1.

Decubitus ulcers are skin lesions caused by: Your Answer: Incorrect Correct Answer is: External pressure, shearing, or friction forces Decubitus ulcers or pressure sores are skin lesions caused by an external pressure, shearing, or friction force sufficient enough to locally impair circulation and lymphatic flow in susceptible individuals. Lesions may result in ulceration. Herpes simplex= Direct skin contact during the vesicular stage. Chicken pox or Varicella= herpes virus varicella. Cellulitis= Staphylococcal or streptococcal infections. 2. Structural postural dysfunctions: Your Answer: Incorrect Correct Answer is: Cannot be altered by working with the soft tissue and fascia Structural postural dysfunctions pertains to altered bone shape due to malformation or pathological process. A Functional postural dysfunction pertains to soft tissue such as the muscles, ligaments, tendons and fascia that may be shortened or lengthened. Massage can help with functional but not the structural. 3. The ant. scalene, costoclavicular, pectoralis minor, and cervical rib (C7) can compress the brachial plexus and subclavian artery causing? Your Answer: Incorrect Correct Answer is: Thoracic outlet syndrome Compression of the brachial plexus and subclavian artery will cause the medial half of the fourth and fifth digits to experience numbness and tingling, otherwise known as thoracic outlet syndrome (TOS). 4. Hypomobility is a loss of motion at the joint this includes the loss of normal joint play, it is termed a(n): Your Answer: Incorrect Correct Answer is: Joint dysfunction Joint dysfunctions: hyper/hypomobility, TMJD, degenerative disc disease or disorder, and osteoarthritis. Hypomobility can occur at one or several joints. It is often caused by soft tissue contractures. 5. An increase in the normal lumbar curve with increased anterior pelvic tilt and hip flexion is: Your Answer: Incorrect Correct Answer is: Hyperlordosis Hyperlordosis (swayback)= Shortens the ESGs and QLs, Iliopsoas, rectus femoris, TFL, and ADductors. Stretching the abdominals, gluteus maximus, and hamstrings making them weak. 6. Which treatment would be most effective for a client that presents with a sub-acute ankle sprain? Your Answer: Incorrect

Correct Answer is: Friction Sub-acute, friction helps with the healing process by bringing blood to the area and it also helps with the alignment of the new tissue. 7. What behavior might you expect with a client who reports being abused as a child? Your Answer: Incorrect Correct Answer is: Both A and C Be aware of the reactions to your touch and adjust the massage accordingly. Reactions to healthy touch vary with every individual. 8. A burn is a type of wound that is specific and is caused by an external thermal agent, which type of burn affects the epidermis? Your Answer: Incorrect Correct Answer is: First degree Burns= (thermal agents) superficial burn, 1st degree on epidermis; partial-thickness burn, 2nd degree extends to dermis; full-thickness burn, 3rd degree epidermis, dermis, and subcutaneous tissue, and 4th degree is all tissue plus fascia, muscles, and bones. 9. What level of severity is a contusion if there is bleeding/ swelling with some pain and muscle weakness? Your Answer: Incorrect Correct Answer is: Moderate contusion The classifications for the three levels of severity for contusions; Mild= minor crush, minimal bleeding, and mild discomfort; Moderate= moderate crush with bleeding/ swelling and difficult to use because of pain and muscle weakness; Severe= severe crush with rapid bleeding/ swelling and cannot use because of significant pain and muscle weakness. 10. Lateral epicondylitis and extensor tendinosis are also known as? Your Answer: Incorrect Correct Answer is: Tennis elbow Tennis elbow is the lateral extensor, golfer's elbow; medial flexor tendinosis. Tenosynovitis (inner surface) and tenovaginitis (outer surface) are other names given to paratendinitis: inflammation of the paratendon or tendon sheath. 11. Which of the following is an intrinsic musculoskeletal trauma or disorder that can cause frozen shoulder? Your Answer: Incorrect Correct Answer is: Osteoarthritis Osteoarthritis is the only pathology that is an intrinsic musculoskeletal condition for a cause of frozen shoulder. Others intrinsic traumas or disorders include; dislocations, subacromial bursitis, impingement syndrome, gout, inflammatory

synovitis and rotator cuff tendinitis. Extrinsic disorders that may cause frozen shoulder are; Hemiplegia, myocardial infraction, chronic bronchitis/emphysema (pulmonary disorders), fractures of the humerus, mastectomy, lymph node biopsy, coronary bypass surgery. 12. Inflammatory arthritides is a systemic concern and is defined as a(n): Your Answer: Incorrect Correct Answer is: Group of inflammatory diseases affecting connective tissue including joints Inflammatory arthritides are a group of inflammatory diseases affecting connective tissue including joints. Osteoarthritis (OA) is a group of chronic, degenerative conditions that affect the articular cartilage and subchondral bone of joints. The other two answers are gastrointestinal concerns; Irritable bowel syndrome is a motility disorder strongly associated with anxiety, stress, or depression. Inflammatory bowel disease is an identifier for two conditions: ulcerative colitis and crohn's disease. 13. What can you expect during a massage if your client reports having cystitis? Your Answer: Incorrect Correct Answer is: Need to urinate Cystitis is an infection of the bladder, but the term is often used indiscriminately and covers a range of infections and irritations in the lower urinary system. It causes burning sensations during urination and a frequent need to urinate. Cyst= bladder. 14. Pressure against the interior abdominal wall may separate the rectus abdominus at the linea alba, this is called: Your Answer: Incorrect Correct Answer is: Diastasis recti Linea alba can separate because of stress/stretch during pregnancy. Di= twice, twofold, or double. Stasis= stopping, controlling, or stand. 15. Sinusitis is a respiratory pathology that is defined as a(n): Your Answer: Incorrect Correct Answer is: Acute or chronic inflammation of the paranasal sinuses Sinusitis is a respiratory pathology that is an acute or chronic inflammation of the paranasal sinuses. Chronic bronchitis is a respiratory pathology resulting in the production of purulent sputum for at least three months in a row over a consecutive two years. Emphysema is an enlargement of the air spaces distal to the terminal bronchioles and the destruction of the alveolar walls. Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disorder with bronchospasms (narrowing of the airways in the lungs), a condition that is reversible over time or following treatment. 16. In hydrotherapy a general contraindication is: Your Answer: Incorrect Correct Answer is: Nerve damage If you have a client with impaired nerve sensations, never use hydrotherapy. They might not be able to tell if they are

too hot or too cold. 17. All of the following are types of trigger points except; Your Answer: Incorrect Correct Answer is: Lesser Active, latent, primary, secondary, and satellite are all types of trigger points. 18. Which of the following is an extrinsic disorder that can cause frozen shoulder? Your Answer: Incorrect Correct Answer is: Chronic bronchitis Extrinsic disorders that may cause frozen shoulder are; Hemiplegia, myocardial infraction, chronic bronchitis/emphysema (pulmonary disorders), fractures of the humerus, mastectomy, lymph node biopsy, coronary bypass surgery. Intrinsic traumas or disorders include; osteoarthritis, dislocations, subacromial bursitis, impingement syndrome, gout, inflammatory synovitis and rotator cuff tendinitis. 19. Dupuytren's Contracture is defined as a(n): Your Answer: Incorrect Correct Answer is: Palmar fascia flexion deformity of the fingers Dupuytren's contracture is a contracture of the palmar fascia causing a flexion deformity of the fingers. 20. What is inflammation of the joints most commonly termed? Your Answer: Incorrect Correct Answer is: Arthritis Arthritis is inflammation of the joints. 21. Poliomyelitis is a central nervous system condition and is defined as a(n): Your Answer: Incorrect Correct Answer is: Acute viral infection specifically affecting the motor neurons in the spinal cord and brain stem Poliomyelitis is an acute viral infection specifically affecting the motor neurons in the spinal cord and brain stem. Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a condition where demyelination of the nerves occurs. Parkinson's is a Progressively diminishing basal ganglia function resulting in slow, increasingly difficult movement, accompanied by resting tremors and muscular rigidity. Cerebral palsy (CP) is a motor function disorder resulting from damage to the immature brain. All conditions are CNS. 22. Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) is an inflammatory arthritide defined as a(n): Your Answer: Incorrect

Correct Answer is: Destructive, chronic autoimmune disease of multiple joints and connective tissue Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) is an inflammatory, destructive, chronic autoimmune disease of multiple joints and connective tissue throughout the body. Inflammatory arthritides are a group of inflammatory diseases affecting connective tissue including joints. 23. What is the acronym for the universal treatment of sprains and strains? Your Answer: Incorrect Correct Answer is: RICE RICE= Rest, Ice, Compress, and Elevate. 24. Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is a peripheral nervous system condition and is defined as a(n): Your Answer: Incorrect Correct Answer is: Condition that results from a compression of the median nerve Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is a condition that results from a compression of the median nerve as it passes through the carpal tunnel in the wrist, resulting in numbness and tingling in the lateral three and one-half digits. Thoracic outlet syndrome (TOS) is a condition that involves compression of the brachial plexus and its accompanying artery between the anterior and middle scalene= anterior scalene syndrome, coracoid process and pectoralis minor= pectoralis minor syndrome and clavicle and first rib= costoclavicular syndrome. 25. Trigger points in the subscapularis can refer or be felt in the: Your Answer: Incorrect Correct Answer is: Posterior deltoid A trigger point in the subscapularis muscle will refer to the scapula, posterior shoulder, down the posterior arm to the elbow, and around the wrist like a watch strap (Travel & Simons,. 1983), trigger points for frozen shoulder and carpal tunnel. 26. Parkinsons is a progressive disorder that involves the diminishing basal ganglia function, and is termed a: Your Answer: Incorrect Correct Answer is: Condition of the CNS Conditions of the Central Nervous Systems (CNS): Communication skills, ambulation aids, decubitus ulcers, seizures, hemiplegia, multiple sclerosis, Parkinsons, cerebral palsy, spinal cord injury, and poliomyelitis. Parkinsons is a disorder that results in slow, increasingly difficult movement, accompanied by resting tremors and muscular rigidity. 27. You must get a clients written permission to consult with their physician to treat the following conditions with massage: Your Answer: Incorrect Correct Answer is: All of the above These conditions may have possible adverse effects with massage, it is best to make substantial modifications to the

treatment and to acquire a physicians consult with written consent from the client. 28. The cause of numbness and tingling in the arm and lateral three and one-half digits? Your Answer: Incorrect Correct Answer is: Carpal tunnel syndrome CTS or carpal tunnel syndrome compresses the median nerve as it passes through the carpal tunnel at the wrist causing the lateral three and one-half digits to have numbness and tingling. 29. Osteoarthritis is a group of chronic, degenerative conditions that affect the articular cartilage and subchondral bone, it is termed a(n): Your Answer: Incorrect Correct Answer is: Joint dysfunction Joint dysfunctions: hyper/hypomobility, TMJD, degenerative disc disease or disorder, and osteoarthritis. Osteoarthritis can be Primary= idiopathic (not clearly understood) and localized or groups of joints; or Secondary= resulting from trauma. 30. Hypertension is an elevation in blood pressure above the normal range for prolonged periods of time and can be termed a(n): Your Answer: Incorrect Correct Answer is: Circulatory pathology or dysfunction Circulatory pathologies and dysfunctions include: hypertension, congestive heart failure, Raynaud's phenomenon, thrombophlebitis, and varicose veins.

1. A second degree burn is caused by an external thermal agent and termed a: Your Answer: Incorrect Correct Answer is: Partial-thickness burn Burns= (thermal agents) superficial burn, 1st degree on epidermis; partial-thickness burn, 2nd degree extends to dermis; full-thickness burn, 3rd degree epidermis, dermis, and subcutaneous tissue; and 4th degree is all tissue plus fascia, muscles, and bones. 2. In hydrotherapy a general contraindication is: Your Answer: Incorrect Correct Answer is: Nerve damage If you have a client with impaired nerve sensations, never use hydrotherapy. They might not be able to tell if they are too hot or too cold. 3. This painful stimulus is due to local tissue injuries?

Your Answer: Incorrect Correct Answer is: Reflex muscle guarding Reflex muscle guarding describes a muscle spasm in response to pain in acute stages of a condition. The muscle spasm acts to functionally splint the injured structures, reducing movement, and preventing further injury. 4. An increase in the normal lumbar curve with increased anterior pelvic tilt and hip flexion is: Your Answer: Incorrect Correct Answer is: Hyperlordosis Hyperlordosis (swayback)= Shortens the ESGs and QLs, Iliopsoas, rectus femoris, TFL, and ADductors. Stretching the abdominals, gluteus maximus, and hamstrings making them weak. 5. Another name for a bruise is? Your Answer: Incorrect Correct Answer is: Contusion The "best" choice of answer to this question is contusion. Although a hematoma will include bruising, it also denotes swelling as a result of blood/fluid accumulation. A bruise and a contusion are interchangeable. 6. The effects of massage are physiological and psychological in nature, what is a psychological effect? Your Answer: Incorrect Correct Answer is: Reflexive with the neurological systems Psychological effect is the increased well being that usually occurs with positive touch. Other beneficial benefits include reducing effects that are evident in clients who experience stress and depression. 7. What is it called when muscles contract inhibiting blood flow to the area after an injury? Your Answer: Incorrect Correct Answer is: Ischemia Ischemia= muscles contract inhibiting blood flow to the area after an injury. 8. Still's disease and juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA) are inflammatory arthritides defined as a(n): Your Answer: Incorrect Correct Answer is: Condition of chronic synovial inflammation in children Still's disease and juvenile rheumatoid arthritis is a condition of chronic synovial inflammation in children. Inflammatory arthritides are a group of inflammatory diseases affecting connective tissue including joints. Adult onset Still's disease (AOSD) is a less common polyarthritis identical to childhood-onset Still's disease with additional symptoms; lymphadenopathy and pericarditis. Infections and adrenal insufficiencies can be fatal in some cases.

9. Parkinsons is a progressive disorder that involves the diminishing basal ganglia function, and is termed a: Your Answer: Incorrect Correct Answer is: Condition of the CNS Conditions of the Central Nervous Systems (CNS): Communication skills, ambulation aids, decubitus ulcers, seizures, hemiplegia, multiple sclerosis, Parkinsons, cerebral palsy, spinal cord injury, and poliomyelitis. Parkinsons is a disorder that results in slow, increasingly difficult movement, accompanied by resting tremors and muscular rigidity. 10. What's the proper order of massage for a client that presents edema in bilateral ankles? Your Answer: Incorrect Correct Answer is: Sternum, clavicle, hip, leg, ankle, and foot When working to reduce edema with lymphatic massage, always clear the upper channels first to properly apply and reduce symptoms. The terminus must be stimulated first and the proximal nodes cleared before the distal. This way the fluid does not pool up and can be moved through the lymphatic system. 11. Emphysema is a respiratory pathology that is defined as a(n): Your Answer: Incorrect Correct Answer is: Enlargement of the air spaces distal to the terminal bronchioles and the destruction of the alveolar walls Emphysema is an enlargement of the air spaces distal to the terminal bronchioles and the destruction of the alveolar walls. Sinusitis is a respiratory pathology that is an acute or chronic inflammation of the paranasal sinuses. Chronic bronchitis is a respiratory pathology resulting in the production of purulent sputum for at least three months in a row over a consecutive two years. Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disorder with bronchospasms (narrowing of the airways in the lungs), a condition that is reversible over time or following treatment. 12. Massage can break the pain cycle and eliminate the original source of pain by: Your Answer: Incorrect Correct Answer is: Increasing blood flow to ischemic tissue This increase in circulation to the ischemic tissue is affected by mechanical pressure in massage techniques that stimulate the vein and lymphatic movement. 13. A first degree burn is caused by an external thermal agent and is termed a: Your Answer: Incorrect Correct Answer is: Superficial Burn Burns= (thermal agents) superficial burn, 1st degree on epidermis; partial-thickness burn, 2nd degree extends to dermis; full-thickness burn, 3rd degree epidermis, dermis, and subcutaneous tissue; and 4th degree is all tissue plus fascia, muscles, and bones. 14. Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a gastrointestinal concern that is defined as a(n):

Your Answer: Incorrect Correct Answer is: Motility disorder strongly associated with anxiety, stress, or depression Irritable bowel syndrome is a motility disorder strongly associated with anxiety, stress, or depression. Constipation is a slow, difficult, or infrequent movement of feces through the bowel. Inflammatory bowel disease is an Identifier for two conditions: ulcerative colitis and crohn's disease. 15. What level of severity is a contusion if it is a minor crush with minimal bleeding and mild discomfort? Your Answer: Incorrect Correct Answer is: Mild contusion The classifications for the three levels of severity for contusions; Mild= minor crush, minimal bleeding, and mild discomfort; Moderate= moderate crush with bleeding/ swelling and difficult to use because of pain and muscle weakness; Severe= severe crush with rapid bleeding/ swelling and cannot use because of significant pain and muscle weakness. 16. Reducing these, will address conditions in the connective tissue? Your Answer: Incorrect Correct Answer is: Adhesions or restrictions in the fascia Using friction= a stroke that compresses soft tissue into underlying structures. Can be static, linear, circular, or cross fiber and can also be done by rubbing the skin briskly. 17. The skin of a person with hyperglycemia is likely to be____________. Your Answer: Incorrect Correct Answer is: Dry Patients with hypoglycemia are likely to be sweaty, clammy, pale, and/or cold. Hyperglycemia presents with pink, dry skin that is warm. 18. A wound is a disruption of the continuity of the skin, which type of wound is clean with approximated edges? Your Answer: Incorrect Correct Answer is: Incision Types of wounds: Abrasion= superficial with ragged edges, laceration= increased tissue loss with ragged edges, incision= clean with approximated edges (scalpel or glass), puncture= clean edges with small entry (can penetrate deep), animal bite= combination of crush, laceration, and puncture wounds, and burn= (thermal agents) superficial burn 1st degree on epidermis; partial-thickness burn 2nd degree extends to dermis; full-thickness burn 3rd degree epidermis, dermis, and subcutaneous tissue; and 4th degree is all tissue plus fascia, muscles, and bones. Approximate= to draw two tissue surfaces close together as in the repair of a wound. 19. All of the following are common skin disorders resulting from allergies, bacterial, viral, or fungal infections, except: Your Answer:

Incorrect Correct Answer is: Basal cell carcinoma Skin cancers and burns are less common and are not a result of allergies, bacterial, viral, or fungal infections. The skin can develop more than 1000 different ailments caused by a homeostatic imbalance. 20. Systemic Inflammatory Arthritides conditions include all of the following except: Your Answer: Incorrect Correct Answer is: Asthma Systemic Inflammatory Arthritides:Ankylosing spondylitis, gout, infectious arthritis, lyme disease, reiter's syndrome, rheumatoid arthritis, scleroderma, still's disease/ juvenile rheumatoid arthritis, and systemic lupus erythematosus. Asthma is a respiratory pathology. 21. The skin of a person with hypoglycemia is likely to be____________. Your Answer: Incorrect Correct Answer is: Sweaty Patients with hypoglycemia are likely to be sweaty, clammy, pale, and/or cold. Hyperglycemia presents with pink, dry skin that is warm. 22. A cramp is a: Your Answer: Incorrect Correct Answer is: Prolonged muscle spasm Spasm= an involuntary, sustained contraction of a muscle. A cramp is a common or lay term for painful, prolonged muscle spasm. 23. Your client suffers from hyperglycemia, this is a result of: Your Answer: Incorrect Correct Answer is: High blood glucose levels Hypoglycemia= blood glucose levels are too low. Hyperglycemia= excessively high levels of glucose in the blood. 24. Which of the following pathologies is not a condition of the Central Nervous System? Your Answer: Incorrect Correct Answer is: Radial nerve lesions Conditions of the Central Nervous Systems (CNS): Communication skills, ambulation aids, decubitus ulcers, seizures, hemiplegia, multiple sclerosis, Parkinsons, cerebral palsy, spinal cord injury, and poliomyelitis. Radial nerve lesions is a peripheral nervous system condition. 25. A lack of insulin will produce what condition?

Your Answer: Incorrect Correct Answer is: Hyperglycemia Insulin acts on almost every cell in the body to increase the cells ability to transport glucose, it also acts as an enhancer for speeding up cell activities. Hypoglycemia= blood glucose levels are too low. Hyperglycemia= excessively high levels of glucose in the blood. High levels of glucose = depleted insulin. Insulin is a hormone protein produced by the pancreas. 26. Varicose veins is a circulatory condition that is defined as a(n): Your Answer: Incorrect Correct Answer is: Abnormally large and bulging vein caused by the impaired function of the venous valves Varicose (distended or dilated) veins are abnormally large and bulging veins caused by the impaired function of the venous valves. Hypertension is an elevation of blood pressure above the normal range for a prolonged time that increases the risk of stroke or heart attack. Congestive heart failure (heart failure) is the heart's inability to pump sufficient blood to supply the needs of the body. Thrombophlebitis is an inflammation of a superficial or deep vein that leads to the formation of a thrombus (fibrin-based clot). 27. Lesions in the CNS or Central Nervous System can result in: Your Answer: Incorrect Correct Answer is: Sensory, motor, and autonomic dysfunctions CNS= Brain and spinal cord, lesions in this system can result in sensory, motor and autonomic dysfunctions. All other answers are joint dysfunctions not part of the CNS. 28. What is the most common cause of death among those who have experienced a burn? Your Answer: Incorrect Correct Answer is: Sepsis Sepsis is the most common cause of death in those who have been burned because of the increased risk of infection due to the loss of the protective barrier. As a result of deeper burns, an accompanied affect is the immune function is depressed. Periostitis and compartment syndromes produce pain in the lower leg. Hyperkyphosis is the increase in normal thoracic kyphotic curve. 29. Of the following choices, what would be a mechanical force causing a wound? Your Answer: Incorrect Correct Answer is: Trauma Causes of wounds: Thermal sources (extreme temperatures, chemical and electrical resulting in a burn). Mechanical forces (trauma, pressure, friction, or sheer forces from an impact between the body and object, or inside body). Types of wounds: Abrasion, laceration, incision, puncture, animal bite, and burns. 30. Inflammatory bowel disease is used to identify crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, it is termed a(n):

Your Answer: Incorrect Correct Answer is: Gastrointestinal concern Gastrointestinal concerns include: constipation, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), and inflammatory bowel disease.

1. Please select from the following words that would indicate an abnormal lung condition: Your Answer: Incorrect Correct Answer is: Pneumonia Pneumor= Air or lung, ia= Abnormal condition. Pharyngitis= painful inflammation of the pharynx. Laryngitis= inflammation of the larynx. Rhinitis= inflammation of the nose (runny nose). 2. Massage can break the pain cycle and eliminate the original source of pain by: Your Answer: Incorrect Correct Answer is: Increasing blood flow to ischemic tissue This increase in circulation to the ischemic tissue is affected by mechanical pressure in massage techniques that stimulate the vein and lymphatic movement. 3. Fibromyalgia (FM) is defined as a(n): Your Answer: Incorrect Correct Answer is: Painful non-articular rheumatic condition of at least three months duration with tender points at 11 of 18 prescribed locations Fibromyalgia (FM) is a painful non-articular rheumatic condition of at least three months duration with widespread muscular achiness and specific tender points at 11 of 18 prescribed locations. 4. A common name used for a decubitus ulcer is: Your Answer: Incorrect Correct Answer is: Bedsores Any restriction of the normal blood supply to the skin results in cell death, and if severe or prolonged enough, skin or decubitus ulcers occur. 5. A stroke happens when the oxygen supply is cut off by: Your Answer: Incorrect Correct Answer is: An artery in the brain that is blocked or damaged When an artery in the brain is blocked or damaged causing a rupture that cuts off oxygen supply, it is termed a stroke or cerebrovascular accident.

6. Hyperlordosis is a postural dysfunction where muscles respond by being adaptively short and is defined as: Your Answer: Incorrect Correct Answer is: An increase in normal lumbar curve and an increase in anterior pelvic tilt/ shortened hip flexors Hyperlordosis is an increase in normal lumbar or lordotic curve and an increase in anterior pelvic tilt/ shortened hip flexors. Hyperkyphosis is an increase in the normal thoracic curve accompanied by protracted scapulae and headforward posture. Scoliosis is a lateral rotatory deviation of the spine. Ankylosing (immobility and fixation of joints) spondylitis (inflammation of vertebrae) is a chronic, systemic inflammatory disorder involving specific areas of the body, primarily the spine. 7. Osteoporosis is defined as a(n): Your Answer: Incorrect Correct Answer is: Progressive disease where the bones gradually become weaker and thinner, increasing fracture risks Osteoporosis is a progressive disease where the bones gradually become weaker and thinner, increasing fracture risks. It also causes changes in posture . 8. The most common name for torticollis is: Your Answer: Incorrect Correct Answer is: Wry neck Torticollis in Latin, Tortus= twisted and Collis= column or neck. Common term is wry neck. It is an abnormal positioning of the head and neck compared to the body. Ankylosis= fused. 9. For post-fracture care, what massage stroke is most effective? Your Answer: Incorrect Correct Answer is: Friction Friction= a stroke that compresses soft tissue into underlying structures. Can be static, linear, circular, or cross fiber and can also be done by rubbing the skin briskly. 10. Hypertension is a circulatory pathology and is defined as a(n): Your Answer: Incorrect Correct Answer is: Elevation of blood pressure above the normal range for a prolonged time Hypertension is an elevation of blood pressure above the normal range for a prolonged time that increases the risk of stroke or heart attack. Congestive heart failure (heart failure) is the heart's inability to pump sufficient blood to supply the needs of the body. Raynaud's Phenomenon is a peripheral vascular disorder that affects the blood vessels outside the heart and thorax, occurring secondary to another underlying condition. Thrombophlebitis is an inflammation of a superficial or deep vein that leads to the formation of a thrombus (fibrin-based clot). 11. Mechanical pressure of massage techniques on the veins and lymphatics creates:

Your Answer: Incorrect Correct Answer is: An increases in circulation Mechanical centripetal pressure of techniques increase venous return and can mechanically empty venous beds, lower venous pressure, and increase capillary flow. 12. Which of the following pathologies would be contraindicated for heat? Your Answer: Incorrect Correct Answer is: Edema Never apply heat to an inflamed area. 13. The cause of Ankylosing spondylitis is idiopathic and defined as: Your Answer: Incorrect Correct Answer is: A chronic, systemic inflammatory disorder involving specific areas of the body, primarily the spine Ankylosing (immobility and fixation of joints) spondylitis (inflammation of vertebrae) is a chronic, systemic inflammatory disorder involving specific areas of the body, primarily the spine. Idiopathic (not clearly understood). Peripheral joints (knees and fingers) are also affected. Hyperlordosis is an increase in normal lumbar or lordotic curve and an increase in anterior pelvic tilt/ shortened hip flexors. Hyperkyphosis is an increase in the normal thoracic curve accompanied by protracted scapulae and head-forward posture. Scoliosis is a lateral rotatory deviation of the spine. 14. What would you concentrate on doing with a client who has scoliosis? Your Answer: Incorrect Correct Answer is: Strengthen weak muscles and stretch shortened muscles With the s-shape or c-shape curvatures, there are major muscle imbalances that need to be addressed. For a positive reaction to the massage, it is best to determine what structures would need strengthening and which to lengthen. 15. A client has come to you with a doctor's prescription indicating "massage for comfort", you can assume this means? Your Answer: Incorrect Correct Answer is: Terminally ill Terminally ill patients should be offered a relaxation massage. 16. Which treatment would be most effective for a client that presents with a sub-acute ankle sprain? Your Answer: Incorrect Correct Answer is: Friction Sub-acute, friction helps with the healing process by bringing blood to the area and it also helps with the alignment of the new tissue.

17. The muscle's reaction to dysfunction can be categorized into two groups; primarily postural and primarily phasic, which of the following is primarily a postural muscle? Your Answer: Incorrect Correct Answer is: Gastrocnemius Primarily postural muscles= shorten in response to dysfunction. Primarily phasic muscles= weaken in response to dysfunction. Primarily postural (short): gastrocnemius, soleus, rectus femoris, biceps femoris, semi sisters, pectineus, ADductors, TFL, piriformis, iliopsoas, QL, ESGs (Erector Spinae Group), diaphragm, intercostals, pec major (clavicular & sternal head), upper trap, levator scap, SCM, and wrist and elbow flexors. Primary phasic (weak): peroneals, tibialis anterior, vastus lateralis/medialis, glut max, med & minimus, rectus abdominus, rhomboids, middle/lower traps, serratus anterior, and wrist & elbow extensors. 18. Temporomandibular joint dysfunction is defined as: Your Answer: Incorrect Correct Answer is: A disorder of the muscles of mastication and associated structures Temporomandibular joint dysfunction or disorder (TMJD) is a disorder of the muscles of mastication and associated structures. Hypermobility is an increased degree of motion at the joint. Hypomobility is a loss of motion and normal joint play movement at the joint. Degenerative disc disease is a degeneration of the annular fibers of the intervertebral disc. 19. What position would be most appropriate for each trimester in pregnancy massage? Your Answer: Incorrect Correct Answer is: Side-lying 1st trimester= Supine and side-lying. 2nd trimester= Supine with support, semi-reclined, and side-lying. 3rd trimester= Side-lying. 20. Poliomyelitis is a central nervous system condition and is defined as a(n): Your Answer: Incorrect Correct Answer is: Acute viral infection specifically affecting the motor neurons in the spinal cord and brain stem Poliomyelitis is an acute viral infection specifically affecting the motor neurons in the spinal cord and brain stem. Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a condition where demyelination of the nerves occurs. Parkinson's is a Progressively diminishing basal ganglia function resulting in slow, increasingly difficult movement, accompanied by resting tremors and muscular rigidity. Cerebral palsy (CP) is a motor function disorder resulting from damage to the immature brain. All conditions are CNS. 21. Any repeated activity, occupational or recreational, can lead to an/a: Your Answer: Incorrect Correct Answer is: Overuse injury An overuse injury occurs when repetitive microtrauma overloads a tissue's ability to repair itself.

22. How would you conduct a massage with a client that reports having dissociative disorder? Your Answer: Incorrect Correct Answer is: Observe and adjust the massage accordingly A state or condition in which certain thoughts, emotions, sensations, or memories are separated from the rest of the psyche. They include psychogenic amnesia, psychogenic fugue, multiple personality disorder, and depersonalization disorder. Always observe and adjust every massage accordingly. 23. A functional postural dysfunctions: Your Answer: Incorrect Correct Answer is: Can be altered by working with the soft tissue and fascia Structural postural dysfunctions pertains to altered bone shape due to malformation or pathological process. A Functional postural dysfunction pertains to soft tissue such as the muscles, ligaments, tendons and fascia that may be shortened or lengthened. Massage can help with functional but not the structural. 24. Hypermobility is a joint dysfunction and defined as: Your Answer: Incorrect Correct Answer is: An increased degree of motion at the joint Hypermobility is an increased degree of motion at the joint. Hypomobility is a loss of motion and normal joint play movement at the joint. Temporomandibular joint dysfunction or disorder (TMJD), is a disorder of the muscles of mastication and associated structures. Degenerative disc disease is a degeneration of the annular fibers of the intervertebral disc. 25. Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a central nervous system condition defined as: Your Answer: Incorrect Correct Answer is: A condition where demyelination of the nerves occurs Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a condition where demyelination of the nerves occurs. Parkinson's is a Progressively diminishing basal ganglia function resulting in slow, increasingly difficult movement, accompanied by resting tremors and muscular rigidity. Cerebral palsy (CP) is a motor function disorder resulting from damage to the immature brain. Spinal cord injuries (SCI) are an injury to the vertebral column, spinal cord, or both, due to a direct or indirect trauma. All conditions are CNS. 26. Seizures are characterized by the spontaneous, uncontrolled, abnormal, discharge of neurons in the brain and termed as a: Your Answer: Incorrect Correct Answer is: Condition of the CNS Conditions of the Central Nervous Systems (CNS): Communication skills, ambulation aids, decubitus ulcers, seizures, hemiplegia, multiple sclerosis, Parkinsons, cerebral palsy, spinal cord injury, and poliomyelitis. Epileptic seizures have a primary (idiopathic= not clearly understood) and a secondary cause= cerebral scaring from trauma or infection.

Types: Partial seizures and Generalized (Petit mal and Grand mal). 27. Reiter's syndrome is an inflammatory arthritide and is defined as a(n): Your Answer: Incorrect Correct Answer is: Triad of arthritis, a non-gonococcal urethritis conjunctivitis that follows up with inflammation in the intestine or urinary tract Reiter's syndrome is a triad of arthritis, a non-gonococcal urethritis conjunctivitis that follows up with inflammation in the intestine or urinary tract. Inflammatory arthritides are a group of inflammatory diseases affecting connective tissue including joints. 28. During an event you notice an athlete with hot, dry, reddish skin, shallow breathing, and is disoriented. What pathology might you suspect? Your Answer: Incorrect Correct Answer is: Heat stroke Heat exhaustion= wet skin, cool and clammy. Heat stroke= hot, dry, reddish skin. Heat cramps= profuse sweating. 29. Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is a peripheral nervous system condition and is defined as a(n): Your Answer: Incorrect Correct Answer is: Condition that results from a compression of the median nerve Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is a condition that results from a compression of the median nerve as it passes through the carpal tunnel in the wrist, resulting in numbness and tingling in the lateral three and one-half digits. Thoracic outlet syndrome (TOS) is a condition that involves compression of the brachial plexus and its accompanying artery between the anterior and middle scalene= anterior scalene syndrome, coracoid process and pectoralis minor= pectoralis minor syndrome and clavicle and first rib= costoclavicular syndrome. 30. A burn is a type of wound that is specific and is caused by an external thermal agent, which type of burn affects the epidermis? Your Answer: Incorrect Correct Answer is: First degree Burns= (thermal agents) superficial burn, 1st degree on epidermis; partial-thickness burn, 2nd degree extends to dermis; full-thickness burn, 3rd degree epidermis, dermis, and subcutaneous tissue, and 4th degree is all tissue plus fascia, muscles, and bones.

1. What level of severity is a contusion if it is a minor crush with minimal bleeding and mild discomfort? Your Answer: Incorrect Correct Answer is: Mild contusion The classifications for the three levels of severity for contusions; Mild= minor crush, minimal bleeding, and mild

discomfort; Moderate= moderate crush with bleeding/ swelling and difficult to use because of pain and muscle weakness; Severe= severe crush with rapid bleeding/ swelling and cannot use because of significant pain and muscle weakness. 2. The most common name for torticollis is: Your Answer: Incorrect Correct Answer is: Wry neck Torticollis in Latin, Tortus= twisted and Collis= column or neck. Common term is wry neck. It is an abnormal positioning of the head and neck compared to the body. Ankylosis= fused. 3. Bell's Palsy is a condition of the peripheral nervous system (PNS) and is defined as a(n): Your Answer: Incorrect Correct Answer is: Condition involving a lesion on the facial nerve resulting in flaccid paralysis Bell's Palsy is a condition involving a lesion on the facial nerve resulting in flaccid paralysis of the facial expression muscles on the same side as the lesion. All other definitions are CNS conditions. Cerebral palsy (CP) is a motor function disorder resulting from damage to the immature brain. Parkinson's is a Progressively diminishing basal ganglia function resulting in slow, increasingly difficult movement, accompanied by resting tremors and muscular rigidity. Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a condition where demyelination of the nerves occurs. 4. ________ is a painful syndrome associated with muscle spasms. Your Answer: Incorrect Correct Answer is: The pain-spasm-pain cycle The pain-spasm-pain cycle is a painful syndrome associated with muscle spasms. 5. Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a condition that causes demyelination of nerves, it is termed a: Your Answer: Incorrect Correct Answer is: Condition of the CNS Conditions of the Central Nervous Systems (CNS): Communication skills, ambulation aids, decubitus ulcers, seizures, hemiplegia, multiple sclerosis, Parkinsons, cerebral palsy, spinal cord injury, and poliomyelitis. MS is a result of scar tissue formations affecting the nerve transmission in scattered areas of the spinal cord and brain. 6. What acronym is used for the signs of inflammation? Your Answer: Incorrect Correct Answer is: SHARP SHARP= five cardinal signs of inflammation, swelling, heat, a loss of function, redness, and pain. 7. Diabetes Mellitus is a:

Your Answer: Incorrect Correct Answer is: Chronic condition resulting in problems with carbohydrates, protein, and fat Diabetes Mellitus is a chronic condition resulting in problems with carbohydrates, protein, and fat metabolism. 8. There are three levels of severity when classifying contusions, what are they? Your Answer: Incorrect Correct Answer is: Mild, moderate, and severe The classifications for the three levels of severity for contusions; Mild= minor crush, minimal bleeding, and mild discomfort; Moderate= moderate crush with bleeding/ swelling and difficult to use because of pain and muscle weakness; Severe= severe crush with rapid bleeding/ swelling and cannot use because of significant pain and muscle weakness. 9. Another name for a bruise is? Your Answer: Incorrect Correct Answer is: Contusion The "best" choice of answer to this question is contusion. Although a hematoma will include bruising, it also denotes swelling as a result of blood/fluid accumulation. A bruise and a contusion are interchangeable. 10. A hernia is caused by? Your Answer: Incorrect Correct Answer is: Straining the abdominal muscles Intestines can poke through a weakened portion of the abdominal wall. Caused by heavy lifting and strain of the abdomen. 11. Systemic Inflammatory Arthritides conditions include all of the following except: Your Answer: Incorrect Correct Answer is: Asthma Systemic Inflammatory Arthritides:Ankylosing spondylitis, gout, infectious arthritis, lyme disease, reiter's syndrome, rheumatoid arthritis, scleroderma, still's disease/ juvenile rheumatoid arthritis, and systemic lupus erythematosus. Asthma is a respiratory pathology. 12. A virus localized in a cutaneous nerve that can remain dormant until activated by emotional upset, fever, or UV radiation is called: Your Answer: Incorrect Correct Answer is: Cold sores Cold sores or fever blisters are small fluid-filled blisters that itch and sting, caused by a herpes simplex infection. They

usually occur around the lips and in the oral mucosa of the mouth. 13. An increase in the normal lumbar curve with increased anterior pelvic tilt and hip flexion is: Your Answer: Incorrect Correct Answer is: Hyperlordosis Hyperlordosis (swayback)= Shortens the ESGs and QLs, Iliopsoas, rectus femoris, TFL, and ADductors. Stretching the abdominals, gluteus maximus, and hamstrings making them weak. 14. Inflammatory bowel disease is used to identify crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, it is termed a(n): Your Answer: Incorrect Correct Answer is: Gastrointestinal concern Gastrointestinal concerns include: constipation, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), and inflammatory bowel disease. 15. A client suffers from lordosis, what interior muscle would you work? Your Answer: Incorrect Correct Answer is: Iliopsoas Lordosis or hyperlordosis (swayback)= Shortens the ESGs and QLs, Iliopsoas, rectus femoris, TFL, and adductors. Lordosis also stretches the abdominals, gluteus maximus, and hamstrings making them weak. For application, stretch hypertonic muscles and strengthen stretch weakened muscles. 16. Scoliosis is a postural dysfunction and is defined as: Your Answer: Incorrect Correct Answer is: A lateral rotatory deviation of the spine Scoliosis is a lateral rotatory deviation of the spine. Hyperlordosis is an increase in normal lumbar or lordotic curve and an increase in anterior pelvic tilt/ shortened hip flexors. Hyperkyphosis is an increase in the normal thoracic curve accompanied by protracted scapulae and head-forward posture. Ankylosing (immobility and fixation of joints) spondylitis (inflammation of vertebrae) is a chronic, systemic inflammatory disorder involving specific areas of the body, primarily the spine. 17. A wound is a disruption of the continuity of the skin, which type of wound has clean edges with a small entry? Your Answer: Incorrect Correct Answer is: Puncture Types of wounds: Abrasion= superficial with ragged edges, laceration= increased tissue loss with ragged edges, incision= clean with approximated edges (scalpel or glass), puncture= clean edges with small entry (can penetrate deep), animal bite= combination of crush, laceration, and puncture wounds, and burn= (thermal agents) superficial burn 1st degree on epidermis; partial-thickness burn 2nd degree extends to dermis; full-thickness burn 3rd degree epidermis, dermis, and subcutaneous tissue; and 4th degree is all tissue plus fascia, muscles, and bones. 18. You must get a clients written permission to consult with their physician to treat the following conditions with

Your Answer: Incorrect Correct Answer is: All of the above These conditions may have possible adverse effects with massage, it is best to make substantial modifications to the treatment and to acquire a physicians consult with written consent from the client. 19. Hemiplegia is a central nervous system condition and is defined as a(n): Your Answer: Incorrect Correct Answer is: Non-progressive condition of paralysis on one side of the body as a result of brain lesions Hemiplegia is a non-progressive condition of paralysis on one side of the body as a result of brain lesions. Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a condition where demyelination of the nerves occurs. Parkinsons is a Progressively diminishing basal ganglia function resulting in slow, increasingly difficult movement, accompanied by resting tremors and muscular rigidity. Seizures are described as Spontaneous, uncontrolled, abnormal discharge of neurons in the brain. All conditions are CNS. 20. Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is a condition involving compressions of the median nerve and is termed a(n): Your Answer: Incorrect Correct Answer is: Condition of the PNS Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is a condition of the peripheral nervous system (PNS). Peripheral refers to the nervous system outside the central nervous system CNS= brain and spinal cord. PNS; radial, ulnar, median, and sciatic nerve lesions. Bell's palsy, thoracic outlet syndrome (TOS), carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS), and piriformis syndrome. 21. A condition of the skin that is caused by exposure to chemicals is referred to as: Your Answer: Incorrect Correct Answer is: Contact dermatitis Exposure to chemicals (poison ivy) can provoke an allergic response causing itching, redness, and swelling of the skin, having the possibility of progressing into blisters. 22. If a person does not produce enough ______________ they will likely be ________________. Your Answer: Incorrect Correct Answer is: Insulin / hyperglycemic Lack of insulin will produce hyperglycemia. Hyperglycemia= excessively high levels of glucose in the blood. 23. A client is lying prone and is experiencing a cramp in the right quads, what would be the best way to relieve the cramp? Your Answer: Incorrect Correct Answer is: Isometric contraction of the hams and using direct pressure on the quads

This is the fastest way to help the client with out making them change positions. By using reciprocal inhibition to relax the quads and direct pressure on the muscle belly to relieve the cramp. 24. A tension headache is defined as a: Your Answer: Incorrect Correct Answer is: Muscle contraction headache associated with trigger points A tension headache is a muscle contraction or myofascial pain associated with trigger points. During a tension headache to avoid kick back pain, do not work to deep. Stay away from any vigorous techniques. Apply ischemic compressions slowly. After working on trigger points it is best to follow it up with heat, slow passive stretching and pain-free full active range of motion. 25. What is inflammation of the joints most commonly termed? Your Answer: Incorrect Correct Answer is: Arthritis Arthritis is inflammation of the joints. 26. Abdominal pain, bloody discharge, and a gush of amniotic fluid early in the pregnancy could be signs of: Your Answer: Incorrect Correct Answer is: Miscarriage Warranting immediate reporting to midwife or physician. 27. A stroke happens when the oxygen supply is cut off by: Your Answer: Incorrect Correct Answer is: An artery in the brain that is blocked or damaged When an artery in the brain is blocked or damaged causing a rupture that cuts off oxygen supply, it is termed a stroke or cerebrovascular accident. 28. Hypermobility is a joint dysfunction and defined as: Your Answer: Incorrect Correct Answer is: An increased degree of motion at the joint Hypermobility is an increased degree of motion at the joint. Hypomobility is a loss of motion and normal joint play movement at the joint. Temporomandibular joint dysfunction or disorder (TMJD), is a disorder of the muscles of mastication and associated structures. Degenerative disc disease is a degeneration of the annular fibers of the intervertebral disc. 29. Emphysema is a respiratory pathology that is defined as a(n): Your Answer:

Incorrect Correct Answer is: Enlargement of the air spaces distal to the terminal bronchioles and the destruction of the alveolar walls Emphysema is an enlargement of the air spaces distal to the terminal bronchioles and the destruction of the alveolar walls. Sinusitis is a respiratory pathology that is an acute or chronic inflammation of the paranasal sinuses. Chronic bronchitis is a respiratory pathology resulting in the production of purulent sputum for at least three months in a row over a consecutive two years. Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disorder with bronchospasms (narrowing of the airways in the lungs), a condition that is reversible over time or following treatment. 30. To prevent or even reverse the progression and onset of Osteoporosis, all of the following are recommended except: Your Answer: Incorrect Correct Answer is: Massage Massage is helpful to relieve tight muscles but it can not prevent or reverse Osteoporosis.

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