NLR, c o n t e n t s normal. I , i v e r : N L R . Lobe e d g e s a r e m i l d l y s w o l l e n . 1,obrilar p a t t e r i s subtly apparent. L lobe = 1 9 . 5 k g ( o t h e r 1 / 2 was n o t w e i g h e d )

P a w r e a s : NLR
k l ~ ~ ~ ~ u . 1 c>_s.k-eJ~_fid : M r l ~ c l e o v e r the: d o r s a l 0 - 1 c m cavitation cranium h a s s c a t t e r e d

Nervnus:
SkQEE

m:NLR;

7 . 2 kg

mgn1. D e a t h d u e t o p n e u m o n i a , s u b a c u t e , p l u s r e g u r g i t a t i o n
complicated by a s p i r a t i o n , a s s o c i a t e d w i t h o l d age following chronic illness

O r k y , SW88142

3

,

2. S e v e r e w e i g h t l o s s w i t h good food' consumption following chronic i l l n e s s associated with o l d age

N ~.CDP s Y CQW m erlt a
Cause o f death is pneumonia c o m p l i c a t e d by termina 1 r e g u r g i t a t , i o n and a s p i r a t i o n o f st,omach c o n t e n t s . The s e v e r e body w e i g h t l o s s i n t h e f a c e o f O r k y ' s c o n t i n u e d good a p p e t i t e A a r e an i n d i c a t i o n o f h i s c h r o n i c u n d e r l y i n g problems. c l i n i c a l l y recognized problem i s a p e r s i s t e n t and d e c r e a s i n g level of t h e t h y r o i d hormone, T4, which c o a l d s r ~ g g e s tp o s ~ j b l e g e n e r a l l y o c c u r r i n g w i t h h y p o t h y r o i d i s m a r e n o t p r e s e n t i n Orky. M i c r o s c o p i c e x a m i n a t i o n may r e v e a l o t h e r u n d e r l y i n g d i s e a s e problems that,, a l o n g w i t h f u r t h e r assessment o f Orky's c l i n i c a l d a t a , may g i v e a more c o m p r e h e r ~ s i v e o v e r a l l p i c t u r e of t h e djsease course that led t o h i s death. Time c o u r s e f o r t.he p n e u m o n i a may b~ t h r e e t,o f i v e d a y 6 o r m o r e . Tmpression smears o f t,he I I I Ie c o n t , a j n mixed i n f l a m m a t i o n ( 1 m p h o c y t e s and y n e i l t , r o p h i l s ) and a mjxed b a c t e r i a l f l o r a . Distribution of t h e is c o m p a t i b l e w i t h a n j n h a l a t i o n - t y p e (bronchiolar) lesions pneumonja. A l l v e s s e l s examined a r e n o r m a l , w i t h no s i g n s o f atherosclerosis. Iiistopa th t o follow. ~ i c r 0 ~ c ~ p .S u l.q m a . r y _ i c T h e f o l . l o w i n g t , i s s u e s w e r e e x a m i n e d m i . c r o s c o p i c a 1 . l y and found t o b e e s s e n t i a l l y normal: n e r v e s , s p l e e n , a x i l l a r y lymph node, e p i d i d ymj.s , s k e l e t a l m u s c l e , urinary bladder, t e s t i c l e , stomach, small i n t e s t i n e , colon, b r a c h i a l plexus a r t e r i e s , h e a r t , e y e l i d , b o n e marrow. Microscopic a b n o r m a l i t i e s and/or l e s i o n s are p r e s e n t i n t h e following tissuesradrenal, thyroid, pituitary, t h o r a c i c lymph node, l u n g , kidney, l i v e r , esophagus, a o r t a , a r t e r y , s k i n .
,

-

MJCROSCOPIC EXAM NOTES

1 , 2. A d r e n d : V a r i a b l e , m i l d C:M j u n c t i o n c o n g e s t i o n i s p r e s e n t . There are occasional scattered, loose, subtly apparent minimal/mild aggregates of lymphocytes a n d plasma c e l l s , p r i m a r i l y i n t h e medrllla. Dx: a d r e n a l minimal inflammation, lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate.
, -

3 T o There is e x t r e m e l y v a r i a b l e f o l l i c l e s i z e and s h a p e , with most f o l l i c l e s shrunken and c o n t a i n i n g no o r minimal colloid. T h e f o l l i c l e s a r e l j n e d by c u b o i d a l e p i t h e l i a l c e l l s , w h i c h o f t e n c o n t a i n a p i c a l c o u r s e brown p i g m e n t , p o s s i b l y c o l l o i d droplets. C o l l o i d , when p r e s e n t i s l a c y , o f t e n f i l l i n g l e s s t h a n 50% o f t h e f o l l i c l e l u m e n . F o l l i c l e s with recognizable colloid make u p a p p r o x i m a t e l y 25-30% o f t h e t o t a l t h y r o i d parenchyma present i n these sections. There a r e no inflammatory cell i n f i l t r a t e s and t h e r e is no a d i p o s e i n t h i s s e c t i o n . The

'

O r k y , SW88142

4

i n t e r s t i t i u m is g e n e r a l l y moderately congested. Trabeculae i n some a r e a s a r e h y a l i n i z e d , with a n appearance compatible ai-th . amyloid. Dx: t h y r o i d , h y p e r a c t i v i t y

4. Eht.~~ikm:T h e r e is moderate congestion in the adenohypophysis. A t o n e edge t h e r e is h y a l i n e m a t e r i a l u i t h j n W i thjn the t h e i n t e r s t i t i u m with t h e appearance o f amylojd. v a s c r ~ l a r plexus surrounding t,he pituitary, mild/minjmal a t h e r o s c l e r o s i s i s p r e s e n t , c h a r a c t e r i z e d by o c c a s i o n a l , v a r i a b l y s j zetl s i ~ h n t.i m a 1 t h i c k e k n g . i T l I e s ~o u b i ~ .n i i ;i p l a q u e s c o n s i s t of ~ d. m a t u r e f i h r o c y t e s a n d c o l l a g e n b e t w e e n t h e e n d o t h e l i u m and t h e e l a s t i c membrane, w i t h n o o r m i n i m a l d u s t i n g o f m i n e r a l i z a t i o n . D x : a t h e r o s c l e r o s i s , m i n i m a l / m i l d , i n medium s i z e d a r t . e r i e s . : S e v e r a l l a r g e n e r v e t r u n k s p r e s e n t h e r e h a v e no r e c o g n i z e d l e s i o n s (NLR: no l e s i o n s r e c o g n i z e d ) .
5, 7bk.ea: Mini-ma1 h e m o s i d e r i n d e p o s i t i o n f o l l i c l e s , o n l y p r i m a r y lymphoid f o l l i c l e .
N o reactive

6 . k m p h node ( a x i l l a r y l - : No r e a c t i v e f o l l i c l e s . Medullary sinuses contain m o d e r a t e numbers o f h e m o s i d e r i n - c o n t a i n i n g m a c r o p h a g e s ; n o s i g n i f i c a n t l e s i s n s (NSL).

8 . Lymph-node ( t , h o r a c i c ) : S e v e r e s u p p u r a t i v e i n f l a m m a t i o n w i t h i n s u b c a p s u l a r and m e d u l l a r y s i n u s e s , with n e c r o s i s of adjacent parenchyma. Capsule is thickened due t o f i b r o s i s . 1 0 , 11. L u n g : I n t h e s e s e c t i o n s t h e r e i s f o r e i g n m a t e r i a l i n t e r m i n a l b r o n c h i o l e s and o c c a s i o n a l a l v e o l a r c l u s t e r s , c o n s i s t i n g o f p i n k h y a l i n mat.eria1, b a c t e r i a l c o l o n i e s , a n d , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t h e l a r g e r b r o n c h i o l e s , s k e l e t a l muscle. No i n f l a m m a t o r y c e l l s a r e present here. T h i s r e p r e s e n t s t e r m i n a l a s p i r a t i o n of r e g u r g i t a t e d stomach c o n t e n t s .
9, 32, 13, 1 4 . Lung: Each o f these lung sections consists p r i m a r i l y of a l a r g e moderately circumscrjbed i n f i l t r a t e of n e u t r o p h i l s w i t h v a r i a b l e amounts o f hemorrhage. Normal l u n g Bronchioles a r c h i t e c t u r e is s u b t l y a p p a r e n t w i t h i n t h e n o d u l e s . within t h e inflammatory nodules c o n t a i n severe inflammation, with d e s t r u c t i o n o f t h e mucosa. O f t e n , some e x u d a t e i s p r e s e n t w i t h i n nearby bronchioles, without any associated exudate i n t h e 13 t h e r e is b r o n c h i o l e w a l l s o r mucosa. In section mild/moderate, f o c a l submucosal s u p p u r a t i v e inflammation and necrosis i n a large bronchiole, adjacent t o a l a r g e inflammatory n o d u l e , u i t h o u t c h a n g e s i n t h e o v e r l y i n g mucosal e p i t h e l i u m . Jlx: lung subacute inflammation, bronchiolar p n e u m o n i a , mu1 t i f o c a l . C 15. E ~ ~ . d a d y m:i s o n t a i n s m o d e r a t e n u m b e r s o f s p e r m .

16. - a l e multiple cysts

from

s

U

over

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T h e r e is n o

l i n e d b y s i m p l e squamous e p i t h e l i u m -

O r k y , SW88142 inflammation.

17, 18. m : u l t i p l e a M change^ a r e present i n t h e s e kidney sections. The t u b u l e s a r e d i l a t e d , c o n t a i n i n g v a r i a b l e amounts of f j b r i l l a r material. A s m a l l number o f tubules contain hyalin C ~ t.6. R B a s e m e n t membranes o f tubules, Bowman's c a p s u l e a n d g l o m e r r ~ a r e mi J d l y t o m a r k e d l y t h i c k e n e d . 1; Glomeruli vary t r e m e n d o u s l y i n s i z e , and a r e o f t e n s w o l l e n . Hyaline material i s often present irl t,t\e s p a c e s o f Bowman's capsule. Scattered lymphoplasmacy t i c i n t e r s t i t i a l i n f i l t r a t e s are p r e s e n t . The m o s t rssent z d m n t t z rnnldlc T+ is i n t h e s e a r e a s t h a t t h e most profound g l o m e r u l a r changes a r e p r e s e n t a s w e l l , w i t h some g l o m e r u l i t h a t a r e s ' e v e r e l y s c l e r o s e d . Within t h e medulla a r e s m a l l numbers o f t u b u l e s w i t h i n t r a l u m i n a l rnineralizatj on. Dx: membrarlous g l o m e r u l o n e p h r i t i s , r e s u l t i n g i n p r o t e i n loss Dx: i n t e r s t i t i a l n e p h r i t i s , c h r o n i c , lymphoplasmacytic i n f i l t r a t e , e t i o l o g y undetermined
- - - . . A r

1 8 . U r i n a r v B l a d d e r : NLR 1 9 . Tr_eessid.: T h e r e Is o n l y m i n i m a l / m i l d spermatogenesis. s e m i n i f e r o u s t u b u l e s c o n t a i n n o o r v e r y few s p e r m a t o z o a Most

20. Liver: M o d e r a t e n u m b e r s of p o r t a l a r e a s c o n t a i n a m i l d lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate. There are scattered intrasinusoidal aggregates of neutrophils. I n one s e c t i o n t h e r e are s e v e r a l s m a l l foci of' cell necrosis w i t h minimal inflammation. 2 1 . Rsoph-agu~.: A d j a c e n t t.o t h e c a r d i a i s a s u b m u c o s a l f o c u s o f fibrinonecrotjc debris. The a d j a c e n t submucosa c o n t a i n s a m i l d 1y m p h o c y t . i c / p l a s m a c y t i c infiltrate. The d e b r i s i s a m o r p h o u s , w j t h moderate numbers o f b a c t e r i a and' a p a r t i a l s k e l e t a l m u s c l e fiber. C l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d wit.h t h e e s o p h a g e a l m u c o s a , w i t h i n t h e lumen, a r e m o d e r a t e numbers o f basophilic fusiform bodies, p o s s i b l y f l a g e l l a t e s of some t y p e . 2 1 - Sta_mczb,:NLR i n m u l t i p l e s t o m a c h s e c t i o n s .
,
,

2 2 . -11

~ t e s t i e NLR :

2 1 . Yrinarv B l a d d e r : N L R

2 5 . Artex-

(brachial ~ l e x u s l :NLR

2 6 . AQT-ta: T h e r e i s m i l d m e d i a l d e g e n e r a t i o n , c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y a l o o s e n e s s o f t h e media i n s e v e r a l a r e a s , w i t h a f i n e b a s o p h i l i c d u s t i n g of m i n e r a l i z a t i o n .

Arc'qivn? F: The 9 r c mroinc: ~
\h~~n~f.~~~~r~~'=h'~inc:.c~~

O r k y , SW88142 2 7 . Medium-sized Artery: M i l d a t h e r o s c l e r o s i s a s i n s l i d e 4 . 2 8 . Heark ( l e f t v e n t s i c l e ~ W l a r ~ m u s c l e N L:R ) 2 9 . Heart ( i n t e r v e n t ~ i ~ ~ u sl e prt u u d : N L R a
30.

Skletal-Mmk:

NLR

3 1 . _EY-e.1i.d- L R : N
3 2 . S.k.jn-.-eai.J e s ~ I : t h i s s e c t i o n o f pigmented s k i n t h e r e n is an u l c e r with a s s o c i a t e d underlying n e u t r o p h i l i c inflammatory i n f i l t r a t e within t h e s u p e r f i c i a l dermis.
3 3 . Shin ~ ~ _ _ L g : i x L o r ? IT h i s u n p i g m e n t - e d s k i n s e c t i o n h a s n o r m a l : s k i n a t o n e e d g e , g r a d i n g i n t o a l a r g e a r e a c h a r a c t e r i z e d by acanthosis, with ballooning degeneration o f e p i t h e l i a l cells i n t h e middle a r e a s o f t h e epithelium. T h e r e is a fissure i n this is a n e u t r o p h i l i c inflammatory i n f i l t r a t e . area, w i t h i n which S e v e r a l o t h e r c y s t i c areas a r e p r e s e n t w i t h i n t h i s t h i c k e n e d e p i d e r m i s , i n which t h e r e is f i b r i n and more n e u t r o p h i l s .
34. L i b r o u r ; ~ c t i v e Tissue. U: T h i s s l i d e c o n t a i n s a n irregular piece of fibrous connective tissue, with a n a t u r a l b o r d e r o f d e n s e f i b r o u s c o n n e c t i v e t i s s u e a l o n g one long edge and loose fibrous connective t i s s u e t h a t is n o t a n a t u r a l h o r d e r along t h e o t h e r edge. I n t h i s deeper p a r t t h e r e is v a s c u l a r d i l a t a t i o n a n d l o o s e m i x e d i n f l a m m a t o r y i n f i l t r a t e made u p of n e u t r o p h i l s and lymphocytes.

35. B a n e Marrow ~ ~ Q L B D -T h e m a r r o w c o n t a i n s a l l e x p e c t e d c e l l : l i n e s . M y e 1 o i d : e r y t h r o i d (M:E) r a t i o i s a p p r o x i m a t e l y 2 : l . A l l M and E s t a g e s are p r e s e n t i n e x p e c t e d r e l a t i v e numbers.
Final D i a g l u , ~ 1. d e a t h d u e t o p n e u m o n j a , s u b a c u t e p l u s r e g u r g i t a t i o n complicated by a s p i r a t i o n , following chronic illness associated with probable protein l o s i n g nephropathy ( n e p h r o t j c : s y n d r o m e ) , see comment 7 severe weight l o s s w i t h g o o d f o o d con sump ti or^ following chronic i l l n e s s associated with probable n e p h r o t i c s y n d r o m e , see comment 3 . k j d n e y s , membranous g l o m e r u l o n e p h r i t i s , r e s u l t i n g i n p r o t e i n l o s s , p r o b a b l e n e p h r o t i c s y n d r o m e , see comment. 4. kidneys, i n t e r s t i t i a l n e p h r i t i s , lymphoplasmacytic, e t i o l o g y undetermined. 5 . l u n g s , b r o n c h i o l a r pneumonia, subacute, multifocal, severe 6. thoracic lymph n o d e s , lymphadenitis, subacute, s e v e r e , a s s o c i a t e d w i t h b r o n c h i o l a r pneumonia. 7 . a o r t a a n d medium s i z e d a r t e r i e s , a t h e r o s c l e r o s i s ,
,Arr,+ivn? P:
r+n

Trr,~ 0r~)linY

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\ ~ n ~ ~ ~ f ~ * ~ ~ ~ ' ~ ~ ~ r C ) l i n ~ : ~ ~ C ) l ~

O r k y , SW88142 minimal/mild. 0. thyroid, h ~ p e r a c t i v i t ~ y , see comment. 9. adrenal, minimal inflammation, lymphopl'asmacytic i n f i l t , r n te . I0skjn of .jaw, acanthosis plus ballooning degeneration, c o m p l j c a t e d by secondary inflammation, n e r ~r o p h i l i c t inflammatory infiltrate, cause undetermj ned.

Eir1LC a m m a ! i
Catlse o f Orky-s death remains t h e same ( s e e N e c r o p s v comment,^ s e c t i o n above) . Based o n m i c r o s c o p i c e x a m i n a t i o n a n d further review of h i s c l j n i c a l h i s t o r y , t h e major underlyjng c l i s e a s e probJ.sm in t.his animal is severe renal disease, membranorls g l o m e r ~ l l o n e p h l - i t i s , w h i c h l e d t o c h r o n i c p r o t e i n l o s s and p r o b a b l e n e p h r o t i c syndrome. S u c h a d i s e a s e p r o c e s s would r e a d i l y e x p l a i n O r k y - s s e v e r e w e i g h t l o s s , h i s hypoalbuminemia, hypercholect,erolemja and t h e low Ts l e v e l s t h a t w e r e o b s e r v e d . N e p h r o t i c syndrome a l s o c a n b e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h an i n c r e a s e d p r o p e n s j t.y f o r i n f e c t i o n , a s o c c u r r e d w i t h h i s p n e u m o n i a . I n t h e d i a g n o s t i c workup o f O r k y , h e had b e e n r e c o g n i z e d t o h a v e v e r y low l e v e l s o f t h e t h y r o i d hormone, T a . Such t e s t r e s u l t s can be an i n d i c a t o r of low t h y r o i d f u n c t i o n ; h o w e v e r , a number o f other factors can a l s o c a u s e low T 4 levels. f i r s t a d d r e s s why t h e p r e s e n c e o f l o w C o n s e q u e n t l y , I would l e v e l s might not indicate hypothyroidism i n Orky's case. Problems n o t p r e s e n t t h a t might b e expected i n Orky i f t h e d e c r e a s e d T a l e v e l s w e r e d u e t o h y p o t h y r o i d i s m i n c l u d e : 1) w e i g h t g a i n , even with a lower a p p e t i t e , due t o decreased metabolic rate . Orky had v e r y s e v e r e w e i g h t loss. 2) reproductive dysfunction. Orky h a d m i c r o s c o p i c a l l y r e c o g n i z e d low s p e r m p r o d u c t i o n ; however, t.he e p i d i d y m i s d i d c o n t a i n m o d e r a t e n u m b e r s o f sperm. 3 ) anemia, n o r m o c y t i c , normochromic, n o n - r e g e n e r a t i v e : this is a "classic" a l t e r a t i o n i n adult-onset hypothyroidism. Orky had normal red blood cell indices. Diagnosing hypothyroidism based s o l e l y on low Ts l e v e l s i s v e r y d i f f i c u l t , a s a number o f o t h e r f a c t o r s c a n b e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h d e c r e a s e d T4 levels, including hyperadrenocorticism, diabetes mellitus, p r o t e i n l o s i n g enteropathy, protein losing nephropathy, nephrotic syndrome, pancreatitis, postprandial elevations of cholesterol and st.arvation. Of these possible causes, protein losing nephropathy and n e p h r o t i c syndrome most c l o s e l y f i t t h e combined evidence of clinical signs, c l i n i c a l laboratory d a t a and microscopic findings. With r e g a r d t o t h e m i c r o s c o p i c f i n d i n g s , t h e t.hyroid appearance i s one o f h y p e r a c t i v i t y a s opposed t o atrophy o r hypoactivjty. The p r e s e n c e o f low T4 l e v e l s i n t h e face o f t h i s h y p e r a c t i v i t y i s l i k e l y d u e t o t h e combined e f f e c t s of protein l o s s a s s o c i a t , e d w i t h t h e r e n a l d i s e a s e , a g e ( s e r u m Ts levels decrease significantly with age), hypercortisolemia a s s o c i a t e d w i t h enhanced endogenous c o r t i s o l p r o d u c t i o n t h a t and e v e n p o s t p r a n d i a l could occur with chronic systemic i l l n e s s , e f f e c t s as h e w a s f e d more i n a n e f f o r t t o c o u n t e r b a l a n c e t h e

Arr,+ivnd F: 'be

/C?rr,pOrQieP;:

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O r k y , SW88142

8

a p p a r e n t c a t a b o l i c s t a t e h e had e n t e r e d . The p r e s e n c e o f a h y p e r a c t i v e s t a t e h e r e is l i k e l y d u e t o t h e c o m b i n e d e f f e c t s of c o m p e n s a t i o n d u e t o t h e r e n a l d i s e a s e e f f e c t s o n a c t i v e Ts levels, a n d r e s p o n s e t o p o t e n t i a l h y p o t h e r m i a a s h e l o s t body w e i g h t a n d h a d d e c r e a s e d i n s u l a t i n g t h i c k n e s s of b l u b b e r . A f i n a l q u e s t i o n t h a t might b e a d d r e s s e d is t h e o r i g i n o f h i s renal disease. Orky a p p a r e n t l y h a s h a d a l o n g h i s t o r y of recurrent bouts of nonspecific i l l n e s s a t Marineland, o f t e n t h o u g h t t o be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h p o s s i b l e g a s t r o i n t e s t i n a l d i s e a s e ( g a s t r ic u l c e r s , colitis, etc. ) Glomerulonephritjs is o f t e n a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e occ-of--tiMy c o m p l e x e s t h a t s u b s e q u e n t l y become t r a p p e d i n , t h e g l o m e r u l i a n d in this a r e a a c t . t o i n i t i a t e immune a n d i n f l a m m a t o r y r e a c t . i o n s . persistertt, l e a d t o g l o m e r r l l a r damage a n d T h e s e r e a c t j onf; i f resultant dys-Function, -i r l c l u d i n g p r o t e i n loss, p a r t i c u lat-ly a lbr~min. O r k y - s s e r r ~ m c h e m i s t r y p r o f i l e h a s i n c l u d e d model-ate i n c r e a s e d gJ obuJ i n l e v e l s and m o d e r a t e d e c r e a s e d a 1 bumin l e v e l s From a s e a r l y a s f a l l / w i n t e r 1987. I t i s qrlj t e p o s s i b l e t h a t t h e r e p e a t e d b o u t s oC n o r l s p e c i f i c i l l n e s s t h a t h a v e b e e n r e c o g n i z e d s i g n j f i c a n t l e v e l s o f ascociat.ec1 c j r c u l a t i n g o v e r t j m e h a v e had arl ti g e r l - a n t i b o d y c o m p l e x p r o d u c t i o n and g l o m e r u l a r d e p o s j t i o n , l e r t d i t l g t o the c h r o n i c r e n a l l e s i o n s a n d a s s o c i a t e d a b n o r m a l i t i e s already described. Such a p r o c e s s c o u l d h e l p t o e x p l a i n n o t o n l y t l ~ e l b u m i n l o s s , b u t a l s o t h e i n c r e a s e d g l o b u l i n l e v e l s , which a may be d u e t o c h r o n i c a n t i g e n e m i a a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e i n i t j a l i l l n e s s ( g a s t r o i r ~ t e s t i n a li n f l a m m a t i o n ? ) . Since globulins a r e c o n s i d e r a b l y l a r g e r p r o t e i n molecules than albumin, they do n o t t e n d t o be l o s t i n p r o t e i n losing nephropathies. Other microscopic f i n d i n g s p r e s e n t i n t h e s e t i s s u e s t h a t a r e compatible with chronic antigenemia include the lymphoplasmacytic i n f i l t r a t e s i n renal i n t e r s t i t i u m , a d r e n a l m e d u l l a and h e p a t i c portal. areas. Other l e s i o n s recognized grossly o r microscopically a r e incidental findings. The a t h e r o s c l e r o s i s t h a t i s p r e s e n t i s e x t r e m e l y r n j l d , a f f e c t j n g p r i m a r i l y medium-sized arteries. The cause of t h e s k i n l e s i n ~ l on t h e jaw is not apparent with m i c r o s c o p y , a n d c a n o n l y be g u e s s e d .

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