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PRIMARY DENTITION

Also known as deciduous dentition or milk teeth 20 primary teeth as compared to the 32 permanent teeth No premolars in the primary dentition Primary molars are replaced by the premolars Permanent first molar erupts distal to the primary second molar

Primary teeth eruption (Teething) - Baby teeth chart

Around the 8th week after conception, oval-shaped tooth buds start to form and harden in the embryo's mouth. Although the baby teeth aren't visible when a child is born, both the primary and permanent teeth are partially formed below the gums. The tooth crown develops first and after it is fully grown, the root begins to develop. Then between about six months and 1 year old, the deciduous teeth begin to push through the gums. This process is called baby teeth eruption or teething. A child gets his first complete set of primary teeth by the age of 3. The baby teeth chart shows the average age that each primary tooth is expected to erupt. But not all baby teeth follow these rules. Some infants may have their first primary tooth (usually one of the bottom middle teeth) erupted as early as 3 months. Others may reach their first birthday or more without getting their first deciduous tooth. If there is no sign of teething by this age you should ask for a pediatrician's advise. That kind of late development of primary teeth is more common in premature babies. In some rare cases (1 every 2.000) infants are born with one or more teeth (called natal teeth) or may have teeth emerge within the first month (called neonatal teeth). A dentist should evaluate the teeth's condition, as they could be loose, interfere with feeding or irritate the baby's tongue. The eruption of the first primary tooth marks the starting point for your child's oral hygiene. Baby teeth are susceptible to tooth decay as soon as they appear. The main dental problems related with primary teeth are : baby bottle tooth decay, thumb sucking and the early loss of primary teeth before the eruption of permanent teeth.

Chronology of Eruption
Primary teeth begin to erupt at the age of 6 months where the mandibular central incisors being the first to erupt. Eruption of all primary teeth is completed by 2 to second deciduous molars come into occlusion 3 years of age when the

Between 3-6 years, the dental arch is stable and very few changes occur. ERUPTION SEQUENCE :A-BDCE

Numbering System
FDI (Federation Dentaire Internationale) Two digit system Adopted by WHO and IADR Also known as ISO-3950 notation 55 54 53 52 51 85 84 83 82 81 61 62 63 64 65 71 72 73 74 75

Features of Primary Dentition

According to Baume, there are some general characteristics of primary teeth. They are : Arches are half round Flat or no curve of Spee Shallow cuspal interdigitation Little or no crowding Slight overjet or overbite

Vertical inclination of teeth is 90 degrees

SPACING IN PRIMARY DENTITION


Spaces present between the primary teeth are known as physiological or developmental spaces Importance For normal development of permanent teeth Absence of space indicates possible occurrence of crowding in the permanent dentition

Primate space
Also known as simian or anthropoid space Present mesial to the maxillary canines and distal to the madibular canines They help in placement of the canine cusps of the opposing arch

FLUSH TERMINAL PLANE

1) Terminal Plane The mesio-distal relation between the distal surfaces of the upper and lower second deciduous molars 2) Flush terminal plane The distal surfaces of the upper and lower second deciduous molars are in the same vertical plane Also known as vertical plane Normal feature in the primary dentition Gives rise to Angles Class I malocclusion in the permananent teeth

3) Mesial Step The distal surface of the lower second primary molar is more mesial than the upper So, permanent molars erupt directly into Angles Class I molar relationship Occurs due to early forward growth of the mandible Can also lead to Angles Class III malocclusion if the forward growth of mandible persist 4) Distal Step Distal surface of the lower second molar is more distal than the upper May lead to Angles Class II malocclusion

LEEWAY SPACE OF NANCE


The combined mesio-distal width of the permanent canines and the premolars is usually less than that of the primary canines and molars The amount is greater in the mandibular arch (3.4 mm) compared to the maxillary arch (1.8 mm) The excess space available, after the exchange of the primary canines and molar is utilized for mesial drift of the mandibular molars to establish Class I molar relationship in the permanent dentition

DEEP BITE
May occur in the initial stages of development Lower incisal edges often contact the cingulum area of the maxillary incisors Later reduced due to : Eruption of deciduous molars Attrition of incisors Forward movement of mandible due to growth

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UGLY DUCKLING STAGE


Also known as the Broadbent phenomenon It is a transient malocclusion which occurs in the mixed dentition stage Age : 8-9 years Seen during the eruption of the permanent canines where the roots of the lateral incisors are displaced mesially The force is transmitted to the roots of the central incisors and causing them to be displaced mesially A resultant distal divergence of the crowns of the central incisors causes a midline spacing Since the children tend to look ugly in this stage, parents are often apprehensive and will consult the dentist It is a self correcting malocclusion where the canines erupt and the pressure is transferred from the roots to the coronal area of the incisors

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