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Anatomy and Physiology Exam # 4: The Muscular System 1. Which of the following is not a function of the muscular system?

A. breathing B. moving fluids within the body C. production of hormones D. supporting the body in an erect and weight-bearing posture 2. Which of the following connective tissue structures connects a muscle to a bone? A. ligament B. tendon C. membrane D. none of the above MATCH THE TYPE OF CONNECTIVE TISSUE LAYER WITH ITS DESCRIPTION 3. ____ endomysium A. This connective tissue layer surrounds the entire muscle. 4. ____ perimysium B. This connective tissue layer surrounds each individual muscle cell. 5. ____ epimysium C. This connective tissue layer separates the muscle into groups of muscle cells (fascicles) D. This connective tissue layer covers a group of muscles 6. What are the names of the two protein filaments that form the myofibrils within a muscle cell? A. myoglobin and reticulum B. reticulum and myosin C. actin and myosin D. myoglobin and myosin 7. What is the name of the structure that carries the stimulus for muscle contraction deep into the muscle cell? A. neuromuscular reticulum B. transverse tubules C. sarcoplasmic reticulum D. stimulus unit 8. What is the name of the structure that releases calcium within a muscle cell to initiate a muscle contraction? A. neuromuscular reticulum B. transverse tubules C. sarcoplasmic reticulum D. stimulus unit 9. What is the name of the location where a branch of a motor nerve connects to a muscle cell? A. neuromuscular junction B. transverse neural junction C. sarconeural emitter D. stimulus local 10. What is the name of the substance that bridges the gap between a motor nerve and a muscle cell? A. neuroemitter B. neurotransmitter C. motor message D. acetylemmetic 11. What is the name of the cellular organelle that creates energy? A. lysosome B. golgi body C. nucleus D. mitochondria 12. What is the name of the process that creates energy molecules within a muscle cell in the presence of oxygen? A. aerobic cellular respiration B. anaerobic cellular respiration C. glycolysis D. none of the above 1

MATCH THE TERM WITH ITS DESCRIPTION 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. ____ irritability ____ contractility ____ extensibility ____ elasticity ____ origin ____ insertion ____ belly ____ motor unit ____ agonist ____ antagonist ____ synergist ____ fixator A. the ability to digest large protein molecules B. the ability of a muscle to return to its original shape after being stretched C. the capacity of a muscle cell to receive and react to stimuli D. the ability to shorten E. the ability of a muscle to stretch A. the attachment of the muscle tendon to the movable bone B. the attachment of the muscle tendon to the stationary bone C. the attachment of the motor nerve to the muscle cell D. a motor nerve and all the muscle cells connected to it E. the fleshy portion of the muscle between the ends of the muscle A. this type of muscle opposes the desired action B. the attachment of the motor nerve to the muscle cell C. this type of muscle causes the desired action D. this type of muscle helps to steady the movement of other muscles E. this type of muscle stabilizes the origin of the muscle that causes the desired action

25. Which of the following types of muscle contractions occurs when there is no movement? A. isotonic B. isometric C. concentric D. eccentric 26. Which of the following types of muscle contractions occurs when there is movement? A. isotonic B. isometric C. constant D. none of the above 27. Which of the following types of muscle contractions results in the shortening of a muscle? A. isotonic B. isometric C. concentric D. eccentric 28. Which of the following types of muscle contractions results in an increase in the distance between the ends of a contracting muscle? A. isotonic B. isometric C. concentric D. eccentric MATCH THE MUSCLE DYSFUNCTION WITH ITS DESCRIPTION 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. ____ spasmA. progressive degeneration of the voluntary muscular system ____ hypertrophy B. inflammation of the muscular and connective tissue structures ____ dystrophy C. a sudden involuntary contraction of a muscle caused by nerve irritation ____ atrophy D. an increase in the number of muscle cells ____ myofibrositis E. a decrease in the breath of a muscle due to disuse F. an enlargement of the breadth of a muscle

34. Which type of muscle strain is the most severe? A. Grade I B. Grade II C. Grade III D. Grade IV

35. Which of the following properly describes a Grade II muscle strain? A. over-stretching of a few of the muscle cells with minimal tearing B. slight muscle pull with severe bleeding C. splitting of the myofibrils and torsion of the tendons D. partial tear of between 1 to 49% of the muscle cells with pain and some loss of function 36. Which of the following will result in muscle hypertrophy? A. lack of exercise B. improper nutrition C. weight training D. none of the above 37. Which of the following will result from interruption of the nerve supply to a muscle? A. muscle sprain B. muscle strain C. muscle hypertrophy D. muscle atrophy 38. What is the name of the thick protein filament that contributes to the myofibrils found within a muscle cell? A. epiactin B. actin C. myosin D. pectin 39. What is the name of the organized segments created by the intracellular protein filaments that gives skeletal muscle its striated appearance? A. myoneural fibers B. myofibrils C. diameters D. sarcomeres 40. Which mineral is responsible for causing muscle contraction? A. phosphorus B. calcium C. zinc D. iron 41. Which of the following muscles originates on the infraspinous fossa of the scapula? A. subscapularis B. supraspinatus C. teres minor D. latissimus dorsi 42. Which of the following muscles inserts on the superior angle of the scapula? A. infraspinatus B. teres major C. levator scapulae D. serratus anterior 43. Which of the following muscles has the action of retraction of the scapulas? A. rhomboids B. pectoralis minor C. serratus anterior D. pectoralis major 44. Which of the following muscles originates on the lateral epicondyle of the humerus? A. biceps brachii B. triceps brachii C. forearm flexors D. forearm extensors

45. Which of the following muscles inserts on the greater trochanter of the femur? A. adductor magnus B. gracilis C. iliopsoas D. piriformis 46. Which of the following muscles has the action of abduction of the hip? A. piriformis B. iliopsoas C. gluteus medius D. gluteus maximus 47. Which of the following muscles originates on the ischial tuberosity of the hip? A. semimembranosus B. vastus medialis C. rectus femoris D. sartorius 48. Which of the following muscles inserts on the tibial tuberosity via the quadriceps tendon? A. vastus lateralis B. biceps femoris C. semimembranosus D. gracilis 49. Which of the following muscles has the action of hip extension and knee flexion? A. vastus intermedius B. rectus femoris C. semitendinosus D. sartorius 50. Which of the following muscles originates on the anterior inferior iliac spine (AIIS) A. rectus femoris B. sartorius C. gracilis D. pectineus 51. Which of the following muscles inserts on the calcaneus via the achilles tendon? A. tibialis posterior B. tibialis anterior C. peroneus tertius D. gastrocnemius 52. Which of the following muscles has the action of eversion of the foot? A. tibialis anterior B. soleus C. peroneus longus D. semimembranosus 53. Which of the following muscles originates on the zygomatic arch? A. platysma B. masseter C. temporalis D. sternocleidomastoid 54. Which of the following muscles inserts on the greater tubercle of the humerus? A. subscapularis B. infraspinatus C. rhomboids D. short head of the biceps brachii

55. Which of the following muscles has the action of adduction and extension of the humerus? A. pectoralis minor B. teres minor C. supraspinatus D. teres major 56. Which of the following muscles originates on the spine of the scapula, acromion, and lateral clavicle? A. trapezius B. pectoralis major C. deltoid D. triceps brachii 57. Which of the following muscles inserts on the olecranon process of the ulna? A. triceps brachii B. biceps brachii C. latissimus dorsi D. teres major 58. Which of the following muscles has the action of external rotation of the hip? A. iliopsoas B. gluteus medius C. gluteus maximus D. piriformis 59. Which of the following muscles originates on the anterior pubis and ramus of the ischium? A. adductor magnus B. gluteus medius C. gluteus maximus D. tensor fascia latae 60. Which of the following muscles inserts on the lesser trochanter of the femur? A. piriformis B. gluteus medius C. iliopsoas D. sartorius 61. Which of the following muscles has the action of knee extension? A. vastus medialis B. biceps femoris C. gracilis D. adductor brevis 62. Which of the following muscles is the longest muscle in the body? A. rectus femoris B. sartorius C. semitendinosus D. iliopsoas 63. Which of the following muscles inserts on the lateral aspect of the fibula? A. semimembranosus B. adductor magnus C. gracilis D. biceps femoris 64. Which of the following muscles has the action of plantarflexion of the foot and ankle? A. extensor hallicus longus B. peroneus brevis C. soleus D. tibialis anterior

65. Which of the following muscles has the action of trunk flexion? A. quadratus lumborum B. sternocleidomastoid C. rectus abdominus D. erector spinae 66. Which of the following muscles inserts on the coracoid process of the scapula? A. rhomboids B. pectoralis major C. latissimus dorsi D. pectoralis minor 67. Which of the following muscles has the action of forearm flexion and supination? A. triceps brachii B. brachioradialis C. biceps brachii D. supinator 68. Which of the following muscles inserts on the medial aspect of the tibia? A. adductor magnus B. pectineus C. obturator externus D. gracilis 69. Which of the following muscles has the action of powerful extension of the hip? A. gluteus medius B. gluteus maximus C. iliopsoas D. piriformis 70. Which of the following muscles originates on the linea aspera of the femur? A. vastus lateralis B. vastus intermedius C. semitendinosus D. rectus femoris 71. Which of the following muscles inserts on the greater trochanter of the femur? A. iliopsoas B. vastus medialis C. gluteus maximus D. gluteus medius 72. Which of the following muscles has the action of hip flexion? A. gluteus maximus B. iliopsoas C. gluteus medius D. piriformis 73. Which of the following muscles originates on the medial and lateral femoral condyles? A. tibialis posterior B. soleus C. gastrocnemius D. tibialis anterior 74. Which of the following muscles inserts on coronoid process of the mandible? A. temporalis B. masseter C. platysma D. sternocleidomastoid

75. Which of the following muscles has the action of flexion, lateral flexion, and rotation of the neck? A. temporalis B. masseter C. platysma D. sternocleidomastoid 76. Which of the following muscles inserts on the greater tubercle of the humerus? A. subscapularis B. supraspinatus C. teres major D. trapezius 77. Which of the following muscles has the action of elevation, retraction, and depression of the scapulas? A. rhomboids B. pectoralis minor C. serratus anterior D. trapezius 78. Which of the following muscles originates on the sternum and medial clavicle? A. rhomboids B. pectoralis minor C. pectoralis major D. levator scapulae 79. Which of the following muscles inserts on the lesser tubercle of the humerus? A. subscapularis B. supraspinatus C. infraspinatus D. teres major 80. Which of the following muscles has the action of external rotation of the shoulder? A. subscapularis B. supraspinatus C. infraspinatus D. teres major 81. Which of the following muscles has the action of internal rotation of the shoulder? A. subscapularis B. supraspinatus C. infraspinatus D. teres minor 82. Which of the following muscles has the action of protraction of the scapulas? A. rhomboids B. latissimus dorsi C. serratus anterior D. supraspinatus 83. Which of the following is not one of the rotator cuff muscles? A. supraspinatus B. infraspinatus C. teres major D. subscapularis 84. Which of the following is not one of the quadriceps muscles? A. vastus intermedius B. vastus medialis C. vastus lateralis D. sartorius

85. Which of the following is not one of the hamstring muscles? A. biceps femoris B. rectus femoris C. semimembranosus D. semitendinosus 86. Which of the following is not one of the erector spinae muscles? A. longissimus B. spinalis C. iliocostalis D. latissimus 87. Which of the following muscles has the action of flexion, extension, and abduction of the humerus? A. pectoralis minor B. latissimus dorsi C. deltoid D. trapezius 88. Which of the following muscles has the action of forearm extension? A. soleus B. triceps brachii C. biceps brachii D. pectoralis minor 89. Which of the following groups of muscles has the action of knee extension? A. quadriceps B. hamstrings C. erector spinae D. rotator cuff muscles 90. Which of the following groups of muscles has the action of hip extension and knee flexion? A. quadriceps B. hamstrings C. erector spinae D. rotator cuff muscles