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OFCOM

Study of current and future receiver performance Appendices
Lewis Davies Paul Winter

11 January 2010
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SELECTIVITY PRACTICAL EXAMPLE DVB-T broadcast Proposed receiver Receiver performance EXAMPLES FOR NEEDING BETTER CHANNEL SELECTIVITY FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE REQUIRED RADIO SELECTIVITY RECEIVER REQUIREMENTS FOR GOOD SELECTIVITY Receive channel filter Receiver linearity Spurious responses Sampling and analogue to digital conversion Phase noise and reciprocal mixing Receiver sensitivity Receiver dynamic range Transmit adjacent channel power leakage Summary INTERFERENCE AFFECTS ON AND BY VARIOUS MODULATION TYPES Bandwidth effects Amplitude Modulation AM Frequency modulation FM GMSK as used in GSM WCDMA OFDM RECEIVER ARCHITECTURES Super heterodyne Zero IF receiver Low IF receiver Architecture comparison SILICON PROCESSES RF NFET Key Device Parameters CMOS Silicon-On-Insulator (SOI) Integrated and discrete component comparison KEY COMPONENTS Band select filter Low noise amplifier (LNA) Mixer Oscillators and quadrature generation

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20/2009 Interim Report Issue 1 CONTENTS

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Discrete IF Filters Integrated amplifiers and active filters Analogue to digital convertors Decimation

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20/2009 Interim Report Issue 1 ©TTP 2010 company confidential CONTENTS

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SELECTIVITY PRACTICAL EXAMPLE

This numerical example investigates the selectivity performance, with DVB-T blockers at 8 MHz (adjacent channel), 16MHz (alternate channel) and 80MHz away from the wanted signal, of a hypothetical receiver designed to receive DVB-T broadcasts. 1.1 DVB-T broadcast 8MHz 7.6MHz 64QAM 2/3 code

Channel spacing Signal bandwidth (BW) Modulation 1.2 Proposed receiver

LNA

tracking filter

mixer

analogue filter

analogue to digital digital filter convertor A D

demodulator DSP

LO

Architecture: Input filtering: Receiver Noise Figure: rd Input 3 order intercept point: C/N needed to decode a 64QAM 2/3 code signal: Local oscillator phase noise Wideband local oscillator noise floor Analogue filter: Filter stop-band rejection ADC effective resolution ADC sample rate Digital filtering 1.3 Receiver performance

Zero IF Tracking filter with 40MHz bandwidth 5dB -10dBm 18dB 90dBc/Hz at 10KHz offset 150dBc/Hz rd 3 order with ±4MHz cut off 60dBc 9 effective bits 80MSPS assumed perfect

The thermal noise floor of the receiver is: = -174dBm + NF + 10 log BW = -174 + 5 + 69 = -100dBm The receiver sensitivity is: = noise floor + C/N = -100dBm + 18dB = -82dBm In an ideal receiver the receiver’s noise figure would be near zero giving a theoretical receiver sensitivity of -87dBm.

©TTP 2010 company confidential

SELECTIVITY PRACTICAL EXAMPLE

5dB f (log scale) 4 12 The filter rejection is very limited close to the carrier.3. This leaves 22dB of the ADC’s range for blocking By combining the ADC blocking and analogue filter rejection the cascaded effect of the two can be determined to be 22 + 9 = 31dBc.g. 6dB per octave Δω ©TTP 2010 company confidential SELECTIVITY PRACTICAL EXAMPLE .4MHz ~3dB zero IF receiver wanted centred on 0Hz 3rd order filter 60dB/decade slope 29. DC offsets~4dB The ADC’s 9 bit (54dB) dynamic range can be partitioned as shown above. The blocker is assumed to be another DVB-T signal in the adjacent channel. With the same ADC partitioning and analogue filter as above. Reciprocal mixing Δω2. but significantly greater further away from the wanted signal.1 8MHz adjacent channel selectivity Each of the factors which affect the receiver’s selectivity will initially be investigated separately. With a redesign of the ADC. and perfect digital filtering.2 1. the ADC dynamic range could be up to 12 bits (72 dB dynamic range). e.e. Effects of the input filter – none Analogue filter cut off frequency . AGC. with 8MHz channel spacing. ADC dynamic range OFDM peak to average ratio ~10dB blocking C/N=18dB 4 12 RX imperfections. i. The average filter attenuation is 9dBc for this blocker. taking no other receiver impairments into account the receiver adjacent channel selectivity can’t be any better than 31dB. up to 49dB of adjacent channel selectivity can be obtained.

Page 217 ©TTP 2010 company confidential SELECTIVITY PRACTICAL EXAMPLE .20log (8MHz/10KHz) + 10 log (7. however distortion is related to the input power level. the level of third order intermodulation has been calculated as if the signal was just two CW tones. Even for a 12 bit ADC.6MHz) = -90 58 + 69 = -79dBc below the unwanted signal Reciprocal mixing alone limits adjacent channel interferer to: 79dB . Power (dBm) DVB-T input signal DVB-T output signal (f) The level of the spectral re-growth is dependent on the amplitudes of each of the 6817 OFDM carriers making up the signal (assuming 8k mode). RF Power Amplifiers for Wireless Communications. it is likely that the effect of reciprocal mixing would reduce the adjacent channel selectivity by less than 1dB. This gives rise 1 to a Gaussian noise like spectrum with a similar peak to average ratio of around 9dB . The instantaneous power of the entire signal depends on the data modulating each of the carriers. C Cripps. as a rough ‘rule of thumb’. Artech House. Distortion causes spectral re-growth of the OFDM skirts as shown below. Each of the carriers intermodulates with every other carrier and the actual re-growth level cannot be directly calculated. each at half the typical peak power of the entire signal.3 PPN = interferer level reciprocally mixed on to the wanted signal = -90dBc/Hz -20log(f2/f1) + 10 log (BW) = -90 . which is typically random. 1 Steve.C/N = 61dBc above the wanted signal It can be seen that the channel filtering plays the by far the biggest role in limiting the receiver adjacent channel selectivity before distortion is considered. For the purpose of this example. Intermodulation distortion The effects considered so far are independent of input power level.

at equal power levels. must be at least 49dB below the unwanted carrier. With signals above 1V distortion would rise rapidly and cause wideband interference. will combine incoherently reducing the overall adjacent channel rejection by 3dB. In practice AGC can be used to limit the effects of the large signal by reducing the receiver gain. Assuming this was 1Vpk to pk. With ideal negative feedback. a dynamic range of 88dB could be obtained.4 0 -20 Interference (dBm) 75 65 -60 -80 -100 -120 -140 -60 -50 -40 -30 -20 RMS Input power (dBm) 45 35 25 15 5 Interference (dBc) -40 55 interference level (dBm) relative inteference level (dBc) The intermodulation products will be generated in the wanted channel adding interference to the wanted received signal. signals of up 4dBm could be handled without any distortion. At higher power levels the effects of distortion will rapidly rise. ©TTP 2010 company confidential SELECTIVITY PRACTICAL EXAMPLE . the noise floor. Power (dBm) -43 ACR=31dB (from filter & ADC calculations) -74 Min C/N = 18dB -92 -100 f With lower adjacent channel power levels the effect of distortion will be less. As the receiver has an adjacent channel rejection of 31dB and requires an 18dB C/N. If the same ideal receiver had no noise figure. and therefore had a sensitivity of -87dBm. the receiver would not generate any intermodulation until the voltage range of the amplifier was exceeded. and the receiver had an input impedance of 50Ω. The noise and distortion. However as the receiver IP3 improves the receiver noise figure degrades. was not limited by filter rejection or reciprocal mixing. With an unwanted signal level of –43dBm the intermodulation distortion is also 49dB below the unwanted. generated principally by the quantisation noise of the ADC.

Combining the two.3. With the interferer 16MHz offset from the wanted. cut off frequency . With a 16 MHz offset blocker. adjacent channel selectivity would be 28dB at this input level. the LO phase noise has reached its limit of 150dBc/Hz.C/N = 63dB above the wanted signal This will cause less than 1dB degradation of the receiver selectivity calculated above.5 Thus.6M) = -150 + 69 = -81dB below the unwanted signal This limits the interferer reaching the mixer to: 81 . For higher input levels intermodulation will dominate. N0 = (-174 + 18 +6 ) dBm/Hz = -150dBc/Hz If the oscillator produces 10mW of the power the carrier to noise ratio is given by: C/N= 10 –(-150) dBc/Hz = 160dBc/Hz This theoretical oscillator would provide 10 dB less reciprocal mixing than the one used in the TV receiver example above. Therefore the power of the reciprocal mixed noise in the wanted band is -150 + 10 log (BW) = -150 + 10 log (7. 1. the receiver’s analogue filter will be reasonably effective. an alternate channel signal. giving an average power rejection of 33dB. ©TTP 2010 company confidential SELECTIVITY PRACTICAL EXAMPLE . A typical amplifier biased for oscillation might have again of 18dB and a noise figure of 6dB. a blocker at -43dBm would have the same individual effect as ADC quantisation with ENOB of 9 bits. An oscillator’s noise floor far away from the carrier is determined by the oscillator’s amplifier’s gain and noise figure.2 16MHz alternate channel selectivity Again the input filter has no effect.e. i.8MHz 3rd order filter 60dB/decade slope 29dB 41dB 4 12 f With the ADC giving an additional 22dB of dynamic range the alternate channel rejection is 55dB before distortion or reciprocal mixing is considered.3. without AGC or negative feedback.

For each decibel of rejection introduced by the tracking rd filter 3 order intermodulation products introduced after the tracking filter will be reduced by 3dB. So far the tracking filter has not been considered. 60dB 4 40 80 log f Any energy at 80MHz will alias directly onto the wanted frequency stopping the digital filtering from providing additional selectivity. Nyquist Bandwidth Fs/2 FS= 80MHz f At frequencies which don’t directly into the wanted channel larger interferers could potentially be handled by the channel filter.3 80MHz far off selectivity At 80MHz away from the wanted the analogue filter will have reached its ultimate rejection of 60dB as shown below giving an average filter rejection of 60dB. This has the effect of reducing the size of interfering signals reaching the mixer and channel filter. Distortion and overload effects are also likely to degrade the selectivity significantly. This allows selectivity performance to improve considerably ©TTP 2010 company confidential SELECTIVITY PRACTICAL EXAMPLE . 1. It is likely to significantly degrade the alternate channel rejection of the receiver calculated above at all input power levels.6 Fifth and higher order intermodulation distortion is likely to have a significant effect on the selectivity of the receiver. The size of interferers which can be handled will be limited by reciprocal mixing of the LO phase noise to 63dB above the wanted.3. For each decibel of rejection introduced by the tracking filter the ADC dynamic range and reciprocal mixing noise performance will be improved by 1dB.

1 EXAMPLES FOR NEEDING BETTER CHANNEL SELECTIVITY Use of spectrum cleared by Digital Switch Over (DSO) A practical example for receivers benefitting from better channel selectivity includes the reuse of 128MHz UHF spectrum which has become available due to the switch from analogue to digital TV and clearing aeronautical radar from channel 36 and radio-astronomy from channel 38.1. and all mobile transmitters operator at another fixed set of frequencies for the uplink (mobile to base-station). unless suitable steps are taken.3 Use of TDD networks Historically cellular systems have used FDD. However it is likely that the local radio operator’s transmission costs would be significantly lower if the multiplex was broadcast from a single transmitter tower. This cleared spectrum will be in two blocks. the interferer and victim must be of different equipment ©TTP 2010 company confidential EXAMPLES FOR NEEDING BETTER CHANNEL SELECTIVITY . this would cause holes to be punched in the coverage areas of both broadcasters services. SFNs work well if each transmitter broadcasts all available multiplexes available in the area. Improving the adjacent channel selectivity of the receiver would reduce the size of these holes. anticipated to be channels 31 to 37 and channel 61 to 70.1.1. 2. By improving the selectivity of the TV receiver it would be possible to limit the susceptibility of the TV receiver to interference from the mobile broadband network. There is a risk. However as shown in the second part of figure 2-1.7 2 2. limiting the positioning and power levels of broadcast transmitters. Currently this spectrum is used by other TV services with a regionalised use of frequencies to minimise interference issues. The upper band of cleared spectrum is likely to be reused by mobile broadband services. of TV viewers in some areas suffering interference from the base stations of the mobile broadband networks. Mux A Signal strength Mux B Service area for mux B Service area for mux A Multiplex B broadcast from single tower Signal strength Receiver adjacent channel selectivity Receiver sensitivity mux B not available mux A not available mux B not available Figure 2-2: Local DAB multiplex broadcast from one or two towers 2. operating in a single frequency network (SFN). For adjacent channel interference to occur in FDD.2 Efficient local area broadcasting adjacent to SFN networks Another example is the adjacent channel selectivity of DAB receivers. In FDD all base-station transmitters transmit at one fixed set of frequencies for the downlink (base-station to mobile). This is shown in the first part of Figure 2-2 where local Multiplex B is broadcast from the same tower as national Multiplex A .

In FDD UMTS the receiver is required to receive at the same time as transmitting. for internet downloads it is likely to be highly asymmetrical. The amount of time a handset needs to spend transmitting and receiving can vary depending on how it is being used. one is a mobile. is underutilized .org. In addition. In addition.e. whilst the other is a base-station.iee-cambridge. In GSM the mobile is not required to transmit and receive at the same time. owned by 120 2 UMTS operators. In TDD. http://www. just one of the measures used to increase the system spectral efficiency (bits/s/Hz/unit area). As it is not easy to change the uplink and downlink frequencies in FDD. As base-stations always have some physical separation from mobiles. i. parts of the spectrum allocated to UMTS TDD and potentially to LTE. it does imply that a fixed bandwidth is allocated to each. so that a receiver in close proximity to a transmitter operating on an adjacent channel is not expected to operate simultaneously to the transmitter. time is used to divide the transmit and receive signals. it also allows basestations to be co-sited and mobile devices to be used in close proximity to each other without risk of adjacent channel interference.uk/arc/seminar06/slides/AndrewWilliams. Currently much UMTS TDD spectrum throughout the world. For two way speech it is likely to be symmetrical. When TDD systems are operating in adjacent channels and are time synchronised. Adjacent FDD and TDD carriers can’t be time synchronised. Advantages of TDD include permitting the use of ‘unpaired’ spectrum and allowing the spectrum to be used efficiently when the proportion of the uplink and downlink traffic varies.pdf [accessed 7th August 2009] ©TTP 2010 company confidential EXAMPLES FOR NEEDING BETTER CHANNEL SELECTIVITY 2 . lie next to FDD spectrum. GSM and FDD UMTS both use this approach. receivers can be used with a relatively low adjacent channel performance without limiting system performance. However it is not always possible to time synchronise two adjacent TDD systems without losing spectral efficiency. adjacent channel performance is generally similar to that required for FDD.8 types.

Receiver location. frequency. This difference could easily account for power levels of a common interferer reaching the TV receiver to be 30dB greater than those reaching the GSM receiver.e. i. of up to 200KW are likely to be used. The actual power level will depend on the loading on the base-station and its position. The following example illustrates how a cellular and TV receiver have very different selectivity requirements. For DVB-T. The only mitigating factor is that the TV receiver antenna has directionality. TV effective isotropic transmit powers (EIRP). EIRP levels of up to 1. When combined with the different antenna positions this will lead to the same interfering signal reaching each receiver with a 40dB difference. However the TV receiver will probably use a high gain antenna mounted on a roof at around 10m above ground level whilst the GSM phone will be hand held and may be indoors. especially high power ones. Both systems are expected to work with the power of the respective wanted signals only a few decibels above the noise floor. as used in terrestrial digital television broadcasting.9 3 FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE REQUIRED RADIO SELECTIVITY A radio must be able to receive the wanted signal with sufficient C/N0 in the presence of interfering signals. post DSO. In other directions the antenna will effectively attenuate interfering signals. is typically 18dB whilst for GSM. “Mobile Phones and Health. May 2000 FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE REQUIRED RADIO SELECTIVITY ©TTP 2010 company confidential . antenna position and gain all influence this. The antenna position and gain will have a massive influence on the number and size of interferers reaching the receiver. For instance: • If the radio is located in an environment near a large number of transmitters. The C/N0 required for DVB-T. Signals at input to TV with roof mounted high gain antenna Signals at input to GSM phone used indoors • • ~40dB f TV Interferer cellular to cellular and TV TV Interferer cellular to cellular and TV f [[I really don’t understand what this shows.5KW 3 are permitted .]] Figure 3-1: Comparison of RF signals at the input to a TV and GSM phone receiver used in the same location 3 Stewart. For example if a GSM cellular phone operating at around 915MHz is compared with a TV operating at up to 860MHz the frequencies are fairly similar. The level and number of interferers reaching the radio has a large influence on the selectivity requirements of the radio itself. several significant interferers can be expected to be received.” IEGMP. For cellular. so the 10dB of antenna gain only applies to signals originating from the direction the antenna is pointing. The TV antenna may have 10dBi of gain whilst the GSM phone is likely to have an antenna gain of less than 0dBi. sufficient C/(N+I). This power will be continuous. William. as used in many mobile phones. it is around 9dB.

it may be possible to reduce the likelihood of these systems producing harmful interference to the victim system.1 Selectivity required with high level interferers In this case the following factors need to be considered: • • • What are the highest level interferers likely to be received by the receiver? What is the level of the wanted signal likely to be received simultaneously? What is their frequency relationship? If the receiver’s antenna is positioned in a location where it is picking up strong interfering signals. the power of the transmitted signals for both the wanted and any interferers the frequency relationship between the wanted and interfering signals. what level of selectivity is required. it is likely that it is also receiving the wanted signal reasonably strongly. an unreasonably high level of selectivity is required. 3.10 In determining the receiver selectivity specification required for a particular system. in order for a reasonable number of users to not be affected by interference. e. In this situation. cellular base stations and TV transmitters have been located away from the receive antennas of the users equipment. perhaps making the system uneconomic. if the receiver’s antenna is positioned in a location where it is picking up only a weak wanted signal it is statistically likely that the interfering signals are also fairly weak.g. if the system designer can influence the network planning of the systems which could produce potential interferers. The system designer therefore needs to consider. for example Wi-Fi and Femto basestations there is an increased likelihood of a transmitter very close to a receiver so whilst the wanted received signal may be weak.1. 3. by co-siting the transmitters for two systems operating on adjacent channels. The receiver selectivity specification required can be determined using two broad test cases.2 Selectivity required with a weak wanted signal In this case the following factors need to be considered: • • • What is the lowest level of the wanted signal expected to be received? What level of interferer is likely to be received simultaneously by the receiver? What is their frequency relationship? Typically the wanted signal is set 3dB above the minimum sensitivity level of the receiver so that the interference power equals the noise power. are they close together or wide apart? It is relatively easy to build a receiver with good rejection of signals separated in frequency from the wanted signal. It is likely that to ensure that all potential users of the system are not affected by interference. This requires the following factors to be considered: • • • • the receiver’s antenna position and gain. the interfering signal could be very strong. adjacent channel selectivity requirements can be minimised.1. but much more difficult to reject interfering signals close to the wanted signal. the selectivity required with a high level interferer and the selectivity required with a weak wanted signal. most radio transmitters. As well as specifying the receiver selectivity. the RF power levels and frequency of both the wanted signal and interferer reaching the receiver need to be considered. ©TTP 2010 company confidential FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE REQUIRED RADIO SELECTIVITY . With the increase of radio transmitters within the home. the RF path loss between the transmitter and receiver for both the wanted and unwanted signals. Traditionally. For example.

2 Receiver linearity All analogue elements of a receiver such as amplifiers. ©TTP 2010 company confidential RECEIVER REQUIREMENTS FOR GOOD SELECTIVITY .11 4 RECEIVER REQUIREMENTS FOR GOOD SELECTIVITY This chapter investigates what receiver requirements are needed for good selectivity and why real world receivers may struggle to achieve the selectivity required for good system performance and spectrum use efficiency. input signals wanted interfering signal channel filter signal at demodulator wanted Remaining interfering signal Figure 4-1: Effect of channel filter 4.1 Receive channel filter With the exception of FFT based OFDM demodulation. If these occur at critical frequencies within the receiver. These non linearities introduce distortion to both the wanted and any unwanted signals. these interfering signals need to be suppressed by the receiver to a level such that there is a sufficient C/N of the wanted signal at the receiver’s demodulator. As will be shown below this can lead to the creation of new interfering distortion products occurring at new frequencies. too narrow filtering will lead to suppression of the wanted signal leading to loss of signal and in some systems inter-symbol interference. for the demodulator to be unaffected by out of band signals. not least because they have a maximum signal they can amplify. Therefore. i. this will affect the SINR needed for an adequate C/N at the demodulator. a receiver’s demodulator tends to have little or no selectivity. or due to frequency inaccuracies such as the receiver’s local oscillator mixing down the received signal to slightly the wrong frequency. ultimate out of band rejection.: Filter rejection = minimum C/N required + required selectivity + 3dB Ideally the receive channel filter should not affect the wanted signal.e. and filters have some non linearity. . This may be due to the channel filter shape. Whilst too wide a filter will lead to inadequate suppression of adjacent channels. 4. mixers. In practice the channel filter used is not ideal as shown in Figure 4-1.

The distribution of the 2 and 3 order intermodulation products is shown in Figure 4-2. to be clearly specified.f2 and 2f1 + f2. In terms of power level IM2 products are distributed against total IM2 power as: • • • 50% (-3dB) at DC 25% (-6dB) at f1 + f2 25% (-6dB) at f1 . all the third order terms are equal power. Let f(x) consists of two sinusoidal signals close together in frequency: f(x) = A1 cos ω1t + A2 cos ω2t The second order products of the output are: y(x) = k2[f(x)] 2 2 = k2 A1A2 [cos (ω1t) + cos (ω2t) + 2 cos (ω1t) cos (ω2t)] = k2 A1A2 [1 + ½ cos (2ω1t) + ½ cos (2ω2t) + cos ((ω1 + ω2)t) + cos ((ω1 . 4 4 = The third order IM3 products are created at 2f1 + f2. and at even multiples of f1 and f2.f2.f2. at a low frequency dependent on the separation of f1 and f2.ω2)t) It can be seen that the second order products (known as second order intermodulation products. it is adequate to consider no more than third order products. where there are only mild non linearities. nd rd ©TTP 2010 company confidential RECEIVER REQUIREMENTS FOR GOOD SELECTIVITY . 2f1 . Assuming the nonlinearity is frequency independent. The third order products of the output are: y = k 3 [f ( x )]3 2 = 3k 3 ( A 1 A 2 cos(ω1 )2 t cos(ω 2 )t + A 1A 2 cos(ω1 )t cos(ω 2 )2 t ) 2 2 3k 3 A 1 A 2 3k 3 A 2 A 1 2 cos(2ω1 + ω 2 )t + cos(2ω 2 + ω1 )t + . DC. f1 + f2 and f1 . it can be shown that all odd order products are clustered around f1 and f2. Also..12 The nonlinearities can be described by the expansion y(x) = k1f(x) + k2[f(x)] + k3[f(x)] + higher order terms where k1f(x) is the amplified version of the input signal. great insight into linearity can be gained by considering two tones at ω1 and ω2.f2 2 2 3 Second order products grow in proportion to the square of the input power.. or IM2) are created at three frequencies. Whilst real world signals do not generally consist of carrier waves. Third order products grow in proportion to the cube of the input power. For most analysis. It can be shown that when f1 and f2 are close together all higher even order products are formed at DC. 2f1 . for weakly non linear systems. By charactering components’ response with two tones it allows their performance.

The main difference is that the slope of the intermodulation term on the graph is determined by the order of the product. When plotting on a graph of input versus output rd power (Figure 4-3) the output linear power and output 3 order intermodulation power. Output power (dB) Output 1dB compression point First order output 1dB Third order intercept point Third order IM term Input power (dB) IIP1dB IIP3 Figure 4-3: Third order intercept point A very similar concept can be used for other order intermodulation products. The P1dB point is where the amplifier is reaching overload and has 1dB less gain than it does for small signals. ©TTP 2010 company confidential RECEIVER REQUIREMENTS FOR GOOD SELECTIVITY . it can be seen that the two lines intersect. for example the second order term has a slope of 2:1.13 wanted DC nd f1-f2 f2-2f1 f1 f2 2f2-f1 2f1 f1+f2 nd 2f2 │f│ 2 order third order 2 order Figure 4-2: Distribution of 2 nd and 3 order intermodulation products rd The concept of intercept points are used to characterise an amplifier’s. Third order products grow in proportion to the cube of the total input power. or entire receiver’s response to signals generating intermodulation products. Where the two lines intersect is known as the third order intercept point (IIP3). This point can never be reached as it is far beyond the 1dB compression point (P1dB) for the amplifier.

will produce intermodulation products which fall in the wanted frequency band producing interference.3 Ideally amplifiers just amplify the signals and all higher order products are minimised. How this image response is handled is the key difference in the various receiver architectures discussed in chapter 6. ©TTP 2010 company confidential RECEIVER REQUIREMENTS FOR GOOD SELECTIVITY . In a real receiver multiple receiver stages are cascaded together. The interferers may not be of equal power. intermodulation has been discussed by characterising component and receiver responses with two CW tones of equal power. This is known as a spurious response and is shown in Figure 4-4. If a signal in an adjacent carrier is amplitude modulated. when viewed in the frequency domain it will have multiple spectral components. One of the mixer input frequencies is from a local oscillator (LO) allowing RF signals received at one frequency to be translated in frequency either up (up conversion) or down (down conversion) to another frequency. The mixer’s amplitude response to the image product is identical to the wanted frequency. For signals with a high peak to average ratio. At the same time any signals or noise at the “image” frequency ωc. the intermodulation product’s power levels will typically be much closer to that found from using the peak power rather than the average power. the intermodulation product’s power levels will fall between that found if CW tones set to the peak powers or average powers were used in the determination. Key differences are: • • • Intermodulation products from multiple signals will cause a picket fence effect as each interferer intermodulates with every other interferer. on nd the other hand maximise the 2 order sum (f1+f2) and difference (f1-f2) products. Intermodulation products developed in one stage are fed through to the next and therefore accumulate at each stage. Mixers. If the wanted signal at ωc+ ωif is mixed with a local oscillator at –ωc the sum of the signals is at ωif. The level of each product will depend on the instantaneous power. Good receiver intermodulation performance can be achieved by: • • • Using back end stages with better large signal handling. Unfortunately for the designer. rd • Cross modulation is a particular type of 3 order intermodulation. As the relatively weak received signals are also generally amplified by each stage of a receiver. These components.14 For convenience. In the real world a receiver is likely to receive multiple modulated interfering signals. The bandwidth of each product will depend on the order of the intermodulation product as well as the bandwidth of the interfering signals. latter “back end” stages need to be able to better handle large signals than do the earlier “front end” stages. not the average power. Handling the image frequency effectively is a critical part of receiver design as any signals at the image frequency will cause interference and degrade the receiver’s selectivity. all at varying power levels. The intermodulation product’s power depends on the total input power. Filtering large interferers prior to the interfering signals reaching the back end stage where they could cause problems. when non-linearly amplified. Dynamically adjusting the amount of gain that front end stages have so that the size of large interferers is limited so that they do not cause distortion in the back end stages. of the interferers causing the product. Spurious responses 4. prior to demodulation.ωif are also translated to ωif.

In an ADC the input analogue signal is multiplied with the sample clock. In many receiver designs it is possible to band pass filter the received signal before amplification so that the receiver only needs to deal with RF signals in a relatively narrow frequency band. In a mixer the input analogue signal is multiplied with the local oscillator. it is completely determined by giving its ordinates at a series of points spaced 1/(2B) seconds apart. called an alias component. limiting the number of spurious products which may be generated. The ADC’s Nyquist bandwidth is the frequency bandwidth over which the ADC can operate without forming alias components. where B is the highest frequency in the original signal. Sampling is a very similar process to frequency mixing. will be an issue degrading or completing blocking the reception of the wanted channel.15 LO signal PSD ω signals at input to receiver -ω -ωc- -ωc -ωc+ωif 0 ωc-ωif ω image ωc+ωif wanted down conversion after mixing -ωif 0 ωif ω Figure 4-4. Any frequency component above fs/2 is indistinguishable from a lower-frequency component. The theorem shows that an analogue signal that has been sampled can be perfectly reconstructed from the samples if the sampling rate (fs) exceeds 2B samples per second. or quantise. Image products after downconverson In addition to the image response. mixers have other spurious responses at mfRF±nfLO. the received radio frequency analogue signal to digital samples. associated with one of the copies. Local oscillator harmonics can be a significant issue in wideband receiver designs such as TV tuners. ©TTP 2010 company confidential RECEIVER REQUIREMENTS FOR GOOD SELECTIVITY . 4. digital clocks) at another frequency. The Nyquist-Shannon sampling theorem states that if a function x(t) contains no frequencies higher than B Hertz. Unwanted received signals at any frequency which modulate with the local oscillator or its harmonics. This requires the signal to be sampled using some form of analogue to digital convertor (ADC). or with any signal present in the receiver (e.g.4 Sampling and analogue to digital conversion All digital receivers need to convert. to form a product at the wanted received frequency.

It will only be obtained when a signal with an amplitude covering the full scale input range of the ADC is sampled. determined in the ideal convertor by the number of digital bits each sample of the analogue signal is quantised to. Instead it is possible to bandpass filter an alias frequency removing signals at higher and lower alias frequencies. If a lower amplitude signal is sampled by the ADC the SQNR of the sampled signal will be proportionally reduced.16 Nyquist Bandwidth alias frequencies f Fs/2 Fs sampling clock 3Fs/2 2Fs Figure 4-5: ADC’s Nyquist bandwidth and alias frequencies To avoid aliasing the signal must be filtered prior to sampling. where the quantization error is uniformly distributed between −1/2 LSB and +1/2 LSB. and the signal has a uniform distribution covering all quantization levels. Although most common. The alias filter must remove any energy in the alias bands which if sampled would appear in the digital replica of the analogue signal. The SQNR determines the theoretical maximum ADC dynamic range. This is known as sub-sampling. SQNR can be calculated from: SQNRADC = 20log10(2N) ≈ 6. This filter is known as an alias filter. The rounding error between the actual analogue signal and the quantised digital signal appears as quantisation noise.02N dB where N is the number of bits. ©TTP 2010 company confidential RECEIVER REQUIREMENTS FOR GOOD SELECTIVITY . This is the difference between the amplitude of the largest and smallest signal it can handle simultaneously. Nyquist filter Nyquist filter Fs/2 Fs 3Fs/2 2Fs F Fs/2 Fs 3Fs/2 Sub-sampling 2Fs F Baseband sampling Figure 4-6: Baseband and sub-sampling One of the key characteristics of an ADC is its dynamic range. The signal to quantisation noise ratio (SQNR) defines the ratio between the maximum signal the ADC can handle and the quantisation noise produced. it is not necessary to low pass filter the lowest set (baseband) of sampled frequencies. For an ideal analogue-to-digital converter.

Unlike analogue stages. A Input band filter LNA Channel filter D DSP Power estimate Figure 4-7: AGC loop In practice it is not just the input signal level of the ADC which needs to be controlled.1 KHz. This is shown in Figure 4-7 for a generic receiver. will create additional noise and spurious products reducing the dynamic range slightly. where slightly overloading a stage causes some distortion to the wanted signal. For instance. ADCs hard limit and even a slightly larger signal than what the ADC can handle will result in a gross sampling error. The ENOB and Nyquist bandwidth of an ADC must. This is similar to the range of human hearing. the gain of the element may need to be adjusted for best dynamic range. By varying the gain of a preceding amplifier. The ADC ENOB is always lower than the ADC’s headline number of bits of resolution.4. audio CDs are recorded with 16 bit resolution at a sampling rate of 44. A wideband loop which senses the signal strength prior to channel filtering and controls the ‘front end’ LNA and mixer gain may be used alongside a narrow band loop controlling the receiver back end. This provides 96dB of dynamic range with a signal bandwidth of around 20 KHz. at a minimum. jitter of the sampling clock and kT/C thermal noise introduced by the sampling switch. To maximise the spurious-free dynamic range of each analogue element. whilst allowing the backend to be adjusted to make use of the ADC dynamic range. to be optimised for best large signal handling. 4. To achieve better overall receiver performance often multiple control loops are used. This allows the front end of the receiver. It characterises the ratio between the fundamental signal and the noise in the sampled spectrum. be sufficient to handle the wanted signal. an AGC loop allows the input signal’s amplitude to the ADC to be constantly adjusted to match the amplitude of the signal the ADC is designed to handle.2.4. ©TTP 2010 company confidential RECEIVER REQUIREMENTS FOR GOOD SELECTIVITY . where large interferers may be present. effects such as distortion in the analogue section. For maximum dynamic range the amplitude of the input signal must cover the full scale input range of the ADC.17 In practice. The ENOB required will be discussed in section 4. Similarly the sampling rate of ADCs used in radio receivers must be at least the bandwidth of the received signal.1 Automatic gain control An automatic gain control (AGC) system is a feed back control system typically used to control the gain of the receiver prior to sampling based on a power estimation of the sampled signal. Often the Effective Number Of Bits (ENOB) of the useful signal data in the ADC’s output digital signal is used rather the SNR of the input signal. The ADC’s SNR is a practical measure of a real ADC’s maximum dynamic range.

in defining the ADC’s dynamic range requires several other factors to be taken into account. To avoid instability. known as oversampling. it is important the instantaneous input signals dynamic range is less than the dynamic range the ADC can handle. the SQNR is improved. the noise energy is spread evenly over the ADC’s Nyquist bandwidth. an increase in the C/N0 is needed to adequately demodulate the signal.2 ADC dynamic range required Whilst AGC loops make best use of the ADC’s dynamic range over signal conditions varying with time. a 10 bit ADC with up to 60dB dynamic range is often used. In a fading environment. Therefore within the desired signal bandwidth. assuming the signal is adequately anti-alias filtered prior to sampling. the DC component arising from even order intermodulation or feed through of the local oscillator in some receiver architectures. The AGC system typically measures the average power of the received signal. • • • • This can lead to many more ADC bits being required than is needed to just decode the signal. an AGC system will have a response time to a change in the amplitude of the input signal. By doubling the sample rate it can be seen that the ADC noise density is halved giving a 3dB improvement in dynamic range. The peak power might be significantly bigger.3 ADC oversampling The RMS quantisation noise error level is fixed by the input range and number of bits of the ADC. Using this approach. where signals undergo constructive and destructive interference as they are reflected off surfaces.18 A input band filter LNA wideband power estimate channel filter D DSP channel power estimate Wideband loop narrow band loop Figure 4-8: Dual AGC loop 4. These include: • • The power of any other received interfering signals present which have not been adequately suppressed by the receiver prior to sampling. the SFDR needs to be no more than the C/N0 ratio needed to demodulate the wanted received signal at the required bit error rate BER. If the ADC is directly coupled to the rest of the receiver. With this type of AGC there will be some error away from the ideal gain.4.4. the noise density (watts/Hz) is lower maintaining the same total noise power. For example in WCDMA the peak signal exceeds the average signal by 10. The peak to average power ratio (PAPR) of the interfering signal. Many AGC systems use amplifiers with discrete gain steps. 4. This is equivalent to adding an extra half bit to the ADC’s resolution.94dB for 0. These could result from in-balances in the receiver circuitry. For example in a GSM system where the minimum C/N needed is around 9dB and could theoretically be sampled using a two bit ADC.01% of the time. When the Nyquist bandwidth is made wider by using a higher sample rate. It is independent of bandwidth and in a simple ADC. This is shown pictorially in Figure 4-9. the designer can trade ©TTP 2010 company confidential RECEIVER REQUIREMENTS FOR GOOD SELECTIVITY . In practice. DC offsets may be significant. In theory. The error will depend on the size of the gain step. A fading margin.

5 Phase noise and reciprocal mixing Any practical local oscillator signal is not a perfectly pure sine-wave. the type of oscillator typically producing the most pure ©TTP 2010 company confidential RECEIVER REQUIREMENTS FOR GOOD SELECTIVITY . This approach however requires a faster ADC. an ADC with a lower number of bits can be used whilst obtaining the same resolution. a simpler analogue anti-alias filter with fewer poles can be used. For a tuned resonant oscillator. i. a single latched comparator. Anti alias filter required when sampling at Fs f Fs 2Fs Anti alias filter with a lower number of poles required when sampling at 2Fs f Fs 2Fs Figure 4-10: Anti-alias filters needed for different sampling rates 4.e. Each time the sampling rate is doubled the number of poles is reduced by one. In addition. see Figure 4-10. Taken to extremes the ADC can be replaced with a single bit ADC. Quantisation noise from an n bit ADC sampling at Fs PSD Quantisation noise from an n bit ADC sampling at 2Fs f Fs 2Fs Figure 4-9: lowering the quantisation noise power density by raising the sampling rate Providing the signal to be sampled is contained within the Nyquist bandwidth of the ADC sampling at Fs.19 ADC resolution with the ADC sampling rate. Several factors govern the amount of phase noise generated. instead it has noise sidebands known as phase noise.

Different materials have different corner frequencies. One of the most fundamental definitions is for a system under sinusoidal excitement at a frequency ω: Q≡ω energy stored average energy dissipated It can be shown that that the 3dB bandwidth of a circuit. definitions of Q exist. the lower the bandwidth of the resonant circuit and therefore the lower the phase noise of the oscillator. Several different. the Q. Close to the carrier. This represents the broad band noise floor of the oscillator circuit. Closer to the carrier the Q of the resonator dictates the noise floor. In electronics it results from a variety of effects. and generation and recombination noise in a transistor due to the base current. such as impurities in a conductive channel. resonating at ω0 is related to Q by: BW = ω0 Q The formula shows that the higher the resonator’s loaded Q. or quality factor of the resonating tank circuit is an important contributing component to the oscillator phase noise. It is always related to a DC current. but effectively equivalent.20 waveform. The corner frequency fc is the point at which flicker noise becomes more significant than other broad band noise. BW. flicker noise with a 1/f characteristic combines with the resonator 3 noise to produce a 1/f response. Its shape is governed by the following factors: • • • Far from the carrier the noise is constant. Leeson’s formula predicts a tuned resonant oscillator phase noise and is shown in Figure 4-11. Bipolar devices often have corner frequencies of tens or hundreds of Hertz whilst MOS devices have corner frequencies of tens of Kilohertz to Megahertz. 2 ∝ 1/(Δωc )3 9dB/octave ∝ 1/(Δωc )2 6dB/octave = constant ωc ~Δω1/f 3 ~ω0/2Q Log Δω Figure 4-11: Local oscillator phase noise ©TTP 2010 company confidential RECEIVER REQUIREMENTS FOR GOOD SELECTIVITY . The 1/f response comes from the filtering action of the resonating tank circuit. Flicker noise appears in many different physical forms including galactic radiation and transistor noise.

By maximising receiver sensitivity.2. now with added phase noise. Each stage develops some noise. This effect is known as reciprocal mixing. the SNR of the received signal is maximised allowing greater amounts of interference degradation from the effects of distortion. In a real receiver multiple receiver stages are cascaded together. If this gain is reduced. to a lower IF frequency.6 Receiver sensitivity The amount of noise each stage adds is described by its noise figure. This degradation can be minimised by sufficient amplification of the signal in the prior stage so that the latter stage has little effect on the overall noise. Receiver sensitivity contributes to receiver selectivity especially when the wanted signal is small. channel filtering etc before the SINR becomes too small for the receiver to decode the signal adequately. ©TTP 2010 company confidential RECEIVER REQUIREMENTS FOR GOOD SELECTIVITY .4. The synthesiser modifies the noise produced by the tuned oscillator. often an input filter followed by an LNA. have the largest effect on the receiver’s overall noise figure. When expressed in Decibels it is known as the Noise Figure (NF). the back end components noise figure has a much larger effect on the receiver’s noise figure. This will be investigated in section 8. the noise figures of the first elements in the receiver. Figure 4-12 shows the effects of mixing a wanted signal along with a larger adjacent channel signal. Noise factor (F) is the ratio of the total output noise power from a device compared to the output noise due just to the input source. both depicted as a pure sine wave. Input signals and local oscillator adjacent channel interferer wanted signal LO After down conversion down converted wanted signal ‘swamped’ by down converted adjacent channel interferer IF Figure 4-12: Reciprocal mixing 4. Ftotal = F1 + F2 1 F3 1 F4 1 + + G1 G 2 G1 G 3 G 2 G1 When each stage of a receiver has sufficient gain. The local oscillator noise is mixed with both the wanted signal and adjacent channel interferer. Therefore the SNR of the received signal degrades with each additional receiver stage.21 In practice LO oscillators use a PLL based frequency synthesiser to lock the tuned oscillator to a frequency multiple of a reference oscillator. It assumes the source is at 290K (17°C). and noise developed in one stage is fed through to the next. The down converted wanted signal is swamped by the adjacent channel signal.

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4.7

Receiver dynamic range

The concept of dynamic range can be used to describe the difference between the maximum signal the receiver can handle and the smallest. As discussed in section 3 the receiver may not need full sensitivity when receiving strong interfering signals. When using an AGC system, the receiver’s gain is adjusted depending on the size of the wanted input signal and possibly also the size of the interferers. If the gain of the stage that dominates the large signal handling of the receiver, characterised by the receivers IP3 or P1dB performance is reduced the overall large signal handling performance of the receiver improves. At the same time, as the receiver gain is reduced, the receiver’s noisy back end components have more effect on the receiver’s overall noise figure causing it to degrade. Generally as the receiver’s gain reduces the receiver’s noise figure increases. The noise figure generally increases more rapidly than the receiver’s IP3 and the receiver’s dynamic range reduces at high signal levels. As an example, Figure 4-13 below shows the P1dB and NF performance of the MAX2371, an LNA with input step attenuator followed by a VGA (Voltage controlled gain amplifier). It is designed to be used at the input to a receiver. A sharp step in the gain can be seen as the front end 20 dB attenuator is switched in. As the gain reduces the noise figure degrades and the P1dB improves slightly. A marked improvement is seen in P1dB as the attenuator is switched in.
40

30

20

10 front end atten AGC voltage gain P1dB Noise figure

0 1 -10 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

-20

-30

-40

Figure 4-13: LNA with step attenuator and VGA’s P1dB and NF performance with gain (MAX2371, Maxim Integrated Products) When the amplifier is coupled to the rest of a receiver the front end gain tends to have a larger effect on the overall P1dB, or IP3 of the receiver. The graph below shows the simulated IP3 and noise figure performance of the receiver when the MAX2371 is coupled to a receiver back end with a gain of 10dB, noise figure of 10dB and IP3 of 0dBm. It can be seen that the IP3 varies significantly with the receiver gain. With small input signals, the receiver gain and IP3 of the back end of the receiver dominate whilst at small signals the IP3 of the front end dominates.

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50

40

30

20 front end atten AGC voltage gain IP3 Noise figure

10

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

-10

-20

-30

Figure 4-14: RX performance with the MAX2371 LNA coupled to a nominal receiver back-end 4.8 Transmit adjacent channel power leakage

Although not directly a receiver performance issue, many modulation systems do not constrain all their transmit power to their allocated transmit frequency channel. Any energy transmitted on adjacent channels is known as adjacent channel power leakage, ACPL. If say 1% of the power leaks into the adjacent channels either side of the transmit frequency this will constrain the best ACR obtainable, even with a perfect receiver, to around 23dB. 4.9 Summary

Table 4-1 lists the various receiver impairments discussed above and examines the number and type of interferer required to cause a selectivity issue.
Impairment Channel filtering (analogue and digital) Susceptible frequency channels Mostly the adjacent channel with channels further from the wanted having a reduced susceptibility as the analogue filter transitions to its stop band. The ultimate rejection of the filter will influence the far off blocking performance of the receiver. Any frequencies that are not adequately suppressed by an input filter prior to processing by the receivers analogue element, amplifiers, mixers, etc operating non-linearly. Any that are not adequately suppressed prior to processing by the receivers analogue elements, amplifiers, mixers, etc; that combine with the receiver’s LO (and its harmonics) or internally generated spurious frequencies which result in a spurious product being generated that falls on the Number and type of interferer required to cause a selectivity issue At least one

Linearity

Spurious responses

Either one with non constant envelope modulation or two signals. The intermodulation products must fall on the wanted, IF, DC frequency etc (receiver architecture dependent). At least one

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Impairment

Susceptible frequency channels wanted, IF, DC frequency (receiver architecture dependent). Any frequencies that are not adequately suppressed by the ADC’s alias filter prior to sampling. Mostly the adjacent channel with channels further from the wanted have a reduced susceptibility as the LO phase noise levels out. The ultimate LO noise floor of the filter will influence the far off blocking performance of the receiver Mostly the adjacent channel with channels further from the “wanted” having a reduced susceptibility as the transmitter output filter transitions to its stop band.

Number and type of interferer required to cause a selectivity issue At least one with spacing such that interferer is aliased into the ADC’s desired band At least one

ADC aliasing LO phase noise – reciprocal mixing

Transmit adjacent channel power leakage

At least one

Table 4-1: Receiver selectivity impairments From the table it can be seen that, with the exception of receiver linearity, a receivers selectivity can be determined using a single interferer. To comprehensively determine a receiver’s selectivity, potential interferers at any frequency which may be present at the receiver’s input need to be considered. 4.9.1 Typical receiver performance

Figure 4-15 shows the selectivity of a typical DTT tuner using a superhet receiver with a SAW IF filter for different received power levels. Both the wanted and interferer have an occupied bandwidth of around 7.6MHz. The frequency offset is the distance between the centre of the wanted and unwanted signals. At relatively low wanted signal levels, -70dBm is likely to be around 10dB above the receiver’s sensitivity limit, the selectivity improves as the frequency separation of the interferer to wanted increases. This is likely to be mostly due to RF front end filter selectivity although local oscillator phase noise causing reciprocal mixing and transmit adjacent channel power leakage may play a part. Further out some spurious responses can be seen. The clearest is at +72MHz. As it is only on one side of the wanted signal it can be assumed that it is the image response of the receiver. At higher signal levels the reduced dynamic range of the receiver dominates.

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Figure 4-15: Measurements of selectivity (C/I) for DVB-T interference into a DTT receiver for different received power levels (C) (Ofcom/ERA)
.

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nRF where n>1. only the proportion of the energy falling in the narrower band receiver stage affects that stage.e. The effects of this can be seen in Figure 5-1. Intermodulation and other spurious products bandwidth will be wider than.26 5 INTERFERENCE EFFECTS ON AND BY VARIOUS MODULATION TYPES This chapter examines how different types of modulation used in radio communications systems have different effects on receiver performance. the adjacent channel interfering signal for a GSM phone was expected to be another GSM service. and therefore have a lower spectral density than the interfering signals causing the product if: • • the product is derived from a multiple of the fundamental interfering frequency. This allows narrow band receivers to be relatively immune to interference from wideband sources. However most modulation systems have an amplitude modulated component so the effects of AM on radio receivers needs to be understood. as cross modulation in section 4. This meant that when determining receiver parameters. In addition each service will be susceptible to interference in different ways. In addition AM can cause problems with AGC’s if the AGC bandwidth loop is greater than the AM interference component. ©TTP 2010 company confidential INTERFERENCE EFFECTS ON AND BY VARIOUS MODULATION TYPES . its effect will be weighted by the filters suppression characteristic.1 Bandwidth effects Receiver stages respond to the entire power in their bandwidth. it could be assumed that the modulation type of the interference was likely to be of the same type as the receiver was designed to receive. 5. or at least similar services using the same modulation scheme. We will see that various modulation types can cause different amounts of interference to other services. With spectrum being used in relatively small blocks it is perhaps increasingly likely that the adjacent channel interferer on a particular service is from a totally different service using a different modulation type. i. Historically large chunks of the frequency spectrum were used for the same service. This was considered. modulated interferer Intermodulation product’s power is spread over more than one channel CW interferer Intermodulation product’s power is spread over one channel interferer f 2f1 – f2 f1 f2 2f2 – f1 Figure 5-1: Intermodulation distortion bandwidth with modulated and CW interference 5. the product is derived from multiple modulated sources.2. Therefore if a wide band interfering signal or resulting product falls on a narrower band receiver stage. This effect is taken to its extreme in UWB communications. i. If interference falls into the channel filters transition band.e.2 Amplitude Modulation AM AM has limited use in modern digital communication systems as it is not particularly spectrally or power efficient.

0 release 8)” ©TTP 2010 company confidential INTERFERENCE EFFECTS ON AND BY VARIOUS MODULATION TYPES 4 . Many types of electronics can act as a signal detector to ETSI. The modulation bandwidth is dependent on the bandwidth of the baseband and the frequency deviation away from the carrier. This causes the signal to have a large AM component which can cause significantly more interference than a CW signal.3 Frequency modulation FM FM. The poor ACPL needs to be managed for continuous blocks of GSM through network design. To improve this. two of the principle reasons why FM is widely used for radio broadcasting and in first generation cellular systems. Little power leaks into the alternate channel allowing an alternate channel selectivity of 41dB to be specified.4. This allows power efficient amplifiers to be used in the transmitter and no spectral regrowth to occur within the receiver if a receiver stage mildly distorts the signal. This allows fairly power efficient amplifiers to be used and simple receivers to be constructed. Guard bands are needed each side of GSM spectrum to protect other services from its interference. Q Q I I OQPSK modulation constellation diagram GMSK modulation constellation diagram showing constant envelope power Figure 5-2: Constant and non constant envelope power The FSK nature of the modulation does however mean the signal is not well spectrally constrained. This makes the system significantly more spectrally efficient. Radio transmission and reception (3GPP TS45. In an analogue FM system constraining the RF bandwidth. GSM uses time division multiple access to allow several users to simultaneously use a frequency channel.005 version 8.0 “Digital cellular telecommunications system (Phase 2+).4. with a spacing of 200KHz. in a digital system will result in intersymbol interference. The CPFSK constant envelope nature of the signal allows the signal to be non-linearly amplified. MSK. V8. However as the frequency channels are packed very close together. Transmitted signals using this time division approach are modulated in bursts. TS 145 005.4 GMSK as used in GSM Minimum shift keying. a Gaussian filter is applied to the baseband signal before modulation. However. Continuous Phase Frequency Shift Keying (CPFSK) is a constant envelope analogue modulation system (Figure 5-2) and therefore can cope with non linear amplification without producing intermodulation products. 5. Excessive filtering of the signal after modulation. there is still very significant ACPL resulting in the GSM specification only requiring an adjacent channel 4 selectivity of 9dB . results in baseband distortion. can be considered as either a type of phase shift keying (PSK) or a continuous phase frequency shift keyed signal with some of the desirable properties of both classes of modulation. and its digital equivalent. especially when a wide deviation is used this does not result in a well bandwidth constrained signal limiting the adjacent channel performance obtainable.27 5. The PSK nature of the signal makes MSK fairly efficient allowing the signal to be decoded at low C/No.

FDD needs paired spectrum. To allow an appropriate transmit power to be used. Two types of WCDMA have been defined within the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP). WCDMA’s ACPL is reasonably good and the channels do not overlap allowing WCDMA channels to operate next to each other. V8. In order for CDMA to work well the base station needs to receive all the signals with equal power.0 “Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS). In many systems. A code is added to the data signal to be transmitted allowing code division multiple access (CDMA) to be used. As QPSK is not constant envelope. including GSM a different frequency is used for the uplink (from mobile to basestation) and downlink (from base-station to mobile). To minimise this interference the transmit power is limited to be just sufficient for the call to take place thereby limiting the likelihood of both co-channel and adjacent channel interference. In a real world cellular environment. Low level distortion will mostly cause ETSI. This coding also has the effect of widening the bandwidth of the signal making it more robust to narrowband fading. This re-growth must be controlled in the transmitter in order for the transmitter to meet is regulatory defined transmission mask. the transmit power required to just make the call is constantly changing. This requires very good power control resulting in lower average transmit power. FDD is most commonly used and is discussed in this section.6.0 release 8) ©TTP 2010 company confidential INTERFERENCE EFFECTS ON AND BY VARIOUS MODULATION TYPES 5 .5 WCDMA WCDMA (Wideband code division multiple access) is a form of direct sequence spread spectrum.e. spectral re-growth of received interferer close to the wanted signal will result in additional interference being generated in the wanted channel degrading the C/N0 of the received signal. When linked to a digitally modulated carrier this phenomenon is often known as spectral re-growth. Data symbols are root raised cosine filtered to minimise their frequency bandwidth without introducing inter symbol interference. the AGC loop is likely to have a step response. Most cellular systems capacity to carry voice or data traffic is limited by interference. separate channels for uplink and downlink whilst TDD can operate in unpaired spectrum.t…d” noise heard on a standard PSTN phone when a GSM phone rings nearby. A typical example of this interference is the “t…d…t…d…t…. i.e.28 signals such as GSM even if the detected signals are at a significantly higher frequency than what the electronics is designed to operate at. i. In the receiver. As the multipath is very frequency dependent the transmit power for each link will be constantly changing independently of each other. due to the user moving and multipath.6. 5. the receivers selectivity is degraded. TS 125 101. GSM does incorporate this feedback but it is inefficient often resulting in more transmit power being used than necessary thereby creating more interference. any non-linearities in the transmitter or receiver circuitry cause out of channel cross modulation products.101 version 8. The orthogonal complex QPSK modulation reduces the peak to average ratio of the signal to be transmitted allowing a reasonably power efficient amplifier to be used. QPSK is used for the WCDMA downlink. a feedback system needs to be incorporated into the transmissions to allow the receiver to report back to the transmitter if it needs to change it’s transmit power. This results in the dynamic range of the receiver being reduced. This allows a receiver adjacent channel selectivity of 5 33dB to be specified. User Equipment (UE) radio transmission and reception (FDD) (3GPP TS 25. Steps have been taken to minimise any regular repetitive power bursts in the transmissions limiting the TDD interference noise. Typically this is co-channel interference. The code allows the receiver to separate out the wanted signal from other signals multiplexed on the same carrier. WCDMA uses an orthogonal complex QPSK signal for the uplink and a QPSK signal for the downlink. If an AM signal is detected by any second-order distortion in the receiver.

unlike GSM. Higher level distortion will th cause 5 order distortion in the adjacent and alternate channels as shown in Figure 5-4. Due to limited TX to RX isolation of the duplexer the transmitted signal will leak into the receiver. This requires a transmit LO with low wideband phase noise and a well filtered baseband. rather than two. as there is always one tone present. only one. Heng.29 3 order products in the adjacent channel as shown in Figure 5-3. Li. Fu. Qiang. rd WCDMA input signal WCDMA output signal Power (dBm) f Figure 5-3: WCDMA signal with 3rd order distortion WCDMA input signal WCDMA output signal Power (dBm) f Figure 5-4 WCDMA signal with 5 order distortion The shape and level of the distortion can be estimated if the linearity IP parameters of the 6 receiver are known . the mobile’s transmitter and receiver are operating at the same time. Xiao. WCDMA uses FDD where. “Linear RF Power Amplifier Design for CDMA Signals: A Spectrum Analysis Approach”. Microwave Journal INTERFERENCE EFFECTS ON AND BY VARIOUS MODULATION TYPES ©TTP 2010 company confidential . interferer signals are needed to cause multitone intermodulation problems. This contributes to needing a receiver with a reasonably th 6 Wu. In addition. To avoid the transmitter causing interference directly at the receive frequency needs a transmit signal with low noise in the receive band. This creates what is possibly the strongest interferer to the received signal. Dec 1998.

Morten. Chris W. orthogonal frequency division multiplexing is used in a wide range of broadcast. wireless networking and cellular systems including: • • • • • DAB digital radio broadcast DVB-T digital terrestrial TV broadcast IEEE802.pdf [accessed 24 July 2009] 8 ETSI EN300 744 “Digital Video Broadcasting(DVB). May 12 2009.6 OFDM 7 OFDM. long term evolution of cellular (4G) OFDM signals consist of multiple carriers closely spaced in frequency.com/BGDownload/Broadcom_IP2_IP3_. Liu. The instantaneous power depends on the data modulating each of the carriers. This process is sometimes called intra-modulation rather than intermodulation as all the signals are coming from the one source. The carriers spacing and the modulation rate of the carriers is set such that they don’t interfere with each other using the mathematical property of orthogonality. Framing structure. Figure 5-5: OFDM spectrum (ETSI) 8 Each OFDM carrier is individually modulated. well defined edges to the spectrum prior to amplification.30 good IP2 and IP3 performance. A typical theoretical spectrum is shown in Figure 5-5. Distortion products from these carriers will be created when the signal is non-linearly amplified causing spectral re-growth similar to that discussed in section 5. Each carrier is individually modulated at a low data rate using typically QPSK or higher level QAM. In addition the receiver LO must have a good wideband phase noise to avoid the transmit signal being reciprocally mixed into the wanted receive channel.11 (Wi-Fi) wireless networking WiMax LTE. “IP2 and IP3 Non linearity Specifications for 3G/WCDMA receivers”.mwjournal. Broadcom Corporation available from http://www. channel coding and modulation for digital terrestrial television” ©TTP 2010 company confidential INTERFERENCE EFFECTS ON AND BY VARIOUS MODULATION TYPES 7 th . The IP3 needed is around -15dBm whilst the IP2 is more receiver architecture specific. 2K and 8K refers to the number of OFDM carriers used. Damgaard. This approach also means that there are fairly sharp.5. which is typically random and therefore can change widely resulting in a signal with a high peak to average ratio. 5. 2048 and 8192 respectively.

2008. Whilst frequency selective. They allow the broadcast to be constrained within a tight spectral mask whilst still using a reasonably efficient amplifier. Sharp filtering after the power amplifier. However. each FFT point or bin has a sin x/x response. A. This results in an average out of band rejection noise floor of around 25dB. At the transmitter a number of techniques are used to minimise these effects. ©TTP 2010 company confidential INTERFERENCE EFFECTS ON AND BY VARIOUS MODULATION TYPES 9 . The actual receiver intermodulation performance required cannot be predicted quite as neatly as it is possible for WCDMA as it depends on the modulation of each carrier. Pre-distortion. System Definition to Transistor Design”. The signal is distorted with the inverse of the anticipated amplifier non linearities so that the amplified signal is as close to the wanted signal as possible. “Wireless LAN Radios. These include: • • • Limiting or even clipping the signal prior to amplification. Instead the receiver needs to be designed with sufficient linearity. These filters are typically used in broadcast transmitters where the transmit powers are often very high. These filters are large and expensive as they need to have a very high Q. These filters are not applicable.This is illustrated in Figure 5-6. typically 15 to 20dB higher IP points than what would be 9 required for CW signals at the same power are needed. Single FFT noise bin OFDM interfering signal Signal power (dB) frequency Accumulation of all FFT bin energy sets a noise floor OFDM carrier -5 Cumulative ACI power -15 per OFDM carrier -25 -35 Adjacent Channel interference FFT noise floor Figure 5-6: Receiver chain with OFDM demodulation Behzad. to low cost consumer type equipment. page 89. This causes some leakage of energy from one FFT frequency bin into the others and vice versa. using current technology.31 As OFDM has a high peak to average ratio it is susceptible to spectral re growth. IEEE Press. Orthogonality of the multiple carriers used in OFDM allows efficient demodulator implementations using the FFT algorithm. At the receiver these techniques are generally not applicable. low power loss and acceptable group delay at the band edges. Care needs to be taken to not distort the signal too much causing a high modulation error (MER).

5. Channels are spaced fairly closely together with a small guard band between them. In DAB an occupied bandwidth of 1. an occupied bandwidth of around 7. these tuners often have a typical ACR of 35dB and sometimes barely exceed the minimum performance of 30dB. This allows the handset to use an OFDM receiver but still use a reasonably power efficient transmitter. Later receivers have been based on single chip silicon tuners.6MHz is used with a guard band of 800KHz between channels. A two tone linearity test is also specified with unwanted carriers two and four channels from the wanted. These tests can be passed with a receiver with an IP3 of around -5 to -10dBm. ©TTP 2010 company confidential INTERFERENCE EFFECTS ON AND BY VARIOUS MODULATION TYPES . typically optimised for static reception in a Ricean channel. The standard EN50248:2001. In 8MHz channel DVBT. DVB-T. Whilst using far less power. LTE will use an OFDMA downlink with a SC-FDMA uplink. Receiver RF parameters are similar to those specified for UMTS. uses up to 64QAM giving very good spectral efficiency.32 In general OFDM signals are reasonably tolerant to narrow band interferers. Post digital switch over transmit powers will be limited to the 10 to 200KW range.6. Assuming the narrow band interferer is sufficiently small to allow the wanted signal to be sampled with sufficient SNR. Transmit powers used for broadcast are much higher than those used for cellular and other devices.2 LTE LTE.514MHz is used with a guard band of 176KHz. enabling battery powered devices. DAB DVB-T and DAB digital radio both use OFDM. Selectivity issues associated with SFN’s were discussed in section 1. 5. with many major cellular operators such as Verizon anticipating first deployments in 2010. Alternate channels and interference from other channels is not formerly specified except for a far off interferer specification of 40dB with an FM interferer. The DVB-T Bluebook specifies a minimum ACR of 29dB for DVB-T receivers with interferer th levels specified for alternate through to the 4 channel away from the wanted. enabling good coverage of wide areas with relatively few transmitters. “Characteristics of DAB Receivers” specifies a minimum ACR of 30dB for DAB receivers. Long Term Evolution. OFDM carriers away from the interferer will not be affected. LTE was ratified by ETSI in 2008. New features includes the use of MIMO and flexible RF bandwidths. the narrow band interferer will only affect the C/N of the OFDM carriers it interferes with. is designed to allow evolution of the current 3G standards such as th UMTS to the 4 generation standards. Many of the early DAB tuners were based on adaptations of TV tuners and obtained an Adjacent Channel Rejection (ACR) of around 40dB.1 DVB-T. Analogue transmitters with EIRPs of up to around 1MW were used.6. OFDM was partially selected due to the good frequency efficiency of OFDM with the ability to use a Single Frequency Network to provide broadcast coverage of very large areas using multiple transmitters all transmitting simultaneously in the same frequency channel. In DAB differential QPSK modulation is used giving simple synchronisation and good mobile performance. The C/N0 ratios needed to receive OFDM based DVB-T or DAB are significantly lower than the analogue modulation schemes they replaced.

4. -RF + LO = IF RF . between one receiver and another is very consistent. With this approach the IF filter acts as the ADC’s anti alias filter. The mixer mixes the received RF signal with a local oscillator (LO) signal converting the received RF signal to an intermediate or “IF” frequency. Receiver selectivity is gained by the IF filter bandpass filtering the wanted signal suppressing power in the adjacent channels to the wanted signal. so that when manufactured in large volumes the unit cost is very low. These more integrated approaches allow almost the entire receiver to be fabricated in silicon.1 Super heterodyne Superhet receivers were probably used in the majority of receivers from when Armstong first popularised the approach in 1917 up until around the year 2000. became more popular. http://kn. IDC Worldwide Quarterly Mobile Phone Tracker. Following the IF filter the signal can then be sampled using a sub-sampling approach as discussed in section 4. This approach lends itself very well to high volume applications such as cellular or broadcast 10 where total world per annum volumes are greater than one billion . “Cheaper options for chip designs” IET. and rapid highly automated assembly and test. February 4. such as Zero IF. and performance. To allow the receiver to be tuned to a range of receive frequencies the local oscillator is varied. A Input band filter image filter cos ωct IF filter D DSP local oscillator Figure 6-1: Superhet architecture In most receivers the IF is at a fixed frequency. before moving to architectures which lend themselves to more integrated approaches with few external components. Alternatively it can be converted by a second mixer to baseband for digital sampling or analogue signal detection. At this point alternative receiver architectures more suitable for complete integration into an IC. The low cost is due to very low material costs.LO = IF high side LO low side LO The image filter is required to stop the receiver from responding to the signals at the image frequency. The LO signal can be higher than the RF signal (high side LO) or alternatively lower than the RF signal (low side LO). 2009 th 20 July 2009. However the very high development costs. 6. capable of very good performance but needing a large number of discrete elements such as filters.org/magazine/issues/0913/cheaper-chip-designs-0913. where the IC mask cost 11 alone can be a few million dollars prohibit this approach for smaller volume applications.33 6 RECEIVER ARCHITECTURES This chapter looks at typical receiver architectures currently used in receivers beginning with super heterodyne receivers. such as PMSE.theiet. A single stage superhet is shown in Figure 6-1.cfm (accessed 24th July 2009] 11 10 ©TTP 2010 company confidential RECEIVER ARCHITECTURES . especially when using the smallest feature size.

and SAW filters.1. 8.AM.5KHz channelized PMR systems may have a pass band of 7.1.75KHz away. In order to ensure that the wanted channel is always passed when all tolerances are taken into account.4MHz and an out of band rejection of 90dB. As these filters tend to be available for a range of system standard IF frequencies including 455KHz . with very steep skirts on both sides of the pass band in order to be able to reject the adjacent channels well. where the local oscillator is at a lower frequency than the wanted receive frequency. Typical adjacent channel rejection which can be obtained with an IF filter range from 30dB up to at least 90dB. the wanted frequency is at ωc+ωif. The ideal IF filter. 10. The filter must have very good frequency tolerance and stability over temperature so that it always filters the correct channel. should have a flat pass band and good group delay to pass the wanted frequency channel without distortion. For instance a typical crystal filter used in 12. the filter may need to be made with a wider pass band than the frequency channel which is to be received.e. For a high side local oscillator the opposite is true. The receiver’s ability to reject the alternate and other channels further from the wanted frequency channel is influenced by how quickly the filter transitions from its pass band to its stop band and it’s ultimate out of band rejection. i.5KHz at 21. Amplitude response (dB) Pass band one channel wide Good out of band rejection with no spurious responses at high and low frequencies Ideally infinitely steep filter skirts f Alternate Adjacent IF Adjacent Alternate Figure 6-2: Ideal filter response Filter insertion loss in the pass band is not critical as long as an appropriate amount of amplification can be applied prior to the filter without the amplification introducing too much distortion. Assuming the amplifiers and mixer prior to the IF filter have the same response to ωc+ωif and ωcωif all the image rejection needs to be provided by the combined response of the input band and ©TTP 2010 company confidential RECEIVER ARCHITECTURES . 6. then the input band filter and image filter together must reject the receiver’s image response at ωc-ωif.34 6.2 Image filter Assuming a low side local oscillator is used.7MHz – FM broadcast and 36MHz – TV. the IF filter is rarely integrated into an IC. Tolerance errors can arise from both the IF filter and local oscillator frequency accuracy. shown in Figure 6-2. the wanted frequency is at ωc-ωif and the receiver’s image response is at ωc+ωif. ceramic. Due to the high Q’s and high stability at high frequencies required. This will cause the receiver’s adjacent channel rejection to be degraded.1 IF filter The IF filter is generally at a lower fixed frequency than the received RF signal allowing a high Q filter to be implemented to provide the required selectivity. A number of typically passive technologies are used to realise IF filters including crystals.

As the image to wanted frequency separation is 2 x ωif. However assuming the filter can “track” the receive frequency it does allow a receiver with a wide tuning range to be developed. As the tuning range of the receiver increases. Cable modems which need to receive signals over the very wide band from around 108MHz to 862MHz often use this approach. It must pass the lowest wanted frequency PSD ω 0 ωif Image frequency range (ωc-ωif) wanted frequency range (ωc+ωif) The image filter must have adequate rejection to reject the highest image frequency Figure 6-3: Filter pass band required with a fixed frequency image filter Image filters can be made from various different materials. Another approach is to use a much narrower filter which has a tuneable pass-band. The input band filter must therefore have low insertion loss. At the same time the filter needs to be able to reject the image frequency when the receiver is tuned to the highest wanted frequency. With this approach the pass-band of the filter needs to be as wide as the tuning range of the receiver.35 image filters. This approach can be extended so that the IF frequency is actually above the RF filter. At lower frequencies wire wound inductors and ceramic capacitors are often used whilst for instance for cellular physically small SAW filters etched on a variety of substrates are used. The insertion loss of the filter following the LNA is less critical. It is generally more complicated to build a tuneable filter. This example uses a low side LO although a high side LO can equally be used. This allows a low Q image filter to be used but makes realising a narrow band channel filter at the high IF frequency very difficult. the need to separate the wanted and image frequencies can be helped by choosing a higher IF frequency. the lowest received frequency and the highest image frequency get closer together making it more difficult to get adequate rejection until eventually the lowest wanted frequency and highest image overlap. However the LNA must have adequate linearity to not distort any signals passed by the input band filter. largely depending on the frequency of operation and the pass bandwidth required. Assuming a fixed frequency IF is used and the receiver is designed to receive a range of frequencies the image filter must have adequate image rejection. and may dominate. ©TTP 2010 company confidential RECEIVER ARCHITECTURES . One approach is to use a fixed frequency image filter as shown in Figure 6-3. Often with this approach a wider bandwidth IF filter is used at the high frequency and a second heterodyne stage is then used to mix the signal to a lower frequency where the channel filtering can be done. These filters need to operate directly at the RF frequency so high Q’s are required. At this point it becomes impossible to realise the image filter using this approach. the receiver’s noise figure and therefore the receiver’s sensitivity to receive weak signals. Local oscillator range Image filter pass-band. This must be obtained irrespective of what frequency the local oscillator is tuned to. With this approach care needs to be taken to ensure all the receiver prior to the channel filter is suitably linear and that any secondary images formed in the additional mixing stages are suitably filtered. The selectivity required can range from 40dB for DAB to at least 70dB in PMR systems. Any filter placed directly at the input of receiver will directly affect.

To overcome these tolerances LC oscillators are almost always used in a phase locked loop. Assuming the varactors used in the VCO and filters have the same temperature characteristics it allows the filter to better track the tuner frequency over a range of frequencies. often used in traditional TV “canned” tuners is to use the VCO control voltage to adjust the tracking filter’s pass-band. In a PLL the DC control voltage applied to the varactor diode is continually being adjusted which in turn varies the capacitance of the diode so that the frequency of the LC oscillator is continually corrected.36 Local oscillator range Associated image Tracking image filter PSD ω ωif Image frequency range (ωc-ωif) wanted frequency range (ωc+ωif) Figure 6-4: Filter passband required with a tracking image filter Tracking filters are often realised by using varactor tuned diodes to act as variable capacitors in an inductor capacitor tuned circuit. This tends to be a very manual operation. Input band filter image filter cos ωct Tuning voltage Phase locked local oscillator Figure 6-5: Superhet with tracking image filter This approach allows a receiver to be implemented with a wide tuning range and potentially a good image rejection. In a TV receiver this is overcome by adjusting the wire wound inductor’s shape slightly by hand during production test in order to modify their inductance. ©TTP 2010 company confidential RECEIVER ARCHITECTURES . This feedback loop locks the oscillators frequency to typically a crystal oscillator with extremely good frequency stability in the range of a few parts per million (ppm). These allow the filters pass band frequency to be adjusted with a DC voltage. In a filter it is not possible to implement a feedback loop in the same way as in a PLL. They do not have particular good tolerance and their capacitance changes with temperature. The tolerance of parts used in the receiver can affect the image filter’s response. Varactor diodes are also often used in voltage controlled oscillators (VCOs) to allow the oscillator to be tuned over the tuning range of the receiver. One approach.

©TTP 2010 company confidential RECEIVER ARCHITECTURES . super heterodyne receivers are susceptible to interferers at other spurious frequencies. The degree of rejection can be predicted by the mixers IP2 response. In practice. For perfect image rejection these quadrature signals need to be phase and gain matched across the frequency band of interest. One particular well known 2nd-order spurious response. This places more constraints on using.2 above.1.4 Image reject mixers The superhet receiver discussed so far use the amplitude response of filters to reject the image frequency.1. Hartley and Weaver. 6. it is necessary to generate signals in quadrature to each other. The resulting IF signals are then low pass filtered and after one is phase shifted by 90° the IF signals are combined. due to imperfect isolation between mixer ports. of energy between mixer ports. or feed-through.fLO fIF FLO f(RF-1/2IF) fRF Figure 6-6: Location of half IF spurious frequency A similar response falls at f(RF+1/2IF) for a high side LO. The RF signal is down converted by quadrature LO signals. To filter the ½ IF response. This results in a narrower band filter being required prior to mixing. in a receiver with a wide tuning bandwidth. some RF and IF energy will leak through to the IF causing a spurious response. An interferer at fLO+1/2fIF will cause the response. For both the Weaver and Hartley image reject mixer. a combination of two mitigation approaches can be used. Two architectures are often used to realise this approach. 2. i. Filtering of the input signal prior to mixing reduces any signals at f(RF-1/2IF) which could cause a spurious signal from reaching the mixer. Another mixer spurious response is due to leakage. than is needed just for image rejection. Mixers ideally convert all their input RF energy to the IF frequency.i Hartley The Hartley image rejection architecture is shown in Figure 6-7.e.4. 6. a fixed frequency image filter than those discussed in section 6. the filter needs to have some rejection closer to the filter’s pass band than is needed for image rejection. This result is that.1. occurs at 2fRF-2fLO for a low side local oscillator. Another approach is to use mixers operating in quadrature to cancel out the image signal.3 Mixer spurious responses As well as an image response. depending on which channel is subjected to the 90° phase shift. when: 2f(RF-1/2IF) – 2fLO = fIF = fRF . either the image or wanted channel being rejected. called the half-IF spurious response. To guard against the ½ IF response. These are to: 1.37 6.1. Use a mixer with very good rejection of 2fRF-2fLO.

It can be shown that an amplitude mismatch of 0. 6.ii Weaver 2 2 The Weaver image rejection architecture is shown in Figure 6-7. ©TTP 2010 company confidential RECEIVER ARCHITECTURES . in practice it is easier to split the high. how similar are the amplitude responses of the two arms of the mixer and how close to 90° is the final phase shift.75dB and a phase mismatch of 3 to 5°.1. The image rejection ratio (IRR) of the image reject mixer can be described as a function of any phase and/or amplitude imbalance as: IRR = ¼ x [(ΔA/A) + θ ] where ΔA/A = relative gain mismatch θ = relative phase mismatch in radians. Whilst mathematically it may give the same result. Without calibration the IRR often drops to 25dB. equivalent to an amplitude imbalance of 0.38 90° sin ωct RF input 0 90° cos ωct Σ IF output 0° Figure 6-7: Hartley image reject architecture The image rejection obtainable is dependent on how close to 90°the phase shift of the local oscillator is. To realise this degree of IRR requires careful design and possibly some form of calibration. constant level LO signal with good amplitude and phase match rather than split into quadrature the small varying RF signal. a similar result can be obtained by splitting the RF into quadrature and using a single LO.5 to 0.4. Rather than splitting the LO into quadrature.1dB and a phase mismatch of 1° yields around 41dB of IRR.

One approach is to use a second IF centred on DC (0Hz) with the sampling of the signal being done in quadrature as shown in Figure 6-9. sin ωc2t Σ I sin ωc1t RF input 0 cos ωc2t 90 cos ωc1t Σ sin ωc2t Q Figure 6-9: Quadrature Weaver architecture ©TTP 2010 company confidential RECEIVER ARCHITECTURES .39 sin ωc1t RF input sin ωc2t 0 90 cos ωc1t 0 90 cos ωc2t Σ IF output Figure 6-8: Weaver image reject architecture The Weaver approach overcomes the amplitude mismatch issues caused by needing to add a 90°phase shift to one arm of the quadrature mixer by adding a second pair of mixers to realise the phase shift. This second mix does create another set of image frequencies which need to be addressed.

RF signals Complex LO RF signals 0 f Baseband signals suppressed sideband f 0 Figure 6-11: Zero IF image down conversion with image suppression The image signal suppression depends on the amplitude and phase matching of the quadrature mixer as defined for the image reject mixer in section 6.i.2 Zero IF receiver A zero IF receiver overcomes the IF image response issue by directly converting the signal to baseband centred around 0Hz using two mixers operating in quadrature. Inadequate image suppression causes distortion as the reflected image of the wanted signal falls directly on the down converted wanted signal. ©TTP 2010 company confidential RECEIVER ARCHITECTURES . Its architecture is shown in Figure 6-10.40 6. Both the wanted and image signals are mirror images of each other reflected around the frequency axis. The image suppression combined with factors such as the receiver noise figure and ADC quantisation noise level define the receiver’s noise floor and hence sensitivity. This helps define the maximum C/NO that can be obtained from the receiver.1. DC offset control A D I 0 90 DSP A D Q Figure 6-10: Direct conversion receiver With the LO at the RF frequency the down converted image signal falls directly on the wanted signal.4.

These active filter stages often have limited dynamic range compared to the passive IF filters typically used in superhets. In very wide band receivers.41 Whilst the zero IF approach deals with the image response.1. as the local oscillator is at the RF frequency. In addition they can be implemented in low cost ‘digital CMOS’ making use of either DSP processors or custom digital circuitry. These issues are mainly centred on needing a lot of amplifier gain to amplify signals near or at DC. Digital filters don’t suffer from many of the limitations of analogue filters such as their performance being affected by component and silicon process tolerances. 7fLO…. any received signals at these frequencies will cause interference. This filter-amplifier approach is very applicable to integration into the receiver IC. The IP3 of all elements prior to the channel selection filter contribute to the overall ©TTP 2010 company confidential RECEIVER ARCHITECTURES . With this approach the ADC must have enough bits of resolution to sample any high level adjacent and other channels without clipping. In a zero IF receiver.i. cross talk and noise. within an IC can be controlled better than trying to achieve good matching across a number of discrete elements. this can be a significant problem. As the low pass filters operate at a low frequency they can be implemented with active analogue filters. they can have a cut off frequency at half the channel bandwidth and must reject the adjacent channel and other channels further from the wanted frequency by the selectivity required. This allows their performance to be closely defined and very repeatable. where frequencies at 3fRF etc do not need to be received. These filters do need good amplitude matching to obtain the required image rejection as discussed in 6. the architecture does introduce other issues. In narrow band receivers. for example. The analogue low pass filters following the mixer help provide the receivers selectivity and act as anti-alias filters to the ADC. Whilst the zero IF approach appears to minimise the image issue. These include: • • • • Second order receiver linearity Local oscillator leakage and DC offsets DC offsets Flicker noise In section 4. Gain matching.4. i. whilst not degrading the low level wanted signal with quantisation noise. 3fLO. the receiver still has significant spurious responses at odd LO harmonics. fixed frequencies input filters can be used. In superhet receivers third order distortion is most critical. such as cable TV receivers needing to cover 48 to 860MHz. To overcome this limitation the filters are often broken into a number of stages and inserted between programmable gain amplifier stages as shown in Figure 6-12 with each amplifiers gain programmable.2 receiver linearity was discussed. This allows an AGC system to be implemented. This is often because the filter stages have a finite ultimate far off rejection. If all the selectivity is provided by these filters. Maximum signal Figure 6-12: Distributed gain and filtering Usually some of the receiver’s selectivity requirement is realised with digital filters following the ADC.e. 5fLO.

2. Therefore the IP2 of both the mixer and subsequent stages do need to be very good.42 receiver IP3. Once third order products are generated which fall into the channel the receiver is tuned to. 4. The level of the offset will depend on the gain of the amplifier. Broadcom Corporation “IP2 and IP3 Nonlinearity Specifications for 3G/WCDMA Receivers” Microwave Journal http://www. 3. The level of any signal reflected back into the receiver having leaked out via leakage path 4 will also vary with time depending on the positioning of the receiver and if the receiver is being used Chris W. however in a Zero IF receiver the LO signal as at the same frequency as the received signal. From the LO into the RF port of the mixer causing a constant level DC offset. In zero-IF receivers the second order spurious product generated at DC falls directly onto the down converted wanted frequency corrupting the wanted signal and potentially saturating the receiver. The mixer and subsequent baseband amplifier and filter stages are usually DC coupled.com/design_corner/showArticle. 3 4 Input band filter 1 2 Local oscillator Figure 6-13: LO leakage paths Potential paths for LO leakage in a direct conversion receiver includes: 1. The LO leaking out through the LNA. to cope with interference from the handset’s transmitter.com/BGDownload/Broadcom_IP2_IP3_. Differential circuits are almost essential as their symmetry reduces even order distortion. This can be a significant issue. From the LO into the input of the LNA. an 12 IIP2 of +48dBm is typically needed for UMTS . Any local oscillator signal. This will directly cause interference to other devices and to the receiver itself if the signal reflects off external surfaces and is rereceived. and to cope with a GSM adjacent channel 13 interferer. The IP3 of the mixer is often the most significant element in the receiver chain. Leakage paths 1 and 2 are continuous and therefore create a time invariant amount of DC offset. The overall worst case IP3 can be determined by summing the distortion products of each stage.commsdesign.pdf [28th July 2009] 13 th http://www. Any LO signal that leaks out through the LNA to the antenna will be re-radiated. 40dBm is needed for GSM . Potential paths for this interference are shown in Figure 6-13. which is at the same frequency as the received signal.mwjournal.jhtml?articleID=16504800 [28 July 2009] 12 ©TTP 2010 company confidential RECEIVER ARCHITECTURES . leaking into the input of the mixer could be mixed down to DC causing a DC offset similar to that generated by second order distortion within the mixer itself. they cannot be filtered out. In a superhet receiver the LO signal is at a different frequency to the received signal and is usually attenuated by the receiver’s image filter. The receiver therefore needs to have a high second order intercept point. its IP2 tends to not need to be considered as this can be filtered out by AC coupling the LNA to the mixer. The LNA will then amplify the signal causing a greater DC offset. created near the received frequency taking into account how much each of these distortion products have been amplified by the receiver. For example. potentially causing interference to other users. Liu.. If a portion of a large received interferer leaks into the local oscillator the interferer will then mix with itself causing a varying level offset. Morten Damgaard. Leakage path 3 depends on the level of the interfering signal which will vary over time. As the LNA is AC coupled to the mixer.

the larger the MOSFET. DC offsets due to leakage can be minimised through good RF matching and layout by reducing asymmetries in the design. 1/f or flicker noise contributes to the noise floor of the receiver degrading device sensitivity. It is found that for a given gm. Using a low IF frequency allows the IF channel filter to be integrated into silicon. This corruption can be minimised by positioning the corner frequency of the high pass filter as close to DC as possible. However too low a corner frequency will result in a slow transient response.43 in a moving environment. as a greater portion of their bandwidth is likely to be above the 1/f corner frequency.3 Low IF receiver 15 References A low IF receiver attempts to overcome the DC offset and 1/f noise issues associated with zero IF receivers whilst still using an approach that lends itself to a high degree of integration. DC offsets can also be caused by imbalances in the amplifiers and analogue circuitry itself.”Wireless LAN Radios System Definition to Transistor Design” IEEE Press. page 58 15 Gu. such as Wi-Fi omit the central carrier for this purpose. the receiver must have sufficient gain at RF so that the noise floor of the latter stages has less significance. are less affected by flicker noise than narrow band system. or high pass filtering of the signal following the mixer. alternate channels and image response are down converted to when a low side local oscillator is used positioned on the edge of the wanted frequency channel in the receivers adjacent channel fall into the receive channel and signals in the alternate channel fall into the receiver adjacent channel. making this a significant problem. Balanced circuitry is almost universally used.3. It can be seen that the receiver must achieve sufficient image rejection to meet the required adjacent channel specification. Cancelling out most or all of the DC offset using compensation. Wider band systems. In addition.6. Many radio standards require less selectivity for interfering signals occurring in adjacent channels than they do for interfering signals in other channels. To reduce the design sensitivity to 1/f noise. Compensation methods can include: • AC coupling. Low IF receivers often make use of this by choosing an IF frequency which makes the image frequency fall into an adjacent channel. 2008. for example op-amp offset voltages.iii below. MOS devices. typically of a few MHz. it is usually still necessary to actively compensate for them. Arya. Time invariant amounts of DC offset are easier to handle than varying amounts of DC offset. AC coupling can be used with UMTS but is not applicable to the bursty TDD 14 signals used in GSM. careful choice of baseband amplifiers etc. As most of the receiver gain is at baseband. However larger MOSFETs take more silicon area and silicon area is closely connected to device cost. Although DC offsets can be minimised by good RF layout. after Behzad. the lower the 1/f noise. Figure 6-14 shows where the adjacent. used in many low cost modern RF ICs have a high 1/f corner frequency. 2005. OFDM systems. such as UMTS and DVB-T. This will cause a ‘hole’ in the centre of the pass band potentially causing some corruption of the signal. it can be seen that the lower alternate channel. such as GSM. Qizheng. “RF System design of Transceivers for Wireless Communications” Springer 14 ©TTP 2010 company confidential RECEIVER ARCHITECTURES . • Circuits for AC coupling and compensation methods will be discussed further in section 8. 6. This may be required to cope with AGC gain or input level changes.

an image filter at the receiver input can’t be used. Any adjacent channel leakage power (ACPL) from the lower alternate channel originally transmitted on the high side of the transmission. after down-conversion will fall into the wanted channel. One approach is by using the dual quadrature mixer Weaver architecture as shown in Figure 6-15. It is found in systems such as GSM with poor ACPL performance. Input signal Image frequency Alternate Adjacent LO Wanted frequency Adjacent Alternate channel down converted to the adjacent channel Alternate f After down conversion Image down converted to the wanted frequency wanted DC Adjacent Alternate │f│ Figure 6-14: Low IF down-conversion As the image is so close to the wanted frequency. The second set of mixers are implemented digitally. and the second digital LO is set so that the output is centred around DC.44 down conversion. lies next to the wanted frequency. ©TTP 2010 company confidential RECEIVER ARCHITECTURES . however image reject techniques can be used. that ACPL sets the image rejection requirements in a low IF receiver. This energy cannot be suppressed by filtering after down conversion and therefore the receiver must have sufficient image rejection to adequately suppress the signal.

A polyphase band pass filter can be used instead of digital down conversion to obtain reasonable image rejection. due to phase and gain errors between each arm of an analogue image reject mixer.4. This increases to typically 50dB with calibration. With α and β determined.2dB over roughly a 20% bandwidth. By adjusting the gains of α and β it can be shown that these phase and amplitude errors can be significantly reduced. to determine the values of α and β. As discussed in section 6. 25 to 35dB is commonly achieved without calibration. ©TTP 2010 company confidential RECEIVER ARCHITECTURES . One calibration approach is discussed below. A significant disadvantage though is that it has significant attenuation and therefore is susceptible to noise. For example. it is very difficult to achieve greater than 40dB of image rejection. when the output summers are reset to their normal settings the analogue offsets errors are calibrated out. the circuit shown in Figure 6-16 has a gain consistent to 0. achieves an image rejection of typically 25dB with no calibration. the TI CC1021 IC. by staggering the two RC time constants each side of the centre frequency. As an example. With in line amplifiers gain α set to one and cross coupled amplifier’s gain β set to zero any analogue phase and gain errors from the first mixers propagate through the system. By using digitally implemented amplifiers.45 II LPF A D II DLO_I + ID I(IM) DSP QI QD Q(IM) 0 β 90 LPF A D QI IQ DLO_Q - α QQ DLO_I + Figure 6-15: Digital low IF Weaver architecture The signals are down converted to a low IF frequency by the first set of mixers. by adjusting the output summers to the signs shown in brackets and injecting a CW test tone into the inputs of the mixer during a calibration mode. designed to receive the 880 and 915MHz ISM bands. The RC circuit approach shown in Figure 8-7 can be extended to give a reasonable amplitude match over a wider frequency range. The I and Q signals are low pass (anti alias) filtered and sampled.1. Further stages could be added to further broaden the useful bandwidth. It is possible. mixers and summers much better image rejection can be achieved.

is not mirrored about zero frequency (Figure 6-17). The key attribute of the filter is that it provides a different filter response for positive and negative frequencies unlike most filters which just respond to the absolute frequency of the signal and not the sign of the signal. the response of a Hilbert filter.46 Iin R1 C1 Qin R1 C1 Iin_b R1 C1 Qin_b R1 C1 C2 R2 C2 R2 C2 R2 C2 R2 Iout Qout Iout_b Qout_b Figure 6-16: Two stage broadband quadrature generator Whilst a high-pass filter has a symmetrical notch at DC. obtained by shifting the high-pass filter response along the frequency axis. Highpass filter ωC Hilbert filter 0 ωC ω -ω0 0 ω Figure 6-17: Hilbert Filter The type of circuit shown in Figure 6-16 provides a Hilbert response and is known as a polyphase filter. Using this approach an ‘image reject’ filter ©TTP 2010 company confidential RECEIVER ARCHITECTURES .

Figure 6-19 shows an image reject polyphase filter integrated with a quadrature mixer to implement a low IF receiver. In either case there needs top sufficient filtering prior to the ADC to avoid aliasing issues. 2001. For a single stage filter a zero is found at 1/RC thereby forming a bandstop filter as shown in Figure 6-18. To reject the image by 60dB with a 3σyield. Alternatively it may be implemented digitally. For good image rejection each RC section of the filter must be well matched. The passive stages can also be combined with op-amps to help overcome the attenuation and noise limitations of a fully passive approach. “CMOS Mixers and Polyphase Filters for large image rejection”. As the variance of on-chip capacitors and resistors is 16 proportional to the inverse of their surface area large die areas are required . the filter’s resistors and capacitors must match to a σ of 0. Vol 36. Behbahani. No 6 June 2001 16 ©TTP 2010 company confidential RECEIVER ARCHITECTURES .47 can be built. These amplifiers need to be matched as accurately as the polyphase filter components. Whilst this approach shows the polyphase filter which rejects the image frequency it does not show the channel filter. IEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits. In practice the on chip RC time constant may vary from lot to lot so calibration of the filters corner frequencies is required. Farbod et al. Alternatively the bandwidth of the filter must be sufficient to overcome these tolerances.094% assuming Gaussian distribution. response to positive frequency response to negative frequency ω 1/RC Figure 6-18: Ideal response of a single stage polyphase image reject filter Multiple stages can be cascaded together to allow good rejection across a wide bandwidth. The channel filter may be implemented in the analogue domain prior to the ADC.

where both the RF and LO are split into quadrature it can be shown that the image rejection only depends to a second order on the quadrature inaccuracy in the LO and RF. By using a double quadrature mixer. cos(ωLOt) IFI RFI sin(ωLOt) 0 RFQ 90 cos(ωLOt) IFQ sin(ωLOt) Figure 6-20: Double quadrature mixer ©TTP 2010 company confidential RECEIVER ARCHITECTURES . For instance to reject an image by 60dB in a single quadrature mixer requires 0.48 A D I 0 90 DSP A polyphase filter D Q Figure 6-19: Low IF receiver with polyphase filter Phase and amplitude variations in the quadrature mixer and imbalances in the polyphase filter all contribute to limiting receiver’s image rejection. A double quadrature mixer is shown in Figure 6-20.1% of phase match whilst in the double quadrature mixer only 3% phase matching is required. rather than the single quadrature mixer discussed previously.

2006. All these factors lead to greater current consumption. Whilst low IF receiver overcome many of the problems associated with zero IF receivers such as DC offsets. 6. Luff. flicker noise and second order distortion they do require twice as wide a channel filter. e. Gwilliam et al.g. IET Seminar on RF for DVB-H/DMB Mobile broadcast. “A Compact triple band T-DMB/DAB RF Tuner with an FM Receiver”. wider dynamic range and twice the minimum sampling rate compared to a zero IF receiver. the I and Q signals after filtering are connected to a quadrature modulator and 17 converted to another slightly higher IF frequency for sampling by a single ADC . where only a single ADC is available in the baseband IC. The higher frequency channel filter implies more poles are needed. many DAB receivers.49 In some designs.4 Architecture comparison Table 6-1 summarises the selectivity limitations of the various receiver architectures discussed. London 17 ©TTP 2010 company confidential RECEIVER ARCHITECTURES .

Enough image rejection needed for adequate selectivity at the image frequency. either integrated analogue filters or digital Channel filtering Limited by: • Discrete filter + ADC dynamic range • LO phase noise External high Q filters needed Linearity IP3 important.50 Sensitivity Image rejection Superhet LNA. flicker noise more important Not a selectivity issue Enough image rejection needed for adequate C/N for signal decoding Spurious response rejection Limited by: • Input filter rejection • Mixer mFRF±nFLO response • Mixer RF to IF and LO to IF isolation It is likely all the spurious frequencies will be in frequency channels well away from the wanted channel and therefore may be subject to interfering signals much higher than the higher than the wanted signal Limited by: • Input filter rejection • Mixer mFRF±nFLO response • Mixer RF to IF and LO to IF isolation A number of the most significant spurious frequencies due to factors such as the mixers ½ IF response will be in the wanted frequency channel and therefore not subject to signals higher than the wanted signal Limited by: • integrated analogue filter • ADC dynamic range • LO phase noise Lowest Q filters needed. flicker noise not important Image filter and image reject mixer rejection. either integrated analogue filters or digital Zero IF LNA. typical tens of MHz away from the wanted Low IF LNA. flicker noise may be important Phase and amplitude matching of mixers plus: • Digital approach enough ADC dynamic range and bandwidth for digital dual down convertor • Analogue approach polyphase filter rejection Enough image rejection needed for adequate C/N and selectivity at frequencies close to the wanted ACPL from the alternate channel mixes into the wanted signal and may dictate the image rejection required Limited by: • Input filter rejection • Mixer mFRF±nFLO response • Mixer RF to IF and LO to IF isolation A number of the most significant spurious frequencies due to factors such as the mixers ½ IF response will be in the wanted or adjacent frequency channels and therefore not subject to interfering signals higher than the adjacent channel signal Digital approach limited by: • ADC dynamic range • mixer image rejection • LO phase noise Analogue approach limited by: • Integrated analogue filter • mixer image rejection • polyphase filter rejection • LO phase noise Medium Q filters needed. IP2 not so important IP3 and IP2 important IP2 critical Table 6-1: Receiver architecture selectivity limitations ©TTP 2010 company confidential RECEIVER ARCHITECTURES .

Selectivity of one of the adjacent channels is provided solely by the receiver’s image rejection. an image filter whilst also acting as an input RF filter can provide very significant spurious response rejection. Minimal input filtering will limit receiver selectivity and linearity for interfering signals several channels away from the wanted. Minimal input filtering will limit receiver selectivity and linearity for interfering signals several channels away from the wanted. • • ©TTP 2010 company confidential RECEIVER ARCHITECTURES . channel filtering and enhanced linearity for interfering signals several channels away from the wanted frequency. Zero IF receivers adjacent channel selectivity is provided by the receiver’s integrated analogue and digital filtering. Zero IF receivers performance can be limited by even order linearity. A superhet’s adjacent channel filtering is provided by a discrete fixed filter with potentially very high Q and post ADC digital filtering A Low IF receiver’s adjacent and alternate channel selectivity is provided by a combination of the receiver’s image rejection and channel filtering.51 Key points from this table are: • The superhets image filter can be eliminated in the zero IF and low IF architectures. However in a superhet.

However an assumption of the scaling formulae is that the ability of electric fields to move carriers in the channel (the mobility coefficient) remains constant. increasingly the rising development cost of an RF IC means that these nodes can only be justified for the highest volume products such as cellular. GaAs. 19 for an advanced CMOS process. For instance the mask set data size needed to make an IC is expected to double every four years and currently stands. Scaling improvements give benefits in terms of conserving battery power. a 130nm BiCMOS HBT has comparable high frequency performance to a 65nm NFET) and hence a quarter of the silicon area. 16 -3 Beyond doping concentrations of 10 cm . 2007. In general for stand alone RF circuits. increasing frequency performance and increasing integration. 2004.g. Bipolar transistors. 2 Edition. Wi-fi and possibly TV tuners.pdf [17th August 2009] ©TTP 2010 company confidential SILICON PROCESSES .).e.net/Links/2007ITRS/2007_Chapters/2007_Lithography. Lee. however this increases sensitivity to process variation and reduces voltage headroom & thus potentially receiver dynamic range. International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors. 18 nd Thomas H. a 3x reduction in power dissipation can be achieved with an RF CMOS NFET. This is not always true. Cambridge University Press 19 ITRS. However when small amounts of digital logic is to be integrated into the system. Many of the processing costs in IC manufacture are area related so minimising area is a way of reducing manufacturing cost. Smaller geometries result in higher parasitic impedances and increased process variations. Traditional CMOS device scaling requires increased channel doping to maintain performance. Also smaller film thicknesses and shorter gate lengths result in higher leakage currents and drain conductance. As lithographic dimensions shrink in advanced CMOS nodes. at around 655GB per layer . the mobility of silicon falls off sharply. As an example CMOS NFETs can achieve the same high frequency performance as SiGe BiCMOS HBT (Heterojunction Bipolar Transistor) at roughly half the feature size (i. new process technologies need to be developed to maintain and improve on the key RF device parameters. Bluetooth. particularly SiGe HBTs implemented in BiCMOS have dominated the market in chip designs for wireless applications and have been historically preferred over FET devices due to higher performance device characteristics including: • • • • Higher transconductance (gm) Higher voltage tolerance Lower flicker noise (1/f noise) Current-voltage relationships that are more easily modelled with analytic expressions However FETs have several advantages over bipolar transistors. where surface area is dominated by passive devices and I/O pads BiCMOS offers the lowest cost option despite an additional 20% increase in 18 processing complexity .itrs. The number of transistors an RF designer can handle is increasing at a much slower rate so the development cost of an IC using the most advanced processes is increasing. “The Design of CMOS Radio Frequency Integrated Circuits”. Although production costs are reduced by using these process nodes. “Lithography”. CMOS has a clear advantage as transistor density and chip size scale with the square of the minimum lithographic dimension. With each new node the design rules get more complicated and mask sets more expensive.52 7 SILICON PROCESSES Lower cost is the prime motivation for using CMOS over BiCMOS and III-V materials (e. 2007 Edition http://www. Also comparing a 130nm SiGe HBT and a 90nm CMOS NFET for an application where fT = 100GHz. GaN etc. These issues are in part compensated for by a lower supply voltage. The turn-on (or threshold) voltage of bipolar transistors is determined by the semiconductor band gap whereas for FETs the threshold voltage (Vt) is adjustable with doping levels.

resulting in a net reduction in self gain gm/gDS. However with a drive to smaller dimensions. Thus gDS will increase as VDS/LGATE increases (High source voltage and small gate length).material reduces these leakage effects. alleviate the mobility degradation problem and reduce gate dielectric leakage. the value gm (transconductance) tends to increase which is desirable.1 Self gain Self gain is defined as gm/gDS (Transconductance / drain (or output) conductance). Good self gain is required for good large signal handling. gDS (output conductance) is related to DIBL due to the high electric field at the source of the FET during high drain bias. Thus high-k dielectrics and metal gate electrodes are required to enable continued equivalent gate oxide thickness scaling.1 RF NFET Key Device Parameters The sections below identify the key design parameters for an RF NFET device. thicknesses below 2nm this results in leakage currents due to the dramatic increase in electron tunnelling (electron leakage through the thin oxide layer).53 7. Based on estimates of off state drain ©TTP 2010 company confidential SILICON PROCESSES . This technology will become particularly important for gate nodes of 45nm or less. as shown in the following equation: gm = W εVSAT tOX Thus as tOX reduces. Since VDS does not scale as fast as the gate length the net result is that gDS increases. however for devices with small lithographic dimensions. Conventionally silicon dioxide has been used as a gate oxide insulator material.1. Replacing the silicon dioxide gate dielectric with a high-K. For CMOS FETs self gain reduces with the reduction in gate size primarily due to: • • The reduction in gate oxide thickness An increase in DIBL (Drain Induced Barrier Lowering) In the FET channel velocity saturation limit. Unfortunately high-K materials are generally not compatible with polysilicon gate electrode structures due to high threshold voltages and degraded channel mobility (lower gm) resulting in poor drive current performance. In addition various technologies are discussed to maintain / improve on RF parameter performance. In addition beyond 90nm the gate leakage restricts the scaling of the oxide layer (tOX) so that LGATE and tOX cannot be reduced proportionately further restricting an increase in gm. To reduce gate leakage and maintain gate oxide (tox) scaling a combination technology of utilizing high-k dielectrics along with metal gates can be used. Transconductance (gm) scales with the inverse of gate oxide thickness (1/tox). for gate sizes ~65nm asymmetric ‘Halo’ implants can be used to reduce gDS thus improving self gain. and how these are affected as lithographic dimensions shrink. 7. To counteract these ‘short channel effects’ outlined above. and controlling the gate threshold characteristics so that it is neither too high nor too low (which also facilitates good inter-device matching). thus reducing gate oxide leakage. Metal gates in combination with high-k dielectrics can provide the correct transistor threshold voltages. This leads to unwieldy power consumption and reduced device reliability. which ultimately results in self gain being maintained for smaller technology nodes Double Gate (DG) and Ultra Thin Body (UTB) gate structures can also be used to reduce the short channel effect by again reducing the effect of gate current leakage through electron tunnelling. where transconductance is the ability of the device to source the current and the output conductance tells us how well that current is sourced with swings in the output voltage.

For a given layout.fmax will have a peak value at some optimum gate width above which it is limited by physical gate resistance and below which it is limited by parasitic losses in the FET structure. In summary self gain can be severely limited within CMOS FET structures down to smaller lithographic nodes due to a reduction in the gate oxide thickness and DIBL. Systems. and Devices” CRC Press.1. maximum frequency of oscillation) With shrinking node size. Fmax is the maximum frequency of oscillation. Care must be taken in the FET layout to minimise parasitic gate capacitance that will limit FT and gate resistance that will limit fmax and noise figure. the lateral and vertical scaling leads to lower parasitics and thus to faster speeds for CMOS devices. Noise figures of 0. high-K materials.1. cut-off frequency). it is the frequency at which the maximum available power gain of the transistor is equal to 1 (i. Both fT and fmax are dependent upon the gate structure . 7. it is the frequency at which the short circuit gain approximates unity (i.2 Reduce gate dielectric leakage by ensuring continued gate oxide thickness scaling Control gate threshold values within required limits Alleviate electron mobility degradation and thus maintaining gm fT.56dB have been reported for 250nm geometry and 20 0.3 Noise figure The noise figure (NF) of a device depends on its intrinsic properties including its internal capacitances and transconductance gm. The implementation of technologies such as asymmetric Halo implants.54 leakage currents these advanced device structures could be saleable down to an ultimate limit of 10nm gate length.e. 2008. Iniewski. “Wireless Technologies. metal gates and DG / UTB gate structures serve to: • • • 7. Thus fmax has the potential to increase with technology scaling whilst maintaining optimum gate width and resistance ratios.12dB reported for 50nm devices .these parameters are defined below: • • fT is the gain bandwidth frequency of the device. page 307 20 ©TTP 2010 company confidential SILICON PROCESSES .e. Krzysztof. fmax fT and fmax are commonly used by manufacturers as a figure of merit for the performance of their devices . Circuits. The overall noise figure of a FET is dominated by two components: • • The thermal noise of the channel Resistance of the gate 2 The scaling behaviour of the channel thermal noise is dominated by that of gdo/gm (where gdo is the channel conductance at zero drain-source bias) and thus the noise performance should therefore improve with successive technology nodes (as transconductance increases with smaller node size). However this is particularly difficult to achieve in practice despite the increase in fT due to the increasing impact of the parasitics in the device layout. the optimum device width shrinks as the unit gate resistance increases with smaller and smaller gate lengths. By using transistors with good fT and fmax analogue signal processing and linearising techniques such as negative feed back can be used at higher frequencies improving the large signal handling of the circuit.

the 1/f corner 21 frequency can be between a few tens of kilohertz to more than a megahertz . if LGATE is scaled to minimum dimensions 1/f noise will increase even without a change in trap density due to both the decrease in LGATE and well as the consequent increase in gm0. in primarily the following areas: • • Close to carrier phase noise of a VCO (Voltage Controlled Oscillator) Baseband noise in Zero IF receiver architectures In the case of VCOs any low frequency noise will appear as noise sidebands of the oscillator’s output signal. assuming that trap density (Std) can be kept constant. Mixing or subsequent signal processing in other stages can also shift low frequency noise to the centre of the carrier frequency. and is usually the dominant noise source at low frequencies.4 1/f or Flicker noise 1/f noise has an amplitude inversely proportional to frequency.5 RF CMOS device parameter summary 2 Table 4-1 below identifies the important RF parameters for an NFET in the CMOS process. However. “The Design of CMOS Radio Frequency Integrated Circuits”. The quality of the p/n junction and the quality of the oxide interface dictate the power of the 1/f noise. 7. both gm and COX (gate oxide capacitance) increase proportionately. The SOI (Silicon-On-Insulator) process technology available in CMOS can be used to isolate the device from the bulk substrate material in an attempt to reduce noise coupling to and from the device. For a MOS device. 7. A well-optimised layout that minimises via and contact resistance contributions including the resistance along the gate polysilicon can reduce the relative contribution of gate resistance to the total drain current noise to less than 10%.1. As it is a low frequency phenomenon it has a direct impact on receiver system components. Additional improvements can be achieved with the use of metal gates by further reducing the gate resistance. SOI is discussed in more detail in section 7.2. Lee. potentially causing jitter. FETs are surface conduction devices where the current flow is affected by the properties of the Si/SiO2 interface. and how the various parameters change in relation to reductions in node size: 21 Thomas H.55 The noise contribution associated with the gate resistance is highly layout dependent and may be minimised by dividing the overall gate width into a large number of short gate fingers (again the optimum width scales with node size).1. as well as interfering with adjacent channels and lowering the final SNR. 1/f noise appears in the drain current and arises from fluctuations in the number of channel charge carriers as these carriers are captured and released at random by traps located near the oxide / silicon interface. 2 Edition. the density of channel charge. and the overall gate area as described by the following equation:  1  M ⋅ gm S td =    f  WL C 2 OX   GATE As tOX decreases with technology generation. 1/f noise performance is likely to degrade. The magnitude of this noise is determined by the density of these traps. The 1/f corner frequency is the frequency above which the noise amplitude is approximately flat and independent of frequency. 2004. Thus devices of fixed gate width (W) and length (L) should experience no change in 1/f noise. Thus as generation to generation scaling in FETs moves oxide interfaces even closer to the active channel. Cambridge University Press nd ©TTP 2010 company confidential SILICON PROCESSES .

SOI offers benefits in the development of RF devices at it offers low parasitic capacitances in the source / drain.Causes reduction in self gain . Pekarik.5 180 1.56 CMOS Node (nm) Supply voltage VDD (V) 250 2. 2006 “Scaled CMOS technology and models to support wireless applications” http://www.2 12.5 90 1. 22 fT(GHz) 35 53 94 140 210 Table 7-1: CMOS RF parameters Whilst many parameters such as fT and gm. Drain output conductance a gDS (uS/um) Self gain gm/gDS(-) 22 40 65 100 230 15.com/uploads/Pekarik.36 0. Threshold voltage VT(V) 0.43 0. Desirable . Variations in gate threshold voltage across wafers causes device matching issues Lower threshold voltages reduces power consumption.24 Desirable / notdesirable for RF selectivity Partially desirable Lower VDD limits device dynamic range but does offer lower power consumption. high transconductance.2 65 1 Effect Smaller gate sizes result in lower VDD operation. Desirable –Allows negative feedback to be used at RF frequencies Peak transconductance Peak gm (uS/um) 335 500 720 1060 1400 Higher channel transconductance.8 130 1. Self gain falls as node size decreases.6 6.2 CMOS Silicon-On-Insulator (SOI) Silicon-On-Insulator technology has been used for many special applications in the past such as radiation-hardened or high voltage circuits.cmoset. In recent years SOI technology processing & costs have reduced to a point where it has become a serious contender for low power.1 10.1 Drain output conductance increases for smaller node sizes. excellent buried oxide isolation and a high resistivity substrate. affecting the ability to use the parts to make a receiver with high selectivity improve with a reduction in node size. IBM. the lower VDD requirements limit the dynamic range and large signal handling capability of the device.A higher transconductance improves electron mobility in the channel and thus improves current gain. Not desirable . This has caused device layout to become more complex and critical. Gate threshold voltage reduces due to smaller gate sizes. Not-desirable . Not desirable – Lower threshold voltages limits device dynamic range. The smaller structures are inherently more susceptible to process variation across the wafer and from wafer to waver making device matching more difficult.44 0. John J.pdf [accessed 11th August 2009] 22 ©TTP 2010 company confidential SILICON PROCESSES .34 0.This is a problem for LNA designers hoping to realise significant gain at high frequency. high performance RF applications.5 11. 7. Parasitic structures contributing to parasitic impedances are more noticeable for smaller gate structures. Higher fT means that device can provide higher gain at higher frequencies.

Two methods can be used to reduce this kink effect.3 Integrated and discrete component comparison Integrated passive components generally have in many cases far inferior properties compared to discrete components as is shown in the table below. “SOI VS CMOS for Analog Circuit” University of Toronto”.edu/~kphang/papers/2001/ma_SOI. Unlike bulk silicon the base of this transistor is not connected to ground and is thus floating. and for values > 100KOhm can actually worsen the kink effect due to a substantial amount of holes accumulating in the body and re-triggering the kink effect.toronto. When the MOS transistor is biased in the saturation region and the drain voltage exceeds a certain value. In summary SOI CMOS offers a platform for improved performance integrated RF & digital receivers. Function Fmax (GHz) Linearity NFmin (@2GHz) RF switches Low power digital Passives integration A/D.18um 30 Good <0. 23 Vivian Ma.pdf [accessed 17 December 2009] ©TTP 2010 company confidential SILICON PROCESSES . Another method is to via both sides of the channel width. however this method contributes a large body resistance. This kink effect degrades the differential drain conductance of the device which can affect the operating speed of the device and thus RF/analog performance. however this increases the circuit area. D/A 3V swing (dynamic range) EEPROM / Flash Isolation Cost Si CMOS 0. Following on from this other primary drawbacks for SOI CMOS are: • • • • • Increased cost over bulk CMOS. In addition the buried oxide layer of SOI CMOS devices lowers the substrate coupling which has the effect of improving passive element quality factor and self resonant frequencies which is of particular benefit to integrated inductors used in oscillator circuits. Current methods of dealing with the floating body effects necessitate additional process steps and increased circuit area.8 Best Yes Good Yes Yes Yes Good -> best Good 23 Table 7-2: CMOS and SOI CMOS comparison Compared with bulk CMOS. SOI technology is able to offer a higher maximum frequency and better linearity.18um CMOS and 0. One of the primary drawbacks to SOI device technology is the ‘floating body effect’ – This is due to the MOS device always being accompanied by a parasitic transistor connected in parallel.eecg. in addition it also has capabilities for realizing low-voltage digital logic circuits and analogue circuits with a large voltage swings (good dynamic range).35um 60 Best <0.8 Poor Yes Poor Yes No No Poor Best SOI CMOS 0.35um SOI CMOS technologies. however cost and processing / design difficulties are currently limiting this technology away from mass market adoption. including providing a body contact to the device. this discontinuity is called the kink effect. SOI circuits are limited by the availability of material. 7. 2001 th http://www. Floating body effect makes device design difficult. Accurate device models that deal with the floating body effect are required. the bipolar transistor turns on and the drain current suddenly rises.57 The table below offers a basic comparison between the 0.

2004. 1 x 0. the parameter matching between components on the same die may be better than the parameter matching between discrete components. Cambridge University Press nd ©TTP 2010 company confidential SILICON PROCESSES .5mm) ±5% typ >1000 1nH to 270nH. As well as reducing product development cost. Unlike active elements.5mm) Integrated 1–10 Ohms per square. “The Design of CMOS Radio Frequency Integrated Circuits”. an integrated approach increases the certainty of the timescales needed to bring a new design to market.5mm) ±2% typ 35@1GHz 1 – 30 fFum ±30% typ Low ~50 -2 1 – 10nH Low ~8@1GHz 24 Table 7-3 Discrete and Integrated device comparison To overcome the physical limitations of passive components very different design techniques and circuit topologies are used in comparison to designs utilising a larger number of discrete components. multi-standard RF receivers to be manufactured at low cost.58 Device Resistor Parameter Value range Discrete 0R to 10M+ (surface mount 0402 . (surface mount 0402 . This is often critical in meeting consumer orientated deadlines such as Christmas. 1 x 0. extremely complex multiband. 2 Edition. This includes using active rather than passive bias circuits and current mode rather than voltage mode designs. This opens up many design techniques which rely on the similarity of components parameters rather than the absolute value of the parameters. By using a highly integrated approach the amount of time consuming and expensive RF design and development which needs to be done for an individual product design can be significantly reduced.1pF to >1uF (surface mount 0402 . well Typ ±35% Typ 1000ppm/°C Capacitor Tolerance Temperature coefficient Value range Tolerance Q Value range Tolerance Q Inductor ±1% is standard 100ppm 0. integrated passive elements do not in general scale with the semiconductor process used. 1 x 0. Lee. Whilst tolerances are poor. Although integrated passive components have severe limitations. they form an essential element in modern RF design allowing physically very small. 24 Thomas H. polysilicon 1 – 10kOhm per square.

the first parameter to consider is the fractional bandwidth (Bp/Fo) because of the influence on the substrate material to be used in the design. Additionally. where SAW devices are typically used as IF filters. The Rejection can also be referred to as the Rejection Range. the SAW filter consists of a polished piezoelectric substrate with a deposit of two transducers consisting of interdigital arrays (IDT – InterDigital Transducers) of thin electrodes. however the most important is the temperature stability specification. In its most basic form. The substrate material influences many parameters. so that an electrical signal is converted to an acoustic wave and then back to an electrical signal again.59 8 KEY COMPONENTS This chapter investigates the performance of both discrete and integrated circuit components used in receivers. or greater. is possible within a wide selection of fractional bandwidths and shape factors. Rejection (REJ. so that large delays are obtainable The overall frequency response characteristics of a SAW filter are determined by deriving impulse responses for each of the two transducers. and vice versa. Fundamentally a SAW filter is a piezoelectric material that converts an incoming electromagnetic signal into an acoustic signal. or Stop Band.1 Band select filter SAW filters Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) filter technology is utilised for frequencies of up to 3GHz. The key parameters for a SAW filter are identified and described briefly below: • Centre Frequency (Fo) This can range from few tens of MHz.) All ranges of the SAW Filter not including the Passband. through to several GHz. 8. Rejection of 50dB. Insertion Loss (IL) The minimum attainable Insertion Loss is generally influenced by the Fractional Bandwidth and the influences of this ratio on the applicable substrate material.1 8. This is the area between the Stop Band and the Passband found on both sides of the Passband. and reject others falling outside the band. Passband Width (Bp) The passband width will pass a signal occupying a specific frequency band. From a SAW filter design perspective. the inherent design and wafer processing techniques of SAW filters provide for a repeatable device in both low and high volume production. A basic advantage is that acoustic waves travel very slowly (typically 3000 m/s).1. The Insertion Loss value will generally increase when approaching the • • • • ©TTP 2010 company confidential KEY COMPONENTS . These interleaved metal electrodes are used to launch and receive the RF waves. We can refer to this as the range in which the relative attenuation is larger than the specified rejection side. The surface of a piezoelectric substrate is then etched with the two impulse responses The advantages of SAW filters include: • • • • • Compact packages especially at >100MHz Low shape factor Good linear phase characteristics Good rejection qualities Relatively stable performance over temperature Many other advantages are derived from the physical structure of SAW Filters which facilitates robust and reliable designs that remain stable within the application. These transforms are added together in dB. where they are used as RF input filters. With proper material selection and design. Transition Bandwidth (Bt).

filters in the range of 5. and Ladder type SAW filters. The third material noted above Lithium tantalite is intermediate in both respects.5 / 3. designed for UMTS receive.3um with the i-line (365nm) UV photolithography typically used in the industry. whilst the DMS is available for a low insertion loss and the high attenuation level of the out-of-band frequencies in the low power application. ©TTP 2010 company confidential KEY COMPONENTS . with more than 25dB stop band rejection are possible. On the other hand it does have excellent temperature stability~10ppm frequency stability over a +/-20C range.7GHz can be produced. it has different properties in each direction) piezoelectric material. the SAW properties depend on the orientation at which the substrate has been cut from the original material.0 GHz can be realised in high volume. giving larger bandwidths ~20% but poorer temperature stability. When using a state of the art excimer stepper having a resolution of 0. Various filter topologies are possible. thus giving the maximum frequency of operation of 3GHz. Recently the IIDT SAW filter is used less in RF due to its high insertion loss.5% ~4% Power durability Good Bad Good IP3 ~37dBm Poor 61dBm Balanced type Possible Possible Impossible Table 8-1: SAW filter topology comparison The ladder type is suitable for the requirement with a low insertion loss. taken from the EPCOS B7835 data sheet. Using an iline (0. This usually means that a crystalline material must be used. a wide band. The operating frequency limit is currently limited by fabrication techniques.5 – 7. Ladder filters at 5.18um. including IIDT (Inter-digiated Inter-Digital Transducer). is shown below. The filter is designed to have high rejection at the UMTS transmit frequencies. The SAW filter substrate must be made of an anisotropic (i. A typical SAW filter response.3um) stepper (which uses a 365nm light source) filters of up to 2. Quartz for example has weak piezoelectricity. Substrate materials include: • • • Quartz Lithium neobate Lithium tantalate Because the SAW material is anisotropic.6dB. which limits the fractional bandwidth to around 4%. three primary types are available.13 to 0. Front end SAW filters for the cellular bands generally have an insertion loss of less than 3dB. This corresponds to a quarter wavelength. A comparison between the performances of each of these SAW filter topologies is made for RF SAW filters in the table below: Loss IIDT DMS ladder 3-4dB 2-3dB 1-3dB Attenuation 25-50dB 25-60dB 20-40dB Bandwidth Variable ~3.60 fractional bandwidth limit of a substrate material. and/or high power durability. In general standard orientations are used which are known to give good SAW properties. In production the narrowest line width possible is around 0. These are achieved by modification of the IDTs.1GHz with a 4dB insertion loss. Its typical insertion loss is 2. Recent high resolution photolithography techniques make GHz SAW filters possible. SAW performance is largely dependent on the choice of substrate material.e. 150MHz bandwidth. DMS (Double Mode SAW). Lithium Niobate is the opposite.

2 Bulk Acoustic Wave (BAW) filters The BAW filter which is composed of piezoelectric thin film resonators has many features superior to SAW and ceramic filters. In general. especially in zero IF receivers where IP2 is important.5GHz) higher device performance market as required in applications such as WiMAX and 5. This allows the design to be reduced in size as components can be buried in the ceramic and reduces the amount of RF design which needs to be done for an individual product design.61 Figure 8-1: UMTS SAW filter response (With permission. The key properties of the BAW resonator are chosen to enable the maximum acoustic energy within the structure.5GHz WLAN. This allows a smaller RFIC package to be used and simplifies the PCB routing thus lowering cost.1. for the entire receiver to be differential. The BAW device is based on a thin film resonator which is very similar to a quartz crystal scaled down in size. BAW filters are currently best suited to the higher frequencies (>1. 8. including: • • • • • • No fine structure in its electrode design High Q factor Low-loss Sharp-cut off characteristics High power durability particularly in the high-frequency range Potential of integrated devices on an Si substrate. This is being done to limit the number of interconnects needed in multiband receivers between the filter and IC allowing a lower pin count on the RF IC. There is a growing trend to include SAW filters in a Front End Module FEM. The materials chosen must optimise both mechanical and electrical properties. there is now an industry trend in cellular receivers from using balanced to single ended RF IC inputs. thus achieving a high electrical Q. ©TTP 2010 company confidential KEY COMPONENTS . incorporating LNA’s pin diode switches and even power amplifiers all mounted on a LTCC (Low Temperature Cofired Ceramic substrate). The boundary conditions outside of the metal films must maintain a very high level of acoustic reflection with vacuum being the ideal interface. Epcos) This filter also functions as a balun (balanced to unbalanced transformer) allowing a single ended input from an antenna to be easily coupled to a differential input. Whilst there are performance benefits.

The most common BAW filter circuit topology is the ladder configuration.2 these filters are typically used in TV superhet tuners. In addition the LNA must have a good noise figure as it is the most significant element in defining the receiver’s noise figure. The Q of the filter was limited by the Q of inductor and the repeatability of the filter was limited by the tolerance of the components. State of the art CMOS.2 Low noise amplifier (LNA) The LNA is generally the first active stage the received signal meets. however with limited power handling to molybdenum or tungsten which both offer higher power handling at the cost of additional resistivity losses. The multilayer material incorporating buried components allows three dimensional structures to be built including transmission lines and lumped elements. Typical varactor diodes used to achieve this have a capacitance ratio of 8. 25 TUA6034 Half NIM Application Note.6. of 25 around 65dB can be obtained .3 LC filters and multilayer filters Traditionally front end filters were constructed from discrete inductors and capacitors. Typically 10 to 20 dB of gain is required.1.com/dgdl/AppNote_TUA6034_PartI_V2. AIN has been established as the material that offers the best balance of performance. 8. Filters constructed using this approach are relatively large. The higher the number of elements in the filter. manufacturability and reliability.1. generally a passive filter or the antenna. & SiGe noise figures are typically less than 2dB when integrated into an 26 IC at Wi-Fi frequencies with individual devices achieving a noise figure of well below a decibel. More recently filters have been constructed using multilayer LTCC (low temperature cofired ceramics). However the Q’s available limit its use as a sharp front end filter to relatively undemanding technologies such as Bluetooth. For good receiver sensitivity the stage’s input needs to be impedance matched to its source.pdf?folderId=db3a304412b4079501 th 12b41fae113766&fileId=db3a304412b407950112b41fae743767 [accessed 17 December 2009] ©TTP 2010 company confidential KEY COMPONENTS . Hand tuning of the tuner inductors is needed to obtain consistent performance. 8. To achieve the band pass response the shunt elements are tuned to a slightly lower frequency. Simulation of TV tuner tracking filters integrated with an LNA show that by using a combination of bandpass and notch filters image rejection. As discussed in section 4. the out of band rejection is determined by the number of elements and the net capacitor divider.4 Varactor diode tracking filters By using discrete varactor diodes in an LC filter structure. the better the sensitivity the receiver has. As the frequency is proportional to the square root of the capacitance relatively large capacitance changes are needed to cover a smaller frequency range. the better the receiver’s channel selectivity when the wanted signal is at or near the minimum sensitivity of the receiver.62 Even though there are many piezoelectric materials. Infineon http://www.infineon. the centre frequency of the filter can be adjusted. at 72MHz above the received frequency.1. The resonant frequency of the BAW filter is inversely proportional to the film thickness with both the metal and piezoelectric dielectric contributing to the resonant point. 8. As discussed in section 6. Too much LNA gain will place excess demands on the linearity of latter parts of the receiver prior to channel filtering. This assumes the LNA has adequate gain so latter stages have little or no effect. For example a UHF TV tuner may need to cover 470 to 862MHz. The material has good repeatable RF properties. the greater the rejection will be although there will also be an increase in insertion loss. A good impedance match maximises power transfer from the antenna and avoid reflections.9 using a tuning voltage of 1 to 28V. The metal films range from aluminium which offers the best performance.

gives rise to changes in magnitude and reversals of the phase of intermodulation distortion components.M. By using a band select filter. together with the device capacitance allows the input impedance of the amplifier to be controlled without using resistors (these would add additional noise) so that the noise figure of the amplifier is minimised. Like many linearization Behzad. Typically inductive source degeneration is used. page 307 28 Woerlee. “RF CMOS Performance Trends” IEEE Transactions on Electorn Devices. By using two or more devices in parallel. the power supply voltage required reduces. and Devices” CRC Press. As discussed in section 4. The actual LNA IP3 required with small input signals will depend on the receiver IP3 required. 2001. The derivative structure of the characteristics of GaAs and CMOS FET's. by reducing the stage gain the stage and receiver IP3 can be improved. is important as the LNA must be able to cope with all signals passed by the input band filter without introducing distortion products. The degradation in noise figure level between a standalone and integrated devices is generally due to noise pick up from bond wires. This approach does need a relative high Q inductor as any loss will contribute to the noise figure of the LNA.g. Systems. with noise figures of 0. 2009. The reduction in silicon geometries and associated reduction in VIP3 has led to the use of linearization techniques such as derivative superposition. the chances of receiving a large unwanted signal are significantly reduced. Circuits. 2008. The LNAs IIP3 is reduced 2 by a factor of Q of the resonator.56dB reported for 250nm geometry and 0. often characterised by the LNA’s IIP3. When considering the selectivity of the receiver. et al.12dB being reported for 50nm 27 devices . No. The noise benefits of a differential arrangement are discussed above.9. Krzysztof. dependent on their DC bias condition. each biased differently.. The input voltage is multiplied by the Q of the input circuit. “Wireless Technologies.63 In CMOS. e. Arya. the gain of the stage and the IP3 of subsequent stages. the large signal handling of the amplifier. page 142 27 Iniewski. The penalty with this approach is that additional current and silicon area is needed to achieve the same noise figure and large signal handling performance. impedance matching techniques are used to power match the LNA input to the input filter or LNA. the LNA IP3 will dictate the receivers IP3. H. However some receivers. TV tuners. Vol 45. As smaller CMOS geometries are used. As a general rule. Typically differential cascode circuit topologies are used for LNA amplifiers in RFICs.e. the wider the input filter the greater chance there is of receiving large unwanted signals. 9. Electronics Letters. Noise figures at this level leave little scope for significant system improvement. the minimum obtainable noise figure reduces as the transistor gate length scales.e. Vol 48. large VIP3) the drain current per unit width has to increase with device size reduction. Differential circuitry is used in LNAs and many other circuit components to improve immunity to common mode interference pick up. et al. In step. improving linearity by over 10dB . bandwidth typically less than 25% of the centre frequency. The cascade arrangement reduces the interaction of the output impedance on the input impedance and reduce the effects of the input devices drain gate capacitance (Miller effect) extending the stages bandwidth. the maximum voltage amplitudes that can be used before the LNA saturates also reduce. traces to the IC and IC substrate noise. It has been simulated that to achieve the same VIP3 (8V) in 28 50nm CMOS as with 250nm the current density needs to increase from 8μA/μm to 13μA/μm . Narrow band. the composite third order products 29 can be reduced significantly. August 2001 29 Geddada. i. When the receiver gain is reduced to cope with large input signals. 8. as discussed in section 8. No. need to operate over a very wide frequency range so alternative methods.1. It has also been found that for high linearity (i. 23 April 2009 26 ©TTP 2010 company confidential KEY COMPONENTS . such as tracking filters. Pierre H. may be needed to achieve the required selectivity performance.”Wireless LAN Radios System Definition to Transistor Design” IEEE Press. 2008. The source inductor. whilst the receiver noise figure degrades. “Robust Derivative Superposition Method for linearising rd Broadband LNAs”.

When the AGC is switched the LNA’s IIP3 will improve as the gain is reduced. 8. High third order and in Zero IF receivers second order intercept points are vital if the receiver is likely to receive multiple high level interferers which may produce spurious products either at the RF frequency. Whilst they do not consume static DC power passive mixers always introduce a net loss of power between input and output and can contribute to a poor overall receiver noise figure. Usually at high gain the LNA has a good noise figure and relatively poor IP3. This can lead to poor SFDR. Switching mixers on the other hand multiply an analogue input signal by a switching (commutating) signal which operates a switching device within the mixer. Maxim’s MAX2051 device. Passive mixers operate as switching mixers clocked by the local oscillator. For a high SFDR a high intercept point needs to be balanced with a reasonably low noise figure. On the other hand the linearity performance tends to be very good. Depending on the switch implementation high LO amplitudes can be needed to achieve low on switch resistance. noise and even order intermodulation. care is needed in this approach to make the design robust against all process voltage temperature (PVT) variations.g. two voltages. This degrades selectivity when the wanted signal is low. mixers are referred to as either linearly multiplying or switching mixers. the IF needs to be able to cope with a constant -23dBm signal. to amplify the LO is high at around 525mW. unless wide dynamic range stages are used after the mixer. Most down conversion mixers produce many spectral components. Linearly multiplying mixers perform multiplication of two signals having an analogue amplitude.3 Mixer The mixer’s intercept point is a significant element in defining the receiver’s intercept point often contributing 50% of the overall intermodulation product distortion power of the entire RF receiver chain.4dB. As well as reducing RF and LO feed through. Depending on the type of LO signal used. Many mixers use balanced ports to minimise feed through of the high level LO and RF input into the IF output of the mixer. It can accommodate RF inputs of up to 1dBm at a 1dB compression level (IIP3 ~ 15dBm) and has a loss of 6dB. some being potentially much larger than the wanted response. Often however the noise figure of the LNA increases reducing the receiver’s ability to receive weak signals. IF frequency or for zero IF receivers at DC. With a typical LO to IF isolation of 30dB. In many receivers. the gain of the LNA is adjusted as part of the receivers AGC system.64 methods. Ideally the noise figure of the stage remains low. The switching elements are often MOS switches or diodes. A double balanced diode ring mixer typically needs +7dBm of local oscillator drive. VLO VRF VIF Figure 8-2: Double balanced diode mixer ©TTP 2010 company confidential KEY COMPONENTS . a balanced approach reduces immunity to coupling based distortion. e. Power consumption. fabricated in SiGe BiCMOS obtains an IIP3 of 35dBm with a loss of 7.

8μm SiGe BiCMOS process using a 5V supply are: NF: Gain: IIP3: LO drive: Current consumption: 9. Vol 36.65 When MOS switch mixers are integrated into ICs better amplitude matching can be obtained between the switches in the mixer and between mixers. Active mixers dissipate standby power because they use a pre-amplifying transconductance stage that requires a biasing current to operate. In CMOS this DC bias current can cause significant flicker noise issues. This is an important attribute in multi 30 mixer architectures such as the double quadrature mixers . The differential input stage allows the handling of voltage signals two times larger than in the case of a single ended input mixer. It is a double balanced active current commutating mixer. The Gilbert cell mixer is a commonly used mixer architecture in ICs. Farbod et al. Further transconductance cell linearization techniques are discussed in 8. Typically performance parameters for a mixer optimised for noise figure.5dB -5dBm 160mV 10. implemented in 0.4mA Two methods that can be used to improve the poor IIP3 are emitter/source degeneration of the lower transconductance cell by adding resistors to the emitters/sources (Figure 8-4) and replacing the devices in the input stage with class AB amplifier stages.7dB 13. No 6 June 2001 30 ©TTP 2010 company confidential KEY COMPONENTS . The balanced approach provides excellent port to port isolation so the LO leakage is very low. Behbahani. The current mode approach is suitable for typical low voltage RFIC processes used.ii below. IEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits. A fully differential transconductance input amplifier converts the input voltage signal to a differential current which is then fed to a balanced switching network. they do have a net gain which reduces the contribution of latter receiver stages to the receiver noise figure.1. “CMOS Mixers and Polyphase Filters for large image rejection”. 2001. Unfortunately. Like passive mixers they can be used in unbalanced.6. the transconductor biasing current flows through the switching network increasing significantly the noise contribution of the switches in comparison to the switches in the passive mixers. single balanced and double balanced configurations. VIF VLO+ VLO- VLO+ VRF+ VRF- I0 Figure 8-3: Gilbert Cell The IP3 of an active mixer is generally bounded by linearity of the lower transconductor cell. Unlike passive mixers.

Therefore the three-phase third harmonic LO vectors cancel as shown in Figure 8-5. each fed with one of the rd th polyphase LO’s the mixer responses due to the 3 and 5 order LO harmonics can be cancelled.5 With AB input stage 15 9. 2005 Comparing active Gilbert mixers integrated in standard SiGe process” RFdesign. if the fundamental LO vectors are set at 0°.1dBm.1/5. Hernández. NF (dB) Gain (dB) IIP3 (dBm) LO voltage (mV) With emitter degeneration 14.66 VIF VLO+ VLO- VLO+ VRF+ VRF- I0/2 I0/2 Figure 8-4: Degenerated Gilbert cell Using the same SiGE process and supply voltage. 5fLO.7 7. all at the same frequency. Coeur d’Alene. etc. In a complex mixer these harmonics create products at +3fLO. Oct 4-5. 45° and 90°.4 114 9. +7fLO and so on. The square wave LO has harmonics with magnitudes of 1/3. By placing three mixers in parallel. but offset in phase these harmonics can be cancelled. Rodríguez. Shaikh 2005. 8.1 Harmonic reject mixer A simple mixer responds to positive and negative signals whilst a complex (quadrature) mixer responds to just the positive.3. third harmonic vectors are formed at 0°. Berenguer. However a Gilbert cell or passive mixer switches using a square wave local oscillator rather than multiplies using a sine wave. G. the following 31 results were obtained . J.18μm CMOS” 12 NASA Symposium on VLSI Design . allowing direct comparison. Gutiérrez.2 2. or negative signal. “A 2GHz Highly Linear Downconversion Mixer in 0. Idaho. E. Ideally the complex mixer just responds to a single tone at -ωLO.18μm CMOS a mixer with an IIP3 of 12. a conversion gain of 16dB and a noise 32 figure of 13. The same effect occurs for the fifth harmonic LO harmonic vectors. Presa and R. If multiple square wave LOs. Bistué. 1/7. 2005 31 ©TTP 2010 company confidential KEY COMPONENTS . N. I.8 12.2 137 2 Current consumption (mA) Table 8-2: SiGe linearized mixer performance Using 0. In a three phase example.8dB .135° and 270°.com 32 Alam.

and hence minimise phase noise. UMTS. To achieve this level of phase noise resonant LC oscillators are typically used. a discrete LC tank resonator constructed from SMD components typically has a Q of 50 to 100 but IC package parasitics can cause implementation problems at frequencies above around 2GHz. Good phase noise is fairly difficult to achieve with an integrated LC tank resonator as a typical spiral inductor only has a Q of 5 to 10. a practical oscillator will need to be able to be tuned to cover all the local oscillator frequencies required for the entire receiver bandwidth. In ICs often a single VCO is used operating at different multiples of the LO frequency. 8. a CW carrier at -23dBm is injected into the receiver at the same time as the receiver is receiving a wanted signal at -99dBm. All mass market receivers (GSM. However like image reject techniques the actual suppression depends on the accuracy of the poly-phasing and matching of the mixers amplitude and phase responses.4 Oscillators and quadrature generation rd th Good oscillator phase noise at offsets similar or greater than the channel bandwidth width is needed to avoiding reciprocal mixing issues. In addition to good phase noise. limited by the Q inductor. ©TTP 2010 company confidential KEY COMPONENTS . For example CMOS junction capacitors may be used as the variable capacitors but these tend to have relatively poor Q compared to fixed capacitors. One of the few ways to mitigate the poor inductor Q in an LC-tank VCO is to use a high current. Care needs to be taken to maintain the loaded Q of the oscillator.67 Fundamental LO Sum LO90° LO45° LO0° 3rd harmonic of LO 3rd LO45° Sum (= 0) 3rd LO0° 3rd LO90° 5th harmonic of LO 5th LO90° Sum (=0) 5th LO0° 5th LO45° Figure 8-5: Polyphase LOs with 3 and 5 harmonic cancelation The harmonic reject mixer can in principle fully suppress harmonic responses. Wi-Fi…. integrated VCO implementations are based on a cross coupled differential pair as shown in Figure 8-6. As a contrast. Therefore it is common to achieve the full tuning range required with a combination of a variable capacitor and a range of fixed capacitors which can be switched in and out of the circuit. As an example in GSM. In very wide bandwidth receivers such as canned TV tuners multiple oscillators are generally used. LG and others. Many tuneable. TV tuners are rapidly migrating from canned tuners using discrete LC resonators to fully integrated devices with announcements by Sony.) except for TV tuners use fully integrated VCOs. To avoid reciprocal mixing problems an LO phase noise of -138dBc/Hz is needed at 3MHz. for a mobile to pass the 3MHz blocking test.

8.68 VDD VTUNE IOUT+ iOUT- Figure 8-6: Simplified differential VCO Using integrated BAW resonators for narrow band oscillators is a possible approach for high Q integrated oscillators. One of the simplest methods is to use an RC-CR filter as shown in Figure 8-7. C I C R Q R VIN Figure 8-7: RC-CR filter With this type of circuit. A high Q resonator resonance frequency can easily be modified resulting in an oscillator only being capable of being tuned over a very narrow band resulting in a receiver with a very narrow tuning range. However bandwidth widening techniques allowing up to a 10% 33 band to be covered with a single VCO were reported at ISSCC2008 . Ideally these quadrature signals need to be phase and gain matched across the frequency band of interest.2GHz VCO Using a BAW Resonator” CEA-Leti-MINATEC. “A 1V 220MHz-Tuning-Range 2. assuming the two R’s and two C’s are matched there is exactly a 90° phase difference between I and Q at all frequencies.4.1 Quadrature generation For any receiver using mixers operating in quadrature it is necessary to generate signals in quadrature to each other. The magnitude response is different at all frequencies except at ω= 1 RC Christophe Lilliard et al. 2008 33 ©TTP 2010 company confidential KEY COMPONENTS .

2004. In practice due to additional poles. K/s -K/s Figure 8-8: Quadrature oscillator block diagram Ring oscillators using 2. By generating the local oscillator at a different frequency to that used in the receiver the danger of the LO leaking from the antenna. Phase jitter can be a problem in OFDM systems with many carriers each modulated with a very low symbol rate high order QAM modulation. This allows the received signal to be down converted without adding significant phase jitter to the received constellation. In a cellular system the crystal is replaced with a voltage controlled crystal oscillator. The VCXO is tuned so that the transceiver is precisely aligned to the base station frequency. San Francisco USA http://www. This oscillator could be constructed from two op-amps.2 Phase locked loops (PLL) A PLL allows a free running voltage controlled oscillator to be locked to an accurate crystal reference (typically ±20ppm) generally oscillating at a lower frequency. However PLLs tend to make little difference to reciprocal mixing where phase Pan. Cambridge University Press.iaeng. or VCXO.69 It is possible to couple together two differential VCO’s so that they oscillate in quadrature and obtain good phase noise. Thomas. this accuracy is not sufficient.57GHz has 34 been reported with this technique using 0.35um CMOS . Outside the loop filter the VCO phase noise will dominate as shown in Figure 8-9. A pair of integrators. Second Edition”. especially in transceivers which also need to transmit. “The Design of CMOS Radio Frequency Integrated Circuits. page 641 34 ©TTP 2010 company confidential KEY COMPONENTS . A phase noise of -140dBc/Hz at 3MHz operating at 1.5° have been 35 reported operating at up to 1GHz .57GHz Low Power Low Phase Noise Quadrature LC-VCO”. However this requires a very high frequency oscillator. 2008.org/publication/WCECS2008/WCECS2008_pp192-195. For relatively low frequency receivers this may be a good approach as it allows the local oscillator inductors to be integrated. the phase noise from the VCO will be suppressed by the loop filter. At high frequencies both integrators and ring oscillators are likely to produce too much phase noise. Within the loop bandwidth of the PLL. will have much better phase noise close to its fundamental frequency than the VCO. This allows the receiver’s LO to achieve an accuracy of ±20KHz. or causing DC offset problems in zero IF and low IF receivers. allowing the receive filters to be aligned fairly well.pdf [29th July 2009] 35 Lee. The crystal. These tend to have a low Q but can be used to tune over a wide frequency range. in a feedback loop provide in principle perfect matched phase and amplitude as shown in Figure 8-8. “A 1. A divide by four approach makes the output insensitive to the duty cycle of the input signal. or 4 states can be used. is reduced. VCXO. component variations etc the outputs tend not to be perfectly in quadrature although quadrature oscillators with phase error of less than 0. 8. WCECS.4. Digital dividers can be used to generate quadrature signals. Quan. Often. nd th 22 – 24 October 2008.

2 SAW IF filters SAW filters are described in detail in section 8.5 8.1. This is the area between the stop band and the passband found on both sides of the passband. There frequency of operation is limited to typically 50MHz by the physical properties of the crystal. As the frequency of operation is fixed they are almost always used at an IF frequency 8. ©TTP 2010 company confidential KEY COMPONENTS . A typical example is shown in Figure 8-10. Key parameters for a SAW IF filter is its transition bandwidth (Bt). Its steepness directly affects the receiver’s adjacent channel performance.70 noise at offsets similar or greater than the channel bandwidth (e.5.1.g. 200KHz for GSM) are significant. Phase noise from the crystal Phase noise from the VCO Loop bandwidth Figure 8-9: Typical PLL phase noise 8.1 Discrete IF Filters Quartz crystal filters The very high levels of Q exhibited by quartz resonators makes them ideal for use as the primary channel filter in high performance radio receivers.5.

multiple filters are required. After channel filtering. These amplifiers and active filters must have: • • • • • Adequate noise performance to not detrimentally affect the receivers noise figure Good linearity Good repeatability (reduced sensitivity to component variations. 8. A limitation of their use is that their bandwidth is fixed. ©TTP 2010 company confidential KEY COMPONENTS . as the size of the circuit element is small compared to the wavelength of interest reducing the importance of input and output impedance matching to a level where matching can often be neglected. or can be calibrated) Low power consumption Adequate bandwidth Noise figure is not as critical in post LNA stages and therefore allows other amplifier topologies to be used. at low GHz radio frequencies unless stages need to be matched to an external device. all the unwanted interfering signals should have been removed and the IIP3 of further amplifier stages can be relaxed. If a distributed gain and filtering approach is used as shown in Figure 6-12 the IIP3 of stages needs to be appropriately scaled as interferers are gradually suppressed and the signal amplified. Unless the receiver is operating with very little gain. If digital channel filtering is used all the analogue stages and ADC need adequate IIP3 and SFDR. Therefore to cope with multiple channel bandwidths. receiver ICs need a variety of amplifiers to amplify the signal to a level suitable for analogue to digital conversion. Similarly. interface to external filters and/or allow the use of active filters. implement AGC circuits. the amplifier prior to channel filtering is generally the critical stage in the design defining the receiver’s large signal performance. EPCOS X6792M) IF filters. as they operate at lower frequencies tend to be quite large.6 Integrated amplifiers and active filters As well as an LNA. For example a 36MHz SAW used for TV tuners typically measures around 17x 9 x 4mm. 7 and 8MHz. for example to build a world TV tuner which needs bandwidths of 6.71 Figure 8-10: IF SAW filter frequency response (With permission.

This becomes especially important when the filter is implementing a channel filter and there needs to be adequate rejection of the adjacent channel to achieve the desired selectivity whilst not removing any of the wanted signal and therefore loosing sensitivity. Alternatively external inductors can be used with internal variable 36 capacitors .1. In DAB. assuming the LNA has sufficient power gain to overcome the mixers noise figure and conversion gain/loss. They amplify the differential voltage at their input and produce a voltage output. Calibration either at power on. This will be discussed in section 8. 36 Sony. the wanted channel bandwidth is 1. A 176 KHz guard band is inserted between adjacent channels. and therefore amplifier stages.1.4).net/Products/SCHP/cx_news/vol56/pdf/featuring56.i Amplifiers Operational amplifiers Operational amplifiers. as used in classic low frequency analogue signal processing have a high impedance input and low impedance output.54MHz wide. assuming sufficient ADC sampling rates and dynamic range can be implemented.6. and voltage and temperature monitoring techniques are all used to enhance the circuit performance helping overcoming PVT issues.5% is required.6. It is important that gain and bandwidth are well controlled across variations in process. 2008.sony. This is likely to allow greater frequency selectivity prior to mixing. “CMOS tuners for large screen TV sets” http://www. The precise positioning of filter poles and zeros’s is critical to realising the desired filter response with the minimum number of poles. Historically.6. Almost always differential circuits are used making the structures less sensitive to common mode noise signals and even order intermodulation. allocate the majority of the receiver gain required to be at IF or baseband frequencies. feedback techniques such as AGC. Most receiver architectures. Due to their limited bandwidth and high current consumption they are generally not used in RFICs. These will be discussed below. with limited gain available at RF frequencies this was a prerequisite of any design. If a zero IF approach is used. Allowing say a 20 KHz spread in the cut off frequency in the design means a filter tolerance of better than 2. especially useful in wideband receivers where fixed frequency input filters are of limited use.pdf [11th August 2009] ©TTP 2010 company confidential KEY COMPONENTS .3 below. It may be possible to bring the ADC much closer to the antenna allowing more digital filtering. The standard EN50248:2001 requires greater than 30dB of adjacent channel rejection. If a low IF architecture is used the tolerance requirement will be greater as the cut off frequency is higher. However with improved transistor fT’s this is less of a limitation allowing more active circuits to be used at higher RF frequencies. With image rejecting mixer based receiver architectures such as low IF and zero IF. A variety of amplifier types and circuit topologies can be used. positioning of the filter cut off frequency to within a few Kilohertz or tens of Kilohertz is required. for instance. 8. matching of the amplifiers gain and any associated filter parameters becomes critical for good image rejection (discussed in section 6. This tolerance is far more stringent than what can be implemented in a silicon process and some form of calibration is typically used.72 Integrated filters tend to not use inductors as these do not lend themselves well to integration and take up a large area.1 8. supply voltage and temperature (PVT). or during receiver idle periods. To achieve this filtering. the channel filter needs to cut off at 770KHz.

ii Gm-C integrator 37 References Operational transconductance amplifiers have a high input impedance and high output impedance. If N (=GmR) is the source degeneration factor. they amplify the differential voltage signal at their input producing a current output. This technique can improve linearity by up to two orders of magnitude. a form of degeneration. Their current mode operation makes them good for low voltage implementation in RFCMOS. with a typical Vdd of 1. When used in a feedback loop. Linearity can be improved by adding fixed degeneration resistors to the input differential pair. page 40 37 39 ©TTP 2010 company confidential KEY COMPONENTS . As this is a form of negative feedback this approach does correspondingly reduce the gm of the stage. architectures and active filters: a tutorial” IEE Proceeding Circuits. Due in part to their internal nodes being low impedance they are wider band than opamps. Vol 147. E. With typical process spreads its performance is not as dramatically degraded as is found with degeneration. 2000 “CMOS transconductance amplifiers. 2004.e. An ideal MOSFET has perfect square law behaviour. The loop gain needs to be well controlled. The degeneration resistor does increase the stages noise figure slightly. the small signal transconductance reduces 2 by 1+N and the third harmonic distortion reduces by reduces by (1+N) . Silvia-Martinez.pdf [29 July 2009] 38 Lee. Sanchez-Sinencio. Devices and Systems. 2005 “High-linearity CMOS RF front-end circuits”. Ramesh Harjani. assuming similar power consumption but it does require extremely 38 close tolerance parts and enough voltage to be able to vary the devices adequately . In order to compensate for the mobility degradation. due to mobility degradation the MOSFET operates at under a sub square law. “The Design of CMOS Radio Frequency Integrated Circuits. J. Second Edition”.6. The linearity of the stage can further be improved by using triode operated MOSFETs as variable degeneration resistors.1. i. This approach can give similar results to the degeneration methods discussed above. By cross coupling these devices the current through each half of the differential pair can be kept more constant. page 641 39 Yongwang Ding.73 8. Thomas. Cambridge University Press. In practice. When used to drive a load capacitance. Transconductance amplifiers are typically used without op amp style negative feedback.2V.edu/SIS/Publications/pub/jounal/2000_1. an integrator element can be created.tamu. Springer. integrators can be used to realise complex filter functions. However where it is superior to the previous methods is operating with wider component variations. Resistor degeneration MOS degeneration I+ I- I+ I- V+ V- V+ V- I0/2 I0/2 I0/2 I0/2 Figure 8-11: Linearization methods A third method is to use positive feedback . positive feedback can be used to counteract it. Feb 2000 http://amsc. sufficient to counteract the mobility degradation but must be small enough to avoid loop instability. No1.

com/books/phdThesis/ [29 July 2009] 41 Louis Fan Fei. In many circuits it is necessary to tune the gain of the device.i Circuit topologies Gyrators 41 Gyrators are a type of circuit which invert the sign of an impedance.74 I+ V+ IV- I0/2 I0/2 Figure 8-12: Transconductor with positive feedback Feedback methods improve the linearity of the transconductor with small signals. 1999.mwee. Several methods can be used to modify the gm of a transconductor. At large signal levels the amplifiers will tend to limit more abruptly than with conventional amplifiers. This technique lends itself to integration as it is much easier to implement a gyrator with associated capacitor than it is to integrate a large inductor. often however it is just to overcome the process spreads.6. Gyrators are formed by connecting back to back two transconductances. This allows an inductor to be simulated with a capacitor.com/202600338 [29 July 2009] 40 ©TTP 2010 company confidential KEY COMPONENTS .2 8. “Power. loosing the expected slope of three characteristic at larger amplitudes. Measurements such as IP3 become amplitude dependent.edacafe. This may be to implement an AGC circuit or to tune filter parameters. Fine tuning can be 40 achieved by adjusting a devices output conductance by adjusting its bias voltage . 8. Mihai Adrian Tiberiu.6. For modest adjustment to overcome process spreads coarse tuning can be achieved by switching in and out of the circuit transistors with different aspect ratios. accuracy and noise aspects in CMOS mixed-signal design” http://www. For greater gain range circuits can be implemented based on • the principle that the transconductance of the FET changes as the FET goes from a saturation mode to a triode mode • the idea that the transconductance of a FET changes with the bias current Although transconductance cells are inherently differential.2. common mode feedback control to overcome imbalances in different current sources is often used. 2007 “Design considerations for integrated CMOS receivers” http://www. Sanduleanu.

iii Switched capacitor Switched capacitor filters are constructed by substituting the resistors in an active RC filter with switches and capacitors. the switch acts as a resistor allowing an RF type filter to be implemented. They have less sensitivity to component variations compared to many other filter implementations. Lee. Simulations of a narrow band second order tuneable bandpass filter design operating over the entire UHF TV 42 band based on the TSMC 0. 8. Y. SoC Design Conf http://rfcmos. J.2. Clocks can be derived Sun. The inductor can be tuned by setting the gm of the cell. 8.pdf [29 July 2009] 42 rd ©TTP 2010 company confidential KEY COMPONENTS .6.2.kr/pdf/conferences/2008/9.ac. L1 L2 Vin C1 C2 C3 Figure 8-14: LC ladder filter Gm-C cells using this type of topology offer good high frequency performance.75 V1 gmV2 gmV1 V2 C2 Figure 8-13: Gyrator It can be shown that: L= C2 2 gm A pair of gyrators and a capacitor allow a floating series inductor to be created as might be used in an LC ladder filter circuit such as the one shown in Figure 8-13. the lower the capacitance is needed for a given pole frequency. Capacitor ratios can be well controlled within an IC. Lee. The Q of the filter will be affected by the finite output impedance of the amplifier. S.ii Biqaud filters Biqaud filters can implement all types of filter responses and are typically implemented with a two-integrator-loop topology. Assuming the switch is switched at a much faster rate than the analogue signal it is passing.6. 2008 On-chip Active RF Tracking Filter with 60dB 3 Order Harmonic Rejection for Digital TV Tuners” Int.icu.13um CMOS process have been reported . The higher the gm of the transconductance cell. This allows relatively low frequency filters to be implemented with small capacitors. Switched capacitor filters have very precisely defined characteristics because the time constants associated with the frequency response depend only on the capacitor ratios and the clock frequency.

Often it is desirable to implement receiver self calibration.6. Generally the receiver needs to be offline for full closed loop calibration. other techniques such as voltage and temperature monitoring can potentially be used. Individual stage calibration can be achieved by shorting out one stage at a time so that the gain of each stage can be determined. or for setting more accurate corner frequencies of filters etc than can be obtained across the PVT variations of a silicon process.6. This can be done during initial power up. These techniques allow looser tolerance on chip components to be used rather than more expensive. or when the receiver is being retuned.76 from a crystal so can be accurate to a few ppm. As switched capacitor filters sample the signal they need to be protected from alias frequencies in a similar way to an ADC.i Gain calibration Gain calibration can be done by injecting a known signal into a receiver and measuring the output. the signals amplitude can be as accurate as the reference voltage of the DAC. Whilst highly automated it does take time. The filters frequency can be changed by adjusting the gm of a cell or switching in and out additional capacitors. when time division multiplexing is used. However temperature variations are difficult to account for quickly and any long term affects cannot be accounted for. 8. If the receiver can’t be calibrated whilst operating. during gaps in reception. • Second order effects. for instance the calibration may degrade some receiver parameters whilst trying to improve others or the calibration may be optimum at one frequency. Calibration can be performed during production using specific test equipment and operating modes. Calibration might be used to get good image rejection. In a transceiver design the transmitter section can sometimes be used to generate the test signal to calibrate the receiver.3.3 Calibration Calibration can be used to help achieve optimum receiver performance. Since the opamps used in switched capacitor filters must have greater bandwidth than the signal they are processing.3. The precise frequency is generally derived from the receiver’s crystal and is therefore accurate to a few ppm. e. Great care needs to be taken that each individual stage is calibrated under the same input and output load conditions as it will operate under. 8. The baseband section is often used in a different way to its normal operating mode to measure specific signal levels.6. Many designs use cascaded gain stages each likely to need individual calibration. For receiver self calibration known test signals often need to be generated and specific signals measured. ©TTP 2010 company confidential KEY COMPONENTS . These often entail the use of additional DACs and ADCs in the design. space consuming off chip parts. Production calibration can reduce effects due to process variations and possibly voltage variations. for precisely setting stage gains to balance the sensitivity and selectivity performance of a receiver. by monitoring these parameters during operation open loop adjustment of the circuit can be made as these parameters vary. power consumption tends to be high. typically a few percent.g. By using a DAC to generate the calibration reference signal. adding cost to the design. Calibration can be done using a wide range of techniques. voltage time etc. Whilst calibration can improve the performance of a system there are usually some system limitations including: • How accurately the error can be measured • The accuracy and resolution of the correcting parameter • Stability and drift with temperature. but not at others. 8. Assuming a circuit’s response to temperature or voltage is known.ii Corner frequency calibration Integrated filters can typically be tuned offline to the correct corner frequency using ideally a precise frequency of known amplitude.

pdf [30July 2009] ©TTP 2010 company confidential KEY COMPONENTS . T1 T2 T1 T2 T1 T2 T1 T2 T1 T1 Figure 8-16: Auto zero amplifier • True AC coupling can be used in some systems such as WCDMA. Σ Σ Figure 8-15: Digital calibration • Auto zero techniques can be used when the receiver only needs to be used for short periods with gaps in between.iis. the switches marked T1 are closed and the inputs are forced to the voltage of the output nulling out the amplifier offset. RX Baseband AGC/Filter Design for WCDMA Mobiles. This approach can be used in GSM but is not suitable for WCDMA. 43 Jürgen Rogin. This oscillator can be incorporated into a PLL locked to an accurate frequency reference. The T1 switches are opened and T2 are then closed for a short period of normal operation. An example is shown in Figure 8-16. 8. where the loss of some of the filter bandwidth can be tolerated. The amplifiers can be zeroed in the gaps. During the calibration period T1. The filter introduces group delay distortion.6. This voltage could depend on the gain setting of the amplifier. ETH Zurich http://www.ch/nwp/lemon/pub/RX_BBdesign. A DC voltage can be fed into one side of the amplifier. This forces the high pass corner frequency to be as low as possible to keep the EVM acceptable.iii DC offset compensation 43 References DC offset calibration is necessary to ensure the full dynamic range of DC coupled balanced circuits can be used.ee.ethz. Various methods used include: • Digital calibration. The error voltage from the PLL can be used to adjust the gm of the oscillator and at the same time the gm of any slave transconductance cells used in filter or other stages.3. One example is when the most important filter characteristics are derived from a piece of additional hardware (the master unit) which uses a two integrator loop based oscillator where the oscillator’s frequency is given by gm/C.77 Often master slave techniques are used. and possibly be modified to cope with measured on chip temperature and voltage variations.

For instance with a 1V Fs amplitude convertor a 0. Sampling jitter contributes additional noise degrading performance. The reference voltage must be the same or less than the ADC supply voltage. These mechanisms limit the practical dynamic range of a convertor with a limited supply voltage. To relax the anti-alias filter requirements. As the sampling capacitor increases by k the noise reduces by the square root of k.4. For a sampling clock with a constant level of jitter the noise added is proportional to the clock frequency. ∫dt Σ Σ Figure 8-18: Servo loop 8. As has been discussed in section 4. a higher sampling rate is needed than is needed just to sample the wanted channel. Whilst quantisation noise and jitter are independent of the amplitude of the signal other thermal noise related mechanisms are dependent on the input signals amplitude. The offset can be regulated by measuring the output offset and subtracting it at the input using an integrator. One of these is KT/C noise and is associated with the thermal noise associated with the ADC’s sampling switch. Sampling rate. resolution. The quantisation noise level is a fundamental limit of data convertors and is defined by the number of bits of resolution the ADC has and the ADC’s full scale amplitude. or if any adjacent channel selectivity is going to be implemented digitally. Therefore clock jitter can be very significant at high sampling rates. To obtain full ADC performance suitable anti-alias filters must be implemented. Sampling rate and resolution needs to be adequate to receive at a minimum the wanted received channel with adequate SINR to allow the signal to be decoded. An ADC’s voltage reference sets the full scale amplitude of an ADC. The sample and hold circuit must be able to cope with the input signal frequency.8pF sampling ©TTP 2010 company confidential KEY COMPONENTS .7 Analogue to digital convertors A wide range of ADC architectures can be used in receivers. The integrator time constant must be programmable to keep the high pass corner frequency constant for different gain settings.3 sampling and resolution can be traded. This idea can be extended using sigma delta ADC’s discussed below.78 Figure 8-17: True AC coupling • Highpass through a servo loop. and the speed of sample and hold circuits are all crucial to receiver performance. At the same time the ADC will need greater dynamic range to cope with out of band blockers. Therefore for a high resolution a large sampling capacitor is required.

8.7.7.1 Nyquist ADC architectures The pipelined analogue-to-digital converter consisting of a series of cascaded flash ADCs is one of the most popular ADC architectures for fairly high sample rates. 30 March 2004.79 capacitor degrades a 12bit DC by ½ a bit whilst a large 55 pF capacitor would be needed to maintain 13. u A D y Δq(n) is the quantisation error (or noise) from the sampling process Δq(n) - D A q b. integrator 1/(Z-1) A u D y The integrator acts as a low pass ‘loop’ filter to the input signal and a high pass filter to the noise - D A c. Successive approximation register (SAR) and integrating architectures tend to be used for applications with lower sampling rates. 8.2 Sigma-Delta (Σ – Δ) ADC 44 Σ – Δ ADCs use noise shaping techniques whereby the baseband quantization noise from an oversampled ADC is fed back into the input of the ADC as shown in Figure 8-19. with a resolution of 16 bits has a SFDR of 88dBc at 70MHz and can sample at up 125MSPS.jhtml?articleID=18402743 [30 July 2009] ©TTP 2010 company confidential KEY COMPONENTS .commsdesign. “Tutorial on Designing Delta-Sigma Modulators” http://www. and at higher frequencies. As the frequencies with the most noise fall outside the frequency band of interest. than would be created with oversampling. a higher spectral density of noise. greater useful ADC dynamic range is obtained. a lower spectral density of quantisation noise. integrator u 1/(Z-1) q A D y Redrawn D A Figure 8-19: First order noise shaping 44 Mingliang Liu. For the highest sampling rates (a few hundred Msps or higher) flash ADCs are used. For the AD9268.com/design_corner/showArticle. This creates at lower frequencies. It is suitable for sample rates of a few Mega samples per second (Msps) up to 100Msps plus. q a. Typical resolutions range from eight bits at the faster sample rates up to 16 bits at the lower rates.5 bit accuracy with a 14bit ADC.

and intermodulation requirements imposed by multiple RF standards as might be found for example in a combined UMTS and GSM transceiver.8 Decimation Decimation allows the sampling rate of a signal to be reduced without loss of information. This allows a lower order of loop to be used. prior to down sampling at a sample frequency of fds/2.80 This technique allows the signal resolution gain achieved to be reduced from the 4x’s oversampling required per single bit gain discussed in section 4. The additional resolution allows the ADC to deal with large blockers. the same delta-sigma modulator architecture can adapt to the different signal bandwidth.5 extra bits of resolution for doubling of the oversampling frequency.3. they give a higher dynamic range for a given oversampling ratio and order of loop filter. filtering and down-sampling. whilst in GSM mode the filter acts as an anti alias filter with the signal sampled with much greater resolution. This allows a highly repeatable filter response to be recreated and can form the receiver’s channel filter.5bits of resolution for every doubling of resolution. To get good linearity performance and no generation of spurious frequencies very good matching of the analogue and digital stages are required. Whilst receiving UMTS the analogue filters may provide significant channel filtering allowing the signal to be sampled at fairly low resolutions. A band reject rather than high pass noise response can be created. this filter can be implemented digitally. Multi-bit Σ – Δ ADCs. zero’s in the loop filter response can be used to minimise noise at other frequencies. To obey the Nyquist criteria the digital signal must be filtered to remove energy above f ds/2. The process is shown in Figure 8-21. Whilst Figure 8-20 shows the quantisation noise being minimised near DC. Whilst serving the same function as an ADC’s anti-alias filter. A first order sigma delta convertor can achieve 1. By choosing different oversampling ratios. Decimation consists of two parts. This is especially useful in low IF receivers. Multiple sections can be cascaded. For instance a Σ – Δ ADC might allow fixed frequency analogue filters to be used. This is because the single bit latched comparator effective gain varies depending on the size of the input signal causing loop instability. Ideal low pass brick wall filter 2nd order noise shaping 1st order noise shaping In band noise from oversampled ADC Fs/2 In band noise from 2nd order Sigma-Delta ADC In band noise from 1st order Sigma-Delta ADC frequency Figure 8-20: Sigma delta quantisation noise Higher order single bit loops can become unstable with rapidly varying input signals. signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR).4. need more complex ADC and DAC components.5bits of resolution for every doubling of resolution whilst a third order convertor provides 3. dynamic range. However. A second order convertor provides 2. Alternatively loop stability can be achieved by cascading multiple signal loops such as in the MASH Σ – Δ convertor. ©TTP 2010 company confidential KEY COMPONENTS . 8.

e. ©TTP 2010 company confidential . decimation allows the resolution and bandwidth of the signal to be traded.g. This approach is widely used in multi-standard receivers. UMTS and GSM. It could be used in a TV tuner to allow various channel bandwidths to be handled allowing the development of world standard tuners. Implementing variable bandwidth digital filters is much simpler than trying to implement variable bandwidth analogue filters.81 Analogue filter fs/2 sample with b bits at fs with n resolution Digital filter down sample at fs/m to achieve b x m resolution Figure 8-21: Decimation By adjusting the filter bandwidth and down sampling rate.

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