THE MUSCULAR SYSTEM Circle the correct response: (1.

5 points apiece)

1. The types of muscle tissue in the body are which of the following? a) b) c) d) skeletal (or striated) smooth (or visceral) cardiac all of the above

2. Which of the types of muscle is/are composed of elongated cells? a) b) c) d) skeletal smooth cardiac all of the above

3. Which of the following prefixes is used to describe muscle fibers of all types? a) b) c) d) myo mys sarco all of the above

4. Which of the following muscle fibers is voluntary? a) b) c) d) skeletal smooth cardiac all of the above

5. Which of the following muscle fibers is involuntary? a) b) c) d) e) skeletal smooth cardiac b and c only all of the above

6. Which of the following muscle fibers is multinucleate (has more than one nucleus)? a) b) c) d) skeletal cardiac smooth all of the above

7. Which of the following muscle fibers is uninucleate (Has only one nucleus)? a) b) c) d) e) skeletal cardiac smooth b and c only all of the above

8. Which of the following muscle fibers is capable of a slow response time? a) b) c) d) skeletal cardiac smooth all of the above

9. Which of the following muscles is least capable of rhythmic contraction? a) b) c) d) skeletal cardiac smooth all of the above

10. Each muscle fiber is enclosed in a delicate protective connective tissue sheath known as the: a) epimysium b) perimysium c) endomysium 11. Several sheathed muscle fibers are wrapped in the coarser membrane known as the: a) epimysium b) perimysium c) endomysium 12. A bundle of muscle fibers wrapped together, as in question #11, is also known as a: a) cartilage b) tendon c) fascicle 13. Many fascicles can also be bound together by a tougher connective tissue called the: a) epimysium b) perimysium c) endomysium

14. Several epimysia (the plural of epimysium) that blend together into cords are called: a) tendons b) aponeuroses 15. Epimysia that blend together to form sheets are also known as: a) tendons b) aponeuroses 16. Skeletal muscle is found in which of the following locations? a) attached to bones b) attached to skin c) both of the above 17. Cardiac muscle is found in which of the following areas? a) b) c) d) the walls of the heart the walls of the arteries the walls of the veins all of the above

18. Smooth muscle is found in which of the following regions? a) b) c) d) the walls of the esophagus, stomach and intestines the wall of the urinary bladder the walls of respiratory passages all of the above

19. Which of the following describes a function of muscle tissue? a) b) c) d) e) it produces movement it maintains posture it stabilizes joints it produces heat all of the above

20. The plasma membrane of a muscle cell is called the: a) b) c) d) myofibril myofilament sarcolemma sarcomere

21. Muscle cell nuclei are pushed aside by long organelles in the cytoplasm known as: a) myofibrils b) sarcolemmas c) sarcomeres 22. The striated, or "striped" appearance of the myofibrils is due to the presence of alternating light (or "I") bands and dark (or "A") bands. (true) (false) 23. Myofibrils are made up of tiny contractile units called sarcomeres. (true) (false)

24. Smaller structures within sarcomeres that produce the banding pattern are called myofilaments. (true) (false) 25. The two types of threadlike protein myofilaments are the myosin (or thick) filaments and the actin (or thin) filaments. (true) (false) 26. Another muscle fiber organelle is the sarcoplasmic reticulum. (true) (false)

27. The sarcoplasmic reticulum stores calcium to release when the muscle fiber is stimulated to contract. (true) (false) 28. All skeletal muscle cells are stimulated by motor neurons. (true) (false)

29. The name of the chemical neurotransmitter produced by the motor neuron is acetylcholine. (true) (false) 30. Each light (or "I") band of the myofibril has a midline interruption called the "Z" line. (true) (false) 31. Each dark (or "A") band of the myofibril has a central area called the "H" zone. (true) (false) 32. The chemical that serves as the intracellular energy source is adenosine triphosphate or ATP. (true) (false) 33. It is not necessary for every single cell to contract in order for a skeletal muscle to function effectively. (true) (false) 34. Graded muscle contractions occur by either changing the speed of muscle stimulation, or by changing the number of muscle cells being stimulated. (true) (false) 35. When muscle contractions are smooth and sustained, the muscle is said to be in tetanus. (true) (false)

36. Glucose is broken down completely into CO2 and water during which of the following? a) aerobic metabolism b) anaerobic metabolism 37. Glucolysis that includes the accumulation of lactic and pyruvic acids is also known as: a) aerobic metabolism b) anaerobic metabolism 38. The more efficient of the two forms of metabolism is: a) aerobic metabolism b) anaerobic metabolism 39. Contractions in which the muscles shorten in length during tension are known as: a) isotonic contractions b) isometric contractions 40. Contractions in which the muscles do not shorten in length during tension are called: a) isotonic contractions b) isometric contractions 41. The properties common to all muscle tissue include which of the following? a) b) c) d) e) f) g) irritability responsivity contractility conductivity automaticity a, b, c and d all of the above

42. The property unique to the myocardium is: a) b) c) d) e) f) irritability responsivity contractility conductivity automaticity none of the above

43. The rules of skeletal muscle activity include which of the following? a) b) c) d) e) f) all muscles cross at least one joint usually, the bulk of the muscle is proximal to the crossed joint there are at least two attachments: the origin and the insertion muscles can only pull; they never push during contraction, the muscle insertion moves toward the origin all of the above

44. The muscle attachment at the immovable or less movable bone is called: a) the origin b) the insertion 45. The muscle attachment at the movable bone is called: a) the origin b) the insertion 46. A movement that decreases the angle of the joint to bring two bones closer is called: a) flexion b) extension c) hyperextension 47. A movement that increases the angle between two bones or body parts is called: a) flexion b) extension c) hyperextension 48. Extension greater than 180 degrees is called: a) flexion b) extension c) hyperextension 49. Inversion involves turning the sole of the foot to face medially. 50. Eversion directs the sole of the foot laterally. (true) (true) (false) (false) (true) (true) (false) (false)

51. Dorsiflexion of the foot points the toes toward the ceiling. 52. Plantar flexion points the toes downward, "ballerina"-style.

53. When several muscles contract at the same time, the one doing the bulk of the work is the: a) b) c) d) prime mover antagonist synergist fixator

54. A muscle that opposes or reverses a particular movement is called the: a) b) c) d) prime mover antagonist synergist fixator

55. The muscle assisting a prime mover by reducing unnecessary movement is called a: a) synergist b) fixator 56. The muscle stabilizing the origin of a prime mover is called the: a) synergist b) fixator 57. Muscles are named according to which of the following? a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) direction of muscle fibers relative size of the muscle location of the muscle number of muscle origins location of the muscle's origin and insertion shape of the muscle action of the muscle all of the above

58. Facial muscles include which of the following? a) b) c) d) e) f) frontalis orbicularis oculi orbicularis oris buccinator zygomaticus all of the above

59. The chewing muscles include which of the following? a) b) c) d) e) buccinator masseter temporalis only b and c all of the above

60. Anterior trunk and neck muscles include which of the following? a) b) c) d) e) f) platysma sternocleidomastoid pectoralis major intercostal muscles anterior abdominals (rectus abdominis, external and internal obliques, transverse abdominis) all of the above

61. Posterior trunk, neck and arm muscles include which of the following? a) b) c) d) e) trapezius latissimus dorsi erector spinae deltoid all of the above

62. Upper limb muscles include which of the following groups? a) those arising from the shoulder girdle, crossing the shoulder joint to insert into the humerus (pectoralis major, latissimus dorsi and deltoid) b) those enclosing the humerus, inserting on the forearm (biceps brachii and triceps brachii) c) forearm muscles which insert on the bones of the hand (anteriorly: flexor carpi and flexor digitorum; posterior-laterally: extensor carpi and extensor digitorum) d) all of the above 63. Muscles of the lower limb causing movement at the hip include which of the following? a) b) c) d) e) gluteus maximus gluteus medius iliopsoas adductor muscles all of the above

64. Muscles causing movement at the knee include which of the following? a) b) c) d) sartorius quadriceps group (rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, vastus medialis and vastus intermedialis) hamstring group (biceps femoris, semimembranosus and semitendinosus) all of the above

65. Muscles causing movement at the ankle and foot include which of the following? a) b) c) d) anterior tibialis peroneus group (peroneus longus, peroneus brevis and peroneus tertius) gastrocnemius all of the above

BONUS QUESTIONS:

(five points apiece)

According to the textbook, name one congenital muscular disease: _______________________________________________. According to the textbook, name one rare muscular disease of adulthood: __________________________________________.

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