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ENTREPRENEUERSHIP DEVELOPMENT REPORT ON S & S ESCALATORS CROSSOVER

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of degree of Bachelor of Business Administration of Christ University, Bangalore-560029

By, MR. Avinash Prakash (1011611) MR. Chaitanya Rawat (1011613)

Under the guidance of, Prof. Niranjan.LR

Department of Management Studies Christ University, Bangalore-560029

2011-2012

ENTREPRENEURSHIP DEVELOPMENT PROJECT

2012

DECLARATION

We hereby declare that, this report titled, “Entrepreneurship Development Report”, project work carried out by me under the supervision of Prof. Niranjan.LR of Department of Management Studies, Christ University, Bangalore. This work previously has not formed part of any basis for the award of any degree or diploma offered by any institution or university.

This is a record of bonafide and original work submitted by me in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of degree of Bachelor of Business Administration.

Place: Bangalore Date:

MR. Avinash Prakash (1011611)

MR. Chaitanya Rawat (1011613)

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ENTREPRENEURSHIP DEVELOPMENT PROJECT

2012

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

We would like to express my profound gratitude to all those who have been instrumental in the preparation of this “Entrepreneurship Development Report. I wish to place on records, my deep gratitude to my project guide Prof. Niranjan, for guiding me through this project with valuable and timely advice. We would like to thank Dr. (Fr). Thomas. C. Mathew, Vice Chancellor and Dr. Jain Mathew, HOD, for their encouragement. Last but not least, We would like to thank my parents and friends for their constant help and support.

Mr. Avinash Prakash (1011611) Mr. Chaitanya Rawat (1011613)

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ENTREPRENEURSHIP DEVELOPMENT PROJECT

2012

CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that, this project report titled “Entrepreneurship Development Report”, submitted to the Christ University [Department of Management Studies] in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of the Degree of Bachelor of Business Administration, is a record of the original and independent work carried out byAvinash Prakash (1011611) and Chaitanya Rawat (1011613) under my guidance and supervision. This has not previously formed the basis of the award of any degree, diploma awarded by any institution/ university.

Place: Bangalore Date: Prof. Niranjan.LR

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ENTREPRENEURSHIP DEVELOPMENT PROJECT

2012

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page No’s.
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY OBJECTIVES, MISSION, VISION and VALUES CHAPTER 1- Introduction Profile of the entrepreneurs Nature of Business, Size of Unit and ownership pattern 6 7 8-10 8 9
10


   

Proposed Product information

CHAPTER 2 – Industrial analysis
Industry Growth Rate Competition analysis SWOT analysis Escalator and its history 11-12 12-14 14-16 17-18

11-18

CHAPTER 3- Project Feasibility Study

  

19-49
19-22 23-33 34- 49

Economic Viability Technical Viability Financial Viability

CHAPTER 4- Implementation Schedule CHAPTER 5 – Bibliography and Conclusion

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time taking and unsafe. With over 130. Already escalators are working efficiently in airports and commercial places like malls etc. Road accidents have earned India a dubious distinction. railway stations and other public places. This would reduce waste of time in people crossing road and also will ensure safety of people crossing the roads. S & S crossover is a company which builds escalator crossovers for road crossing from crossovers or bridges which is run by escalators. This project is new to Indian market and this would not only ensure safety of people but also will help the countries development of infrastructure which is very essential for the growth of a company. This project is making escalator crossovers in major signals and traffic area where road crossing is risky.ENTREPRENEURSHIP DEVELOPMENT PROJECT 2012 Executive summary Security & Safety(S&S) crossover is construction industry based company which aims in safety of pedestrians and common people in major cities.000 deaths annually. In such areas at major cities we will implement these escalator crossovers which would be moving stairs where people can cross the road easily just by standing on the escalators. 6 . This project may be expensive for government for implementing and also for maintaining like electricity but the government can afford it for developing the nation’s infrastructure and for people’s safety and road safety measures. the country has overtaken China and now has the worst road traffic accident rate worldwide. We will sale this project to government when fully finished and will also provide services like maintenance and repairs after sale. Also these projects can be used in common places like bus stations. Many foreign countries like Singapore have implemented this project effectively which has helped in infrastructure development of the country. This project can help reducing the accidents at signals and accidents due to unorganized road crossing for some extent.

Excellent customer service by providing maintenance and repairs even after passing the project to government.. To make road crossing safer. To reduce the accidents caused due to unorganised road crossing. Values We pledge to operate within the highest ethical standards at all times. Vision To improve the infrastructure and standard of living of common people. government. S & S will strive to exhibit and encourage the following characteristics in all service and transfer of project with our clients i. government by following values like: Honesty Service Civility Timely Transparency 7 .ENTREPRENEURSHIP DEVELOPMENT PROJECT 2012 Our objectives:     To ensure safety of the pedestrians in major cities.e. Mission S & S crossover aims for better service. comfort and easy.e.. To improve the infrastructure of the nation. Utilizing new technology by importing the machines for manufacturing process. improved technology and cost effective processing. S & S aims to maintain its position at the forefront through:    Continuously improving its offering to the client i.

Sparta 1. 10. Bangalore . Prestige Acropolis koramangala. CONTACT NO.04 CONTACT NO. Basavaguddi. 61. Flat no. Tivari Manor. Karnataka.com Chaitanya Rawat AGE: GENDER: EDUCATION: PERMANENT ADDRESS: 19 MALE Currently Pursing BBM at Christ University Flat 206.com 8 .ENTREPRENEURSHIP DEVELOPMENT PROJECT 2012 Chapter 1: Introduction Profile of the entrepreneurs: Avinash Prakash AGE: GENDER: EDUCATION: PERMANENT ADDRESS: 18 MALE Currently Pursing BBA at Christ University No. EMAIL ID: +91-9008594144 kanurawat@gmail. Bangalore. HB samara road. EMAIL ID: +91-9945439377 avinash99910@gmail.

Therefore. Nature Size Sector Goods Produced Manufacturing and installing. Large.Scaled Construction Industry Escalators stairs and moving escalator Legal ownership pattern: S&S Escalators Construction will exist as an equal partnership between the principles of: C. The company will also provide service like maintenance and repairs for the escalators in crossovers. the company plans to add more partners to the firm as opportunities arise. retaining as much talent as possible is crucial. As one of the company's goals is to focus on high quality workmanship. The company is involved in manufacturing process by getting the latest technology by getting machineries for production. 9 .Avinash and ChaitanyaSipani.ENTREPRENEURSHIP DEVELOPMENT PROJECT 2012 Nature of Business: S & S crossover is a large scale company which would be targeting all metro and major cities in India. The process of manufacturing and installing will also require labour and machinery tools to convert into complete project which would be transferred to government.

and other public places. railway stations. We have thought of providing our service in roads as escalator crossovers in major traffic areas like signals in metro cities which will not only reduce the traffic but also will help in safety measure improving the nations standard by improvement in infrastructure. With complete specifications. All the safety measures will be kept in mind and we would provide the best quality and service to our clients which is mostly government. flexible layouts and designs the product becomes more user friendly and maintainable.ENTREPRENEURSHIP DEVELOPMENT PROJECT 2012 Proposed Product information: Escalators are widely used in big malls. styles. airports. business centres. High quality material and equipments will be implemented from foreign countries which will be used in our project and this project will be sold to government at reasonable cost. It is an ideal transportation means connecting different floors and destination points of the building. supermarkets. subways. 10 .

manufacturing. most of them do not have the resources to bid for big contracts. and HCC on various financial and industry-specific qualitative parameters. These players are increasing their market share through large-scale contracts. Processes in these industries require highly specialized expertise in planning. which includes profiling of L&T. Industrial construction is very important. Jaiprakash Associates. It also examines the competitive dynamics along the industry supply chain within Porter's Five Forces framework. industrial corporations. infrastructural bottlenecks and a shortage of civil engineers. joint ventures and foreign operations. chemical. the report also scans the environment through a PEST analysis. The industry is experiencing increasing polarisation between large and small players. though a relatively small part of the entire construction industry. The top 10 players. The Indian construction industry is facing the challenges of outdated land and property ownership regulations. Gammon India. Apart from studying the key drivers and critical issues in the construction industry. A unique aspect of this report is a peer group competitive analysis. Growth of construction industries: The Indian construction industry recorded a consistent double-digit year-on-year growth of 12% during 2000-2005. etc. for-profit. is a very important component. Sometimes it may cause or harm the environment. Patel Engineering Limited (PEL). petroleum. This report is a comprehensive study of the Indian construction industry within the larger context of various environmental factors. power generation. and is expected to grow at 25-30% during 2005-2010. The key drivers of this growth are government investment in infrastructure creation and real estate demand in the residential and industrial sectors. this type of construction requires a team of individuals to ensure a successful project. As in building and heavy/highway construction. and construction. and Hindustan Construction Company (HCC).ENTREPRENEURSHIP DEVELOPMENT PROJECT 2012 Chapter 2: Industry Analysis Industrial construction Industrial construction. Though an increasing number of small players are also entering the market. Owners of these projects are usually large. 11 . such as Gammon India. contributed to 75% of the total revenue in 2005. These corporations can be found in such industries as medicine. design.

lifting platforms. home lifts. are being used more often now Lift and Escalator Industry Association: LEIA Member products include:       Lifts.The introduction of REITs (Real Estate Investment Trusts) by mobilizing capital markets will further accelerate real estate growth . 3-D modelling.Technological developments. LEIA members supply passenger and goods/service lifts.ENTREPRENEURSHIP DEVELOPMENT PROJECT 2012 .000 products falling within the scope of the Association. With a membership covering some 95% of the lift and escalator industry. LEIA members also undertake the maintenance of over 250. formed in 1997 by the merging of two long standing associations with a history dating back to 1932. LEIA is the trade association and advisory body for the lift and escalator industry. driven by growing number of infrastructure projects and a booming real estate sector .India recorded the highest construction spend growth in 2005. passenger conveyors and a range of component parts for such products. escalators. Passenger and Goods Service Lifts Escalators Moving Walks Lifting Platforms Stair lifts Home Lifts In addition to Manufacturers of a range of products for the above equipment. stair lifts. such as ready-mix concrete. 12 . and mobile computing. LEIA represents a single voice for the sector.

Certification to ISO 9001 demonstrates that LEIA member companies have the people. management systems and track record to undertake work professionally and competently. unusually for a trade association.885 billion. The company headquarters are located in Farmington. The Twilight Zone Tower of Terror. It is estimated that the equivalent of the world's population travel in Otis elevators. BurjKhalifa. COMPETITION ANALYSIS: Otis Elevator Company The Otis Elevator Company is the world's largest manufacturer of vertical transportation systems today. According to United Technologies. safety and standards matters. World Trade Centre. Founded in Yonkers. Petronas Twin Towers. Statistically.000 employees. Determination of skills requirements and the promotion of education and training.ENTREPRENEURSHIP DEVELOPMENT PROJECT 2012 LEIA objectives include:      Provision of advice on health. invented by Otis in 1852. with 2007 revenue of US$11. Co-operation within the sector and between the sector and its customers and suppliers. technical expertise. the company pioneered the development of the safety elevator. Because LEIA requires that certification is achieved through a UKAS accredited body. Development of the commercial environment. Connecticut. principally focusing on elevators and escalators. CN Tower and the Skylon Tower. New York. The company has over 60. escalators and moving walkways every three days. Otis was acquired by United Technologies in 1976 and is a wholly-owned subsidiary. Maintaining the best standards of quality and workmanship. the facilities. Otis is the world's most popular transportation company. which used a special mechanism to lock the elevator car in place should the hoisting ropes fail. Empire State Building. has established such certification as criterion for membership of the Association. 13 . Otis elevators carry the equivalent of the world's population every nine days. Commitment to high standards: LEIA is proud to hold ISO 9001 certification and. including the Eiffel Tower. USA in 1853 by Elisha Otis. ISO 9001 assists member companies in satisfying conformity assessment procedures under the Lift Regulations 1997 for the evaluation of technical competence. procedures which are subject to third party annual audits. Otis has installed elevators in some of the world's most famous structures.

Determined to provide quality products in transportation. It formerly transported people to the upper floors. World class engineering. but the upper floors are no longer occupied so the lift is no longer used. There are still some installations of Evans Lifts being used today. Latest technology: we have the updated and latest technology in market by importing machinery from abroad which would help us provide new technology and provide are service at competitive cost. 100% inspection & testing of all components. In 1996. Continuous effort by our R & D department to keep in pace with the changing global standards of safety & style.ENTREPRENEURSHIP DEVELOPMENT PROJECT 2012 Otis has also dabbled in horizontal automated people-mover "shuttle" systems. international styling. was the oldest and largest manufacturer of lift equipment in the UK and was based in Leicester. of Northampton. The building has since been extended by Otis. where the Express Lift Tower still dominates the skyline. an original Evans Lift is still in the Silver Arcade in Leicester. Omega Omega are determined to play a major role in transportation of all kinds. complete safety & smooth ride with user friendly control. Otis Elevator Company purchased Express Evans Lifts in the UK.         All projects are properly planned in order to meet deadlines. Evans Lifts Ltd. Otis formed a joint venture called Poma-Otis Transportation Systems with the French company Pomagalski to promote these products. we will provide our project and service at reasonable and competitive cost. 14 . Otis' Customer Care Centre is still based in the old Express Evans Lifts building in Leicester. before being acquired by the Express Lift Co. England. All the technicians are well trained as per OMEGA's high standards for efficiency and accuracy. Confirms to various international standards. Policy of Zero Customer Dis-satisfaction (ZCD) is always in practice. 2. Cheaper and competitive cost: Due to modern technology and updated knowledge. Ltd. Notably. SWOT ANALYSIS STRENGTHS: 1.

Even the Indian citizen can give as a moral support to grow. Raw materials: The availability of raw materials is also easy as the basic raw materials are manmade resources like motors and metal chains. This can create a lot of problems for us. 5. Skilled labour: The labour and employees are well trained which has helped us to provide our project effectively and efficiently. 15 . 4. Safety: As the major objective of our project is to ensure safety of common public. Expensive: The project is very expensive as it’s something new and expensive for country like India where there are many economical problems like poverty etc. As we are dealing with the Indian government.ENTREPRENEURSHIP DEVELOPMENT PROJECT 2012 3. 5. We can also help the country also to develop. 4. maintenance and repairs would cost more. There are programs arranged for training the labour and employees and keep them updated to new technology. we have taken all necessary steps to ensure the safety of the people. Weakness: 1. OPPORTUNITIES: 1. New To Business: As we are new to the business it’s going to take us time to get settle. There are nearly 1100 companies which makes or arranges the parts of the escalator all-over the world. So this could help us in increasing are business. This can be taken as an opportunity wherelse other companies can make are settlement as difficult as possible. Time: It is a new project to our country and also it will take a long time to cover all major cities. This can create a lot of difficulty as we have lot of competitors to deal with. we belief that the government will help and support us in doing this business. Few Indian Companies: There are not many companies which produces escalators. 2. Maintenance and expenses: The running expenses like electricity charges. Huge Competitions: There are already many companies which produce or makes escalator. 3.

As we will not get sufficient place to set up are projects. Then it is a wast of creating these crossover. This will help us in improving our company’s image and we can create a brand for our self. Helping In Development Of The Country: With bringing better safety and technology in India we can improve India’s infrastructure. Big Companies: The precents of big companies in indian market can be a huge threats to us as they can may be able to provide the machinery in less time. This could also result in taking a lot of time and we may also not be able to build the crossover as we wanted to build. 3. 4. 3. This will also help us in getting more business. They can creat problems for us by making many rules and regulations. Government: Government of the states and the country being are only customer in the starting of the business. 4. Then there is no use of creating the crossover as it will only be a wast and money for us as this thinks will be of no use. So we can get more demand from the government to build more Crossovers. There experience in the market can also be a major problem for us 2.ENTREPRENEURSHIP DEVELOPMENT PROJECT 2012 2. To build in Crowded places: We could face lot of difficulty in making crossovers in busy places. Public Disapproval : If we crate the crossovers but the public still cross the roads and not use the crossover. This will give us a strong advantage against are rivals as they have to invest again in the technology so that they can compete with us. Increase In Demand: With building a quality crossovers we can create a demand in places where the places are crowded. We have a very limited market and can face problems from the government. New Technologies: As we are starting this business newly we can get all the latest technology that is available. This will also reduce the traffic that has been there due to lot of people are trying to cross the road Threats 1. 16 .

and that people used escalators 90 billion times each year. On March 15 1892.Y. transit systems. The benefits of escalators are many. airports. linked steps that move up or down on tracks. Charles Seeberger An escalator is a conveyor type transport device that moves people. It is a moving staircase with steps that move up or down using a conveyor belt and tracks keeping each step horizontal for the passenger. hotels. In 1895. and public buildings. The History of the Escalator Jesse Reno. Jesse Reno created a new novelty ride at Coney Island from his patented design. Otis then came to dominate escalator production. and they can be placed in the same physical space as one might install a staircase. The device consists of a motor-driven chain of individual. Charles Seeberger. Escalator = Scala Elevator: The escalator as we know it was later re-designed by Charles Seeberger in 1897. a moving stairway that elevated passengers on a conveyor belt at a 25 degree angle. The Seeberger-Otis wooden escalator won first prize at the Paris 1900 Exposition Universal in France. shopping malls. Charles Seeberger sold his patent rights for the escalator to the Otis Elevator Company in 1910. and combined and improved the various designs of escalators. The first patent relating to an escalator-like machine was granted in 1859 to a Massachusetts man for a steam driven unit. it was estimated that the United States had 30. which is Latin for steps and the word 'elevator'. which had already been invented. the escalator began as an amusement and not as a practical transport. they can be used to guide people toward main exits or special exhibits. Jesse Reno patented his moving stairs or inclined elevator as he called it.ENTREPRENEURSHIP DEVELOPMENT PROJECT 2012 ESCALATOR An escalator is a moving staircase – a conveyor transport device for carrying people between floors of a building. allowing the step treads to remain horizontal. together with the Otis Elevator Company produced the first commercial escalator in 1899 at the Otis factory in Yonkers. who also bought Jesse Reno's escalator patent in 1911. and they may be weatherproofed for outdoor use. They have the capacity to move large numbers of people. Principal areas of usage include department stores. Escalators are used around the world to move pedestrian traffic in places where elevators would be impractical.000 escalators. However. N. In 2004. 17 . They have no waiting interval (except during very heavy traffic). convention centres. Jesse Reno's Coney Island ride success briefly made Jesse Reno into "the" escalator designer and he founded the Reno Electric Stairways and Conveyors company in 1902. who created the name 'escalator' from the word 'scala'.

The earliest working type of escalator. Seeberger invents escalator-type elevator apparatus. 1921 Otis engineers. 1900 Seeberger registered "Escalator" as a trademark for a moving stairway. 1900 Otis's first step-type escalator made for public use. combined and improved the Jesse Reno and Charles Seeberger escalator designs. It appears that Mr. 1892 George A. led by David Lindquist. "In the 1920s. Wheeler invents escalator-type elevator improvements. for patent. Massachusetts for an invention that he called Revolving Stairs. Files January 2. is installed at the Paris Exhibition." The first patent # 25. for patent. Milestones: 1859 Nathan Ames of Saugus. 1896 Reno installed his version of an escalator at the Old Iron Pier at Coney Island in New York. New York patents Elevator 617.S. Files April 18.076 relating to an escalator-like machine was granted in March 9. 1899 George A. and created the cleated. Files March 5.A. was introduced as a new novelty ride at the Old Iron Pier at Coney Island NY.918 issued March15. 1859 to Nathan Ames of Saugus. 1902 Jesse Reno founded the Reno Electric Stairways and Conveyors Company.ENTREPRENEURSHIP DEVELOPMENT PROJECT 2012 According to Otis. Illinois patents Elevator 617. Seeberger of Chicago. His design for the escalator was far ahead of its time. 1911 Otis Elevator Company buys Reno patent. for patent. but lost the product's trademark.076 issued March 9.778 issued January 17. 1891 George. 1899 Charles D. Massachusetts patents Revolving Stairs 25. 1897 George A. Ames died in 1860.788 issued January 17.Wheeler invents escalator-type apparatus. patented in 1892 by Jesse W. Wheeler of New York. Reno. Patent Office ruled that the word "escalator" had become just a common descriptive term for moving stairways. 1891 Jesse Reno invents escalator-type elevator apparatus. Otis dominated the escalator business. Over the years. 1910 Otis Elevator Company buys Seeberger patent and "Escalator" trademark. Files May 19. 1892 Reno of New York. 1899 Seeberger buys Wheeler patent and goes to work for Otis Elevator Company. led by David Lindquist. yet was never built. The word escalator lost its proprietary status and its capital "e" in 1950 when the U. Otis engineers. for patent. New York patents Elevator 479. patents Endless Conveyer or Elevator 470. Wheeler of New York.864 issued August 2. 18 . level steps of the modern escalator in use today. add improvements resulting in today's escalator. NY in 1896. 1896 Charles D.

This project is new to Indian market and this would not only ensure safety of people but also will help the countries development of infrastructure which is very essential for the growth of a company. In such areas in major cities we will implement these escalator crossovers which would be moving stairs where people can cross the road easily just by standing on the escalators. With this we can create safety for the people and can help the government to improve the standard of living and also to make Indian city a high a city with technology first we build this crossovers in main and crowded places and the we will slowly start to build this escalator in urban areas. railway stations and other public places. Also these projects can be used in common places like bus stations. There are lot of accident which happen due to inappropriate crossing by people .ENTREPRENEURSHIP DEVELOPMENT PROJECT 2012 Chapter 3: Project Feasibility Study Economic Viability:  Market Potential & Demand Pattern: Our project is making escalator crossovers in major signals and traffic area where road crossing is risky. As in metro city the traffic rates are very high. Already escalators are working efficiently in airports and commercial places like malls etc. 19 . time taking and unsafe. Market segmentation Geography segmentation our basic aim is to make escalator crossover in main traffic places and signals in metro cities. We will sale this project to government when fully finished and will also provide services like maintenance and repairs after sale. This will also help the government to improve the infrastructure of the city which will also increase the economy of the country. So the major market potential is to cover all those traffic areas where road crossing has been a great problem for common people as well as time consuming for people on road driving. Our main aim is to create this crossover in places where the rate of people crossing the road is very high. Even the roads will get a bit empty as there will not be people walking on it to cross the road this will give more space for the cars to move. By building escalator crossovers in traffic areas we can provide people with the safety of crossing the road. This can also help drivers as they don’t have to always watch for people crossing in certain place where we will build the crossover.

religion. gateway of India.So are main aim for building this crossover will be crowded area where it can be very help full for people. Dairy circle and Shivajinagar in Bangalore. or personality characteristics is called psychographic segmentation. Our product is basically used by people to cross the road safely. Our product can be used by any person and it does not depend on the peoples. This can help the public and the police as we are trying to provide basic safety needs for them . This will also help the government to educate people to how to use new technology and what are the technologies that are available in our country. Demographic Segmentation In demographic segmentation. M. Karol bagh and daryaganj market in Delhi. lifestyle. family size. Old people will also find it easy as they don’t have to be careful while crossing the road and they will find it very comfortable to cross it. But once they try it they will get use to it and will also find it very easy and comfortable. That’s why we recommend that parents should not leave small kids alone in the escalator alone. Majestic. People also will not have to pay for this facility so there will be no burden on theme to use it as they have to pay no excess money to anyone for the usage of this facility.ENTREPRENEURSHIP DEVELOPMENT PROJECT 2012 The main places in where we are planning to build this escalator are Near major places like isbt. We just recommend people to not to send kids from age 0-10 alone as it is for their safety. Crawford market and juhu beach in Mumbai. race and nationality. sex. Chow patty beach. 20 . gender. In starting people may find difficult to use the product who are not used to climb in escalator. Chennai central stationandT Nagar in Chennai. City center. income. So we have planned to build this projects in this we have selected metropolitan cities.ROAD.000 deaths due to road accident. age. We are also to planning to build this crossover near major schools for the safety of children’s. peoples income and there life style. Once this people are thought how to use it then it will be very easy for them to cross the roads. Psychographic segmentation Dividing a market into different groups based on social class. Again our product can be used by any one and it does depend on class or cast. family size. colaba area. India having the highest road accidents in the world and with over 130.G. Children have to be looked after as the might find this technology new and may try to experiment with it which can be harmful for them and as well for the machine. We would only recommend that we teach illiterate people to how to use it so they can use it in a safe and proper manner. occupation. This crossover can help in reducing this accident and will also help in reducing the accident rate in India . the market is divided into groups based on an age.

Bangalore. The pricing strategy can comprise discounts. Mumbai. Basically. slowly and gradually expanding the network. Our product ensures gives safety to people. Our profit is governed through the sale of our product with the government. Place It refers to the place where the customers can accesses the product and how the product reaches out to that place. it involves introducing new products or improvising the existing products. We are building this escalators in places where people find difficulty in crossing busy traffic. This product can be used by people to cross the road without any trouble of getting hit by a vehicle or any sort of road accidents. and also teach the people to use better technology. Our product is an escalator crossover. Many of the countries do not processes this technology. Once the construction is over and the working is smooth. In the beginning there will be less profit due to depreciation. then we will start building it in urban areas. 21 . etc. in our case the only client is the government. These escalators will put less pressure on people who find difficulty in crossing the roads. This is done through different channels. offers. wholesalers and retailers. like Internet. etc. Price Pricing must be competitive and must entail profit. Staring with major cities like Delhi.ENTREPRENEURSHIP DEVELOPMENT PROJECT 2012 MARKETING MIX – 7 P’s Product Product must provide value to a customer but does not have to be tangible at the same time. In the beginning we are among at metro-Politian cities where the population are very high. therefore it might help in the development of the country. This will also help the country to grow its infrastructure. The crossovers will be constructed and handed over to the government. Hyderabad. Our main aim in the starting is to provide the government by this technology at a cheap rate and then to establish it once the organization gains the market place.

if they are provided in time. In our organization aims to provide this for every people. We mainly aim at giving the public use more safer and comfortable technology in order to save time. There are many safety measures to ensure safety of the public.brochures. but will be practiced partially to gain public support and market competence. there is no cast or discrimination in this system of our. For example. it is essential that you help him see what he is buying or not. Our main objective doesn’t include promotion as we deal only with the government. When a service goes out to the customer. People People refer to the customers. Our technology is to move people without making them move. 22 . employees. if the customers are informed in hand about the services and many such things. Process It refers to the methods and process of providing a service and is hence essential to have a thorough knowledge on whether the services are helpful to the customers. It is essential for everyone to realize that the reputation of the brand that you are involved with is in the people's hands.ENTREPRENEURSHIP DEVELOPMENT PROJECT 2012 Promotion It includes the various ways of communicating to the customers of what the company has to offer. The escalator is well maintained and well designed for more attractiveness. It is about communicating about the benefits of using a particular product or service rather than just talking about its features. cost and life. management and everybody else involved in it. pamphlets etc serve this purpose. Physical Evidence It refers to the experience of using a product or service.

location.46 m) per second can move an estimated 170 persons per five minute period.ENTREPRENEURSHIP DEVELOPMENT PROJECT 2012 TECHNICAL FEASIBILITY: Operation and layout of Escalator Escalators. The carrying capacity of an escalator system must match the expected peak traffic demand. In some buildings.5 feet (0. crisscross (minimizes structural space requirements by "stacking" escalators that go in one direction. 23 . Escalators have three typical configuration options: parallel (up and down escalators "side by side or separated by a distance". For example. Traffic patterns must also be anticipated in escalator design. a single-width escalator travelling at about 1. up and down escalator traffic should be physically separated and should not lead into confined spaces. presuming that passengers ride single file. whether at the bottom or at the top (the system is programmed so that the direction is not reversed while a passenger is on the escalator). The typical angle of inclination of an escalator to the horizontal floor level is 30 degrees with a standard rise up to about 60 feet (18 m). Escalators are required to have moving handrails that keep pace with the movement of the steps. The direction of movement (up or down) can be permanently the same. and multiple parallel (two or more escalators together that travel in one direction next to one or two escalators in the same bank that travel in the other direction). or be controlled by personnel according to the time of day. including physical requirements. frequently used in department stores or shopping centres).30–0. Modern escalators have single piece aluminium or steel steps that move on a system of tracks in a continuous loop. or automatically be controlled by whoever arrives first. The number of passengers is important because escalators are designed to carry a certain maximum number of people. customers should be able to view the merchandise easily. Foremost. like moving walkways. traffic patterns. Location is important because escalators should be situated where they can be easily seen by the general public. are powered by constant-speed alternating current motors and move at approximately 1–2 feet (0. The ability of the building infrastructure to support the heavy components is also a critical physical concern. Furthermore. the objective is simply to move people from one floor to another. physical factors like the vertical and horizontal distance to be spanned must be considered. and aesthetic preferences.61 m) per second. These factors will determine the pitch of the escalator and its actual length. In department stores. seen often in metro stations and multilevel motion picture theatres). but in others there may be a more specific requirement. such as funnelling visitors towards a main exit or exhibit. safety considerations. Design and layout considerations A number of factors affect escalator design.

It is preferred that staircases be located adjacent to the escalator if the escalator is the primary means of transport between floors. These teeth mesh with matching cleats on the edges of the steps. Similarly. This plate is flush with the finished floor and is either hinged or removable to allow easy access to the machinery below. escalators at stations must be designed to cater for the peak traffic flow discharged from a train. The architects and designers can choose from a wide range of styles and colours for the handrails and balustrades. For example. without causing excessive bunching at the escalator entrance. It is so named because its edge has a series of cleats that resemble the teeth of a comb. while the bottom holds the step return idler sprockets. the platforms contain a floor plate and a comb plate. In this regard. an escalator to an exit effectively discourages most people from using it as an entrance. Finally. escalators help in controlling traffic flow of people. The floor plate provides a place for the passengers to stand before they step onto the moving stairs. as well. consideration should be given to the aesthetics of the escalator. The top platform contains the motor assembly and the main drive gear. The comb plate is the piece between the stationary floor plate and the moving step. INSTALLATION Landing platforms These two platforms house the curved sections of the tracks. which helps prevent objects from getting caught in the gap. as well as the gears and motors that drive the stairs. 24 . These sections also anchor the ends of the escalator truss. escalators often are used as the exit of airport security checkpoints. and may reduce security concerns.ENTREPRENEURSHIP DEVELOPMENT PROJECT 2012 This is crucial for applications in which there are sudden increases in the number of riders. It may also be necessary to provide an elevator lift adjacent to an escalator for wheelchairs and disabled persons. In addition. For example. This design is necessary to minimize the gap between the stair and the landing. Such an egress point would generally be staffed to prevent its use as an entrance.

The relative positions of these tracks cause the steps to form a staircase as they move out from under the comb plate. Handrail The handrail provides a convenient handhold for passengers while they are riding the escalator. The steps are linked by a continuous metal chain that forms a closed loop. Along the straight section of the truss the tracks are at their maximum distance apart. the handrail is pulled along its track by a chain that is connected to the main drive gear by a series of pulleys. one piece. the two tracks converge so that the front and back wheels of the steps are almost in a straight line. It is composed of two side sections joined together with cross braces across the bottom and just below the top. Tracks The track system is built into the truss to guide the step chain.ENTREPRENEURSHIP DEVELOPMENT PROJECT 2012 Truss The truss is a hollow metal structure that bridges the lower and upper landings. the position of the tracks controls the orientation of the steps. where they pass through another curved section of track before exiting the bottom landing. This configuration forces the back of one step to be at a 90-degree angle relative to the step behind it. In an escalator. other escalator models have cleated treads and smooth risers. The rear wheels are set further apart to fit into the back track and the front wheels have shorter axles to fit into the narrower front track. so they can easily travel around the bend in the curved section of track. Steps The steps themselves are solid. This right angle bends the steps into a shape resembling a staircase. At this point the tracks separate and the steps once again assume a staircase configuration.or "step-type" escalators (see below) featured flat treads and smooth risers. Yellow demarcation lines may be added to clearly indicate their edges. die-cast aluminum or steel. In most escalator models manufactured after 1950. both the riser and the tread of each step is cleated (given a ribbed appearance) with comb like protrusions that mesh with the comb plates on the top and bottom platforms and the succeeding steps in the chain. The truss carries all the straight track sections connecting the upper and lower sections. At the top and bottom of the escalator. one after another. It is constructed of four distinct sections. 25 . Seeberger. As described above. The tracks carry the steps down along the underside of the truss until they reach the bottom landing. This cycle is repeated continually as the steps are pulled from bottom to top and back to the bottom again. This causes the stairs to lay in a flat sheet like arrangement. The front and back edges of the steps are each connected to two wheels. The ends of the truss are attached to the top and bottom landing platforms via steel or concrete supports. There are actually two tracks: one for the front wheels of the steps (called the step-wheel track) and one for the back wheels of the steps (called the trailer-wheel track). which continuously pulls the steps from the bottom platform and back to the top in an endless loop.

mechanical wear and tear. The purpose of the slider layer is to allow the handrail to move smoothly along its track. These forms of handrail have largely been replaced with conventional fabric-and-rubber railings. also known as a "glider ply". Comb Plate Contacts: If a foreign object is caught between the comb plates. Emergency Stop Buttons: Emergency stop buttons have been built into the balustrade skirting at the upper and lower ends of the escalator. Finally. When actuated. rubber. the outer layer—the only part that a passenger actually see—is the cover. and the steps. which is a blend of synthetic polymers and rubber. these contacts monitor the step chains for elongation. during emergencies or even during normal conditions. In the mid-twentieth century. each bellows section was no more than a few feet long. the emergency stop buttons may be used to switch off the escalator manually. which is a layer of a cotton or synthetic textile. breakage or shortening of one or both of the step chains. Handrail Entry Contacts: The handrail entry points are located far beneath the head of the balustrade. This cover is designed to resist degradation from environmental conditions. and human vandalism. Phase Failure Relay: This relay is a safety feature. known as the "tension member". The next layer. and steel are shaped by skilled workers before being fed into the presses. This gave the handrail a rigid yet flexible feel. which monitors the main power supply and disables the escalator in the event of phase failure or phase reversal. some handrail designs consisted of a rubber bellows. As the name of the button so implies.ENTREPRENEURSHIP DEVELOPMENT PROJECT 2012 At the center of the handrail is a "slider". and provides the handrail with tensile strength and flexibility. only the bad segment needed to be replaced. Additionally. the monitoring contacts will disable and stop the escalator from further movement. In the factory. 26 . a contact will actuate and switch off the escalator. the resulting pressing action will move one of the comb plates backwards and actuate a safety contact. the handrail entry contacts are so positioned that if there is any danger of an object becoming wedged in the handrail entry points. with rings of smooth metal cladding called "bracelets" placed between each coil. where they are fused together. On top of tension member is the inner construction components. Standard Safety Features Step Chains Contacts: Located in the lower step-reversing compartment. which are made of chemically treated rubber designed to prevent the layers from separating. The component layers of fabric. so if part of the handrail was damaged. handrails are constructed by feeding rubber through a computer-controlled extrusion machine to produce layers of the required size and type in order to match specific orders. consists of either steel cable or flat steel tape. thereby switching off the escalator.

it shall be equipped for non-public service escalator when rise is over 6m. Boarding the escalator is therefore made much easier for the young.ENTREPRENEURSHIP DEVELOPMENT PROJECT 2012 Step Gap Lighting: Special green lamps in the form of fluorescent tubes. the system will be executed. the escalator should be stopped. Other colour can be selected with extra cost. elderly and inexperienced persons. Drive-Chain Contact: This contact monitors the Drive-Chain for breakage. make the individual steps clearly discernible and distinguishable. If an object gets caught between the step and the skirting panel. 27 . When actuated. optional as black colour with tread surface ground. the resultant pressure on the skirting panel will actuate one of these contacts. thereby disabling and switching off the escalator. especially at the horizontal runs. Step Safety Demarcation: Yellow painting at 3 sides is specified as standard. optional as yellow resin at 3 sides. It is standard feature for public service escalator. Motor Overload & Overheat Relay: This relay monitors the motor working condition. the contact will stop the escalator. Step/Pallet Colour: Natural colour is specified as standard colour. mounted on both the top and bottom of the escalator. In case of motor overloaded or overheated. Skirting Contacts: These contacts have been installed at both the top and bottom of the escalator at the transition curve. Optional Features Handrail Colour: Black is specified as standard colour. As standard requirement. Safety Brake on Main Shaft: Fixed on main shaft. it is to monitor the speed of flywheel as well as to avoid reverse and will stop escalator in case rated speed is over 120% or under 80%. it will be actuated to stop escalator in case step (including step roller) sags more than 3mm. Step Sag Contacts: Fixed at the start sections of both inclined upper and lower transition curves. When one or both handrails are broken or run under speed. it will be actuated in case drive-chain is broken or speed is over 120%. Speed Monitor with Anti-reverse Function: Fixed at the bottom of brake. Handrail Speed Monitor: There are two detectors integrated in the handrail support rollers at both left and right sides.

meanwhile beautifying the environment. HES (VVVF) Energy Saving System: It is a frequency inverter system to save energy upto 60%.ENTREPRENEURSHIP DEVELOPMENT PROJECT 2012 Automatic Lubrication System: A central automatic lubrication system completes with a pump and proportioned cab is installed to provide adequate lubrication for all chains automatically. Outside Cladding: It is not included in the standard features and it can be of hairline ST/ST or painted steel sheet as option. 28 . Directional indicators will be integrated in the same columns. Directional indicators will be provided together with this option. Comb Lighting: Located in the skirting panel on both sides of top and bottom escalator entrance providing 50 lux for highlighting the start and finish of the moving steps. Balustrade Lighting: Located in the balustrade profiles on both left and right sides. This Function is only available for commercial balustrade. Skirting Brush: It is fixed at left/right skirting panel to cover the gap between step and skirting in order to avoid possible risk caused by the gap. Skirting Lighting: Skirting lighting is installed in the skirting panel on both left and right sides. Step Up thrust Contact: It is fixed at upper/lower transition curves to stop escalator in case of step up thrust Step Missing Device: Two sensors are fixed at upper/lower return sections to receive pulse signals from steps passing by and stop escalator before missing step entering comb plate in case of step missing. Auto-Start by Contact Mats: The escalator should be switched ON and OFF automatically with the use of contact mats which are arranged at least 1800mm before the comb intersection line. Escalator will run at low speed during no load and automatically return to normal speed during load. which is activated by photocell sensors at entrance. Auto-Start by Photocell Sensors: The escalator should be switched ON and OFF automatically with the use of photocell sensors installed at the hairline stainless steel columns which are arranged at least 1300mm before the comb intersection line.

and motorized gears and pulleys are all bolted into place on the truss before shipping. The tracks. clearly became the first "step-type" escalator. Prior to installation. There are two types of companies that supply escalators. In most cases. and secondary suppliers that design and install the equipment. gaining success with installations from Toronto to Cape Town. For a time. stair assembly. bought by Otis. and current models by Otis such as the "NCE-type" escalator. Passengers' feet tilted upward at an angle. so called after its visual likeness to steps on a regular staircase. "Step-type" escalators Seeberger's model. Similar units of the day by other manufacturers resembled conveyor belts more than moving staircases. step chains. the entire assembly is uncrated and jockeyed into position between the top and bottom landing holes. 2. 29 . as described above. and the steel framework that will hold the truss in place must be attached. concrete fittings must be poured. South Africa. The first stage of escalator construction is to establish the design. the landing areas must be prepared to connect to the escalator. MANUFACTURING PROCESS 1. and the treads consisted of cleated metal (initially) or wood (later models). primary manufacturers who actually build the equipment. The company later combined the best aspects of both inventions (guiding slats and flat steps) and in 1921 produced an escalator similar to the type used today: they called it the "L-type" escalator. Reno worked on his own for several years. the "O-type". After the escalator is delivered. For example. The escalator manufacturer uses this information to construct the appropriately customized equipment. most escalators are actually assembled at the primary manufacturer. Therefore. It was succeeded by the "M-type".ENTREPRENEURSHIP DEVELOPMENT PROJECT 2012 Model development and design types “Cleat-type" escalators Jesse Reno's escalators did not resemble modern escalators too closely. the secondary suppliers obtain the necessary equipment from the primary manufacturers and make necessary modifications for installation. Otis Elevator sold Reno's escalators as their own "cleat-type" escalators.

the inner rail dips beneath the outer rail. The scissors lift is outfitted with a locator assembly to aid in vertical and angular alignment of the escalator. Each stair has a pair of wheels on each side. 30 . The wheels run on two rails. 3. Verify all motorized elements are functioning properly. Make final connections for the power source and check to ensure all tracks and chains are properly aligned. With such a device.ENTREPRENEURSHIP DEVELOPMENT PROJECT 2012 There are a variety of methods for lifting the truss assembly into place. that the belts and chains An escalator is a continuously moving staircase. one of which is a scissors lift apparatus mounted on a wheeled support platform. the upper end of the truss can be easily aligned with and then supported by a support wall associated with the upper landing. so that the bottom of the stair flattens. the railings may be shipped separately from the rest of the equipment. The lower end of the truss can be subsequently lowered into a pit associated with the floor of the lower landing. They are then connected to the appropriate chains after the escalator is installed. one at the front of the step and one at the rear. 4. making it easier for riders to get on and off. they are carefully coiled and packed for shipping. In such a situation. In some cases. At the top and bottom of the escalator.

00. They need to be large enough for a passenger to grip the entire way up. The machinery imported will be like: Hand pulley machinery – Rs. high enough so that passengers are comfortable holding on to it.000 These machineries will be imported from Japan from Otis Company at the above mentioned cost. You will need a handrail drive. 50. 20. 00. 31 . 1. We are also constructing a warehouse which will cover up another 3 acre of land. All escalators must have a handrail for safety. so the handrail and steps travel at the same speed.000 Equipment & Raw materials .30. Another belt will go along the handrail drive.000 Track machinery Hand roll machinery .000 . 00. The handrail also needs to be along a track parallel with the steps. Another 1 acre is going to be used for building the offices and the management area.Rs. The remaning 1 acre will be used for constructing roads for the vehicles to travel and for also building a small garden for the employees. We have bought 15 acre of land in there where we are going to construct our factory in 10 acre of land. It's usually put on a wall next to the steps.Rs. which can be installed easily. Land We have bought this land in Madhur industrial area. This is a newly opened industrial area. 00.ENTREPRENEURSHIP DEVELOPMENT PROJECT 2012 The Handrail 1.Rs. hand roll etc will be manufactured in India by us. 50. 2. Source of Technology and Cost of Acquisition of Technology The technology used like machinery will be imported from abroad which is new and updated technology and then the required products like track. 3. This is the actual handrail. A belt needs to be looped from the handrail drive to the gear drive. It uses the same drive gear as the escalator itself.

E. Bellary is nearly 350 km far from are factory which is not very far Rubber: this raw material can be bought from Kerala which is one of the leading producers of rubber in India. Hence we can get the iron in abandons.O. of the company Under C. AvinashPrakash and Mr.ENTREPRENEURSHIP DEVELOPMENT PROJECT 2012 Raw Material We need two main important raw materials for the producing of our product. we are having 3 heads which are as follows    Finance Production Marketing and Human Resources 32 . Chaitanya Rawat who are the partners and the C.O. Here we can get rubber easily which is also a main raw material for us Human Resource Requirements at different levels: Designation No.E. of employees 1 2 5 10 10 10 10 100 50 Receptionist Auditors Security Marketing employees HR employees Financial employees Technical employees Production workers Installation workers Organization structure The main head of the company are Mr. They are Iron: this we are going to purchases from Bellary where there are a lot of iron oars.

E.O. We will also keep 50 labors that will do the construction or set up of the parts. We have also kept ten people who will look after the human resources of the company.ENTREPRENEURSHIP DEVELOPMENT PROJECT 2012 Finance Under finance we have kept two auditors and we also have ten employees who will look afer the finances of the company.s of the company and they have to get there approvals for creating further financial reports. We have ten employees for marketing who will look after the marketing of the product. We have 100 employs that will look after the production in the factory where the parts of the escalator are building. 33 . We will also have one receptionist and five security people who will also come under this department. Production Under production the main work is to look after the production goods and there set up in the areas were the crossovers are to be built. A marketing head will be selected who will be in charge of the marketing. In this we have also have ten engineers who will look after the setup of escalator. They have to show their financial reports to the both the C. They will also look after technical or working of the machinery Marketing and Human Resources This head will look after the marketing of the product to the government and also for the selection of employs.

000 50.00.00.00.000 1.5000000 every year.000 34 .000 50.00.000 ChaitanyaSipani – 5.000 0 TOTAL INFLOW 50.ENTREPRENEURSHIP DEVELOPMENT PROJECT 2012 Financial Viability: TOTAL INVESTMENT: Capital contribution: C.00.00.00.00.00.00.000 2. The loan repayment would be done in 7 years i.000 50.00.00.50.Avinash – 5.000 3.000 PAY-BACK PERIOD: Loan will be repaid for Rs.000 SOURCE OF FINANCE: Loan from bank – 4.000 50.00.00.00.00.000 50.00.00.000 50.50.00.00.00.e..00.000 50. YEAR 2010 YEAR 2011 YEAR 2012 YEAR 2013 YEAR 2014 YEAR 2015 YEAR 2016 YEAR 2017 YEAR 2018 TOTAL EXPENDITURE 4.000 2.00.00.00.000 50.000 1.50. by the year of 2017 which is explained below.00.000 3.000 50.00.

000 ( 40 LAKH EACH) 2.000 20.00.00.000 50.000 50.20.00.00.00.000 1.000 10.00.000 1 1 1 1.00.00.00.000 13990000 140000000 35 .000 Trucks and cars 80.10.ENTREPRENEURSHIP DEVELOPMENT PROJECT 2012 FIXED ASSETS OF S&S CROSSOVERS Assets Land@10% Building and construction@10% Deposits Track machinery@10% Hand pulley machinery@15% Hand roll machinery@12% Equipment@20% Vehicles@10% Furniture and fixtures@8% Warehouse@14% Cash Total Quantity 15 acres Amount 6.00.000 30.00.00.

00.50.000 40 5 20 ton 20.000 1.10.000 10000 2.000 8.ENTREPRENEURSHIP DEVELOPMENT PROJECT 2012 FURNITURE AND FITTINGS BREAK-UP PARTICULARS Reception Table Cabin Chairs Electric Fittings Desktops Cabinets Centralized Air Conditioners Interiors Total QUANTITY 1 30 50 COST 5000 5000 1000 TOTAL 5.000 50000 2.00.000 50000 5.00.000 36 .000 5.50.000 20.50.

of employees Salary monthly Annual salary 2011 120000 Annual salary 2012 126000 Annual salary 2013 132300 Annual salary 2014 138915 Annual salary 2015 145860 Receptionist 1 10000 Auditors Security Marketing employees HR employees 2 5 10 30000 3000 10000 720000 180000 1200000 756000 189000 1260000 793800 198450 1323000 833490 208375 1389150 875165 218795 1458605 10 10000 1200000 1260000 1323000 1389150 1458605 Financial employees 10 10000 1200000 1260000 1323000 1389150 1458605 Technical employees Production workers Installation workers TOTAL 10 5000 600000 630000 661500 694575 729305 100 3000 3000000 3150000 3307500 3472875 3646520 50 2500 1250000 1312500 1378125 1447030 1519380 9470000 9943500 10440675 10962710 11510840 37 .ENTREPRENEURSHIP DEVELOPMENT PROJECT 2012 SALARY BREAK-UP Designation No.

00.000 10 % 2011 6000000 2012 6000000 2013 6000000 2014 6000000 2015 6000000 Building and construction Track machinery Hand pulley machinery Hand roll machinery Equipment Vehicles Furniture and fixtures Warehouse 2.000 10 2000000 2000000 2000000 2000000 2000000 1.000 14 140000 140000 140000 140000 140000 12350800 12350800123508001235080012350800 38 .000 20.000 15 450000 450000 450000 450000 450000 50.000 12 600000 600000 600000 600000 600000 50.00.00.00.00.00.000 10 1200000 1200000 1200000 1200000 1200000 30.000 20 10 8 1000000 800000 160800 1000000 800000 160800 1000000 800000 160800 1000000 800000 160800 1000000 800000 160800 10.10.ENTREPRENEURSHIP DEVELOPMENT PROJECT 2012 DEPRECIATION: under straight line method Name Land Amount 6.20.00.00.00.00.000 80.

Office exp. Printing and stationery Audit fee Insurance expenses Depreciation Miss. Exp Total Profit P&L appropriation A/C PARTICULARS Division of profits Cash profit AMOUNT 10655000 10655000 21310000 75000 2550000 400000 9470000 50000 4800000 125000 650000 160000 25000 50000 250000 12350800 85000 31040800 8959200 AMOUNT 40000000 40000000 Avinash Chaitanya 39 .ENTREPRENEURSHIP DEVELOPMENT PROJECT 2012 Profit & Loss A/C OF S&S CROSSOVER For the year ending 2011 PARTICULARS Income Sales Total Expenditures Telephone Electricity Travelling& Distribution exp. Salaries Repairs Interest on loan Packaging expenses Factory exp.

ENTREPRENEURSHIP DEVELOPMENT PROJECT 2012 BALANCE SHEET OF S&S CROSSOVER AS ON 31st march 2011 Liabilities Amount 50000000 50000000 35000000 8959200 Loan@12% Profit Assets Land Building and construction Deposit Track machine Hand pulley machine Hand roll machine Equipment Vehicles Furniture and fixtures warehouse Cash TOTAL Amount 54000000 18000000 10000000 10800000 2550000 4400000 4000000 7200000 1849200 860000 30300000 143959200 TOTAL 14395920 *Rs.5000000 is been reduced from cash for repayment of loan 40 .

Office exp.ENTREPRENEURSHIP DEVELOPMENT PROJECT 2012 Profit & Loss A/C OF S&S CROSSOVERS For the year ending 2012 PARTICULARS Income Sales Total Expenditures Telephone Electricity Travelling& Distribution exp. Printing and stationery Audit fee Insurance premium Depreciation Miss. Exp AMOUNT 45000000 45000000 70000 3080000 600000 9943500 80000 4200000 147000 480000 110000 20000 50000 250000 12350800 74000 Total Profit 31455300 13544700 P&L appropriation A/C PARTICULARS Division of profits Avinash Chaitanya Cash profit AMOUNT 12947750 12947750 25895500 41 . Salaries Repairs Interest on loan Packaging expenses Factory exp.

ENTREPRENEURSHIP DEVELOPMENT PROJECT 2012 BALANCE SHEET OF S&S CROSSOVER AS ON 31st march 2012 Liabilities Avinash Chaitanya Loan@12% Profit Amount 54479600 54479600 30000000 13544700 Assets Land Building and construction Deposit Track machine Hand pulley machine Hand roll machine Equipment Vehicles Furniture and fixtures warehouse Cash TOTAL Amount 48000000 16000000 10000000 9600000 2100000 3800000 3000000 6400000 1688400 720000 51195500 152503900 TOTAL 152503900 *Rs.5000000 is been reduced from cash for repayment of loan 42 .

ENTREPRENEURSHIP DEVELOPMENT PROJECT 2012 Profit & Loss A/C OF S&S CROSSOVERS For the year ending 2013 PARTICULARS Income Sales Total Expenditures Telephone Electricity Travelling& Distribution exp. Exp 65000 4010000 589500 10440675 40000 3600000 183000 610000 145000 20500 50000 250000 12350800 110200 55000000 55000000 AMOUNT Total Profit 32464675 22535325 P&L appropriation A/C PARTICULARS Division of profits Avinash Chaitanya Cash profit AMOUNT 17443062.5 34886125 43 . Salaries Repairs Interest on loan Packaging expenses Factory exp. Printing and stationery Audit fee Insurance premium Depreciation Miss.5 17443062. Office exp.

5000000 is been reduced from cash for repayment of loan 44 .ENTREPRENEURSHIP DEVELOPMENT PROJECT 2012 BALANCE SHEET OF S&S CROSSOVER AS ON 31st march 2013 Liabilities Avinash Chaitanya Loan@12% Profit Amount 61251950 61251950 25000000 22535325 Assets Land Building and construction Deposit Track machine Hand pulley machine Hand roll machine Equipment Vehicles Furniture and fixtures warehouse Cash Amount 42000000 14000000 10000000 8400000 1650000 3200000 2000000 5600000 1527600 580000 81081625 170039225 TOTAL 170039225 TOTAL *Rs.

Printing and stationery Audit fee Insurance premium Depreciation Miss. Office exp. Salaries Repairs Interest on loan Packaging expenses Factory exp.ENTREPRENEURSHIP DEVELOPMENT PROJECT 2012 Profit & Loss A/C OF S&S CROSSOVERS For the year ending 2014 PARTICULARS Income Sales Total Expenditures Telephone Electricity Travelling& Distribution exp. Exp 60000 3980000 890000 10962710 110000 3000000 184000 347000 89500 18500 50000 250000 12350800 115200 50000000 AMOUNT Total Profit 32407710 17592290 P&L appropriation A/C PARTICULARS Division of profits Avinash Chaitanya Cash profit AMOUNT 14971545 14971545 29943090 45 .

5 72519612.ENTREPRENEURSHIP DEVELOPMENT PROJECT 2012 BALANCE SHEET OF S&S CROSSOVER AS ON 31st march 2014 Liabilities Avinash Chaitanya Loan@12% Profit Amount 72519612.5000000 is been reduced from cash for repayment of loan 46 .5 20000000 17592290 Assets Land Building and construction Deposit Track machine Hand pulley machine Hand roll machine Equipment Vehicles Furniture and fixtures warehouse Cash Amount 36000000 12000000 10000000 7200000 1200000 2600000 1000000 4800000 1366800 440000 106024715 182631515 TOTAL 182631515 TOTAL *Rs.

ENTREPRENEURSHIP DEVELOPMENT PROJECT 2012 Profit & Loss A/C OF S&S CROSSOVERS For the year ending 2015 PARTICULARS Income Sales Total Expenditures Telephone Electricity Travelling& Distribution exp. Exp 65000000 65000000 98700 425540 57480 11510840 74560 2400000 98000 325000 97800 17500 50000 250000 12350800 127500 AMOUNT Total Profit 27883720 37116280 P&L appropriation A/C PARTICULARS Division of profits Avinash Chaitanya Cash profit AMOUNT 24733540 24733540 49467080 47 . Office exp. Printing and stationery Audit fee Insurance premium Depreciation Miss. Salaries Repairs Interest on loan Packaging expenses Factory exp.

ENTREPRENEURSHIP DEVELOPMENT PROJECT 2012 BALANCE SHEET OF S&S CROSSOVER AS ON 31st march 2015 Liabilities Avinash Chaitanya Loan@12% Profit Amount 81315757.5 15000000 37116280 Assets Land Building and construction Deposit Track machine Hand pulley machine Hand roll machine Equipment Vehicles Furniture and fixtures warehouse Cash Amount 30000000 10000000 10000000 6000000 750000 2000000 4000000 1206000 300000 150491795 214747795 TOTAL 214747795 TOTAL *Rs.5000000 is been reduced from cash for repayment of loan 48 .5 81315757.

00.000 8. 49 .000 4.00.000 TOTAL EXPENDITURE 6.00.000 12.000 10.00.00.00.00.60.10.00.000 2.00.00.00.00.000 0 YEAR 0 YEAR 1 YEAR 2 YEAR 3 YEAR 4 YEAR 5 TOTAL INFLOW  Break-even time between 0-1 years.ENTREPRENEURSHIP DEVELOPMENT PROJECT 2012 BREAK-EVEN ANALYSIS: TOTAL EXPENDITURE YEAR 0 YEAR 1 YEAR 2 YEAR 3 YEAR 4 YEAR 5 12.00.00.000 31040800 31455300 32464675 32407710 27883720 TOTAL INFLOW 0 40000000 45000000 55000000 50000000 55000000 14.

LAND AQUIRED AND TIME TAKEN    Acquisition of land took one month. We are also constructing a warehouse which will cover up another 3 acre of land. LEVELLING AND PREPARATION      Levelling and preparation of land for construction purpose 10 acres of land for factory purpose.00. 3 acre for construction of sheds warehouse 1 acre for .ENTREPRENEURSHIP DEVELOPMENT PROJECT 2012 Chapter 4: Implementation Schedule LAND ACQUISITION We have bought a land in Madhur industrial area.000 DEMOGRAPHICS AND AREA OF LAND   It’s got a very well connected roadway as it is in Mysore highway. We have bought 15 acre of land in there where we are going to construct our factory in 10 acre of land.offices and management puropose. The remaining 1 acre will be used for constructing roads for the vehicles to travel and for also building a small garden for the employees.00. 50 .000 TOTAL COST 6. All land acquired is attached to eachother to create a total land of 15 acres.00. It is being an upcoming industrial area and well developed and it has got its electricity board and the ground water level is high. 1 acre for other services like roads etc. This is a newly opened industrial area. This also includes land development. LAND Madhur industrial area ACRE 15 PER ACRE COST 40. Another 1 acre is going to be used for building the offices and the management area.

com Conclusion: ED project has helped us a lot to know the difficulties in commencing a new businessand all the formalities like making business plan and its financial statement and alsoto know the break-even point of the business.about. technical and economical feasibility of a business.org/wiki/Escalator books. This project has also helped us inacquiring knowledge about escalator industry and its opportunities in it.ENTREPRENEURSHIP DEVELOPMENT PROJECT 2012 BIBLIOGRAPHY:      http://www. 51 .google. So. ED projecthas thought us to make a effective and efficient business plan with industry analysisand financial.co. This project hasgiven a good experience for us to do a business plan in our life.co.google.htm www.wikipedia.com/library/inventors/blescalator.in/images http://en.in/books http://inventors.leia.