SWEDISH MASSAGE THEORY EXAM: “HISTORY OF MASSAGE” AND “MASSAGE MOVEMENTS” 1.

Which of the following statements correctly describes massage? A. a series of metabolic reactions used to enhance the function of the nervous system B. a systematic mental manipulation of the structures associated with the circulation the life force C. a series of manual or mechanical manipulations of the soft tissues of the body by various movements D. none of the above 2. Which of the following is not one of the benefits of massage? A. improved circulation of the blood and lymph B. relief from pain C. restoration of metabolic balance D. increased chance of bony fractures 3. What is the technical name for a person who practices massage in Texas? A. certified massage practitioner B. registered massage therapist C. public practitioner of massage D. manual therapist 4. How long has massage been practiced? A. since about 3000 B.C. B. about two centuries C. around 1400 years D. massage started in 1992 5. Which of the following is one of the benefits of massage? A. increased pain and discomfort B. reduction in muscle tightness C. increase in healing time of injuries D. abnormal growth of bony structures 6. What was the name of the ancient massage technique that was developed by the Chinese? A. buitou B. kungpo C. amma D. shuto 7. What is the name of the modern massage technique that was developed by the Chinese? A. ying-sho B. chi-schwi C. am-ni D. tui-na 8. What is the name of the points of stimulation utilized by the Japanese? A. tsubo B. domiso C. kinbash D. dochira 9. What is “Chi”? A. type of spice used by the Chinese B. life energy force C. second stroke in Swedish massage routine D. form of currency used by the Romans 10. What is the name of the finger pressure technique developed by the Japanese? A. Reiki B. Ransochi C. Kathka D. Shiatsu 1

11. What is the name of the Hindu practice of massage with a bath? A. showpan B. choipan C. tshanpau D. laochin 12. Which of the following terms was used to describe the Greek’s regimens concerning diet and exercise? A. ascesis B. narscism C. celciusism D. laochin 13. What is the name of the technique that was developed in the nineteenth century by John Grosvenor, a wellrespected English surgeon that emphasized healing with the hands? A. chishaw B. chirurgy C. charism D. kariology MATCH THE TYPE OF MOVEMENT WITH ITS DESCRIPTION 14. ____ active 15. ____ duplicated 16. ____ passive A. movements performed by the therapist to the patient B. movements performed by the patient without help from the therapist C. movements performed by the patient in cooperation with the therapist

17. Which of the following is a reason for the decline in the medical use of massage in the twentieth century? A. outstanding performance of the schools and administrators B. excessive taxation on the practice of massage C. unscrupulous schools and unqualified massage practitioners D. none of the above 18. What is the name of the gentle rhythmical massage technique that specifically deals with improving the circulation of the blood and lymph throughout the body? A. rolfing B. manual lymphatic drainage C. chirurgy D. lymph pumping 19. Which of the following is a benefit of deep transverse friction massage? A. broadening of the fibrous tissues of muscles, tendons, and ligaments B. break down of unwanted fibrous adhesions C. restoration of joint and muscle mobility D. all of the above 20. Which of the following techniques is described as the systematic application of manual pressure against the bony processes of the skeletal system to manipulate the vertebrae of the spine and other articulations? A. Chirurgy B. Chiropractic C. Amma D. Shiatsu 21. Which of the following had a detrimental effect on massage in the twentieth century? A. technical innovations in manual therapy apparatuses and surgical procedures B. exploitation of therapists by pharmacologists C. creation of a national database registering massage therapists D. none of the above

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22. Which of the following is a benefit of massage? A. increase in the severity of headaches B. increased fatigue C. decreased circulation of blood D. increased circulation of lymph MATCH THE MASSAGE TECHNIQUE WITH ITS DESCRIPTION 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. A. B. C. D. E. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. A. B. C. D. E. ____ Swedish system ____ German method ____ French and English systems ____ Acupressure ____ Shiatsu This technique employs facial massage and beauty therapy treatments. This technique was developed by the Japanese and is based applying pressure to energy points. This technique emphasizes the use of various kinds of baths. This technique is based on the western concepts of anatomy and physiology. This technique was developed by the Chinese and employs manipulation of the body’s life energy force. ____ Sports massage ____ Polarity therapy ____ Trager method ____ Rolfing ____ Reflexology This technique was developed by Randolph Stone using exercises and thinking practices to balance the body. This technique is a systematic program designed to align the major body segments through fascial manipulation. This technique is designed to prepare an athlete for an upcoming event. This technique is based on stimulation of points on the surface of the body to effect changes in other areas. This technique uses movement exercises called mentastics along with massage to eliminate tension in the body.

MATCH THE NAME OF THE PERSON WITH THEIR DESCRIPTION 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. A. B. C. D. E. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. A. B. C. D. E. ____ Aesculapius ____ Avicenna ____ Celsus ____ Dr. James Cyriax ____ Elizabeth Dicke Greek physician that was worship as the “god of medicine” who founded the first gymnasium. Developer of the connective tissue massage technique. English orthopedic physician credited with popularizing deep transverse friction massage. Persian philosopher / physician who authored the Canon of Medicine. Roman physician that wrote De Medicina. ____ Charles Fayette Taylor ____ Dr. Douglas Graham ____ Hippocrates ____ Per Henrik Ling ____ Emil Vodder Considered by some to be “the father of Swedish massage in the United States.” Known as “the father of physical therapy;” he developed a system of movements he called “medical gymnastics.” Greek physician who became known as the father of modern medicine. Austrian who developed a method of manual lymphatic drainage. New York physician who introduced the Swedish movements to the United States in 1858.

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43. 44. 45. 46. 47. A. B. C. D. E.

____ Galen ____ Rhazes ____ Dr. Johann G. Mezger ____ Dr. David Palmer ____ Mathias Roth The founder of scientific massage and the use of modern massage therapy terminology. English physician that studied under Ling who wrote the first book in English in the Swedish Movements. Islamic Persian philosopher / physician that was a follower of Hippocrates. Greek physician that is said to have discovered that arteries and veins contain blood. Developed Chiropractic techniques in the west.

48. Which of the following are general effects of massage? A. stimulation or inhibition B. oxidation or corrosion C. incidental or accidental D. none of the above 49. Which of the following are factors that control the results of a massage manipulation? A. pressure B. direction C. duration D. all of the above 50. Which of the following terms describes massage that is directed towards the heart? A. centrifugal B. centripetal C. oxidative D. incidental 51. Which tissues are most affected by massage techniques that are directed towards the heart? A. bone and nerve B. skin and nerve C. bone and blood D. blood and lymph 52. Which of the following is not one of the basic massage techniques? A. effleurage B. petrissage C. flipping D. vibration MATCH THE MASSAGE TECHNIQUE WITH ITS DESCRIPTION 53. 54. 55. 56. 57. A. B. C. D. E. ____ effleurage ____ petrissage ____ friction ____ vibration ____ tapotement Rapid back-and-forth movements administered by alternating contraction / relaxation of the forearm muscles. Percussive and springy blows delivered to the body with a rapid and even rhythm. Sliding and gliding stroke that is applied horizontally to the body. Moving more superficial layers of flesh against the deeper tissues to prevent and break up local adhesions. Lifting, rolling, and squeezing movement used to knead tissues into a relaxed state.

58. Which of the following massage movements is a good method to use when evaluating for hard and soft tissue? A. effleurage B. petrissage C. friction D. vibration 4

59. Which of the following massage movements induces a small, controlled inflammatory response? A. effleurage B. petrissage C. friction D. vibration 60. Which of the following massage movements is used to “wake up” nerves or to stimulate nerve activity? A. effleurage B. petrissage C. friction D. vibration 61. Which of the following massage movements has the mechanical effect of softening and creating space around the actual muscle fibers, and making the tendons more pliable as well? A. effleurage B. petrissage C. friction D. vibration 62. Which type of movements should be applied over thin tissues and bony parts? A. heavy movements B. light movements C. percussive movements D. deep movements 63. Which of the following movements should be applied over thick tissues and muscular parts? A. heavy movements B. light movements C. direct touch D. indirect touch 64. What is the term used to describe massage movements that are directed away from the heart? A. oblique B. absolute C. centripetal D. centrifugal 65. What is the term used to describe the general direction that massage movements usually follow? A. oblique B. absolute C. centripetal D. centrifugal 66. What is the approximate duration of a full-body massage? A. 15 minute B. 45 minutes C. 60 minute D. 80 minutes 67. What is the first technique in developing a therapeutic relation? A. touch B. kiss C. interview D. examination 68. What is another name for feather stroking? A. raking B. muscle flacking C. subcutaneous shortening D. nerve stroking 5

69. When is feather stroking usually used? A. beginning of a massage B. end of a massage C. it is never used during a massage D. none of the above 70. Which of the following is the classical term for “kneading?” A. effleurage B. petrissage C. friction D. tapotement 71. Rolling, chucking, and wringing are examples of which of the following classical massage movements? A. effleurage B. petrissage C. friction D. tapotement 72. Hacking, slapping, and cupping are examples of which of the following classical massage movements? A. effleurage B. petrissage C. friction D. tapotement 73. Shaking and rocking are examples of which of the following classical massage movements? A. tapotement B. vibration C. petrissage D. effleurage 74. Compression is an example of which of the following classical massage movements? A. petrissage B. tapotement C. vibration D. friction 75. Which technique is safe to use directly over the spine? A. percussion B. compression C. hacking D. skin-rolling 76. Which technique is good for decreasing muscle tone? A. skin-rolling B. feather-stroking C. petrissage D. cupping 77. Which of the following is the preferred method for abdominal massage? A. effleurage B. petrissage C. friction D. tapotement 78. Which of the following strokes has a mechanical, chemical, and reflexive effect? A. superficial effleurage B. skin-rolling C. rocking D. friction

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79. Which of the following techniques is used to spread a lubricant? A. effleurage B. petrissage C. friction D. vibration 80. Which type of joint movement should be performed first in a massage routine? A. passive B. passive assistive C. passive aggressive D. active MATCH THE MASSAGE MOVEMENT WITH ITS DESCRIPTION 81. 82. 83. 84. 85. A. B. C. D. E. 86. 87. 88. 89. 90. A. B. C. D. E. ____ hacking ____ cupping ____ beating and pounding ____ slapping ____ tapping These moves are done with a soft fist with knuckles down, or vertically with the ulnar side of the palm. Alternating contact with the palmar surface of the fingers with light to medium pressure. Springy application of the ulnar surfaces of the hands with both wrists relaxed and the fingers spread. Springy application of the palmar surface of the hands while maintaining a curved hand posture. The whole palm of the flattened hand making contact with the body. ____ hacking ____ cupping ____ beating and pounding ____ slapping ____ tapping This method is good around joints, on the tendons, on the face and head, and along the spine. This method is used on the anterior and posterior thorax to stimulate the respiratory system and loosen mucus. This method is good to use on the bottom of the feet. This method is done over larger soft tissue areas such as the upper back and shoulders. This method is done over large muscles such as the buttocks and heavy leg muscles.

TRUE OR FALSE 91. ____ Effleurage is also known as a “transition” stroke that is used between different massage manipulations. 92. ____ Superficial applications of effleurage have a mechanical effect on the deeper tissues of the body. 93. ____ The more superficial a massage stroke, the more reflexive the effect on the body. 94. ____ Slow, superficial strokes are very stimulating and invigorating to the nervous system of the body. 95. ____ Ischemic compression is a very useful technique to use over bony structures and inflamed tissues. 96. ____ Friction massage movements are done in a direction that is vertical direction in relation to the muscle. 97. ____ Chucking is a variation of a friction massage movement. 98. ____ Shaking manipulations cause the body to go limp by feeding unorganized information into the nervous system. 99. ____ Soft end-feel occurs in normal joints when they are taken to their end range of movement. 100. ____ An important factor that influences the end result of a massage is the intention in which it is given. 7

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