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THE NERVOUS SYSTEM Circle the correct answer: (one point apiece)

1. The functions of the nervous system include which of the following? a) b) c) d) it monitors changes ("stimuli") inside and outside the body to gather sensory input it processes and interprets sensory input to make decisions ("integration") it effects a response ("motor output") by activating muscles or glands all of the above

2. The structural subdivisions of the nervous system include which of the following? a) b) c) d) the central nervous system (or CNS) the peripheral nervous system (or PNS) both of the above neither of the above (true) (false) (true) (false)

3. The CNS is made up of both brain and spinal cord.

4. The PNS is made up of both spinal nerves and cranial nerves.

5. The functional classification of the PNS includes which of the following? a) b) c) d) the sensory, or afferent, division the motor, or efferent, division both of the above neither of the above

6. The subdivisions of the motor division include which of the following? a) b) c) d) the somatic, or voluntary, nervous system the autonomic, or involuntary, nervous system both of the above neither of the above

7. The afferent division conveys information in which of the following directions? a) toward the central nervous system b) away from the central nervous system 8. The efferent division carries impulses in which of the following directions? a) toward the central nervous system b) away from the central nervous system

9. The autonomic (involuntary) nervous system contains both sympathetic and parasympathetic components. (true) (false) 10. Supportive cells (also known as neuroglia or simply glia) in the central nervous system perform which of the following functions? a) b) c) d) e) supportive protective insulative specialized all of the above

11. Neuroglia (also known as glia) include which of the following types? a) b) c) d) e) f) g) astrocytes (a barrier between neurons and capillaries) microglia (phagocytes that dispose of debris) ependymal cells (the linings of fluid-filled cavities) oligodendrocytes (to form myelin sheaths around CNS nerve fibers) Schwann cells (to form myelin sheaths around PNS nerve fibers) satellite cells (to protect and cushion) all of the above (true) (false)

12. Neuroglia are not capable of transmitting impulses.

13. Neuroglia never lose their ability to divide. (true) (false) 14. Neurons can transmit impulses, but do lose their ability to divide. 15. Most brain tumors are formed by glial (or neuroglial) cells. 16. This type of brain tumor would be called a glioma. 17. All neurons contain which of the following? a) a cell body b) one or more slender processes (also known as fibers) c) both of the above 18. Neuron processes (fibers) that conduct impulses toward the cell body are called: a) axons b) dendrites (true) (false)

(true) (false)

(true) (false)

19. Neuron processes (fibers) that conduct impulses away from the cell body are called: a) axons b) dendrites 20. The longest human neuron fibers reach from lumbar region to big toe. (true) (false) 21. Most long nerve fibers are covered with a protective coating called myelin. 22. Each neuron may have multiple dendrites, but has only one axon. 23. The chemical at the axonal terminal is called a neurotransmitter. (true) (true) (true) (false) (false) (false)

24. Nerve cells never actually touch each other. The space between them is called the synapse, synaptic cleft, or synaptic junction. (true) (false) 25. For the most part, cell bodies are found in the CNS in clusters called nuclei. (true) (false) 26. Small collections of cell bodies in the PNS are called ganglia. (true) (false)

27. Bundles of nerve fibers (neuron processes) in the CNS are called which of the following? a) tracts b) nerves 28. Bundles of nerve fibers (neuron processes) in the PNS are called which of the following? a) tracts b) nerves 29. The "white matter" region of the CNS consists of which of the following? a) myelinated fibers (or tracts) b) unmyelinated fIbers and cell bodies 30. The "gray matter" region of the CNS consists of which of the following? a) myelinated fibers (or tracts) b) unmyelinated fibers and cell bodies 31. Neurons may be classified according to which of the following? a) their function b) their structure c) both of the above

32. Functional classification includes which of the following? a) b) c) d) sensory neurons motor neurons association neurons all of the above

33. Which of the following is/are true of sensory neurons? a) b) c) d) e) f) g) they are also called afferent neurons their cell bodies are always found in a ganglion outside the CNS they are found in skin, muscles, and tendons they keep us informed about what is happening outside the body they keep us informed about what is happening inside the body their dendrite endings are usually associated with specialized receptors all of the above

34. Complex receptors of the special senses include which of the following? a) b) c) d) e) f) vision hearing equilibrium taste smell all of the above

35. Some simpler sensory receptors are found in which of the following areas? a) in the skin (cutaneous sense organs) b) in muscles and tendons (the proprioceptors) c) in both of the above 36. The types of sensory receptors include which of the following? a) b) c) d) e) f) naked nerve endings (for pain and temperature) Meissner's corpuscle (for touch) the Pacinian corpuscle (for deep pressure) the Gojgi tendon organ (a proprioceptor) the muscle spindle (a proprioceptor) all of the above

37. The least specialized of the cutaneous receptors are the naked nerve endings. (true) (false) 38. The cutaneous receptors for pain are also the most numerous. (true) (false)

39. The proprioceptors detect the amount of stretch or tension in which of the following? a) b) c) d) skeletal muscles tendons joints all of the above

40. Which of the following is/are true of motor neurons? a) b) c) d) e) f) they are also known as efferent neurons they carry impulses from the CNS to the viscera they carry impulses from the CNS to the muscles they carry impulses from the CNS to glands their cell bodies are always located in the central nervous system all of the above

41. Which of the following is/are true of association neurons? a) b) c) d) they are also called interneurons they connect motor and sensory neurons in neural pathways their cell bodies are always located in the central nervous system all of the above

42. Structural classification is based on the number of processes, and includes: a) b) c) d) multipolar neurons (which have several processes) bipolar neurons (which have two processes: an axon and a dendrite) unipolar neurons (which have a single process emerging from the cell body) all of the above

43. The major functional properties of neurons include which of the following? a) irritability (the ability to respond to stimuli and convert them to impulses) b) conductivity (the ability to transmit impulses to other cells) c) both of the above 44. The phenomenon of depolarization/repolarization is based upon the exchange of sodium (Na+) and potassium (K+) ions. (true) (false) 45. A neuron cannot conduct another impulse until repolarization is complete. (true) (false)

46. The sodium-potassium pump uses ATP to move sodium ions out of the cell and bring the potassium ions back inside. (true) (false) 47. Depolarization describes the movement of Na+ into, and K+ out of, the cell. (true) (false)

48. The process described in question #46 is also known as repolarization.

(true) (false)

49. Fibers with myelin sheaths conduct impulses faster than unmyelinated fibers. (true) (false) 50. The type of rapid impulse propagation described in question #49 is called saltatory conduction. (true) (false) 51. Factors that can impair the conduction of impulses include which of the following? a) alcohol, sedatives and anesthetics (by reducing membrane permeability to Na+) b) cold and continuous pressure (by interfering with circulation) c) both of the above 52. Impulse transmission is a chemo-electrical phenomenon. 53. Which of the following is true of reflexes? a) b) c) d) e) reflexes are rapid reflexes are predictable reflexes are involuntary responses to stimuli reflexes occur over neural pathways called reflex arcs all of the above (true) (false) (true) (false)

54. There are two types of body reflexes: autonomic and somatic. 55. Which of the following is true of autonomic reflexes? a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h)

they regulate the activity of smooth muscles, heart and glands they regulate the secretion of saliva (the salivary reflex) they regulate pupil size (the pupillary reflex) they regulate digestion they regulate elimination they regulate blood pressure they regulate sweating all of the above (true) (false)

56. Somatic reflexes include all reflexes that stimulate the skeletal muscles. 57. AII reflex arcs contain which of the following elements? a) b) c) d) e) f)

a sensory receptor (which reacts to a stimulus) an effector organ (the muscle or gland eventually stimulated) the connecting afferent neurons the connecting efferent neurons the synapse between afferent and efferent neurons (or CNS integration center) all of the above five elements

58. Folic acid is essential to the prevention of open neural tube birth defects. 59. The four chambers in the brain are called ventricles. (true) (false)

(true)

(false)

60. The major regions of the brain include which of the following? a) b) c) d) e) the cerebral hemispheres the diencephalons the brain stem the cerebellum all of the above

61. The largest region of the brain is/are the: a) b) c) d) diencephalon brainstem cerebellum cerebral hemispheres

62. Which of the following is also known as the interbrain? a) b) c) d) the diencephalon the brainstem the cerebellum the cerebral hemispheres

63. Which of the following is/are contained in the brainstem? a) b) c) d) the midbrain the pons the medulla oblongata all of the above

64. Which of the following are functions performed by the cerebellum? a) b) c) d) e) timing for skeletal muscle activity balance and equilibrium coordination of body movements habitual or "automatic" activities all of the above

65. The medulla oblongata is the part of the brainstem that performs regulatory functions. (true) (false) 66. The medulla oblongata merges into the spinal cord. (true) (false)

67. The central nervous system is protected by which of the following structures? a) b) c) d) e) bone (the skull and vertebral column) the three meninges (dura mater, arachnoid mater and pia mater) cerebrospinal fluid the blood-brain barrier all of the above (true) (false)

68. Inflammation of the meninges is called meningitis.

69. Loss or extraction of cerebrospinal fluid results in a drop in intracranial pressure, resulting in the physical symptom of a severe headache. (true) (false) 70. Drainage of cerebrospinal fluid from the ear suggests cranial fracture. (true) (false) 71. Cerebrospinal fluid is often abbreviated "CSF". (true) (false)

72. The accumulation of CSF, resulting in increased intracranial pressure, is known as hydrocephalus. (true) ( false) 73. Which of the following is/are associated with brain trauma? a) b) c) d) concussion contusion cerebral edema all of the above

74. Which of the following are examples of degenerative brain disease? a) cerebrovascular accidents (also known as CV A or "stroke") b) Alzheimer's disease c) both of the above 75. Which of the following is/are true of the spinal cord? a) b) c) d) e) f) g) it is enclosed within the vertebral column it is a continuation of the brain stem it is covered by meninges it extends from the foramen magnum to the level of L1 or L2 it generates 31 pairs of spinal nerves the inferior end is known as the cauda equina ("horse's tail" in Latin) all of the above (true) (false)

76. The spinal cord contains "gray matter" and "white matter".

77. If the spinal cord is transected or crushed, spastic paralysis results. 78. When all four limbs are paralyzed, the condition is known as: a) paraplegia b) quadriplegia 79. When only the legs are paralyzed, the condition is known as: a) paraplegia b) quadriplegia 80 to 91. Name the cranial nerves: O _______________________________ O _______________________________ O _______________________________ T _______________________________ T _______________________________ A _______________________________

(true)

(false)

F _________________________________ A _________________________________ G _________________________________ V _________________________________ A _________________________________ H _________________________________ (true) (true) (false) (false)

92. The 12 pairs of cranial nerves primarily serve the head and neck. 93. The only pair that extends to thorax and abdomen is the tenth pair. 94. There are 35 pairs of spinal nerves. (true) (false) (true)

95. Complex networks of spinal nerves are called plexuses. 96. Which of the following are spinal nerve plexuses? a) b) c) d) e)

(false)

the cervical plexus (originating from ventral rami of C1 to C5) the brachial plexus (originating from ventral rami of C5-C8, and T1) the lumbar plexus (originating from ventral rami of L1 to L4) the sacral plexus (originating from ventral rami of L4-L5 and S1-S4) all of the above

97. The important nerve of the cervical plexus is the phrenic nerve. It serves the diaphragm, the muscles of the shoulder and the muscles of the neck. (true) (false) 98. Important nerves of the brachial plexus include which of the following? a) b) c) d) e) f) axillary (serves the deltoid muscle) radial (serves the triceps and extensor forearm muscles) median (serves flexors of forearm and some hand muscles) musculocutaneous (serves flexor muscles of the arm) ulnar (serves the wrist and many hand muscles) all of the above

99. Important nerves of the lumbar plexus include which of the following? a) femoral (serves lower abdomen, buttocks, thighs, skin of anteromedial leg and thigh) b) obturator (serves adductors of medial thigh, small hip muscles, skin of medial thigh and hip joint) c) both of the above 100.Important nerves of the sacral plexus include which of the following? a) sciatic (splits to common peroneal and tibial; serves lower trunk, posterior thigh and leg) 1a. common peroneal (serves lateral leg and foot) 2a. tibial (serves posterior leg and foot b) superior and inferior gluteal nerves (to serve gluteal muscles of the hip) c) all of the above

BONUS QUESTION:

(five points each)

The two divisions of the autonomic nervous system are: _________________________________________ and _________________________________________.