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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL Of ACADEMIC RESEARCH

Vol. 3. No. 4. July, 2011, II Part

DO STUDENTS’ PERSONALITY TRAITS MODERATE RELATIONSHIP OF TEACHER’S LEADERSHIP STYLE AND STUDENTS’ ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE? EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE FROM INSTITUTE OF HIGHER LEARNING
Ishfaq Ahmed , Tehmina Fiaz Qazi
1 2 1* 2

Lecturer, Research Scholar (M.Com Hons.) at Hailey College of Commerce, University of the Punjab (PAKISTAN) *Corresponding author: ishfakahmed@gmail.com

ABSTRACT Current research establishes the relationship between leadership style of a teacher as per students’ assessment and their own perceived academic performance, keeping their level of emotional intelligence as the moderator of this relationship. Students had been selected as the target population of the study because the purpose of the study was to assess the leadership style of a teacher and to explore its impact on the academic performance of students. Out of 250 students (estimated sample size), 212 students voluntarily participated and contributed in data collection comprising a response rate of 85%. Questionnaire was used to elicit their responses. They all have/had been the students of author (a permanent faculty member of Hailey College of commerce, st University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan). In 1 portion of questionnaire they were asked to assess the leadership style of their teacher, secondly they had to mention their perception about their academic performance. rd In 3 portion of the questionnaire, EI level of students had been assessed. 3 categories had been made among students on the basis of their study period with the mentioned teacher i.e 111 students studied for 1 semester; 70 students studied for 2 semesters and 31 students assessed the leadership style after 1 year of their studies taught by the said teacher. Study concluded that there is a significant effect of teacher’s transformational leadership style (IV) on students’ perceived academic performance (DV). Similarly, teacher’s Transactional leadership style (IV) affects students’ perceived academic performance (DV) significantly. But the presumed moderator (Emotional Intelligence) does not moderate the effects of the predictors (Teacher’s transformational and transactional leadership style) on the outcome variable (Students’ Academic performance). Key words: Emotional Intelligence, Transformational leadership, Transactional leadership, Education, Academic performance, Pakistan 1. INTRODUCTION

Education is the key towards development of a nation as a whole and the most effective channel to bring about the prosperity in a society (Aikaman & Unterhalter, 2005). Economic and social progress of a country do not just depend upon the richness of its natural resources or monetary capital rather human capital has always been considered as the ultimate source to speed up the pace of a country’s development and formal education system is the basic mechanism behind developing this human capital (Nsubuga, 2003). Educational institutions not only serve as an accelerator of socio-economic productivity but they also act as boosting agent of positive ideas, attitudes and values required for natural development of a nation. 1.1. Leadership and Educational productivity There is always a strong leadership acting behind a successfully running organization and same is the case with educational institutions where efficiency and productivity can definitely be enhanced with leading reforms such as increasing teachers’ time devoted for tasks, increasing accountability and reducing repetition (Nsubuga, 2003). Power of leadership enhances the motivational level of others to achieve common goals that ultimately affects the outcome and productivity (Porter and Applewhite, 1968; Davis, 1969; Byar and Rue, 1970) so, the efficiency of students rises to an optimal level because of the motivational power that a teacher induces into his students through exhibiting an effective leadership style. It always requires the enhanced association and dedication of all the group members to achieve the aims under the dynamic process of leadership at educational institutions (Cole, 2002) where students are considered as units of the whole group leading by their teacher and getting all the students along the path towards achievement of study targets is considered the responsibility of the teacher. Activities related to leadership of an educational institution such as morale building, remuneration, coercion pursue effective performance and productivity of that institution (Balunywa, 2000). Hence, teachers’ effective leadership not only boosts up the morale of individual students to get their study targets but can also takes the overall productivity of an educational institution to its peak. 1.2. EI and performance predictors Competition has become the basic evolutionary element behind all the progress in this era. Whether it is about getting an admission into a learning institution or securing a post in a business organization, the criteria for being selected is getting crucial with each day passing. Other than traditional qualification, now certain factors and personality traits are identified in the candidates to predict their type of personality and chances of being successful in the future. Institutions apply additional criteria to identify these personality traits and success predictors while

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1985). 2004).) do not deal with some important success predictors such as behavioral variations. organizational and personal factors serve as antecedents 2) Enthusiasm 1) Self-efficacy 2) Followers’ power to think on their own 3) Participative climate 1) Responsibility and autonomy in work tasks 2) Stems from follower’s perception 1) Extra effort is an indicator 2) One of three main domains of follower’s development 3) High energy level among followers 1) Influences patterns of thoughts. LITERATURE REVIEW This study focuses on two distinct class leadership styles of teachers (Transformational & Transactional) which they follow to influence the students and ultimately their academic performance.INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL Of ACADEMIC RESEARCH Vol. 2.ijar. Teacher being a moderator provides autonomy of self expression to interact within the peer groups. & Denessen. & Denessen. 1962. 2006 Masi & Cooke. inspirational motivation. emotions and actions 2) Increases when leader shows confidence in followers 1) Essential in relationship between transformational leader and followers 2) Determines much of the organization’s character and influences organizational structure Previous researches Allen & Meyer. 1968). Transformational vs. 2001. Leadership styles of teacher effecting students’ performance Authority is the power basically (Walberg and Anderson. 1989 Podsakoff et al. 1985. Being a leader. tension and fighting among the students (Ekpe. 1996. help followers identify their strong and weak points and optimize their performance (Bass. Emery & Barker. & Flick. aggression. Gronund. this research is a contribution to the comprehensive approach of establishing the relationship between leadership style of a teacher as per students’ assessment and their own perceived academic performance. Individual outcomes Commitment Features 1) Work experiences. & Singleton. 2. healthy. 1993 Self-efficacy beliefs Trus Bandura. occupational and educational performance can better be predicted through these intangible characteristics and subsequently these can be measured through extent of emotional intelligence “EI” (Goleman.az . frustration. Greater the autonomy given to students for maintaining their peer group relationships. 1985). This decision making power of teacher maintains a specific psychological climate in classroom that affects students’ performance as Walberg and Anderson (1968) found that students in a democratically organized class show better understanding of what they are taught. 1977. Latif. harmonious and two way interactions between teacher and students affect the outcome of students that significantly base upon teacher-student relationship (Flander. Porter & Applewhite. improved relationships reinforce their learning experience and outcomes (Gronlund. July. 2003. Bergan and Dunn. Kidd & Latif. 1976. Outcome of this style has been observed as anxiety. Sleegers. No. 1954). Unlike authoritative and arrogant teachers. intangible characteristics and personality traits of the candidates (Latif. Hence. This. intellectual stimulation. 1982). 2000. Thus.2. Krishnan (2005) explained this theory with focus kept on its root premise of the leader’s ability to motivate the follower and to superimpose this motivation over what they planned to do. Tichy & Devanna. 1987. 2007 Hatter & Bass.). 1988. Thomas & Draugalis. the major determinant of students’ productivity is the behavior of teacher (Ann. Authoritative teacher is task oriented who just dictates the course of interaction in the classroom (Krech and Crutchfield. 2005). idealized influence. 3. Butler. Edem 1979). 2. Bennis & Nanus.3. provides followers with the sense of autonomy of the work. Reason behind establishing such additional criteria is the fact that traditional success markers (educational qualification etc. 2004. Gillespie & Mann. Individual Outcomes of Transformational leadership style Table 1. Donaldson and Elias. 1995. Hence. individualized consideration. Waldman & Spangler. 4. 1998. House & Shamir. 1988. the teachers who create a good rapport with their students have a positive impact on the academic performance of their students (Cogan. 1993. Avolio & Bass. 1990. 1965. Dee. Henkin. 1968. 1990. 1. Gist. 2002. 1968) and classroom can be considered as an ordinary organization where authority retains with the teacher as manager over the students (Jenkins and Lipitt. 1994. Cantrell. 1986). Allen & Bond. Sleegers. Deliberate decisions such as strong. Thus. Bass & Avolio. 394 | www. 2000 Empowerment Job satisfaction Motivation Maeroff. 2006. 1988. Hardigan. a leader (teacher) exhibiting transformational leadership style influence the follower (students) in four major ways i. 1985. Transactional leadership style of teachers Burns (1978) developed the “Transformational leadership theory” with further enhancements made by various others (Bass 1985. 2001. 1976).lit. Democratic style of teacher’s leadership promotes the co-operation among students and thus. Nguni. Authoritative style of teacher’s leadership is translated into distant and directive relationship of teacher with his students.e. a teacher decides the course of interaction between teacher and student and among students as well and acts as a moderator in the classroom to keep the communication and ways of interaction aligned with the overall study targets set for the students. According to some studies. keeping their level of emotional intelligence as the moderator of this relationship. 1999. 1974. affects their academic output (Walberg & Anderson. inspires them being a role model. II Part scrutinizing the applicants (Chisholm et al. Nguni. A transformational leader focuses on synchronizing the core values of followers with overall organizational goals. in turn. 1951). it is very important to identify the level of EI in students to observe its impact on their academic performance. 2011.1. the more they feel socially accepted and satisfied both in personal and work related matters. 1998).

2004). Latif. 2. 2001. 2000. McCrae.e. 2001) and a variety of deviant behaviors is caused by low trait EI and these B a k u . analytical intelligence. Zeidner. social intelligence. Aim of following this type of leadership style is to ensure the coherence of individual efforts with the fulfillment of desired goals. 2005). 10).e. 2003). 2. 2001. 3. Contingent Rewards: Goals are first agreed upon mutually by leader and the follower and then rewards (punishment) is offered in exchange for the task accomplishment. Reason behind establishing such additional criteria is the fact that traditional success markers do not deal with some important success predictors such as behavioral variations. Roberts et al. 1920). a transactional leader focuses on the achievement of desired results by followers though offering them reward (or punishment). July. “Trait EI” (emotional self-efficacy) refers to the various characteristics of personality such as impulsivity. 2001.. 1998. Petrides & Furnham. Active Management by exception: Corrective measures are adopted by leader to mitigate the effects of deviation from the set standards and regulations. Hardigan. II Part On the other hand.3.4. assertiveness and empathy. So.5. A study suggested that students who had learning disabilities scored lower on trait EI as compared to nondisabled students (Reiff et al. 1983) and EI (Thorndike. straightforward instruments for the measurement of trait EI (Bar-On. process the emotions and utilize this information to regulate the thinking process is called cognitiveemotional ability or “Ability EI”. 2000. 2. 1947.. 2001). 2002).INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL Of ACADEMIC RESEARCH Vol. 1996). 1995. 1994. Eysenck. Davies. 2000b. But cognitive ability (assessed objectively) is different from personality traits such as “Trait IE” (measured through self-report instruments). 2001). the ability of identification and (or) generation of feelings to facilitate the thinking process. 2. Sternberg (1983. trait IE is not likely to have strong correlation with psychometric intelligence or its alternative elements (Eysenck. According to some studies. appraisal and expression of the emotions. Laissez-faire: Transactional leader hands over the responsibilities and passes up the decision making authority in certain situations (Burns. van der Zee et al. Schutte et al. 1998). Self-report questionnaires are used to measure the Trait EI while performance tests measure the “Ability EI” on the basis of correct and incorrect responses.. The measurement of ability EI remains a challenging task because of its subjective nature while there are various extensively used. the criteria for being selected is getting crucial with each day passing. Actual ability of a person to recognize. social and practical intelligence and creative intelligence. 4. 2003. Kidd & Latif. Barrett et al. the capability of understanding the emotional knowledge and the ability of emotions’ regulation to enhance intellectual & emotional growth (p. Derksen et al.6.. 1998). Social intelligence was first recognized by Thorndike in 1920 as the ability to manage the human relations wisely and EI has its origin into the concepts of social intelligence. Whether it is about getting an admission into a learning institution or securing a post in a business organization. Emotional Intelligence and Its key Elements Intelligences are grouped into three main clusters by psychologists’ i. Lately. Ability EI vs. Saklofske et al. abstract intelligence and concrete intelligence (Young. Passive Management by exception: Transactional leader does not interfere unless there is a violation of rules and standards. 1. Mayer and Salovey (1997) amended the above definition as the ability of accurate perception. occupational and educational performance can better be predicted through these intangible characteristics and subsequently these can be measured through extent of emotional intelligence “EI” (Goleman. 3. EI & Academic Performance Some researchers proposed that EI is not correlated with academic performance and cognitive ability of the students when measured through self-reports (Newsome et al. 1995). 1994. Then Goleman gave popularity to EI concept through publication of his book in 1995 and subsequently by a lead article in TIME magazine (Gibbs. Trait EI Conceptually “Trait EI “and “Ability EI” are two distinct types of EI as proposed by Petrides and Furnham (2000a. 2002. Gardner (1993) gave theory of multiple intelligences and included interpersonal & intrapersonal intelligences as major components of social intelligence. Institutions apply additional criteria of personality and success predictors to scrutinize the applicants (Chisholm et al. A z e r b a i j a n | 395 . 2011. Allen & Bond. Many researches explored various distinct dimensions of personality and trait EI (Eysenck. 2003). 1997.e. Transactional leadership style can be explained on the basis of 4 major dimensions i. Stankov and Roberts (1998) also identified the same four dimensions of EI in their literature. Definition of EI was given by Salovey and Mayer (1990) as the capability of a person to identify the emotions and feelings of his own and of others as well. But measuring “Ability IE” is comparatively difficult because of devising relevant items and their objective assessment (Petrides & Furnham. Researchers also explained the empirical verification of the fact that cognitive ability is just about orthogonal to trait EI (Newsome et al. EI and performance predictors Competition has become the basic evolutionary element behind all the progress in this era. to discriminate these emotions and feelings and to direct his thinking and actions according to this information. 1978). 4. He defined EI on the basis of five dimensions including the four suggested by Mayer and Salovey. 2. It also encompasses various forms of self-perceived abilities such as dispositions of personal intelligence (Gardner. No. 1985) classified human intelligence into three groups’ i. 1997. 2002. 1995). Thomas & Draugalis. intangible characteristics and personality traits of the candidates (Latif.

Academic literature has continuously been enriched with researches made on its different perspectives in lieu of emotional intelligence and different related aspects (Spielberger. To identify the transformational and transactional leadership style was assessed by using MLQ (Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire) developed by Bass and Avolio (1992).. keeping their level of emotional intelligence as the moderator of this relationship.1% of the change in dependent variable is attributable to independent variable. Boekaerts. 1995. Seipp. For study researcher was selected as the teacher to be assessed by students for his leadership style. 1996). EI level of students had been assessed. II Part behaviors have an association with emotional deficits (Cohen & Strayer. MODEL-2. Pau et al (2004) proposed that students with higher EI are more proficient to cope with the stressful situations in academic or non-academic scenarios. 70 students were currently being taught for 2 semesters and 31 students assessed the teacher who had been student of the teacher a year back. 4. Donaldson and Elias. 1991. For sample 250 students (estimated sample size) were selected with a choice to participate in research. the effects of cognitive ability on academic performance might be moderated by trait IE. MODEL-1. 2001. Greenspan. July. 1998).az . 1996. 3. Furnham & Medhurst. Reiff et al.146).ijar. Charbonneau & Nicol. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY This study establishes the relationship between leadership style of a teacher as per students’ assessment and their own perceived academic performance. out of these respondents 61% were male and 39% were female.INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL Of ACADEMIC RESEARCH Vol. secondly they had to mention their perception about their academic rd performance. 4. As trait EI is correlated with learning disabilities so. 1999. 3. 1998. Average age of the respondents was 23. In 3 portion of the questionnaire. It also 396 | www. In the second stage of research those students were selected for responses that have been or they are students of specified teacher. 2000. 1989.lit. 1995. 1976. 2011. Transactional leadership style of teacher Academic performance of student Emotional Intelligence Level of the student Questionnaire was used to elicit their responses. Ciarrochi et al. SPSS 16. RESEARCH FINDINGS st Table-2 shows the summarized resultant values of the regression analyses. Stewart et al.. Williamson & Cullingford. 3 categories had been made among students on the basis of their study period with the mentioned teacher i. 212 students voluntarily participated and contributed in data collection comprising a response rate of 85%. Psychometric intelligence varies among the students of different subjects (Jensen. Eisenberg. No. 1993. Transformational leadership style of teacher Academic performance of student Emotional Intelligence Level of the student Students had been selected as the target population of the study because the purpose of the study was to assess the leadership style of a teacher and to explore its impact on the academic performance of students. In 1 portion of questionnaire they were asked to assess the leadership style of their teacher.8 years. Detailed findings are discussed in the findings section. R square value of the table shows that only 2. Similarly. Also. Roberts & Strayer. To judge the emotional intelligence of students’ instrument developed by Goleman (1995) was used. Williamson & Cullingford. classroom disruption and truancy is correlated with negative self-perceptions (Fergusson et al. A teacher was selected to assess his leadership style perceived by students. Van der Zee et al.e 111 students were currently being taught for 1 semester. Findings of the table prove that there is weak relationship between teachers leadership style and their performance (r=.0 was used for analysis of data.. 2001. 2002. 1966. This study identifies the level of EI in students to predict their academic performance with the exploration of direct relationship between leadership style of a teacher and students’ perceived academic performance. 2002). 1998) that can affect academic performance of students.

Transactional-EI DV: Academic performance 5.084 R Square Change . Change Statistics show that R change is 0.465 2 1 df2 209 208 Sig. Findings of the table prove that there is weak relationship between teachers leadership style and their performance (r=.145 F 4.227>0. Predictors: (Constant).002 when the interaction variable (transformational leadership*EI) is added in regression analysis. These findings contradict the findings given by Walberg & Anderson (1968) who found that autonomy given by the leader increases students interaction in groups and that ultimately increases their performance. Predictors: (Constant). EI b. II Part shows that this relation is significant (t=2. Impact of teacher’s transactional leadership style on Academic Performance Independent Variable Transformational leadership style—Academic Performance R . So it can be inferred that transformational leadership style of teacher is a significant but weak predictor of students’ academic performance. No. EI.290 a b R Square .281 1. F (11. Transactional leadership. 3.490>0.088 R Square Change . CONCLUSION Findings of the study suggest that teacher as a leader has a weak impact on the academic performance of students.082 .330 .564 P . F Change . Table 3.141 R .297 a b R Square .082 .000 . The insignificant interaction proves that EI has no moderating affect between relationship of transformational leadership style and academic performance.05). p = (0. Transformational leadership. Impact of teacher’s transformational leadership style on Academic Performance Independent Variable Transformational leadership--Academic Performance R .002 F Change df1 9.478. It also shows that this relation is significant (t=2.286 .05). This change is insignificant. Transformational leadership. Change Statistics show that R change is 0. These findings prove that these findings are same for both transactional and transformational leadership styles.239.490 Model-1.020 2 B .082 . 4. A z e r b a i j a n | 397 . similarly when the EI was tested as the moderating variable between teacher leadership style and academic performance it is concluded that EI doesn’t moderate the relation.746) = 1.006 F Change df1 9.000 . F (1. p = (0.286 .006 when the interaction variable (transformational leadership*EI) is added in regression analysis. Table 4.034 Table-3 shows the summarized resultant values of the regression analyses. Impact of Moderator (EI) on the Model-1 Change Statistics Model 1 2 R .141). EI.146 R .208) = 0. Predictor: (Constant).188 F 4.04 2 Table-4 shows the summarized values of the regression. July. Transformational-EI c. F Change . R square value of the table shows that only 2% of the change in dependent variable is attributable to independent variable.05). EI b.478 2 1 df2 209 208 Sig.136. The insignificant interaction proves that EI has no moderating affect between relationship of transactional leadership style and academic performance. This change is insignificant.227 Model-2. Transactional leadership style of teacher.253 P .465.082 . Table 5. 2011.021 2 B . B a k u . a. a. DV: Academic performance 2 Table-5 shows the summarized values of the regression.05). p<. Impact of Moderator (EI) on the Model-2 Change Statistics Model 1 2 R . Table 2.INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL Of ACADEMIC RESEARCH Vol. Predictor: (Constant). So it can be inferred that transformational leadership style of teacher is a significant but weak predictor of students’ academic performance. p<.

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