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TYPHOON SENDONG Severe Tropical Storm Washi (international designation: 1121, JTWC designation: 27W, PAGASA name: Sendong) was a late-season-tropical cyclone that caused catastrophic damage in the Philippines in late 2011. Washi, which means Aquila in Japanese, made landfall over Mindanao, a major island in the Philippines, on December 16. Washi weakened slightly after passing Mindanao, but regained strength in the Sulu Sea, and made landfall again over Palawan on December 17. In the Philippines, catastrophic flash flooding triggered by Washi resulted in at least 1,268 fatalities.In post-analysis, the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) upgraded Washi from a tropical storm to a severe tropical storm. The Typhoon On December 12, the Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) noted that a developing area of low pressure had persisted about 945 km (585 mi) southsoutheast of Guam. Situated along the southern edge of a subtropical ridge, the system tracked steadily westward towards the Philippines. Located within a region of good diffluence and moderate wind shear, deep convection was able to maintain itself over the circulation. Development of banding features and improvement of outflow indicated strengthening was likely. Further development over the following day prompted the JTWC to issue a Tropical Cyclone Formation Alert early on December 13. Less than six hours later, both the JTWC and the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) classified the system as a tropical depression, with the former assigning the identifier 27W. Maintaining a westward track, the depression was forecast to intensify slowly over the following three days. For much of December 13, a slight increase in shear displaced thunderstorm activity from the center of the depression, delaying intensification. By December 14, convection redeveloped over the low and the JTWC subsequently assessed the the system to have attained tropical storm status. Early on December 15, the system crossed west of 135E and entered the Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration's (PAGASA) area of responsibility. Upon doing so, PAGASA began issuing advisories and assigned the cyclone with the local name Sendong. At 4:00PM, Sendong intensified into a tropical storm as it moved closer to Northeastern Mindanao. It maintained its strength as it increased its threat to Northeastern Mindanao and Eastern Visayas area. Shortly thereafter, the storm passed close to or over Palau. By 0600 UTC, the JMA upgraded the system to tropical storm status, at which time they assigned it with the name Washi. Maintaining a rapid westward track, Washi slowly became more organized, with low-level inflow improving during the latter part of December 15. On December 16, Washi reached its peak strength as a severe tropical storm and made its first landfall along the east coast of Mindanao. Washi slowed down slightly as it continued to

threaten Northeastern Mindanao and Eastern Visayas area and made landfall at the vicinity of Hinatuan, Surigao del Sur and maintained its strength and while in the vicinity of Malaybalay, Bukidnon. On 17 of December, Washi maintained its course as it moved towards Sulu Sea. It intensified slightly while traversing Sulu Sea towards Palawan. Washi slightly weakened as it continued to move towards Palawan and slowed down slightly as it moved closer to Palawan. On December 18, Washi made another landfall in the vicinity of Puerto Princesa City. It headed towards the West Philippine Sea and continued to move westward and exited at 8:00PM and moved out of the country. Washi weakened to a tropical depression and dissipated on December 19, because of cool, dry air, in association with the Northeast Monsoon. The strength of Washi/ Sendong ranged from 55-65kph with gustiness of up to 80kph and its movement from 24-30kph. Impact Typhoon Sendong (international code name: Washi) washed away entire villages as it lashed the southern part of the Philippines in the early hours of Saturday, 17 December 2011. In its aftermath, the typhoon left a trail of flattened homes, broken bridges and upended vehicles in the northern Mindanao region. The cities of Cagayan de Oro and Iligan on the island of Mindanao were worst hit when the typhoon hit the shore sending torrents of water and mud through villages and stripping mountainsides bare. Massive flooding that rose as high as 3 meters affected many barangays (smallest administrative divisions) in the provinces of Capiz and Negros Oriental in the Visayas and the provinces of Zamboanga del Norte, Lanao del Norte and Misamis Oriental in Mindanao. The serious flooding forced thousands of families to flee to safer grounds in public elementary schools that served as evacuation centres. As of 20 December 9,742 families or 42,733 persons are staying in 62 evacuation centres. According to the National Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Council (NDRRMC), typhoon Washi affected a total number of 63,079 families or 338,415 persons in 259 barangays, in 30 municipalities and 8 cities in the 13 provinces of Region VI, Region VII, Region IX, Region X, Region XI, CARAGA and the ARMM. According to the NDRRMC, 3,127 houses have been destroyed and 7,218 houses have been damaged as of December 20. There has been extensive damage to standing crops, fisheries and livestock. Communities continue to experience large scale power outage, which is not expected to be restored until

24 December. Contaminated water is a major problem especially in the urban areas of Cagayan de Oro and Iligan City. The affected area rarely experiences heavy storms to the extent of other regions in the country, and therefore was caught unprepared by the deadly flash flooding and landslides. Flooding Occasional flooding had occur in some provinces that were affected by typhoon Sendong. In Region VI, flooding occured in the town of Sigma Capiz affecting 16 barangays (Brgys. Amaga, Cogon, Poblacion Norte, Poblacion Sur, Guintas, Pagbunitan, Bangon-bangon, Mangoso, Capuyhan, Tawog, and Matangcong and Panitan, Cabanghan, and Cabugao) In Region VII, Sibulan, Valencia, and Dumaguete City, Negros Oriental were affected by flood. In Region IX, Polanco, Zamboanga del Norte were evacuated to higher grounds for safety. Barangays Turno (Sitio Wakwak) and Dicayas in Dipolog City on 15 December 2011 at around 10:00 AM were also flooded. Sixty (60) families/300 persons from Sitio Wakwak, Brgy Turno evacuated to Turno Elementary School. Six (6) houses and one (1) Day Care Center were totally destroyed by raging waters. Five (5) other sitios were also affected but no report of displacement. Residents in Brgy. Dicayas, opted to stay with their respective houses in spite of the reported rise of flood level. In Region X, massive flooding occurred in the following areas due to the overflowing of Mandulog and Agus Rivers: - Lanao del Norte - Iligan City (24 brgys) - Bukidnon (Valencia City) - Misamis Oriental - El Salvador City (Brgy. Mougan) - Cagayan de OroCity (29 Brgys) - Misamis Occidental (Ozamis City (6 Brgys) - Clarin (1Brgy) In Region XI, areas affected by flooding were: - Compostela Valley Province (Municipalities of Compostela (2 Brgys) - Monkayo (3 Brgys)

- Nabunturan (2 Brgys) - New Bataan(1 Brgy) - Montevista (1 Brgy) A total of 106 families from Compostela evacuated to the Municipal Gymnasium and Central Elementary Schools and 18 families from Montevista at the Municipal Gymnasium. Davao del Norte (17 December 2011) with 514 families affected in Brgy. Napungas, Asuncion. Landslides In Region XI, Moncayo, landslides occur inCompostela Valley (Purok 4, Purok 22 and Mt. Diwata, Diwalwa) due to heavy rainfall caused by Sendong. Other areas were there is landslides were Lanao del Sur in Kapai, (Brgys: Togonuan; Parao; Malimono; and Dimagalig) and Bubong (36 Barangays) due to the overflowing of the Tagoloan River and Siguan River

Sea Mishaps Because of the strong winds and heavy rainfall brought about by the typhoon Sendong, there were few accidents that occur at sea. In Region VII, one Cargo Ship Ever Transport Cargo anchored at Brgy. Calindagan, Dumaguete City sank due to strong winds and big waves. Said cargo ship is owned by Kherl Lines loaded with Asia Brewery products Another sea vehicle had an accident at the same region. LCT Tampi Twin submerged halfway while moored at the Maayo Private Wharf in Sibulan, Negros Oriental due to big waves. The sea water entered through the open portion of its stern and thereby flooded the engine room. A pump boat named Bantay Dagat owned by LGU Lazi, Siquijor sank while docked at the Lazi Port after it got battered by strong winds and big waves.


A massive relief operation involving the evacuation of 100,000 people occurred on the morning of December 17, 2011. Approximately 20,000 soldiers were mobilized to assist in recovery efforts and evacuations. The Philippine Coast Guard was dispatched to search for missing people after villages were reported to have been swept out to sea. Sixty people were rescued off the coast of El Salvador, Misamis Oriental and another 120 in the waters near Opol township. President Benigno Aquino III visited Cagayan de Oro and Iligan on December 20, 2011, and declared a state of national calamity in the affected provinces. The total cost of damages to agriculture and infrastructure is estimated at P999.9 million according to the National Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Council. The President also appealed to its citizens to help the victims in their way of celebrating Christmas in his Christmas Message. Casualties As of 5 January 2012, the total number of population affected in 815 barangays/ 57 municipalities/ 8 cities in the 13 provinces of Regions VI, VII, IX, X, XI, CARAGA, and ARMM is 120,233 families/ 1,141,252 persons. 1,257* were reported dead, 6,063 injured, 181 missing, and 441 rescued/survivors.

Damages A total of 51,757 houses were damaged. 14,705 were totally damaged and 37,052 were partially damaged. An estimated cost of damages to infrastructure, agriculture, and school buildings amounted to PhP 1,455,725,723.40. Damages to infrastructure costs PhP 1,142,893,824.40. Damages to agriculture costs PhP 312,831,899.00.


Humanitarian Needs and Response Humanitarian assistance have been given to the Sendong victims. The United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA) have divided all the humanitarian assistance into clusters. Camp Coordination and Management and Non-Food Items Camp Coordination and Camp Management (CCCM) and Non-Food Items (NFI) Cluster, co-led by the Department of Social Welfare and Development (DSWD) and IOM, provides emergency shelter repair kits and other NFIs to displaced families. It also supports the 34 existing evacuation centers in both CDO and Iligan. Cluster members lobbied to hasten the movement of 140 IDP families from evacuation centers to transitional sites in CDO while the Quick Response Team has been activated in Iligan. The establishment of tent cities in two sites has helped relocate IDPs and decongest schools, normalizing the learningteaching atmosphere. Food- and cash-for-work for upgrading evacuation centers has permitted maintenance activities in camps, e.g. digging of drainage ditches.

Shelter The Shelter Cluster, co-led by DSWD and the International Federation of the Red Cross (IFRC), serves 39,400 families whose houses were destroyed or damaged. The 13,850 homes with minor and major structural damage belonging to those living at or below the poverty line and 11,427 homes that have been completely destroyed have been prioritized. Possibilities for land for temporary settlements are still being explored. Additional funding and implementing partners are needed to meet the goals. Over 2,000 family tents have been set up in transitory sites in both CDO and Iligan (compared to 1,600 in the previous report), and 800 more are still in the pipeline. Although 170 temporary shelters and bunkhouses have been built, close to 680 are still needed. Over 1,500 shelter kits have been distributed to support the repair of partially damaged houses. Meanwhile, barangay focal points for community-based shelter support are being established to ensure effective coordination.

Water, Sanitation and Hygiene The Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) Cluster, co-led by the Department of Health (DOH) and the United Nations Childrens Fund (UNICEF), focuses on improving water, sanitation, and hygiene access for 170,000 affected people. A total of 471 new toilets (168 added this week) have been constructed, with an additional 296 planned for the next two weeks. Portalets are being phased out from sites with adequate ratio of number of units per number of people. In Iligan, the WASH Cluster is working with Iligan City Water Service to partially restore the citys water system and to minimize trucking requirements. Funding for the water system repair has been confirmed, with completion projected for 31 March. One hundred and sixteen Health Workers & Community Health Volunteers from the affected barangays have been trained in hygiene promotion. An intensive Hygiene Promotion Campaign has commenced across Iligan and CDO, supported by 143 trained student nurses.

Food Security The Food Security Cluster, co-led by DSWD and the World Food Programme (WFP), provides immediate food assistance to more than 250,000 people in CDO, Iligan and rural and suburban areas. In addition to supporting debris clearing and shelter construction through food-for-work schemes, the Cluster also runs an emergency school-feeding program (ESFP) that targets 50,000 children and promotes their return to school. In partnership with the Nutrition Cluster, the Cluster is addressing malnutrition concerns. The cluster has reached all 250,000-targeted beneficiaries through general food distributions, food-for-work activities, and ESFP, which successfully reached 43,000 school children and plans to cover the remaining children in the coming weeks.

Protection, Including Child Protection and Gender-Based Violence

The DSWD and United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) co-led Protection cluster supports 145,100 individuals and community-

based activities, including relocation, and mobile birth and marriage registration facilities. The UNICEF co-led Child Protection Sub-Cluster provides child protection services to 200,000 beneficiaries. The aims are to enhance the capacity of DSWD, LGUs, and other clusters; protect children from abuse, exploitation, and trafficking; reunite separated, unaccompanied children; and ensure that safe-play recreation areas are provided. The United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) co-led Gender-Based Violence (GBV) Sub-Cluster aims to support 75,000 beneficiaries, mostly displaced women and girls. Its aims are to reduce GBV risk during displacement and in prospective return areas; support capacity-building for government agencies; prevent GBV around evacuation centers; provide medical and psychosocial services to displaced survivors; and incorporate GBV prevention into other humanitarian activities. The first weekly bulletin was distributed to inform IDPs on housing, land, and property concerns. Camp managers were trained on protection, durable solutions, and on how to give IDPs adequate and accurate information. Separated and unaccompanied children have been assisted. UNICEF, DSWD, and LGU social workers continue to identify, register, and document children in both CDO and Iligan. UNICEF, DSWD, and Council for the Welfare of Children trained 44 sub-cluster members on child protection in emergencies. The GBV Sub-Cluster is training 36 new camp managers before their deployment to CDO and Iligan. In Iligan, Gender focal groups composed of women and men were organized under the camp protection/grievance committee. DSWDs Social Technology Bureau established a women-friendly space in every evacuation center/relocation site.

Logistics The Logistics Cluster aims to deliver life-saving assistance to 430,000 people staying in evacuation centers or with relatives, and those in makeshift shelters. The Cluster also assists in the delivery of relief goods to those in remote, suburban areas that remain cut off.

The Cluster continues to transport goods from Manila to CDO, from CDO to Iligan, and within CDO, as well as provide temporary storage for food and NFIs in both CDO and Iligan.

Education The Education Cluster, co-led by the Department of Education (DepED), UNICEF, and Save the Children, plans to assist 105,000 affected school-age children by providing them with quality early childhood care and development, basic education, adequate learning spaces, and learning kits. Stronger advocacy for child rights and protective mechanisms in learning institutions will also be pursued alongside the enhancement of teachers capacity to provide psychosocial support and disaster risk reduction training. Cluster members continue to distribute back-to-school and hygiene kits and set up school tents. DepEd is starting an initiative for out-of-school children and youth in evacuation centers and relocation sites.

Health, Including Reproductive Health The Health Cluster, co-led by DOH and the World Health Organization, aims to assist 300,000 people, including 10,000 Pregnant and Lactating Women (PLW), 20,000 youths, and 5,000 family planning users, by providing life-saving care to the injured and psycho-social support to the affected, monitoring and prevention work, and work to contain disease outbreaks and address the reproductive health needs of the displaced. The cluster members provided health information sessions to nearly 4,772 PLW. Mental Health and Psycho-Social Support cluster partners have served almost 20,000 individuals in both Iligan and CDO. Local capacity enhancement for providing psycho-social support is being advocated and the referral system is being strengthened to facilitate efficient utilization of free psycho-social services for individuals requiring advanced mental health support from specialists.


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The Nutrition cluster, co-led by DOH and UNICEF, targets 42,000 children under five years of age (U5) and 22,750 PLW in and outside of evacuation centers. All evacuation centers have been screened for acute malnutrition, reaching 8,500 children aged 6-59 months in CDO and Iligan. A total of 68 cases of severe acute malnutrition and 234 cases of moderate acute malnutrition were reported. Timely interventions have resulted in a cure rate of more than 90 per cent, with no reported deaths among those enrolled in therapeutic feeding programmes. Blanket supplementary feeding has been provided to more than 18,938 children and the distribution of micro nutrient powder has reached 8,402 children. Specialized mother-baby friendly areas are providing infant and young child feeding (IYCF) counseling and psycho-social support. The 120 IYCF mobilized counselors continue to assess and support 2,578 identified PLWs. Early Recovery The Early Recovery Cluster, co-led by OCD, National Economic and Development Authority, and the United Nations Development Programme, continues to focus on clearing the 86 affected municipalities through cash- and food-for-work programmes designed to provide 43,000 people (including 86,000 families and 1,720 female-headed households) with opportunities to rebuild their livelihoods and ensure access to food. OCD Region X will conduct Damage and Loss Assessment and a Post Disaster Needs Assessment. At the preparatory meeting held on 9 February, the assessment team was identified. Selected experts will be trained during the fourth week of February. In Iligan City, the Committee on Recovery and Rehabilitation of the Iligan City Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Council will conduct a Mapping and Gap Analysis for Early Recovery, and will develop a Strategic Plan. Livelihoods The Livelihoods Cluster, co-led by DSWD and International Labour Organization, focuses on those displaced in evacuation centers and relocation sites. The Cluster supports cash-for-work programmes and assists in finding alternative forms of livelihood. Cash-for-work initiatives are ongoing. DSWD continues to assist 6,737 targeted families in the evacuation centers and the Department of Labor and

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Employment assists 1,000 displaced workers at daily rate of Php 215 ($5) for a maximum of 10 days. A skills inventory of relocatees in four camps in CDO has been collected and an integrated database provides relevant information for livelihood-related activities. Various livelihood projects targeting 19 priority barangays in Iligan have been supporting off-farm livelihood and infrastructure/construction related activities.

Evacuation Center