THE GENlTO-URINARY SYSTEM Circle the correct response: (three points apiece

)

1. Which of the following is true of the kidneys? a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) they eliminate wastes, toxins and drugs from the body they are located in the retroperitoneal space, at the costo-vertebral angle they are part of the water-conservation mechanism they produce renin to help regulate blood pressure their hormone erythropoietin stimulates red cell production in bone marrow the adrenal glands are located atop each of the two kidneys renal anomalies are rather common all of the above all except e

2. The urinary tract is composed of which of the following? a) b) c) d) e) two kidneys two ureters one bladder one urethra all of the above

3. Which of the following is a region of the kidney? a) b) c) d) e) f) the outer region (or cortex) an inner region (or medulla) a central cavity called the renal pelvis extensions of the pelvis called calyces all of the above all except d (true) (true) (false) (false)

4. The functional and structural unit of the kidney is called the nephron. 5. Each nephron is made up of the glomerulus and the renal tubule. 6. Which of the following is true of the renal tubule? a) b) c) d) e) f) g)

the closed end of the renal convoluted tubule is called Bowman's capsule the proximal convoluted tubule is closest to Bowman's capsule the next segment is called the loop of Henle the distal convoluted tubule is the part that eventually empties into the calyx and pelvis reabsorption takes place in the renal tubule all of the above all except e

7. Which of the following processes is a part of urine formation? a) b) c) d) filtration reabsorption secretion all of the above (true) (false)

8. Filtration is a passive process that takes place if arterial pressure is adequate. 9. Reabsorption of water is passive, but ion reabsorption is active transport. 10. Tubular secretion is essentially the process of reabsorption in reverse. 11. Oliguria is the descriptive term for a decrease in urine output. (true)

(true) (true)

(false) (false) (false)

12. Anuria is the greatly decreased production, or complete absence, of urine. 13. Polyuria is an increased production of urine. (true) (false) (true) (true) (true)

(true)

(false)

14. The ureters carry urine from the kidneys to the urinary bladder. 15. The bladder holds the urine until it can be expelled from the body. 16. The urethra carries urine from the bladder to the outside of the body.

(false) (false) (false) (true) (false) (true) (false) (false) (false)

17. Urinary tract infections are often accompanied by urinary frequency and urgency. 18. Stretch receptors in the bladder normally trigger the urge to urinate. (true)

19. Persistent polyuria and polydipsia can suggest the possibility of diabetes. 20. An enlarged prostate can result in urinary retention in the male. 21. Which of the following is true of the male reproductive system? a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) j) k) (true)

the external male genitalia are comprised of scrotum and penis there are two testes with multiple lobules each lobule contains seminiferous tubules that produce sperm the interstitial cells around the seminiferous tubules produce testosterone immature sperm are stored in the epididymis the vas deferens connects the epididymis to the ejaculatory duct the vas deferens, blood vessels and nerves are enclosed by the spermatic cord surgically severing the vas deferens is called a vasectomy, and results in sterility the ejaculatory duct merges into the urethra the distal opening of the urethra is called the meatus all of the above

22. Which of the following are regions of the male urethra? a) b) c) d) the prostatic urethra the membranous urethra the spongy (or penile) urethra all of the above

23. Which of the following is/are true of the male accessory glands and semen? a) b) c) d) e) the seminal vesicles produce about 60 percent of the fluid volume of semen the prostate gland encircles the urethra at the bladder neck the bulbourethral glands lie inferior to the prostate semen is an alkaline fluid containing sperm and glandular secretions all of the above

24. Which of the following is/are true of the female reproductive system? a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) the two ovaries produce ova, estrogens and progesterone onset of menses is called menarche the ductal system is composed of uterus, fallopian tubes and vagina the walls of the uterus include endometrium, myometrium and epimetrium fertilization occurs in the fallopian tubes vaginal secretions are normally slightly acidic all of the above all except e

25. Which of the following are the external female genitalia? a) mons pubis b) labia majora and minora c) clitoris d) urethral and vaginal orifices e) greater vestibular glands f) all of the preceding (true) (true) (false) (false)

26. The fertilized egg implants in the uterus about a week after ovulation. 27. The uterine cycle includes menses, proliferation and the secretory stage. 28. Which of the following is true of the mammary glands? a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) they are located in breast tissue, anterior to the chest muscles their lobules contain alveolar glands that produce milk lactiferous ducts carry milk to the nipples each nipple is surrounded by a pigmented area called the areola mammary glands are present in both males and females inflammation of breast tissue is called mastitis all of the above all except e

29. Which of the following is true of human fetal development? a) b) c) d) e) f) development is cephalo-caudal and proximo-distal folic acid intake prior to pregnancy is essential to prevention of open neural tube defects at the end of the first trimester, all body systems are present and gender is evident at the end of the second trimester, bones, fingernails and toenails are present birth takes place at the end of the third trimester (after approximately 40 weeks) all of the above

30. Maternal physiological changes associated with pregnancy include which of the following? a) b) c) d) e) gastrointestinal (heartburn and morning sickness) urinary (bladder compression and increased burden on the kidneys) respiratory (nasal congestion and mild dyspnea) cardiovascular (peripheral edema, and increased cardiac workload) all of the above

31. The stages of labor include which of the following? a) dilation stage b) expulsion stage c) placental stage d) all of the preceding (true) (false) (false)

32. Preeclampsia is a toxemia of pregnancy usually evident in the first trimester.

33. Hermaphroditism defines the simultaneous presence of both ovaries and testes. 34. Ventral displacement of the male urethral meatus is known as hypospadias.

(true)

(true) (true)

(false) (false)

35. Mild post-partum uterine hemorrhage can be controlled with massage therapy. 36. Preeclampsia is suggested by which of the following clinical signs? a) b) c) d) e) marked blood pressure elevation finger and facial edema ocular disturbances and increased sensitivity to light hyperactive reflexes all of the above (true)

37. Preeclampsia in the United States is most common in the southeast. 38. Preeclampsia occurs most frequently in first-time mothers. (true)

(false) (false)

39. Preeclampsia leads to eclampsia, which can be fatal to mother and baby. 40. The only cure for preeclampsia is immediate delivery of the fetus.

(true)

(false) (false)

(true)

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