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Early Jesuit Missionary Methods in the Philippines Author(s): Nicholas P. Cushner Source: The Americas, Vol. 15, No. 4 (Apr.

, 1959), pp. 361-379 Published by: Academy of American Franciscan History Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/978866 . Accessed: 08/09/2011 15:18
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EARLY JESUIT MISSIONARY METHODS IN THE PHIlIPPINES 1565,when Spainwas sdll on the ascending of its colonial arc ventllres, firstpermanent the settlement thePhilippines made. in was The subsequent decadeswitnessed, only a militaryconquest not by Spanish conquistadores, a spiritual but conquest well. The efforts as of Salcedo, Legazpiand the otherswere, so to speak,the firststage, ushering the missionaries, . . the realconquerors, withoutany in ". who Other arms thantheirvirtues, gained overthe goodwill of the islanders, . . . and gavethe king two millions moreof submissive Christian and subjects." 1 The taskof the missionary the Philippine in Islands was, firstand foremost,to spreadthe CatholicFaith. Since Christianity the was foundation stoneof Westerncivilization it was the acknowledged and duty of the Spanish stateto extendthe Faith,it followsthatfromthe standpoint both stateand Church was the missionary's task of it first to convertthe heathen.2 the statebenefited But fromthe missionary's laboras well as the Church.For,justas in New Spain, missionary the served, only to christianize frontier, he alsoaided extendnot the but in ing, holding, civilizing and it.3 The Jesuitmissionaries the Visayan in Islands, central a groupin the Philippine archipelago composed principally Leyte, Samar, of Cebu, Negros,andBohol,effectedthe extension civilization the new and of Spanish frontierthroughmissionschools. TvheJesuitterritorywas divided into districts each district and provided elementary, later, and secondary instruction, the nativechildren.4 for In the followingpageshowever,we will be concerned with the primary task of the missionary, of " christiamzing frontier," that the implanting new set of religious a principles placeof the old; and in
1Thomasde Comyn,Stateof the Philippine Islands, wans.WilliamWalton (London, 1821),p. 209. ' HerbertE. Bolton,"The Missionas a FrontierInstitution the Spanish in Amencan Colonies,"The AmericanHistorica]Review, XXIII, no. 1 (October, 1917), 4647, Althoughthe authoris speaking the missionary a politicaland socialinfluenceon of as the North Americanfroniier,such was also the case in the PhilippineIslandswhere often the missionary the sole representative cross and crown. was of Ibid. 4 For the influenceof JesuitIIiission educationin the Philippines, Horacio de la see Costa,"JesuitEducation the Philippines 1768," in to PhiZippine Studies,IV, no. 2 (July, 1956),127-155. 361
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of eds. territoryassigned their sphereof missionary the as activity.. 35. FranciscoPiccolo. Jesuitsbeganwork amongthe inhabitants the the of VisayanIslands.As is obvious.P.O.There wereseveral reasons this. in MISSIONARIES NATIVE AND THE DIALECTS The Jesuit missionaries the Visayan in Islands the nativedialects used as a medium teaching doctrines the Catholic for the of Church.whenthe territory givenover to the Jesuits.D.the missionariesobedezian. worked for a short time in Leyte.the Dominicans.7But around to Cebuwere several large. ." In Mexico.however. History oJEducation in the Philippines(Manila. For " perono cumplian. in theirwork was confined the peopleof Cebu.p. thisarticle.also EvergistoBazaco. . impression In the 6Robert Ricard'sclassic study in the field of missionarymethods. The Philippine Islands(55 vols.La "conqueAte spirituelle"da Mexigue. once broughttwo Indian lads to the bishopto help in his plea for alms.however. whose inhabitants were not being instructed theFaith. FelipeRedondo was y Sendino.. has provideda model en de on which similarstudiesmay be profitablypatterned. For the mostpart.1886). de lo que es la Diocesisde Cebu (Manila.. set forththe typicalJesuit of to methodsused in the variousphasesof their missionary work. 58.well populated islands.op. but could only do so in their naiive 8See . Through the sixteenth and seventeenth centuriesa steadystreamof royal decreesurged the use of Spanish giving religious in instruction. A. Besides. 7 An Augustinian Father.It wasamang in thesepeoplethatJesuit missionaries workeduntiltheirexpulsion fromthe King'sdomains 1767. Blairand J. Cleveland.the mostcogentof whichwasthatit was for mucheasierfor one missionary learnthe language an areathan to of for all the peopleof that areato learnSpanish.362 JESUIT MISSIONARY METHODS moreparticularly. with It is the purpose therefore. of In 1595. Franciscans. Bresc Resena. the mostparthowever. teaching the of Castilian posedseveral impraciicalities. He withdrew. H. pp. IX.8 addition.1933). 69-70.. the meansby which this was accomplished.and Jesliits. The reason for this parationwas the speedierinswction and conversion the Filipines. 120-121. 1594. p. See E. The bishopaskedwhetherthey knew their prayers.6The Augustinians been in the Visayasever sincetheir had arrival with Legazpi 1565.essai sur l'apostolatet les methodesmissionaires ordres des mendicants Nouqnelle-Espagne IS23 a IS72 (Paris.this brief study has made considerable of its large-scale use model. They recited them perfectly. For froma consideraaon missionary of methods may obtainan insight we into the natureof the " spiritual conquest and therebybe one step " closerto an accurate understanding the complex of relaiionship which existed betweenthe spiritual military and conquests the Philippines. 1903-1909). cit.the famousJesuitmissionary.Philip II orderedthat the Philippines be dividedamongthe four residentreligiousgroups.fourteen yearsafterthe arrival the Societyof Jesusin of the Philippines. Augusiinians. Ricard. Robertson. 1953).Alonso Velasquez. 6 In a communicaaon dated April 27.

(Burgos.wouldbe through dsalects.His priest in companions. 222. 326." Fr." We are also told that 10 Fr. alsoprepared collection Sunday but a of sermons a and treatise confession on written thenative in language.Ignatius Loyola.. 284.op.andwithina month400 hadbeen to confession somehadreceived and Communion.he was already acquainted somedegreewith the regional in dialects. de werenot. Piccolo. XIII. Pioneerof Lower California. JuandelCampo and Cosme Flores. lbid.9 When Fr.if he applyhimselfmoderately. Repetti.. XXXV. Gabriel by Sanchez's accountof his visitto the island Negrosin 1599. not only learned dialectof his areain who the threemonths. MariinHenrlquez. the facilitywith which manyministers the Lord in the four of religious orderslearned language the usedin their respeciive missions. VI 209-210. see Jesus MariaGranero. 1955). Burrus.. Cosmede Floresshowedgreat fluencyin Visayan and he ".so uponarrival Leytetheybegan study at the of the language. 12 . Flores' rapidmastery the local dialectwas matched that of of by Fr. cit. . .61-76. WilliamC." HispanicSrzericanHistoricalReview.. 363 madeupon the Filipinosby a stranger speaking their language was extremely favorable went far to insurethe missionary's and success. 1 (February. even so as to preachand hearconfessions them.S. This is well illustrated Fr. spendsno more than six months.and one of ours. lbid. .1938).He hadcatechized on Panay 1593.on the nativedialectsand the missionaries. The peoplewereastounded hearhim of to speakin theirown tongue. For the ideasof the Jesuitfounder.E. . Chirino in for wrotethata few monthslaterFr. however. spokeit with masterly skill. XII. PedroChirino. Chirino wrote 12 also that: .II.They realizedthat if any lastingwork was to be accomplished. J. 9The account of Sanchez'strip is relatedin Pedro Chirino's Relacionde las Islas Filipinas.l1 The use of the nativedialects became universal so amongthe Jesuit missionaries by 1602the Annual that Letterreported in themission that stations allthefathers " (except or threewho aretoo oldor engaged two in governmental work) know the dialects. J. of 151-152.. didnot takelongfor it the It Flores become to proficient thelanguage.. "Francisco S.an English translation which is in Blair and Robertson. no. "La accion misionera los metodosrnisionales San y de Ignaciode Loyola. Piccolo receiveda severe reprimand was orderedhenceforthto instruct and only in Spanish.The most tardystudentof them. Manila. History of the Society of Jesusin tSe PSilippine Islands (2 vols.143-150." Bibliotheca Hispana Missionum.NICHOLAS CUSHNER P. XII. alongwith threecompanions..J. [Jesviit Redialects. J. inaugurated Jesuitmlssionary activityin the Visayasin 1595.1931).S.seemsa gift from in heaven.

to the astonishmentof our people. of 17 Ibid.14 The first solutionseemedto take from Christianity universality its andconfine to certain it civilizations. 72-73. its its In lirnited vocabulary were not to be foundthe wordsnecessary an for adequate teaching the principles the Faith. a vocabulaw.op. datedSeptember 1538. Such concepts.a rather roundabout process. It had been was met 2nd solvedin New Spaindecades before. Xavierencountered very this difliculty Japan.. grace.redempiion.however. learned and masteredthis language.. FrancisXavierfaced this difficulty Japanhe used for God only in the Portuguese word Deos in order to avoidequivocalexpressions then currentamong the Japanese sects.not from nlalice. E adveriid mucho en que los que la examinarenque miren los vocablos no traigan incovevenientes (sic) para la doctrina y religion cristiana. The question arose then:how weretheseideasto be expressed.in selrenty-fourdays. l61bid.. paraphrase required or the concept in the nativetongue. In truth.but it required thorough a understanding the language of with all its intricacies flexiblevocabulary. were foreignto the natives.When St. There the Friars saw two possible solutions the perplexing to problem.. 16 Ibid.16 Francis St. .etc."The difficulty arose. Actually Dauzo meant a " Great Falsehood.l7 The danger.. and many writings therein. pp.364 JESUIT MISSIONARY METHODS ligious] Fr.for God. either introduce Europeanwordsintothe nativevocabulary.Likewise. secondwouldseemto avoid The this. consequently foundin theirlanand not guage. 234-235. XII. . was 8Blairand Robertson.por las significaciones que los indios en su lengua les dan. brought problems. therefore. Holy Spirit. cit. cit.For if the nativewordswere on retained therealwaysremained possibility the ideasthey conthe that notedwere not orthodox. op.le in A cedula fromValladolid. . so that he could preach and hear confessions.18 The use of the nativetongue. the termsit usedadmitof a different lest meaning m t le natlvetongue. of of and corresponding words. either to learn or to pronounce-and more especially now.warned 22. * - . The Bonzeshowever. l' Ricard.the first alternaave and avoided danger heterodoxy well as confusion misunderthe of as and standing the partof the neophyte.It ordered a catechism the nativedialectbe that in closelyexamined. whatwordswereto be used? This problem by no meansan entirelynew one.arguedthat Deos and their Dasuzowere one and the same thing. Cosme de Flores. these languages are not very difficult. as well as of the Indiansthemsellres.. since there is a grammar.. against this samedanger.but from a completemisunderstanding the two concepts. a veryrealone andso hadto be faced.

Likewisein the Tagalogversionof the Doctrina Christiana there appeara numberof wordswhich are simplytransplanted from the Spanish the localdialect. confesar.This was important.Someof themaregracia.God. andholy.l9 Santo. a changeof islands meant change. Christ6bal Jimenez.Dios.What was probably the usedin the earlydays of the Visayanmissionwas the Introduccion Lengua a la Bisaya of Fr. spokenin the different of as islands. 19 Doctrina C^TiStiABas A facsimile of the copy in the LessingJ. catholica. Holy Mary inahan sa Dios. comulgorr. was carried viva on qJoce betweenthe learnerand a IIiissioner already well versedin the dialects.wereusedfor grace.and more often than not. sacramentos.in dialect. ck. infierno.They simplyadded the vernacular to languages wordswhichthey needed the to explain concepts Christianity.NICHOLAS CUSHNER P. Rosenwald Colleconon. now and in our death. Espiritu into sacerdo. Exalted thou much among women tanan ug prayeg man an imon anac Jesus.Dios. fiesta. domingo. however.The greater of the learIiing part process. Santa. extrema uncion orden and SincetheJesuit missionaries Visayan a medium communicaused as of tion. The ente prayer readsas follows: Maghimayaca Maria napono ca sa gracia An Guinoon Rejoice thou Mary. the Lord Dios anaa canimo.passim. 239. Guirayeg ca uyamot sa babaihun God is withthee. view of the fact that the missionaries in frequently movedfrom islandto island. 2nd. full thouof grace. XU. l9Blair and Robertson. cruz. with an introductory essay by Edwin Wolf. . gracia.for example. the Visayan the of In version the of Hail Mary.. a however slight. op. confirmar. Jesus 18 sinners. Santa Mana all and exalted also he thy son Jesus. (Libraryof Congresss 1947). Lerus be interceded by thee us for macasasala onia ug sa amun camatai. it was necessary therebe available the mission that in someaids for learning language. Amen.sirgen. iguiampo mo canii mother of God. yglesia.This methodpossessed added the advantage being able to acquaint newcomer of the with the slightly different varieties Visayan. 365 The solution whichthe missionaries the Philippines of preferred was thesame thatadopted theFriars New Spain as by of yearsbefore.

in theearlydaysof themission.gainedthe good will of all those villagesand marvelously influenced themto receiveour holy faith. Sedeno.op. well disposed was towards Jesuits hadhimself the and begun the spiritual instruction his encomendados. 1595.2° there When threefathersand one lay brotherwere sent to Leyte by the Jesuit superior.Lateron Cebuassumed role.but also the encomendero Carigara. travelling throughout the district. But by the end of this July. on the coast. Not only did these well situated also coastaltowns affordthe possibility relatively of convenient trips to nearbyislands. Chirino Bro..2l missionaries of The were fortunate having in suchfavorable assistance. manyof whomthey baptized. thequasi-center activity was of in the Visayas. established a schoolfor children. ed.as referredto here. Leyte.. of in the missionaries moreor lesschosetheirown fieldsof labor. (3 19001902). by Pablo Pastells? vols. . is an inspectionof the religiouscommunities in a given area. and Garay. Barcelona. theirreligious oftenfailedto match zeal theirpecuniary pursuits.to beginmission Fr. One was at Carigara on the northern coastof the island. AntonioSedeno. .. FatherJuandel Campo.about50 and milessoutheast. XII. FranciscoColin. and 21 . at Cristobal de Truxillo.the superior the Philippine of mission. cit. the otherwas at Dulac. work in that region.22 FatherAlonsoHumanes reported the work being done at also on Dulacin thisearlyperiod: 2°A visitation.hadbeenordered Cebu to whereFr. the increase reverence the holy sacraand to of for ment.they erectedthe frst churchin Dulac.II. It is usuallyconductedby a religiousappointedby the superiorof the order.Alonso was and Humanes Juandel Campo and were in Dulac. although Spanish for the Crownhad clearlyoutlinedthe spiritual role of the encomenderos. they established the island on two residences. MateoSanchez aloneat Carigara.. was The typeof workin whichthemenatDulacandCarigara engaged were is described Fr. whom they prepared and baptized. Chirino: by FatherAlonsode Humanes FatherJuandel Campo and were the first to instruct dwellers and aboutDulac. Besides this. 12.366 JESUIT MISSIONARY METHODS DISTRIBUTION MISSIONARIES OF THE Prior to the visitation the Visayanmissions 1599-1600. who werein thegroupsentto Leyte. 282-283.. Fr.Laborevangelica.Fr. formeda long and list of catechumens. In the time that they the in spent together.with great solemnity rejoicing. dying. a2Blair Robenson. Frs.

important no lpadof the headman.II. Ibid. 21-22. . NICHOLAS CUSHNER 367 In September1595.or they had forgotteneven how to blessthemselves. Only this neededwas a priestresiding a community: priestat hand Chrisnan couldinsurea well instructed into relapse paganism. Specialattention got paidto the menandFr. Somemissionaries had either theircharges sunkbackintopaganhis revisited station priest What was ism.andundertook conversion theirinhabitants. was who by assisted the Spaniards were livlngthere.and in thesestations catechized baptized..25 totallyadeSuch a methodwas by no meansconsidered a month.. he [Humanes]and Fr. 23 was doctrine taught and and A church schoolwereopened Christian thereon Sundays. II. The the theseislands samegeneral covering wide a usually stations.whichwasby no means easytask. was but was station alsoknownasa visita... in permanently a given area.op.that the baptismal and wereheldin Dulac.P. was not until Christmas 1595. It instruction. 301. they gatheredthe people of three encomiendas.24 to allowedthe missionaries expand of In 1596an increase personnel Samar in themselves nearby They established theirfieldsof operation.II.. Ibid..Op.sinceit hadno resident visitedperiodically..werenot eager baptize would enablethem to providebetter preof the native language Eve.27 any to guardagainst possible in Vice-Province 1599by Fr. In of the andBohol. del Campospent a few the daysat the riverof Palowherethey fouxld peopledocileandwilling who apt Carewas takento instruct children to hearaboutCatholicity. Campo in touchwith the headmanof each follow the the point.manydid not ask for baposmand the knowledge untila better to on Fathers. 123. mission numerous founded missionary and he area. theirpart. Over40 adults children baptisms firstsolemn into werereceived the Church. cit. 26 Colin. II.A stationwas to of large whena sufficiently number peoplecouldbe induced erected an place.However..because peopleof the barrio an barrio. cit.At least once a year a stationwas visitedby enoughto be visitedonce were fortunate Somestations the priest.Diego of The inspection the Philippine 2 Repem. all of was of method evangelization used. 22-23. 122. 28 26 27 Ibid. to wouldreturn theirhomesandtell theirelders Arrivlngin Dulac. Beforethe comingof the Fathers one had amongthe nativeswere and Catholicity the only Chrisiians preached in who had heardMassandconfessed of a few servants the Spaniards Cebu.26 arguedthat when the quateand it had its critics. The live in one accessible priest. whatthey hadlearned.

2 3 3 4 4 35o Tlnagon Bohol 28 4 4 3 Ibid.28 Fromthesecentralresidences Fathers the were to maketheirsalidas..Fr. 98. Washington.the new Christians As could be visitedmore frequently. whereas now they weremorecentralized theirmonthlyandannual and salidas coordinated. Garc1a reported recentchanges the to Fr.. who cameas the official S. II. Op.."The of change wasenacted order expedite in to theirwork. a result. (7 vols. General Aquaviva: . and 1598: Residence Cebu Alangalang Ogmuc Fathers Brothers 6 (residents) 1 Palo Dulac . going out two by two. resulted a number in of important changes the distribution Jesuits the Visayan in of in Islands. Another residencehas been formed from Carigaraand Alangalang. J. 210-211. Dulac and Palo have been united and there are three Fathersand two Brothers to whom anotherFatherwill be added. conformably to the orders of your Paternity..368 JESUIT MISSIONARY METHODS Garc1a.29 The centralization the men:s residences strikingly of and is apparent when compare respectivecatalogues the mission the we the of for years before afterthe changes.andeachsectionwas to haveits own central residence wherefive or sig Fathers Brothers and wereto live... visitor.On July 7. for Hitherto. the missionaries spread had themselves thinlyovera wide area. ." C. . Tlnagon Bohol 1601: Cebu Alangalang Dulac . C.. Repem's " The Society of Jesus in the Philippines.return Fathers some the to form of communicy and certairlly companionship. cit. life. D. Those who ordinarilyreside in Ormoc have been subordinated Alangalang to with ordersthat the Fathersbe changed every two months. 80From the Annual Letters of 1598-1599and 1601-1602 in the manuscript copy of W. the residenceshave been reduced so that six of ours may live together. II. Aftera thorough of theVisayas ordered eachof the tour he that islands was to be divided into seciions. Repem.. 29 . "in imitation the apostles. 1600.

194-198. II.V.it was suggested Romethatthe firstthingto be effortto gather was missions a concentrated in undertaken the Visayan Where the the peopleinto towns in orderto expediteinstruction.however. reaction the missionaries the revision favorvoiceda somewhat Father Prado. Pedro Chinno He procurator. in others eight. Garc1a. priorto Garc1a's for the directive that: obtained The Father Vice Provincial and other superiors and Fathers of the Philippineshave given the informaiion that they can not. and discover each day.. because of the objections they have presented to us. were to ". One or another makes the exercisesso that all make them at least once a year. His plan. of Two years after the visitation Fr.He wished extend centralization dissenting to desiring staffone housein a givenareawith ten or twelve further. Repetti for perrnission to make use of his manuscript. 154-176. II. was the remaining same. and in addition there are praciices of humility such as cooking. coniinue the manner of residencesand doctrinas followed up to the present. 8 Ibid. However. .It which conditions described seemsthat the reportto Rome partially says visit.. There in are exercisesof penanceand mortification the refectory. the able. men. or a little more. 187. they to peoplerefused be so gathered. leavethemsolely 1945-1950). . In some there are six of Ours.31 Fr.P. The writer wishes to thank Fr. Letterfor 1602reported: Annual Each day we experiencemore and more the importanceof the order of your Fraternity (sic) to increase the number in our communities. . Once a month.the otherresidences from a manpower was since the mission suffering judgedimpractical The shortage. and ought which has been not. etc. History.So the onginalplanof Garclawas put into operation. they come together for the space of a week during which time their principal business is their own advancement. of to journeyed Romein the capacity Vice-Provincial in thereof conditions the islands. NICHOLAS CUSHNER 369 was to of the In general. as customary in the Society.32 by In view of this. The first potnt treatedby the Generalin this directivewas the and of arrangement residences doctrinasin the Visayanmissions.In the was to advise Jesuitsuperior in the his reportwas included work undertaken the VisayanIslands. Jesuit even project the to opinion.. sweeping. direcin missions a subsequent the mentioned southern for the General tive. al Repetti. del superior.III. 47-83..

modification madein the existing a was governance of theresidences. 84 Ibid.thekingcouldbe petitioned theencomenderos and madeto enforcethe movement. they should deprived theirencomiendas. residences the parishes the of wereto be turned into colleges. thatthisreduction thepeople of wouldbe opposed theencomenderos. ." of Thedutyof thesaid supenntendent be." was foreseen. hasbeen as found experiencesuch by in encomiendas.sII. '8Ibid. and the formermissionaries to find theirapostolate this new were in type of work.. The surrender perpetual of curacies to take placeonly was afterthepeople themhadbeenwellinstructed converted. be of Theencomiendas thenbe leftto hisMajesty we would would and find theworkof catechizing instruction and greatly facilitated. The Generalalso hopedthat from these schoolsnative vocations woulddevelop.35 Such an appoinenent a wise one in view of the fact that the was Vice-Provincial resided morethan300milesfromthe Visayan missions..If they still remained obstinate. The superiors the villages are of and residences be subject everything this superintendentto will in to as an immediate superior. of for It however. was to of it since the administraiion parishes forbidden JesuitConstiof was by tutions. Therewasto be appointed superintendent a whoseonly task was to diligently"watch over the most distantresidences and villages the Vice Province. to visit and inspect villages. in Manila in or from the governor audiencia. but alsowhattouches conversion the natives the conservation the of and of thosealready converted.. shallsee how the rules. commutation the encomenderos and some for of ourresidences missions leave and and thementirely the property as of his Majesty..370 JESUIT MISSIONARY METHODS in the hands the Bishop conversion.. to but themain preoccupation themission to be schools of was wherethework of the pastten yearscouldbe brought fruition the instruction to in of the youth.. by If suchwerethecase. On no accountwerenew residences be opened. *6 Ibid.orders He and religious discipline observed. in and Where possible.34 In addition. 197.willbeof great It importance for ourworkto secure the courtandcouncil. onlyasto whatconcerns the not Ours.33 The Jesuitsuperior Romealsoinsisted in that the Societyof Jesus in the Philippines eventually dispose all the parishes held. the superintendent But cannot transfer them without order an fromthe vice-provincial.ashasbeen continually will said.

"Pre-Baptismal in the Philippinesduring the SixteenthCentury.38 seemsnot to have been uncommon.Leyte. of the sins of his pastlife.XII. Alonso Humanes catechize thoseof theirown pueblo. afiirming Adult candidate. Blairand Robertson. Phelan.Fr." was baptized. 1955).andso on uniil. the learning the fulfillthese conditions were had classes Doctrinetook placeon Sundays. refersto two ninos abiles who instructed replacing intended and was Theirofiice. . 88Ibid.Credo ableto recitethe OurFather."The Americas.As many Christian which in as therewere divisions the subjectmatterof the catchism.cacyof baptism. settling OFINSTRUCTION METHODS of had Fourrequirements to be met beforethe sacrament baptism to He was expected repent to was administered the newly instructed.P. of obligations a of and other sacraments an awareness the principal to were required know from memorythe entire Children Christian. of unionwas expected the married A monogamous Hail Mary. them as soon as enoughFatherswere available. another the meantsix or seven. superstudents of into weredivided groups ten andthe moreadvanced to The practiceof allowingthe well instructed vised the lessons. 96.They were of great-aid thosewhose the produced desired Insction and the Adnistranon of Baptism 86 See John L..XIII..as Fr. 1 (July. catechism. IIs285. cit. no. beliefin the efl.he ". Palo. took his degree.however. the the HailMary.Leyte.andso on. to results. Chirino in The and says.t.6. trained the of instruciion poteniialconverts to In addition the usuallrocal deuse made missionaries considerable of visualaidsas well.. . In Ormoc. XIII. op. cit.86 to The methodsused by the missionaries have their catechumens of varied. temporary. were to be converts They also had to have some idea of the and Ten Commandments. op. One grouplearned Signof the Cross.89 Chirinoalso to that it was the practicefor each residence have several mentions catechists. passed the nextclass. Whena childor adultlearned particular to he classmatter.37 instruciion The pupils on was carried with the help of decuriones. 89 Coi. a7 . Humanes Fr. Pictures andusually of the picting truths theFaithwereusedto greatadvantage. NICHOLAS CUSHNER 371 who superior that demanded therebe another His very inaccessibility by missions would insurethe smoothworkingorderof the southern local immediate problems.

We are informed that Fr. affords view of a wpicalmissionary a salida. The picturesfrequently included largeariist's a conception Hell.He once arranged his with coadjutor companion at the most ferventpart of his discourse that on Hell the Brother shouldlighta pitchfirebehind him. cit. XIII. the Father to If werefortunate enough have to a Lay Brother companion with him. and arrivedin Barilion Wednesday before noon.The morningwas taken up with preaching shortdiscourses theChristians thepueblo teaching or to in and catechism the children. Sermons to consisted ratherof a seriesof shortspiritual conferences which one or two in important ideaswere presented. see Blalr and Robertson. June 16.both Chrisiians pagans. with of A missionary to Barili. 121-124. We left Cebu on Monday.Herehe repeated of on of the sermons hadpreached the morning. op. thelisteners' for powers of concentration were not yet developed the full. 41For detailed accounts of preaching methods used by the missionanes. though. Htstory. and '° Ibid. Frein quently. 2) of of and4) Reward Christians thenextlife. to Sermons the neophytes to usuallyrevolved aboutfour basictopics: 1) Hell or Purgatory. wasalone.At the end of the conference the preacher wouldreviewthe mainpointshe haddiscussed by means and of questionand answerrepeatthem. . Juande Torreswent several stepsfurther. for it was to this motive of that the missionaries frequently appealed. Repem.372 JESUIT MISSIONARY METHODS knowledgeof the languagewas limited. On Thursdaya large number.utThe listenerswere thereby relieved the tedium a long discourse they usually of of and managed to retain broad the outline theconference.almostthe entire day was devotedto instruction. to in The processwas repeated followingday until the missionwas the satisfied the progress hisneophytes." with much fireandsmoke. 396." impress to uponhis bearers horrors the punishthe of mentwhichmightbe theirs. Immortality the soul.II. for in The method preaching of thesetopicswasnot so muchby means of reasoned argument continuous and discourse. town on the southwest trip a coastof Cebu. part for when he went on a salidaor trip into a given area...40 senses well as the intellectwere The as appealed by themissionaries. 62.Thosewho werenot Chrishe in tiansandwho desired be so were instructed the late afternoon.he was assisted the task.II. of Preaching playedan important in the life of a missionary.Inthe afternoon visited ranchergas he he the or clusters homes theoutskirts thevillage.3) Existence God.

In most of the towns we gave a written form of Baptismto some capable persons to use in case of necessity. around which there are two or three smaller villages. On our return to Bariliwe passedthrough the two pueblos previously mentioned and baptized 11 adults and three children. On Monday.. exclusive of children. Every evening we had the Salveand Litany of our Lady after the instruction or Baptismbecause we hoped that through this most holy Lady. because they were not prepared. 373 assembledin the church and after a prayer I gave a sermon in which I exhorted them to receive Baptism. God willing.. We then ccle- . From there we went to another town called Tuburan. were baptized.and taught them about God and His work of creation. the inhabitantsof which gathered in the town. We told them to return on Sunday and they went out to their fields in all directionsto distancesof one. The houses in the town are small because tlley are not used much. That was followed by a solemn baptism of boys. The people were peaceable and well behaved because their principal was a good Christian. 114 adults were baptized.. Sunday morning the church could not hold everybody and after Mass I gave a sermon on eterni. On Saturdaywe baptized the children and on Sunday 28 adults.. Every morningand evening the people came to the church for instruction. John the Baptist.there was anotherlarge gatheringand 29 adults.. The town was thus left purified by baptism and confession.. In Barili we found 16 ready for Baptism..so that the people thought of nothing else duringthat time. two or three leagues. On Monday we continued on to Agpile. The confessions of the Christianswere heard because there had been no priest there during Lent. Besides children. In our journey we found many who had not been to confession for years and some who had been Christians many years but had never confor fessed.catechizing. His example influenced many others. On Thursday we set out with the reverend pastor of the district and came to a small village namedCarlumand we spent Friday. They could be heardreciting prayers until midnight... the Sun of Justice would shed His rays on this people just as the sun risingin the east shedsits light over the world and dispelsdarkness.. We also instructed the Christiansto commend themselves to God and how to have recourse to him in case of necessity in the absence of a confessor. The recitationof the rosarywas taught and urged as a daily practice.NICHOLAS CUSHNER P. We were there ten days and morning and evening we were busy prayingsteaching. Saturdayand Sundaythere. the feast of St.. 15 of them being adults. The people began to come in on Saturdayand in the evening we baptizeda large number of children.. although the baptism of some had to be deferred to another time. Among the adults were some leading citizens and the chief principal who had held out against baptism.

In a certain sense. Samar. to maintain new Chrisiians their was the in newlyacquired Faith. History. . ..by way of resthe takeshis book... In Palocas well no Doctrinalessons were held daily. mainlyin theirown characters.it was not overlydifficult convert to and baptizesince the Visayans were peacefuland pliableenoughto embrace doctrines Christianity. Not only do they. but they alwayscarryveth and them these matenals. . .and the collectorsare notably edified thereby.. their encomenderosaid.274-276. Ctt. writetheirlessons(Doctrina). one of the firstinquiries the of missionary revisiting villagewas whetheror not the Christians on a werefaithful reciting doctrines the Faith. theirprayers procession.. He [OonGonzalo]not only looksafterthe knowl*2 Repem. "Blair and Roberuon. The fiscalmaintains thema regular with planand order:morning andevening. usinga piece of reedas a book of and memorandum.43 These are by no meansisolatedincidents are indicative a but of general methodical practice. to whom the churchis dedicated. Therewere. Father's the assistant. II.Op. . whatwasmoredifficults the of But and of weightier responsibility.InCarigara Christians the assembled in homeseach night and togetherchantedthe articlesof Faithand the prayers. certain standard procedures which were introduced the missionaries by to thisend. .In Dulac the Doctrinawas chantedin churchby an assembled congregation lessthanfourtimesa day. The timeandplacevaried. One of thesemethods the chanting the catechism young was of by andold. one proved to be of greatassistance maintainingChristian in a amlosphere. as good students.. . Anne. 96. wheneverone ceaseshis labors. . at nightbeforeretiring and and andin the morning beforedawn. XIIi. .In fact.374 JESUIT MISSIONARY METHODS bratedthe feast of gloriousSt. problem the arose of how to helpthe neophytes keepthe Faithandmaintain Christian a modeof life.whetherat and homeor in the field. Don Gonzalo.they alsooffertheirprayers-sothat the Spaniards.andspends some timein study. 42 Once the Faithwas planted pagans and bapiized. Someeven wrote theirprayers on camas (stripsof reed) in orderto remember continually and referto them.however. in the of In Tinagon. an iron point as a pen.We do not possess overabundance material an of on how the missionaries attempted this.

Some were bitterlyhostile. P.44 Morga commented thisvery method employing persons on of lay to helppreserve Faithamong newly converted. '6 One of the possiblereasonsfor oppositionto the missionaries that they were was confusedwith Spanish coHectors. set of questions A was sometimes to the candidate put whichfollowedthisgeneral foIm: Priest: Are you in earnest aboutreceiving sacrament? the Candidate: Yes.NICHOLAS CUSHNER P. I P. arquebusiers thatcolorfulMediand terranean effervescence whichtheSpanish successfully so projected into the Filipino culture pattern. of certain of the natives who are clever and well instructed. say this with my whole heart.45 In seekingprospective convertsthe missionaries first to win tried overthe principorles andcorciques.: Does the love of God andyour eternal salvation prompt you? C. 64. was to give he ampleproof of his desirefor the sacrament.: Yes. and see that they come to Mass at the central missions. in their visitas.. tax '6Sucesos . XVI. 44 lbid.but even trainsthem in good habits. XIII.Father..46 Beforeone was adrnitted baptismal to instruciion.. The first baptisms a villagewere usuallyperformed in with great solemnityin orderto impress upon the people the importance and sacred nature the sacrament. and punishesthem gently when they are at fault. There was a choir. 153. 375 edge and recitaton of the doctrine..and othersmildly indifferent. the the In many districts the religious make use.not all the villageswere equallyreceptiveto the new doctrine. wasthen it only a matterof time beforethe whole villagewould be convened.and in this way they succeed in preserung and maintaining their converts. of Antonio de Morga. ceremony of The often took placeon a specialfeast day. However... Father. nothingelse. If they weresuccessful..: Are you determined leaveall of your falsegods and to to changethemfor the trueGod? C.in Ibid.: Yes Father..a brassbandwhich included nativeandEuropean instruments.so that these may teach the others to pray daily instruct them in other matters touching religion. What swungthe balance several itl caseswas the persuasive presence of the encomendero.

287. Fromthe time of Magellan.376 JESUIT MISSIONARY 1\/1ETHODS P. however. 17-20. Cit. II. L. this can not be observed let them arrange to take some 47Colin.see J. Op. pp.: C. issued sucha set of directives. to for because it was thoughtthatthe sacrament wouldprovide spiritual a immunity against illness.: P. 18.The administration baptism of of wasthusconfused withtheadministrationcurative of herbs.It enabled over-allsuperior obtaina fairly accurate the to idea of the accomplishments problems the various and of missioners. areyou merelyspeaking or words? No otherdesire in my heart is thanto be a goodChristian.. DIRECTIVES OF FATHER PRADO DEL Frequent correspondence betweenthe missionary residences the and superior Manila in was an important featureof missionmethods.49 In addition thesesupposed to physical benefits. in 1596.s XII. 4'Blairand Robertsons Cit. During one epidemica great number children of were brought the Fathers baptism. Ordinationsof Father Vice-Provincial Raymundo del Prado. Spanish provided to a for law preferential treatment Christian for natives.manywere drawnto the sacrament less worthy motives. wasof distinct it social advantage become Christuan. cit. by the apparently physical curative powersof baptism enticeda certain number. Phela. and if.. p.4t In spite of all the precautions.and much less to other distant pueblos. 2.The sections dealing withthe Visayan missions presented are herein part.: Are you resolved servethe true God andbe a good to Christian.They were intendedfor missionaries well as local as superiors they wereissued and only aftercloseinspections the Viceof Province.48 Whatfurther enhanced medicinal the powersof baptism the in mindsof the peoplewas the fact thatthe missionaries frequently performedthe services the physician. Jesuit del the Vice-Provincial. withwhich some missionaries were very skillful. Then you are to be congratulated. . so it was and possible give generaldirectives the activemissionaries. in some house. 1596 to to In and 1598Father Prado. Cit. admityou as a I catechumen. loc. 48 For a discussion of various monvesfor baposm. They must not go to confess or visit the sick in the pueblos unless with a companion.Op.. 88. Phelans loc.

They were so called becausethe nativesthere tattood themselves. but return to sleep in our central house. having as many presentas possible. if it is not known and definite. arranging to go out in the morning and return in the evening. 1.NICHOLAS CUSHNER P. 16. 12. because in another year another Father may succeed them in the Residenceand he would have nothing to eat nor anythingto give to the poor. Baptismsshould be conferred with as much solemnity as possible.50 That which the same Father ordered in his nsitation of 1598 for the Fathers who are in the Pintados. 15.especially the fiscales. even though it may be to give alms and help to the natives.51 1. how to prepare persons for and Bapasm. and not like the King or aIcalde mayor.and so we should respect them and cause them to be respectedin their pueblos. becausetheir example exerts great good or evil on others. Make special efforts to gain over the chiefs. Let the natives be paid justly for their work. 6°The Englishtranslation these directivesis in Repetii. likewise for their favors and all that may be taken. 377 native as a companion. 10-17. 18. They must regulate matters and act as conformably as possible to what they have and no more.and on some Pascuas with a sermon in which the sacred mysteries and ceremoniesare explained. 61The people of the Visayasand the islandsthemselveswere often referredto as Pintados. Superior of Alangalang. Your Reverence is very specially charged that in your pueblos. Memorialfor Father Tomas Montoya. likewise pay them according to the just current price. they are enjoined very exactly on the rule of the Rector that they must not incur debt or borrow anything. ." of III. and it might be possiblethat he would leave the Society and the latter would have nothing with which to pay its debts.nor assumethe account of alms of the encomenderos. 14.unless it may be seen that it is a just price.and the other Fathersand Brothers. Holy Water should be used solemnly on Sundays and the Masses and offices should be sung with the greatest solemnity possible. which should be well placed. "The Society of Jesus. To the superiorsof the Residencesand doctrinas. If not accompaniedby some other Father or Brother they must by no means sleep in such pueblos. Let some natives be instructed how to baptize in extraordinary circumstances.

when they are to kneel. charms. and for this it will help that the Brotherbe among the naiives to show them how to act.in the sensethatit was a 7000-island archipelago extending over 115.with true sorrow for their sins of and a desirefor baptismor confession. To them. and in the absence of those who administer the sacraments baptismand penance.etc. how to turn to God in case of necessity.andtimeconsuming. the Our Father. that they be attached to Chrisiiancustoms and life. secondly. Two things must be insisted upon with those who are bapiized. missionaries needed more were 6 Camotes are the nativesweet potatoand tuba is a drinkobtainedfrom the coconut tree. telling them especiallynot to make mangitos. believing firmly. 11.first. the was dangerous.sorceries.Travelbetween islands difficult. as such and. how to bapiize in extreme necessity and that there be many in all places who understandthis. one. 69 a considerable increase from the originalfour who arrived 1581. etc.childrenand youth. It is not necessary that the first know anything. and that they be present at both with becoming decency. Do not put so much stresson the fact that they are baptizedas that they may be bapezed well and are Christians. mustnot forgetthatthe Philippines a unique we was mission field. For the third it will suffice if they know the Sign of the Cross. 2. that they be models in their pueblos. and this is what is ordinary. It is necessarythat the second group know the entire Christiandoctrine by memory. of whichwas the presence large in one of numbers missionaries.the Hail Mary and the Creed. The boys of the schools must be treated with great kindnessand must be allowed good periods of iime for play. 1604theJesuits of By alonecounted members. but only that they know the necessaryarticlesof our holy faith. in However. . that they be well imbued th the truth of our holy faith and the falsiw of the idols. Consequently. and othersof middle age. although live few.52 CONCLUSIONS There are several factorswhich contributed the rapidspread to of Christianity the Philippines.the natives be instructed in two things.000 square miles. others. by memory.some camotes and tuba shouldbe given from iime to iime to awractthem to Ours and to the instruciion. 3. Take noiice of the Chrisiianswho attend Mass and those who are not at the sermon.that they may not be dispensedin this. and to the other natives. secondly. or very little. 5. Those who may be baptized are of three classes: some very old.378 JESUIT MISSIONARY METHODS and more in those under your jurisdiction.

NICHOLAS SanJoseSeminary. of of experience the Augustintans. the combined within Islands placedthe greaterpart of the Philippine successfully short of in thepaleof Christendom sucha shortperiod timewasnothing we And of remarkable.Philippines . instructional European which so effort of all the missionaries In any case. NICHOLAS CUSHNER S. although maylook uponit assimplyan extenone conquestof New Spain. followed missionaries whichtheseJesuit and The procedure methods originalwith them. CUSHNER.it remains of the sion of the spiritual of conquests Christendom. 379 suchas wasNew frontier. Franciscans. J. of was What mightbe notedas original the organization Philippines.P. both in New Spainand the whom worked long and successfully. outstanding S. well as certainmethodsof instruction. de Cagayan Oro. of to mightbe traced theConstitutions theSocietyanditS contemporary methods. for thanwouldbe required one continuous pam. P. And these as the residences. They drew heavilyon the were by no m-eans all and Dominicans.