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Occupational Safety and Health Management

Philosophy of Safety and Health
• Life is full of hazards. • Terms
– Safety – Hazard – Health – Accidents


2 .Safety • Safety can be defined as a situation that is protected or prevented from hazards. catastrophy or disturbances that may be caused by unpredictable physical or environmental sources.

properties as well as income or profit. 3 .Workplace Safety • Free from hazards or risks of injury • A place that enables us to control loss caused by accidents • A place that enables us to protect loss of human.

serious injuries. which has the potential for accidents. • Hazard in industries: – Chemical – Ergonomics – Physical – Biological 4 .Hazard • Workplace condition which exists or can be caused in combination with other variables. diseases and/or property damages.

illness or natural catastrophies.Health • As an un existence of risks that can cause harm and injury to human such as accidents. 5 .

Accident • An unplanned event that will produce unacceptable / unwanted results or outcomes. 6 .

Showed Hammurabi to be a just ruler. •Modern developments in health & safety are part of the long continuum of developments. and set a precedent followed by other Mesopotamian kings. their ruler developed his Code of Hammurabi. •Circa 2000 BC. 7 . which encompassed all the laws of the land at that time. Beginning in the days of the ancient Babylonians.DEVELOPMENTS BEFORE THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION •Understanding the past can help safety & health professionals examine the present and future with a sense of perspective and continuity.

DEVELOPMENTS BEFORE THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION •Significance of the code from the perspective of safety & health are clauses dealing with injuries. Allowable fees for physicians & monetary damages assessed against those who injured others. 8 . •Later emerged in the industrious Egyptian civilization. Much labor was provided by slaves & slaves were not treated well—unless it suited the needs of Egyptian taskmasters.

Rameses II created an industrial medical service to care for the workers. and well-ventilated houses. sewerage systems.DEVELOPMENTS BEFORE THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION • To ensure maintenance of a workforce to build a huge temple bearing his name. They were required to bathe daily in the Nile and given regular medical examinations. 9 . Aqueducts. public baths. as seen from their construction projects. latrines. & sick workers isolated. • The Romans were vitally concerned with safety & health.

Philippus Aureolus produced a treatise on the pulmonary diseases of miners. •Drew conclusive parallels between diseases suffered by workers and their occupations. 10 . emphasizing need for ventilation in mines.DEVELOPMENTS BEFORE THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION •In 1567. showing devices to bring fresh air into mines. •Diseases associated with handling/exposure to mercury. who wrote Discourse on the Diseases of Workers. •Covered diseases of smelter workers & metallurgists. Georgius Agricola published De Re Metallica. •The eighteenth century saw Bernardino Ramazzini. •Around the same time.

.DEVELOPMENTS BEFORE THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION •The Industrial Revolution changed forever the methods of producing goods. •Substitution of machines for people. resulting in a division of labor. summarized as: •Introduction of inanimate power (i. •Introduction of new methods for converting raw materials. steam power) to replace people and animal power. •Organization/specialization of work.e. 11 .

as did machines. by increasing the likelihood of boredom and inattentiveness.DEVELOPMENTS BEFORE THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION •These changes necessitated a greater focusing of attention on the safety and health of workers. also made the workplace a more dangerous environment. •The new methods used for converting raw materials also introduced new risks of injuries and diseases. 12 . •Specialization. •Steam power increased markedly the potential for life-threatening injuries.

work hard. and conditions often unhealthy & unsafe. child labor in factories was common.MILESTONES IN THE SAFETY MOVEMENT The safety movement traces its roots to England. In 1802 the Health & Morals of Apprentices Act passed. After an outbreak of fever among children working in their cotton mills. oMarked the beginning of governmental involvement in workplace safety. Hours were long. England. 13 . demanded better factory working conditions. In the Industrial Revolution. people of Manchester.

haphazard law. 14 . did not cover all workers and some provision addressing fencing of dangerous machinery Roben’s Report – enforcement approach make people think that safety and health were matter of detailed regulation. 1844. Piecemeal regulatory. paid insufficient regard to organizational and human factors.EVOLUTION OF OSH LEGISLATION Malaysian legislation based on 19th century British Legislation Industrial Revolution in the UK resulted in many accidents.

EVOLUTION OF OSH LEGISLATION Recommendations by Roben: More self regulation by employers and employees Single comprehensive Act based on common law Support by regulations and voluntary codes (standard code of practice) Self regulation – creating a better framework for better safety and health for industry itself 15 .

"there is no evidence of a major public health impact attributable to radiation exposure 20 years after the accident. Two Chernobyl plant workers died on the night of the accident.TRAGEDIES THAT HAVE CHANGED THE SAFETY MOVEMENT The Chernobyl accident in 26 April 1986 was the result of a flawed reactor design that was operated with inadequately trained personnel. and a further 28 people died within a few weeks as a result of acute radiation poisoning. 15a ." Resettlement of areas from which people were relocated is ongoing. UNSCEAR says that apart from increased thyroid cancers. The resulting steam explosion and fires released at least 5% of the radioactive reactor core into the atmosphere and downwind.

3. Killing more than 3. over 40 tons of methyl isocyanate (MIC) & other gases. India. The International Medical Commission found that as many as 50.TRAGEDIES THAT HAVE CHANGED THE SAFETY MOVEMENT Bhopal Tragedy . It was discovered the protective equipment that could have halted impending disaster was not in full working order.000 people were exposed. This disaster shocked the world. 15b . 1984.On Dec. and may still suffer disability as a result.000 people in its aftermath. including hydrogen cyanide. leaked into north Bhopal.

– Funds were paid to the Indian government to be used to compensate the victims. Avoidance .putting its plant in Bhopal to avoid stricter US safety & health standards. owner of the plant. on the assumption few would care if anything went wrong. 15c .. to pay $470 million in compensatory damages. including: Criminal negligence. • In February 1989.choosing poverty-stricken Bhopal. was accused of many things. Corporate prejudice . India’s Supreme Court ordered Union Carbide India Ltd.TRAGEDIES THAT HAVE CHANGED THE SAFETY MOVEMENT Union Carbide Corporation.

Pahang and Negri Sembilan Machinery Ordinance 1913 Machinery Enactment 1932 (Machinery Branch. Department of Mines) Machinery Ordinance 1953 (Machinery Department. Ministry of Labour) Occupational Safety and Health Act 1994 (Department of Occupational Safety and Health. Ministry of Labour) Factories and Machinery Act 1967 (Factories and Machinery Department.OSH LEGISLATION IN MALAYSIA Selangor Boiler Enactment 1892 followed by Perak. Ministry of Human Resouces) 16 .

Labor Department) 17 . general duty of care provisions and improvement / prohibition notices. UK. Sweden and OSHA 1994 Safety and Health Committee. UK – Her Majesty Factory Inspectorate and then Health and Safety Executive USA – detailed OSH standards and regulations. reliance on inspectors (NIOSH.INTERNATIONAL PERSPECTIVE Roben style legislation – Australia.

MANAGEMENT OF OSH IN MALAYSIA Huge losses due to accidents Proactive approach OSH is a management function SHO – ensure compliance with regulations and promote safe work practices 18 .

DUTIES OF SAFETY AND HEALTH OFFICER Provide advice on safety measures and assist in safety program Inspect and audit the workplace Invesigate all accidents and incidents Assist supervisors in investigating accidents Keep statistics on accidents Secretary to safety and health committee 19 .