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Introduction of 'Exchange Control' Types of controls that governments put in place to ban or restrict the amount of foreign currency

or local currency that is allowed to be traded or

purchased. Common

exchange controls include banning the use of foreign

currency and restricting the amount of domestic currency that can be exchanged within the country. Parties involved in exchange control department : 1. Authorized dealers 2. Authorized co operative/ commercial bank 3. Authorized money changers Authorized dealers in foreign exchange Authorizations in the form of licenses to deal in foreign exchange are granted to banks which are well equipped to undertake foreign exchange transactions in India. Authorizations have also been granted to certain financial institutions to undertake specific types of foreign exchange transactions incidental to their main business. Authorized Dealers' Powers 1. Authorized dealers may exercise powers within the parameters laid down in this Manual and in circulars issued from time to time by Reserve Bank, subject to fulfillment of the conditions, if any, indicated therein. 2. With effect from August 20, 1994 India has accepted the obligations. Accordingly, all bona fide current account transactions would qualify for release of foreign exchange either under the authority delegated to authorized dealers or after obtaining the necessary approval from Reserve Bank.

Presently some of the functions are as follows:
   

Guidelines and Rules for Forex Business. Training of Bank Personnel in the areas of Foreign Exchange Business. Accreditation of Forex Brokers Advising/Assisting member banks in settling issues/matters in their dealings.

Represent member banks on Government/Reserve Bank of India/Other Bodies.

Announcement of daily and periodical rates to member banks.

Member Banks  Public Sector Banks  Foreign Banks  Private Sector Banks / Co-Operative Banks  Financial Institutions / Others

Public Sector Banks 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Allahabad Bank Andhra Bank Bank of Baroda Bank of India Bank of Maharashtra Canara Bank

25. 19. 14. 11. 12. 24. 15. 18. 9. 22. Central Bank of India Corporation Bank Dena Bank IDBI Bank Ltd Indian Bank Indian Overseas Bank Oriental Bank of Commerce Punjab & Sind Bank Punjab National Bank State Bank of Bikaner & Jaipur State Bank of Hyderabad State Bank of India State Bank of Mysore State Bank of Patiala State Bank of Travancore Syndicate Bank UCO Bank Union Bank of India United Bank of India Vijaya Bank . 23. 8. 21. 13. 10. 16. 26. 17.7. 20.

18 19 20. Bank of Ceylon The Bank of Nova Scotia The Bank of Tokyo Mitsubishi UFJ Limited Barclays Bank PLC BNP Paribas China Trust Commercial Bank Citi Bank NA Commonwealth Bank of Australia Credit Agricole Corporate and Investment Bank Credit Suisse AG DBS Bank Limited Deutsche Bank AG Firstrand Bank The Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation Limited JP Morgan Chase Bank N. 12. 8. 7. . 5. 9. 17. 4. 14.S. 11. 21. Australia and New Zealand Banking Group Limited Bank of America N. 10. Bank of Bahrain & Kuwait B. 3.C.A.V.A. 2. AB Bank Ltd Abu Dhabi Commercial Bank Antwerp Diamond Bank N. 16. 13.Foreign Banks 1. 15. 6.

25. Bank Limited AXIS Bank Limited . Abhyudaya Co-op. 26.A. 32. 27. 33. 30. 37. Rabobank International (Cooperatieve Centrale Raiffeisen- Boerenleenbank B. The Royal Bank of Scotland N. 28. JSC VTB Bank Krung Thai Bank Public Company Limited MashreqBank p. 2. 31. 38.c Mizuho Corporate Bank Limited National Australia Bank Oman International Bank S.22. Woori Bank Private Sector Banks / Co-Operative Banks 1. 23.O. SBERBANK Shinhan Bank Societe Generale Sonali Bank Limited Standard Chartered Bank State Bank of Mauritius Limited UBS Bank AG United Overseas Bank Limited. 34.V.A.G. 35. 36. 24.s.) 29.

3. 13. 8. 15. 22 23 24. The Bharat Co op Bank (Mumbai) Ltd Bombay Mercantile Co-operative Bank Limited The Catholic Syrian Bank Limited City Union Bank Limited The Cosmos Co-operative Bank Limited Development Credit Bank Limited The Dhanalakshmi Bank Limited The Federal Bank Limited HDFC Bank Limited ICICI Bank Limited IndusInd Bank Limited ING Vysya Bank Limited The Jammu & Kashmir Bank Limited The Kalupur Commercial Co-operative Bank Limited Karnataka Bank Limited The Karur Vysya Bank Limited Kotak Mahindra Bank Limited The Lakshmi Vilas Bank Limited The Maharashtra State Co-operative Bank Limited Punjab and Maharashtra Co-operative Bank Limited The Ratnakar Bank Limited The Saraswat Co-operative Bank Limited . 17. 20. 21. 6. 14. 11. 4. 16. 12. 7. 5. 18. 10. 19. 9.

26. 27.25. 29. The Shamrao Vithal Co-operative Bank Limited The South Indian Bank Limited Tamilnad Mercantile Bank Limited The Thane Janata Sahakari Bank Limited YES Bank Limited Financial Institutions / Others 1. 28. 2. 3. Export-Import Bank of India IFCI Ltd Small Industries Development Bank of India Thomas Cook (India) Limited Total Members (as of January 2012) : 97 Managing Committee Members Managing Committee For The Year 2011-2012 1 2 3 4 5 6 Allahabad Bank Andhra Bank AXIS Bank Limited Bank of America Bank of Baroda Bank of India . 4.

A.. Deutsche Bank AG Export-Import Bank of India The Federal bank Limited HDFC Bank Limited … Additional Vice Chairman ICICI Bank Limited IndusInd Bank Limited IDBI Bank Limited Punjab National Bank Societe Generale … Vice Chairman Standard Chartered Bank State Bank of India .7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 Bank of Maharashtra BNP Paribas Canara Bank Central Bank of India Corporation Bank Citibank N. Chairman State Bank of Mauritius Limited Syndicate Bank Union Bank of India Vijaya Bank ..

ICICI Bank Limited 11. Oriental Bank of Commerce 12. Canara Bank 5.A. Corporation Bank 7. Standard Chartered Bank . Bank of India 4.Technical Committees Technical Committees for the year 2011-2012 Trade and Remittances Forex Market Advisory Group Trade and Remittances 1. The Hongkong & Shanghai Banking Corporation Limited 10. Development Credit Bank Limited 8. Citibank N. Societe Generale 14. The Federal Bank Limited 9. 6. The Saraswat Co-operative Bank Limited 13. Allahabad Bank 2. Andhra Bank 3.

HDFC Bank Limited 13. Central Bank of India 9. Corporation Bank 11. Andhra Bank 2. Syndicate Bank 17. . Union Bank of India Forex Market 1. Barclays Bank 4. State Bank of India 16. AXIS Bank Limited 3.A. IDBI Bank Limited 16.15. JP Morgan Chase Bank N. Bank of Baroda 5. ICICI Bank Limited 15. Deutsche Bank AG 12. BNP Paribas 7. Canara Bank 8. 10.A. The Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation Limited 14. Citibank N. Bank of India 6.

7.17. 5. 2. 8. State Bank of Mauritius Limited 20. 12. 3. Syndicate Bank Advisory Group 1. 4. 6. Standard Chartered Bank 18. 10. 11. AXIS Bank Limited Bank of Baroda Bank of India The Bharat Co-operative Bank (Mumbai) Limited BNP Paribas The Federal Bank Limited HDFC Bank Limited The Hongkong & Shanghai Banking Corporation Limited IDBI Bank Limited Punjab National Bank State Bank of India State Bank of Mauritius Limited Syndicate Bank Union Bank of India . 9. 13. State Bank of India 19. 14.

on behalf of non-resident individuals of Indian nationality/origin. These firms and organisations who are generally known as' authorised money-changers' fall into two categories. especially foreign tourists. coins and travellers cheques subject to directions issued to them from time to time. . Authorised Money-Changers In order to provide facilities for encashment of foreign currency to visitors from abroad. co-operative/commercial bank or money-changer at any time if the holder of the licenses/authorization is found to have failed to comply with any condition subject to which it was granted or to have contravened any provision of FERA 1973 or of any Rule. 'Full-fledged moneychangers' who are authorised to undertake both purchase and sale transactions with the public and 'Restricted money-changers' who are authorised only to purchase foreign currency notes. viz. coins and travellers cheques. Direction or Order made there under. Notification.Authorised Co-operative/Commercial Banks Authorisations have also been issued to certain State Co-operative/Urban Cooperative banks and Scheduled Commercial banks to open and maintain Ordinary Non-Resident Rupee Accounts (NRO Accounts) and Non-Resident (External) Rupee Accounts (NRE Accounts). Revocation of Licence/Authorisation granted by Reserve Bank Reserve Bank may revoke the license/authorization granted by it to an authorized dealer. subject to the condition that all such collections are surrendered by them in turn to an authorised dealer in foreign exchange/full-fledged money-changer. hotels and other organisations permitting them to deal in foreign currency notes. Reserve Bank has granted licences to certain established firms.

Bringing in and taking out of Foreign Exchange  Foreign exchange in any form can be brought into India freely without limit provided it is declared on the Currency Declaration Form (CDF) on arrival to the Custom Authorities. Where the foreign currency was brought in by declaring on .000/. declaration thereof on CDF is not insisted upon. however. When foreign exchange brought in the form of currency notes or travellers' cheques does not exceed US$ 10. have general permission to take out an amount not exceeding the amount originally brought in by them. coins and travellers cheques from residents as well as nonresidents. subject to compliance with the provisions of sub-para above.or its equivalent. 2.000/. Non-residents.Operational Instructions 1. other than foreign exchange obtained from an authorized dealer or a money changer is prohibited unless it is covered by a general or special permission of the Reserve Bank.  Taking out foreign exchange in any form. Purchases of Foreign Currency from Public  Authorised Money Changers (AMCs) / franchisees may freely purchase foreign currency notes.or its equivalent and / or the value of foreign currency notes does not exceed US$ 5.

Encashment Certificate  AMCs may issue certificate of encashment when asked for in cases of purchases of foreign currency notes. coins and travellers cheques from residents as well as non-residents. attention of the customers should be drawn to the fact that unspent local currency held by nonresidents will be allowed to be converted into foreign currency only against production of a valid encashment certificate.form CDF. Purchases from other AMCs and Authorized Dealers (ADs)  AMCs may purchase from other AMCs and ADs any foreign currency notes.  In cases where encashment certificate is not issued. Rupee equivalent of the amount of foreign exchange purchased . The AMC should invariably insist on production of declaration in CDF. coins and encashed travellers’ cheques tendered in the normal course of business. 4. the tenderer should be asked to produce the same. These certificates bearing authorized signatures should be issued on the letter head of the money changer and proper record should be maintained. 3.  AMCs may sell Indian Rupees to foreign tourists / visitors against International Credit Cards and take prompt steps to obtain reimbursement through normal banking channels.

2000 during a financial year to persons resident in India for undertaking one or more private visits to any country abroad (except Nepal and Bhutan). (II) Business visits AMCs may sell foreign exchange to persons resident in India for undertaking business travel or for attending a conference or specialized training or for maintenance expenses of a patient going abroad for medical treatment or check up abroad or for accompanying as attendant to a patient going abroad for medical treatment / check-up . Sale of foreign exchange (I) Private Visits AMCs may sell foreign exchange up to the prescribed ceiling (currently US $ 10.should be paid only by way of crossed account payee cheque/Demand Draft/Bankers' cheque / Pay order. savings.000) specified in Schedule III to the Foreign Exchange Management (Current Account Transaction) Rules. 5. Foreign nationals permanently resident in India are also eligible to avail of this quota for private visits provided the applicant is not availing of facilities for remittance of his salary.. abroad in terms of extant regulations. etc. Exchange for such private visits will be available on a selfdeclaration basis to the traveller regarding the amount of foreign exchange availed during a financial year.

000/either for any single drawal or more than one drawal reckoned together for a single journey visit.(Rupees fifty thousand only) against sale of foreign exchange for travel abroad (for private visit or for any other purpose). it should be paid by crossed cheque/ Banker’s cheque / Pay Order / Demand Draft. AMCs may release foreign exchange for travel purposes on the basis of a declaration given by the traveler regarding the amount of foreign exchange availed of during the financial year. AMCs may accept payment in cash upto Rs.000/. 50. where the Rupee equivalent of foreign exchange drawn exceeds Rs. 1999. For this purpose.000 per visit) specified in Schedule III to FEMA (Current Account Transactions) Rules. 2000. 50. iv. the payment must be received only by a crossed cheque drawn on the applicant’s bank account or crossed cheque drawn on the bank account of the firm / company sponsoring the visit of the applicant or Banker’s cheque / Pay Order / Demand Draft. the traveler should sign the cheques in the presence of an authorized official and the purchaser’s acknowledgement for receipt of the travellers’ cheques should be held on record.up to the limits (currently US $ 25. In addition to the payment by Rupees/ through crossed cheque/Banker’s 16cheque/ Pay order/ Demand draft. iii. 50. Conditions i. The Reserve Bank will not generally. attention of AMCs is drawn to sub-section (5) of Section 10 of FEMA. In case of issue of travellers’ cheques. AMCs may also accept the payments made by the traveller through debit cards/ credit . In this connection. prescribe the documents which should be verified by the AMCs while releasing foreign exchange. Wherever the sale of foreign exchange exceeds the amount equivalent to Rs.000/-. ii.

(iii) the purchaser of foreign currency/ foreign currency travellers’ cheque and the credit/ debit/ prepaid card holder is one and the same person. The cash memo may be required for production to emigration authorities while leaving the country. unspent Indian currency held by nonresidents at the time of their departure from prepaid cards for travel abroad (for private visit or for any other purpose) provided(i) (ii) KYC/ AML / CFT guidelines are complied with. The sale of foreign currency notes and coins within the overall entitlement of foreign exchange should be restricted to the limits prescribed by the Reserve Bank from time to time for the country of visit of the traveller. on official letterhead to travellers to whom foreign currency is sold by them. 6. sale of foreign currency/ issue of foreign currency travellers’ cheques is within the limits (credit/ prepaid cards) prescribed by the bank. Sales against Reconversion of Indian Currency AMCs may convert into foreign currency. . if asked for. 7 . provided a valid Encashment Certificate is produced. Cash Memo AMCs may issue a cash memo. v.

Foreign Currency Balances (i) AMCs should keep balances in foreign currencies at reasonable levels and avoid build up of idle balances with a view to speculating on currency movements. a chart indicating the rates for purchase/sale of foreign currency notes and travellers' cheques for all the major currencies and the card rates for any day. Replenishment of Foreign currency Balances (i) AMCs may obtain their normal business requirements of foreign currency notes from . Display of Exchange Rate Chart AMCs should display at a prominent place in or near the public counter. coins and travellers' cheques purchased to an AD or to an FFMC within seven working days.m. (iii) The transactions between authorized dealers and FFMCs should be settled by way of account payee crossed cheques / demand drafts. (ii) Franchisees should surrender foreign currency notes. Rates of Exchange AMCs may put through transactions relating to foreign currency notes and travellers' cheques at rates of exchange determined by market conditions and in alignment with the ongoing market rates. 10. latest by 10:30 a. 11. 9. Under no circumstances should settlement be made in cash.8. should be updated.

. 12. (ii) Where AMCs are unable to replenish their stock in this manner. FFMCs may also export surplus foreign currency to private money changers abroad subject to the condition that either the realizable value is credited in advance to the AD Category – I bank’s nostro account or a guarantee is issued by an international bank of repute covering the full value of the foreign currency notes / coins to be exported.other AMCs / authorized dealers in foreign exchange in India. Mumbai through an AD Category-I for permission to import foreign currency into up to US $ 2000 per financial year after approval of their Top Management after exhausting all available options for recovery of the amount. AMCs may write. 13. Central Office. they may make an application to the Forex Markets Division. Foreign Exchange Department. Reserve Bank of India. The import should take place through the designated AD Category-I through whom the application is made. Any write-off in excess of the above amount. would require the approval of the Regional Office concerned of the Foreign Exchange Department of the Reserve Bank. Export / Disposal of surplus Foreign Currency Notes / Travellers' Cheques AMCs may export surplus foreign currency notes / encashed travellers' cheques to an overseas bank through designated Authorized Dealer Category . Write-off of fake foreign currency notes In the event of foreign currency notes purchased being found fake/forged subsequently.I in foreign exchange for realization of their value through the latter. against payment in rupees made by way of account payee crossed cheque / Demand Draft.

In other words. (d) Register of purchases of foreign currency notes / coins from authorized dealers and authorized money changers in form FLM 4 (Annex-VII). (f) Register of sales of foreign currency notes / coins to authorized dealers / Full Fledged Money Changers / overseas banks in form FLM 6 (Annex-IX). the registers and books of . (e) Register of sales of foreign currency notes / coins and foreign currency travellers' cheques to the public in form FLM 5 (Annex-VIII). (ii) All registers and books should be kept up-to-date. cross-checked and balances verified daily. (iii) Transactions not pertaining to money changing business of the AMC should not be mixed up with money changing transactions.14. (b) Daily Summary and Balance Book (Travellers' cheques) in form FLM 2(Annex-V). (g) Register of travellers' cheques surrendered to authorized dealers / authorized money changers / exported in form FLM 7 (Annex-X). (c) Register of purchases of foreign currencies from the public in form FLM 3 (AnnexVI). Registers and Books of Accounts of Money-changing Business (i) AMCs shall maintain the following Registers in respect of their moneychanging transactions : (a) Daily Summary and Balance Book (Foreign currency notes / coins) in form FLM 1 (Annex-IV).

. Reserve Bank which have issued the licenses within one month of the financial year-end.account should show clearly the trail of transactions pertaining to money changing business. a monthly statement indicating details of receipt / purchase of US $ 10. as per the format as at Annex-XIV.II should include transactions of their franchisees in their statement. (iv) Separate registers should be maintained for each establishment. (iii) AMCs should submit a quarterly statement regarding Foreign Currency Account/s maintained in India in their names with AD Category-I Banks to the Regional Office concerned of the Foreign Exchange Department. Reserve Bank. if the AMC maintains more than one place of business. (ii) AMCs should submit to the Regional Office concerned of the Foreign Exchange Department. FFMCs / ADs Category . Submission of Statements to the Reserve Bank (i) AMCs should submit to the office of the Reserve Bank which has issued the license. a monthly consolidated statement for all its offices in respect of sale and purchase of foreign currency notes in form / (Annex-XI) so as to reach not later than the 10 th of the succeeding month. Reserve Bank as per the format in Annex-XIII. giving the details of the amount written off during the financial year.000 (or its equivalent) and above per transactions in the enclosed format as at Annex-XII. (iv) An Annual Statement should be submitted by all the AMCs to the respective Regional Offices of the Foreign Exchange Department. within 10 days of the close of the month. 15.

shall be deemed to be a contravention of the provisions of the Act ibid. The Statutory Auditors are required to certify that the Concurrent Audit and the internal control systems are working satisfactorily. .16. (ii) All single branch AMCs having a turnover of more than US $ 100.000 or equivalent per month and all multiple branch AMCs should institute a system of monthly audit. Single branch AMCs having turnover of less than US $ 100. 17. Inspection of Transactions of AMCs Section 12(1) of Foreign Exchange Management Act 1999. Concurrent Audit (i) AMCs should put in place a system of Concurrent Audit of the transactions undertaken by them.000 or its equivalent may institute a system of quarterly audit. Failure to produce any books of account or other document or to furnish any statement or information or to answer any question relating to the money changing transactions to the Inspecting Officers. empowers any officer of Reserve Bank specially authorized in this behalf to inspect the books and accounts and other documents of AMCs. The concurrent auditors should check all the transactions of the AMCs and ensure that all the instructions issued by the Reserve Bank from time to time have been complied with. (iii) Appointment / selection of concurrent auditors is left to the discretion of the AMCs. The AMCs should provide all assistance and cooperation to Inspecting Officers in carrying out their inspection.

II. subject to the following conditions:I. should be submitted. Full details such as period for which the exchange counter will be operated. a separate application should be made for the purpose to the Regional Office concerned of the Foreign Exchange Department of the Reserve Bank. letter from organizers making available venue for the money changing facilities. manner of accounting of the transactions. 19. may be allowed to open Foreign Currency Accounts in India. Temporary Money Changing Facilities AMCs are authorized to transact money changing business only at the location or locations specifically indicated in the licence. with the approval of the respective Regional Offices of the Foreign Exchange Department. IV.18. Opening of Foreign Currency Accounts by AMCs AMCs. etc. III. If it changing facilities on a temporary basis is intended to provide money on certain special occasions. No idle balance shall be maintained in the said account. Balances in the accounts shall be utilized only for settlement of liabilities on account of(a) TCs sold by the AMCs and (b) Foreign currency notes acquired by the AMCs from AD Category-I banks. volume of business expected. . Only the value of foreign currency notes/ encashed TCs exported through the specific bank and realized can be credited to the account. Only one account may be permitted at a particular centre.

Submission of Balance Sheet and maintenance of NOF All AMCs are required to submit their annual audited balance sheet to the respective Regional office of the Reserve Bank for the purpose of verification of their Net Owned Funds along-with a certificate from the statutory auditors regarding the NOF as on the date of the balance sheet. FFMCs and ADs Category–II which are RRBs. may be guided by the instructions issued by the respective regulatory Departments of the Reserve Bank in this regard. 21. UCBs and NBFCs. having a minimum net worth of Rs. they are required to bring it to the notice of the Reserve Bank immediately along with a detailed time bound plan for restoring the Net Owned Funds to the minimum required level. . may participate in the designated currency futures and currency options on exchanges recognized by the Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI) as clients only for the purpose of hedging their underlying foreign exchange exposures. Participation by Full Fledged Money Changers (FFMCs) and Authorised Dealers Category-II (ADs Category-II) in the Currency Futures and Exchange traded Currency Options markets FFMCs and ADs Category-II [which are not Regional Rural Banks (RRBs).20. Urban Co-operative Banks (UCBs) and Non-Banking Financial Companies (NBFCs)]. 5 crore. if there is any erosion in their NOF below the minimum level. Local Area Banks (LABs). As AMCs are expected to maintain the minimum NOF on an ongoing basis. LABs.