Geographical features of Dai Land

Dai land is situated on the west of Mindat township, the north - west of Kanpetlet township, the north - east of Paletwa township and the south - east of Matupi township. The Dai land is located in the southern part of the Chin land (Chin state), Myanmar. It is also located between north latitude 20 ˚ 30' and 21˚ 30’, and between east longitude 93˚ 10' and 94˚ 10'. The longest part of its land is about 120 miles (193.08 km) and the narrowest part is roughly 60 miles (96.54 km). The Dai land is situated between 800 m to 3200 m above the sea level. The highest mountain in Dai land is Khawnusuum (Mt.Victoria).Its has got slope ranges of mountains and a few plains near the Laymyo River and Moun River. Climate Dai land has got three climate summer, winter and rainy season. The Dai land is located in temperate zone. The temperature is between 5˚ C and 20˚ C. Especially the rainy season is started the end of May to the end of October. Environment Current Issue Cut and burn methods of plantation or slashing methods makes deforestation. Widely searching of natural resources such as wild orchid species, faunas and floras are worry natural resources largely losing. Myanmar military government’s well known cutting and selling of teaks and timber is the majority of destroying the Dai land. Cutting and selling of the pine wood is the most dangerous deforesting in near Mt.Khawnusuum areas. Generally hunting, electrical fishing, searching, digging, cutting all natural resources are vanishing resources. Natural Resources In Dai land there are many kinds of faunas and flora. The Dai land is the richest of natural resources in Chin state. (a) Fauna Tiger, bear, elephant, monkey, leopard, barking deer, fox, cat, snake, reptiles and amphibian, birds and so on. (b) Floral Varieties of wild orchid species, cherry, rhododendron, teak, timber, pine, bamboo species, rattan.., and so on.

Population In Dai land about 60,000 native people are inhabitants, within the original tribe there are many small minor ethnics. They are original residents of Dai land. The overall Dai population is estimately 90,000. Some of Dai people live in around Myanmar and all over the world. By history researcher Dai people are derivative from Sino - Tibetan, Tibeto - Burma, Kuki - Chin - Naga, Kuki - Chin, Chin - Dai. Political Division By Myanmar (Burma) government Dai land is divided into four parts within southern Chin state of Kanpetlet ,Mindat,Matupi and Paletwa township. Today Dai land is comprises wintin Chin state, Myanmar. So the local government made to be separated of Dai land and they used to called Kanpetlet Dai, Mindat Dai, Matu Dai and Paletwa Dai. In Chin state Dai population is 10 percentages of Chin people. The biggest forest of Chin state is situated in Dai land. There is no town, high school, hospital in Dai land. The military government ruling systems make Dai people to be poor and not to be educated. Regrettably there is no modern transportation system such as road, railway and air port. Along with it there is also neither of telecommunication nor internet system (World Wide Web). So the Dai land is one of the poorest development places of the world. Cuisine Dai people used to cook and eat their cuisine within their festivals,ceremonies and every day. The curry of Guuk Booi (cooking with ash filterd water or lye) is the famous traditional curry. The main component of Guuk Booi is produced from filtering water to passing through banana tree, straw,bamboos and medicinal herbs ash. Chicken with Dai coriander salad is the favourite dish of Dai people. Roselle soup is the most popular soup of Dai people. Other cooking methods are boiling, baking,roasting and barbecuing the vegetables and meats. The local people make Khai Peh (boiled pack of snack making stickery rice with banana leaf) and share to every body and neighbors within the days of harvesting and thanks giving day. Medicinal herbs such as turmeric powder, ginger, mints, garlic, lemon grass, coriander, chives, cinnamon, pepper and chilly are the most useful spices of Dai curry. Yo Leng (cooking curry in bamboo) is the most delicious dish of Dai ethnic cooking.

Costumes Dai people adorably used to wear traditional hand woven cotton clothes. Ladies and women are wearing such as phyang (look liked shirt), nghi Le (skirt),yisa sen, yisa pauk (sewing tower for wearing waist to ankle). Previous time men used to wear only khyu (underwear), mengpen, ng’ae, nghai(men ear lobe),lupung(turban), lu sui(topknot),kyum loi(two long tails of drongo),aai loi (long tail of cock). Women commonly dress sungphui, mya kang,phui song (Dai belt),mole (colourful beads), htae(braclet), ngha thaen (ear lobe), lu keh (hairpin). Only ladies tattoo on their faces, arm, calf (especially on their faces have fully tattoo style). There is much kind of tattoo styles, depend on their small minority ethnic. Dai hand woven styles are high standard and quality until today. Women wave themselves blanket for their family using. Languages Dai language is the mother tongue of all Dai tribes. There are slightly different styles of using their ethnic tongue those minor ethnic groups who live in Kanpetlet Township and Matupi Township. Even though slightly different styles of using dialect each minority understand the other tongue. Dai literature is developed the year of around 1990s by the help of German people. The alphabets are based on German alphabets. Dai language code is dao and international standard organization number is 639-3. Part of Christian bible, New Testament translation is finished on the year of 1996. Dai literature is widely used in Christian religion. Dai people can speak other languages those ethnic groups who live near their region such as Mün, Ya, Utbü, Matu, Zotung, and Burmese. There are trying to prepare for the publication of Dai - English dictionary. Education In Dai land there are only basic education middle schools (from 5 years to 14 years students). Basic primary school is nearly open in all villages but the local people can not learn properly and functionally. Attached basic education high school is opened in a few villages. There are around 1000 educated people (Bachelor degree). Nowadays Dai people are studying for their further education in various Christian colleges such as many capital cities of Yangon, Falam, Mandalay, Kalay, Maymyo. So a lot of Dai people can not study for their further education, only 1 percentage of Dai people can go to colleges or universities. So the 99 percentages of Dai people can not study other educations such as computer training internet training, polytechnic school and human resources training.

Health There are some government clinics and dispensaries in some villages, but there is no medicine in those dispensaries. People go the nearest Burmese villages and the cities to buy some drugs. There are no doctors in Dai land. Sometimes the medical staffs and nurses visit within Dai land. There is rarely found giving vaccination to Dai people by government. Most commonly facing diseases are malaria, dengue fever, flu, gastric pain, bronchioles, diarrhea, and hepatitis. Villages There are more than 170 villages in Dai land. Among them large villages are Kuuiimnu, Kaaiimnu, Khengimnu, Hmnuntunu, Khengsanu, Thaiimnu, Lungimnu, Dukimnu, Msangimnu, Yängimnu, Bawisanu, Thounu, Mhukhimding, Khayaing, Chan Pyan,Ram Thein,Mhang Taung, Madu, Masatui and Hman Taung villages and so on.There are more than 100 houses in large villages and around 20 houses in small villages. Festivals,Ceremonies and Dances SaakThai Suuk Ei Cün(Thanksgiving days),Sang Leh(Winnowing festival),Pung Yu(praying for blessing the seeds),Soot Su (praying for fruitful the crops),Khai mdeh(the first eating for new vegetables),Lung Süm(Stonehenge ceremony for monument), Im Kaai (new home ceremony),Im leh(engaging with bride’s parents),Ca püm(wedding ceremony) Vok Ng’yoh(giving material and mythans to brid’s parents), Phya Saak(go fishing),and Sa Haut(hunting) are the most popular festivals and ceremony. Within the traditional festival and ceremony Dai people used to dance and sing songs. The most famous dacings are Püi Lam Siing, Ak Noi Siing,Saat Siing, Keat Siing and Se Lu Siing. The local fluting songs are popular among Dai people. There are Leng La,Pi lim,Phi Phät,King Khäng.The musical instruments are gongs, cymbals, flutes, drums, bamboo claps and so. Dai people used to sing folk songs during ceremonies and everyday life. Religion Recent thirty years ago Dai people are animism. Most of Dai people are converted to christinity within two decades. Nowadays absolutly 99 percentages of Dai people are Christian. In Dai land there are many christian denominations such as Roman Catholic, Babtist, Methodist,Brothern,Presbyterian and so on. Because of christinity Dai people are well developed of social and spiritual knowledge.

Agriculture, Husbandry and Economy (a)Agriculture Dai people cultivate paddy, corn, millet, beans, peas, cucumber, pumpkin, gourd, egg plant, sweet potatoes, tomatoes, ginger, mint, garlic, chives, onion, lemon grass, water melon, turmeric, chilly, lady finger, white pumpkin, coriander, cinnamon, sesames and celery in their garden or farm. Banana, orange, lime, lemon, avocado, pine apple, papaya, tamarind, grape fruit, mango, cane, pear, grape and strawberry can be found in Dai land. Dai farmer cultivate the see in the beginning of monsoon period (the middle of April to June) and harvest the crops in October to November. The cultivation method is only depending on raining. (b)Animal Husbandry Mythan is the popular breeding animal in Dai land. Dai people used to breed their mythans in the forest. Along with it you can see cow, goat, buffalo, pig, chicken and duck. Dog and cat are domestic animals of Dai people. (c) Economy Generally Dai land is one of the most using remote mountainous land system (slashing or shifting cultivation) that the least developed regions habitants by indigenous hill tribes of Myanmar. Dai people earn livelihood by practicing of widely substance shifting cultivation (Taung Ya) and a common farming for their daily food for them. Plantation and gardening are only for their survival and diet food because there are no transportation systems and markets in Dai land. Wild orchids searching and selling among with it searching and selling of natural faunas and flora are smuggling for getting the black incomes of some of Dai people. There is a few income generation for Dai people that is waving beautiful hand woven materials for women and making attractive baskets and mats for men. Besides that Dai people get some money by cultivation of castor seed and pumpkin seed. Judiciary System and Local Government The former judiciary systems are decided by the head of each minority leader, shaman (prophet) and village leader. Adultery case is the most grateful crime for Dai people. If the judge can not draw conclusion the case the accused person or the complainants have to oath in various methods in front of civilians. Previous time each group of tribe has their leaders and only the governor leads his people. Recently the government system is in the hand of local authorities, their followers who are working under military government system. In Dai land there are some people who collect the taxes from the civilians or villagers is CNF soldier (Chin National Front). Dai people have to give regularly their taxes not only to the military government but also to the CNF soldiers.

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