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Line Balancing

Description Line Balancing is leveling the workload across all processes in a cell or value stream to remove bottlenecks and excess capacity. A constraint slows the process down and results if waiting for downstream operations and excess capacity results in waiting and absorption of fixed costs. Objective Match the production rate after all wastes have been removed to the takt time at each process of the value stream. EXAMPLE: Taking the example from the takt time page as the starting point there were additional studies conducted each the remaining processes that it takes to make UNIT ABC.  There are five processes in the workcell dedicated to only UNIT ABC.  Each process has same demand and available work time = same takt time. The LOADING data was found using historical production data of ACCEPTABLE parts only including downtime but only when the processes were scheduled with operator(s). The customer only wants acceptable parts and that is what the customer demand is based on within the takt time formula. When figuring the production rates (loading) the scrap or non-conforming pieces must be netted out.

Often the bottlenecks or areas of excess capacity are known by the team members but this analysis provides the quantititave data to prioritize activities to improve.

Improvement in these areas could be used to share workload from constraint processes. Overtime is probably used to make up production and is the #1 constraint. overtime is probably used or there are late deliveries. Apply Lean Manufacturing principles and . high expediting costs or unhappy customers. Process 3 & 5: Very close to meeting takt time. Process 4: Taking longer than takt time. Again. Process 2: Exceeding the takt time. probably a lot of waiting and the excess capacity can be filled by absorbing some of the work from Process 1 and/or Process 4. not a focus area but possibly some best practices and application of LEAN tools can improve these loading rates.Process 1: Taking much longer than takt time.

There were gains and the success was to the point where there was so much excess capacity that all the activities could now be completed in four processes. the goal is to have the loading rates meet the takt time and this is accomplished as the chart indicates. Develop a plan for immediate.try to alleviate workload to Process 2 or others that may be able be improved to absorb some of the workload. motion studies. Floor space was gained and excess older and fully depreciated equipment were sold for cash. Professional signage.  Some steps in each process were no longer required as former paradigms and rules were challenged.  Point-of-use tooling and shadow boards were implemented. Recall. Examine all the specific activities occurring in each process. Run studies to determine potential LOADING improvements.  Kanbans were established for materials.  And/on lights were added as communication signals.  SMED activity was done on all operations with focus on Process 1. low-cost improvements. There is most likely not much that can be done to change the takt time.  5S event held with key stakeholders. advanced comprehensive training and capital investements are not needed or justified yet. Time studies. There speeds were dramatically improved (the "performance" component of OEE)  Error-proof jig to prevent defects and rework was implemented. . AFTER The table and chart below shows the results of the improvements.  The machines in a couple operations received upgrades and overdue minor rebuild and were added to a TPM program. A new loading study was done and the results are shown. but the top priority are relieving constraint operations.  Standard operating procedures and training were done for all operators.  Visual Management tools were added to reduce complexity and improve consistency of units produced. Improving the LOADING even in non-constraint operations is desirable. focus on improving the LOADING (production rate). and other Lean tools often provide most the ideas for improvement.

six-sigma-material.Return to Takt Time Return to LEAN MANUFACTURING Source: http://www.html .com/Line-Balancing.