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, 1959), pp. 361-379 Published by: Academy of American Franciscan History Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/978866 . Accessed: 08/09/2011 15:18
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EARLY JESUIT MISSIONARY METHODS IN THE PHIlIPPINES 1565,when Spainwas sdll on the ascending of its colonial arc ventllres, firstpermanent the settlement thePhilippines made. in was The subsequent decadeswitnessed, only a militaryconquest not by Spanish conquistadores, a spiritual but conquest well. The efforts as of Salcedo, Legazpiand the otherswere, so to speak,the firststage, ushering the missionaries, . . the realconquerors, withoutany in ". who Other arms thantheirvirtues, gained overthe goodwill of the islanders, . . . and gavethe king two millions moreof submissive Christian and subjects." 1 The taskof the missionary the Philippine in Islands was, firstand foremost,to spreadthe CatholicFaith. Since Christianity the was foundation stoneof Westerncivilization it was the acknowledged and duty of the Spanish stateto extendthe Faith,it followsthatfromthe standpoint both stateand Church was the missionary's task of it first to convertthe heathen.2 the statebenefited But fromthe missionary's laboras well as the Church.For,justas in New Spain, missionary the served, only to christianize frontier, he alsoaided extendnot the but in ing, holding, civilizing and it.3 The Jesuitmissionaries the Visayan in Islands, central a groupin the Philippine archipelago composed principally Leyte, Samar, of Cebu, Negros,andBohol,effectedthe extension civilization the new and of Spanish frontierthroughmissionschools. TvheJesuitterritorywas divided into districts each district and provided elementary, later, and secondary instruction, the nativechildren.4 for In the followingpageshowever,we will be concerned with the primary task of the missionary, of " christiamzing frontier," that the implanting new set of religious a principles placeof the old; and in
1Thomasde Comyn,Stateof the Philippine Islands, wans.WilliamWalton (London, 1821),p. 209. ' HerbertE. Bolton,"The Missionas a FrontierInstitution the Spanish in Amencan Colonies,"The AmericanHistorica]Review, XXIII, no. 1 (October, 1917), 4647, Althoughthe authoris speaking the missionary a politicaland socialinfluenceon of as the North Americanfroniier,such was also the case in the PhilippineIslandswhere often the missionary the sole representative cross and crown. was of Ibid. 4 For the influenceof JesuitIIiission educationin the Philippines, Horacio de la see Costa,"JesuitEducation the Philippines 1768," in to PhiZippine Studies,IV, no. 2 (July, 1956),127-155. 361
8 addition.There wereseveral reasons this. in theirwork was confined the peopleof Cebu. worked for a short time in Leyte. impression In the 6Robert Ricard'sclassic study in the field of missionarymethods. p. 69-70." In Mexico. A. Augusiinians.the Dominicans.the mostcogentof whichwasthatit was for mucheasierfor one missionary learnthe language an areathan to of for all the peopleof that areato learnSpanish. of eds.7But around to Cebuwere several large.6The Augustinians been in the Visayasever sincetheir had arrival with Legazpi 1565. Jesuitsbeganwork amongthe inhabitants the the of VisayanIslands.well populated islands. once broughttwo Indian lads to the bishopto help in his plea for alms. The reason for this parationwas the speedierinswction and conversion the Filipines.also EvergistoBazaco.the missionariesobedezian. the meansby which this was accomplished. IX. For " perono cumplian.P.op. 6 In a communicaaon dated April 27. Robertson. 1594.the famousJesuitmissionary.however. Besides. 7 An Augustinian Father. teaching the of Castilian posedseveral impraciicalities. FelipeRedondo was y Sendino. of In 1595. but could only do so in their naiive 8See .however. The Philippine Islands(55 vols.this brief study has made considerable of its large-scale use model.fourteen yearsafterthe arrival the Societyof Jesusin of the Philippines. Bresc Resena. Blairand J.O.As is obvious. See E.It wasamang in thesepeoplethatJesuit missionaries workeduntiltheirexpulsion fromthe King'sdomains 1767.1886). For froma consideraaon missionary of methods may obtainan insight we into the natureof the " spiritual conquest and therebybe one step " closerto an accurate understanding the complex of relaiionship which existed betweenthe spiritual military and conquests the Philippines. the mostparthowever. in MISSIONARIES NATIVE AND THE DIALECTS The Jesuit missionaries the Visayan in Islands the nativedialects used as a medium teaching doctrines the Catholic for the of Church.Alonso Velasquez. Through the sixteenth and seventeenth centuriesa steadystreamof royal decreesurged the use of Spanish giving religious in instruction. They recited them perfectly. H.La "conqueAte spirituelle"da Mexigue.essai sur l'apostolatet les methodesmissionaires ordres des mendicants Nouqnelle-Espagne IS23 a IS72 (Paris. with It is the purpose therefore. pp. 35. 1953). 58. History oJEducation in the Philippines(Manila. Ricard.D. For the mostpart. The bishopaskedwhetherthey knew their prayers. thisarticle. de lo que es la Diocesisde Cebu (Manila. whose inhabitants were not being instructed theFaith.. Franciscans. 1903-1909). Cleveland.. cit..1933). He withdrew.Philip II orderedthat the Philippines be dividedamongthe four residentreligiousgroups. 120-121. .whenthe territory givenover to the Jesuits.362 JESUIT MISSIONARY METHODS moreparticularly.p. set forththe typicalJesuit of to methodsused in the variousphasesof their missionary work. territoryassigned their sphereof missionary the as activity.and Jesliits. . FranciscoPiccolo.. has provideda model en de on which similarstudiesmay be profitablypatterned.
he was already acquainted somedegreewith the regional in dialects.op.S. no. For the ideasof the Jesuitfounder." We are also told that 10 Fr. Manila.and one of ours... see Jesus MariaGranero.143-150. [Jesviit Redialects. JuandelCampo and Cosme Flores.. Gabriel by Sanchez's accountof his visitto the island Negrosin 1599.Ignatius Loyola. 363 madeupon the Filipinosby a stranger speaking their language was extremely favorable went far to insurethe missionary's and success.His priest in companions. History of the Society of Jesusin tSe PSilippine Islands (2 vols.seemsa gift from in heaven. XIII.an English translation which is in Blair and Robertson. alongwith threecompanions.NICHOLAS CUSHNER P." Bibliotheca Hispana Missionum. Repetti. "La accion misionera los metodosrnisionales San y de Ignaciode Loyola. spendsno more than six months. inaugurated Jesuitmlssionary activityin the Visayasin 1595. even so as to preachand hearconfessions them. VI 209-210.wouldbe through dsalects. This is well illustrated Fr. not only learned dialectof his areain who the threemonths. the facilitywith which manyministers the Lord in the four of religious orderslearned language the usedin their respeciive missions. (Burgos.. MariinHenrlquez.andwithina month400 hadbeen to confession somehadreceived and Communion. 1955). de werenot." Fr. XII. of 151-152. 12 .so uponarrival Leytetheybegan study at the of the language. didnot takelongfor it the It Flores become to proficient thelanguage. XXXV. Piccolo receiveda severe reprimand was orderedhenceforthto instruct and only in Spanish.. The peoplewereastounded hearhim of to speakin theirown tongue.E.He hadcatechized on Panay 1593. 284. "Francisco S. Chirino wrote 12 also that: . . WilliamC.61-76.if he applyhimselfmoderately. spokeit with masterly skill. J.on the nativedialectsand the missionaries. .1938).II. J. Cosmede Floresshowedgreat fluencyin Visayan and he ". 9The account of Sanchez'strip is relatedin Pedro Chirino's Relacionde las Islas Filipinas. alsoprepared collection Sunday but a of sermons a and treatise confession on written thenative in language. J. cit. 1 (February. lbid. 222. . Flores' rapidmastery the local dialectwas matched that of of by Fr. however. Piccolo.. .The most tardystudentof them. PedroChirino.9 When Fr. XII. Chirino in for wrotethata few monthslaterFr. Pioneerof Lower California. 326.S. lbid.l1 The use of the nativedialects became universal so amongthe Jesuit missionaries by 1602the Annual that Letterreported in themission that stations allthefathers " (except or threewho aretoo oldor engaged two in governmental work) know the dialects..J." HispanicSrzericanHistoricalReview. Burrus.1931).They realizedthat if any lastingwork was to be accomplished.
a vocabulaw. The Bonzeshowever. since there is a grammar. against this samedanger.Likewise.warned 22.18 The use of the nativetongue. * - . was 8Blairand Robertson."The difficulty arose. l61bid.however. l' Ricard. as well as of the Indiansthemsellres. the termsit usedadmitof a different lest meaning m t le natlvetongue.For if the nativewordswere on retained therealwaysremained possibility the ideasthey conthe that notedwere not orthodox. these languages are not very difficult. a veryrealone andso hadto be faced. pp. Xavierencountered very this difliculty Japan. In truth..etc.por las significaciones que los indios en su lengua les dan. consequently foundin theirlanand not guage.redempiion. XII.. cit.364 JESUIT MISSIONARY METHODS ligious] Fr. Holy Spirit. 72-73. therefore. There the Friars saw two possible solutions the perplexing to problem. cit.in selrenty-fourdays. 16 Ibid. 234-235. learned and masteredthis language. Such concepts. brought problems. to the astonishmentof our people. were foreignto the natives.but it required thorough a understanding the language of with all its intricacies flexiblevocabulary. either to learn or to pronounce-and more especially now.the first alternaave and avoided danger heterodoxy well as confusion misunderthe of as and standing the partof the neophyte. . and many writings therein. whatwordswereto be used? This problem by no meansan entirelynew one. of 17 Ibid..l7 The danger.It ordered a catechism the nativedialectbe that in closelyexamined.le in A cedula fromValladolid. Cosme de Flores. E adveriid mucho en que los que la examinarenque miren los vocablos no traigan incovevenientes (sic) para la doctrina y religion cristiana. FrancisXavierfaced this difficulty Japanhe used for God only in the Portuguese word Deos in order to avoidequivocalexpressions then currentamong the Japanese sects. secondwouldseemto avoid The this.14 The first solutionseemedto take from Christianity universality its andconfine to certain it civilizations.When St. either introduce Europeanwordsintothe nativevocabulary. The question arose then:how weretheseideasto be expressed.not from nlalice.. of of and corresponding words.. . It had been was met 2nd solvedin New Spaindecades before. datedSeptember 1538. its its In lirnited vocabulary were not to be foundthe wordsnecessary an for adequate teaching the principles the Faith. op.. grace. . Actually Dauzo meant a " Great Falsehood.but from a completemisunderstanding the two concepts.16 Francis St.op. so that he could preach and hear confessions.for God. paraphrase required or the concept in the nativetongue.a rather roundabout process..arguedthat Deos and their Dasuzowere one and the same thing.
iguiampo mo canii mother of God. a changeof islands meant change. with an introductory essay by Edwin Wolf.Someof themaregracia. fiesta. Holy Mary inahan sa Dios. op. andholy. sacramentos. the Lord Dios anaa canimo. confesar. XU. however. spokenin the different of as islands. gracia. a however slight. Lerus be interceded by thee us for macasasala onia ug sa amun camatai. full thouof grace. yglesia. Santa Mana all and exalted also he thy son Jesus. 19 Doctrina C^TiStiABas A facsimile of the copy in the LessingJ. comulgorr. was carried viva on qJoce betweenthe learnerand a IIiissioner already well versedin the dialects.passim.Dios. it was necessary therebe available the mission that in someaids for learning language. Exalted thou much among women tanan ug prayeg man an imon anac Jesus. Jesus 18 sinners. Likewisein the Tagalogversionof the Doctrina Christiana there appeara numberof wordswhich are simplytransplanted from the Spanish the localdialect. confirmar.NICHOLAS CUSHNER P. the Visayan the of In version the of Hail Mary.God. Espiritu into sacerdo. infierno. .. 239. cruz.wereusedfor grace.Dios.in dialect. Christ6bal Jimenez. (Libraryof Congresss 1947).sirgen.They simplyadded the vernacular to languages wordswhichthey needed the to explain concepts Christianity. Santa. extrema uncion orden and SincetheJesuit missionaries Visayan a medium communicaused as of tion. catholica.This was important. l9Blair and Robertson. 365 The solution whichthe missionaries the Philippines of preferred was thesame thatadopted theFriars New Spain as by of yearsbefore. now and in our death. 2nd. Amen. domingo. ck. Guirayeg ca uyamot sa babaihun God is withthee.l9 Santo. view of the fact that the missionaries in frequently movedfrom islandto island.The greater of the learIiing part process.for example.and more often than not. The ente prayer readsas follows: Maghimayaca Maria napono ca sa gracia An Guinoon Rejoice thou Mary. Rosenwald Colleconon.What was probably the usedin the earlydays of the Visayanmissionwas the Introduccion Lengua a la Bisaya of Fr.This methodpossessed added the advantage being able to acquaint newcomer of the with the slightly different varieties Visayan.
In the time that they the in spent together. XII.as referredto here... although Spanish for the Crownhad clearlyoutlinedthe spiritual role of the encomenderos. dying.they erectedthe frst churchin Dulac. and 21 . Barcelona. But by the end of this July.II.Alonso was and Humanes Juandel Campo and were in Dulac. Frs. manyof whomthey baptized.the superior the Philippine of mission.Lateron Cebuassumed role.op. Not only did these well situated also coastaltowns affordthe possibility relatively of convenient trips to nearbyislands. travelling throughout the district. the otherwas at Dulac. MateoSanchez aloneat Carigara.2° there When threefathersand one lay brotherwere sent to Leyte by the Jesuit superior. Chirino Bro.with great solemnity rejoicing. FranciscoColin.22 FatherAlonsoHumanes reported the work being done at also on Dulacin thisearlyperiod: 2°A visitation. formeda long and list of catechumens. thequasi-center activity was of in the Visayas. Sedeno. on the coast.Fr. of in the missionaries moreor lesschosetheirown fieldsof labor. whom they prepared and baptized. FatherJuandel Campo. One was at Carigara on the northern coastof the island. .. well disposed was towards Jesuits hadhimself the and begun the spiritual instruction his encomendados. they established the island on two residences. at Cristobal de Truxillo.gainedthe good will of all those villagesand marvelously influenced themto receiveour holy faith.about50 and milessoutheast. AntonioSedeno. It is usuallyconductedby a religiousappointedby the superiorof the order. cit. the increase reverence the holy sacraand to of for ment. Fr. a2Blair Robenson. is an inspectionof the religiouscommunities in a given area. by Pablo Pastells? vols.. and Garay.2l missionaries of The were fortunate having in suchfavorable assistance. Besides this. 1595. (3 19001902). 12. was The typeof workin whichthemenatDulacandCarigara engaged were is described Fr.hadbeenordered Cebu to whereFr. who werein thegroupsentto Leyte.in theearlydaysof themission. theirreligious oftenfailedto match zeal theirpecuniary pursuits.Laborevangelica. ed. .but also the encomendero Carigara. work in that region. 282-283.to beginmission Fr.366 JESUIT MISSIONARY METHODS DISTRIBUTION MISSIONARIES OF THE Prior to the visitation the Visayanmissions 1599-1600.. established a schoolfor children. Leyte. Chirino: by FatherAlonsode Humanes FatherJuandel Campo and were the first to instruct dwellers and aboutDulac.
28 26 27 Ibid. important no lpadof the headman. in permanently a given area. cit. 22-23. 122.or they had forgotteneven how to blessthemselves. all of was of method evangelization used. whatthey hadlearned. 21-22. they gatheredthe people of three encomiendas. Beforethe comingof the Fathers one had amongthe nativeswere and Catholicity the only Chrisiians preached in who had heardMassandconfessed of a few servants the Spaniards Cebu. Only this neededwas a priestresiding a community: priestat hand Chrisnan couldinsurea well instructed into relapse paganism. II.26 arguedthat when the quateand it had its critics. Campo in touchwith the headmanof each follow the the point.Op. was but was station alsoknownasa visita.. Over40 adults children baptisms firstsolemn into werereceived the Church. Specialattention got paidto the menandFr. . 23 was doctrine taught and and A church schoolwereopened Christian thereon Sundays.andundertook conversion theirinhabitants.op. was who by assisted the Spaniards were livlngthere.manydid not ask for baposmand the knowledge untila better to on Fathers.that the baptismal and wereheldin Dulac...II. In of the andBohol.25 totallyadeSuch a methodwas by no meansconsidered a month.werenot eager baptize would enablethem to providebetter preof the native language Eve. 123.Diego of The inspection the Philippine 2 Repem.A stationwas to of large whena sufficiently number peoplecouldbe induced erected an place. Ibid.At least once a year a stationwas visitedby enoughto be visitedonce were fortunate Somestations the priest. It instruction.whichwasby no means easytask.because peopleof the barrio an barrio.sinceit hadno resident visitedperiodically.. II. was not until Christmas 1595.27 any to guardagainst possible in Vice-Province 1599by Fr. mission numerous founded missionary and he area. to wouldreturn theirhomesandtell theirelders Arrivlngin Dulac.and in thesestations catechized baptized.24 to allowedthe missionaries expand of In 1596an increase personnel Samar in themselves nearby They established theirfieldsof operation. theirpart. 301. The the theseislands samegeneral covering wide a usually stations. del Campospent a few the daysat the riverof Palowherethey fouxld peopledocileandwilling who apt Carewas takento instruct children to hearaboutCatholicity. 26 Colin...P. cit. Somemissionaries had either theircharges sunkbackintopaganhis revisited station priest What was ism.However. The live in one accessible priest.. he [Humanes]and Fr.. NICHOLAS CUSHNER 367 In September1595.II. Ibid.
conformably to the orders of your Paternity. 2 3 3 4 4 35o Tlnagon Bohol 28 4 4 3 Ibid. the missionaries spread had themselves thinlyovera wide area. 80From the Annual Letters of 1598-1599and 1601-1602 in the manuscript copy of W. for Hitherto.return Fathers some the to form of communicy and certairlly companionship.28 Fromthesecentralresidences Fathers the were to maketheirsalidas. Repem's " The Society of Jesus in the Philippines.. II. who cameas the official S.. 210-211. a result.the new Christians As could be visitedmore frequently. Aftera thorough of theVisayas ordered eachof the tour he that islands was to be divided into seciions. Another residencehas been formed from Carigaraand Alangalang.. 98.. Garc1a reported recentchanges the to Fr. going out two by two. . General Aquaviva: . Repem. Washington."The of change wasenacted order expedite in to theirwork. the residenceshave been reduced so that six of ours may live together. Op. Dulac and Palo have been united and there are three Fathersand two Brothers to whom anotherFatherwill be added. D.." C. 1600.. 29 . . whereas now they weremorecentralized theirmonthlyandannual and salidas coordinated. II. resulted a number in of important changes the distribution Jesuits the Visayan in of in Islands. J. C. Tlnagon Bohol 1601: Cebu Alangalang Dulac .andeachsectionwas to haveits own central residence wherefive or sig Fathers Brothers and wereto live. (7 vols.. cit.Fr. life. visitor.29 The centralization the men:s residences strikingly of and is apparent when compare respectivecatalogues the mission the we the of for years before afterthe changes. and 1598: Residence Cebu Alangalang Ogmuc Fathers Brothers 6 (residents) 1 Palo Dulac .. Those who ordinarilyreside in Ormoc have been subordinated Alangalang to with ordersthat the Fathersbe changed every two months.On July 7. "in imitation the apostles.368 JESUIT MISSIONARY METHODS Garc1a.
coniinue the manner of residencesand doctrinas followed up to the present. In some there are six of Ours. was the remaining same. Letterfor 1602reported: Annual Each day we experiencemore and more the importanceof the order of your Fraternity (sic) to increase the number in our communities. II. direcin missions a subsequent the mentioned southern for the General tive. and ought which has been not. 154-176.He wished extend centralization dissenting to desiring staffone housein a givenareawith ten or twelve further. II. 47-83. the able. . Repetti for perrnission to make use of his manuscript. leavethemsolely 1945-1950).. sweeping. because of the objections they have presented to us.. al Repetti. However. One or another makes the exercisesso that all make them at least once a year.it was suggested Romethatthe firstthingto be effortto gather was missions a concentrated in undertaken the Visayan Where the the peopleinto towns in orderto expediteinstruction. they to peoplerefused be so gathered.however. .31 Fr. 187.In the was to advise Jesuitsuperior in the his reportwas included work undertaken the VisayanIslands. Jesuit even project the to opinion. The writer wishes to thank Fr. of Two years after the visitation Fr.It which conditions described seemsthat the reportto Rome partially says visit. etc.P.32 by In view of this. Pedro Chinno He procurator. and discover each day. The first potnt treatedby the Generalin this directivewas the and of arrangement residences doctrinasin the Visayanmissions. . were to ". as customary in the Society. History. 8 Ibid. of to journeyed Romein the capacity Vice-Provincial in thereof conditions the islands. Garc1a. or a little more. NICHOLAS CUSHNER 369 was to of the In general. they come together for the space of a week during which time their principal business is their own advancement. men.So the onginalplanof Garclawas put into operation. reaction the missionaries the revision favorvoiceda somewhat Father Prado. del superior.V. 194-198.. His plan. in others eight.III. priorto Garc1a's for the directive that: obtained The Father Vice Provincial and other superiors and Fathers of the Philippineshave given the informaiion that they can not. There in are exercisesof penanceand mortification the refectory.the otherresidences from a manpower was since the mission suffering judgedimpractical The shortage.. Once a month. and in addition there are praciices of humility such as cooking.
" of Thedutyof thesaid supenntendent be.If they still remained obstinate. The superiors the villages are of and residences be subject everything this superintendentto will in to as an immediate superior.35 Such an appoinenent a wise one in view of the fact that the was Vice-Provincial resided morethan300milesfromthe Visayan missions." was foreseen. commutation the encomenderos and some for of ourresidences missions leave and and thementirely the property as of his Majesty.willbeof great It importance for ourworkto secure the courtandcouncil. to visit and inspect villages. 84 Ibid.. onlyasto whatconcerns the not Ours. be of Theencomiendas thenbe leftto hisMajesty we would would and find theworkof catechizing instruction and greatly facilitated. to but themain preoccupation themission to be schools of was wherethework of the pastten yearscouldbe brought fruition the instruction to in of the youth. thatthisreduction thepeople of wouldbe opposed theencomenderos. and the formermissionaries to find theirapostolate this new were in type of work. the superintendent But cannot transfer them without order an fromthe vice-provincial.370 JESUIT MISSIONARY METHODS in the hands the Bishop conversion. of for It however.thekingcouldbe petitioned theencomenderos and madeto enforcethe movement. *6 Ibid.. .. hasbeen as found experiencesuch by in encomiendas.ashasbeen continually will said. in and Where possible... they should deprived theirencomiendas. '8Ibid. The Generalalso hopedthat from these schoolsnative vocations woulddevelop. On no accountwerenew residences be opened. by If suchwerethecase. but alsowhattouches conversion the natives the conservation the of and of thosealready converted. residences the parishes the of wereto be turned into colleges.34 In addition.. Therewasto be appointed superintendent a whoseonly task was to diligently"watch over the most distantresidences and villages the Vice Province.orders He and religious discipline observed. The surrender perpetual of curacies to take placeonly was afterthepeople themhadbeenwellinstructed converted. was to of it since the administraiion parishes forbidden JesuitConstiof was by tutions.sII.33 The Jesuitsuperior Romealsoinsisted in that the Societyof Jesus in the Philippines eventually dispose all the parishes held. modification madein the existing a was governance of theresidences. 197. in Manila in or from the governor audiencia. shallsee how the rules.
took his degree.XII. XIII. Chirino in The and says.andso on.6."The Americas. passed the nextclass.Credo ableto recitethe OurFather.89 Chirinoalso to that it was the practicefor each residence have several mentions catechists. them as soon as enoughFatherswere available. beliefin the efl..Leyte. 89 Coi.Fr. Palo. settling OFINSTRUCTION METHODS of had Fourrequirements to be met beforethe sacrament baptism to He was expected repent to was administered the newly instructed. catechism.P. the learning the fulfillthese conditions were had classes Doctrinetook placeon Sundays.cacyof baptism. another the meantsix or seven.he ". . Humanes Fr. of unionwas expected the married A monogamous Hail Mary.t. the the HailMary. 1 (July. Phelan. cit. op.38 seemsnot to have been uncommon. no.86 to The methodsused by the missionaries have their catechumens of varied. to results." was baptized. 96.XIII.. In Ormoc.andso on uniil.They were of great-aid thosewhose the produced desired Insction and the Adnistranon of Baptism 86 See John L. refersto two ninos abiles who instructed replacing intended and was Theirofiice."Pre-Baptismal in the Philippinesduring the SixteenthCentury. 88Ibid. op. Blairand Robertson. NICHOLAS CUSHNER 371 who superior that demanded therebe another His very inaccessibility by missions would insurethe smoothworkingorderof the southern local immediate problems. of the sins of his pastlife. Whena childor adultlearned particular to he classmatter. IIs285. cit. . One grouplearned Signof the Cross. of obligations a of and other sacraments an awareness the principal to were required know from memorythe entire Children Christian.. temporary. afiirming Adult candidate. a7 . were to be converts They also had to have some idea of the and Ten Commandments.As many Christian which in as therewere divisions the subjectmatterof the catchism. Alonso Humanes catechize thoseof theirown pueblo.however. Pictures andusually of the picting truths theFaithwereusedto greatadvantage. superstudents of into weredivided groups ten andthe moreadvanced to The practiceof allowingthe well instructed vised the lessons. 1955).37 instruciion The pupils on was carried with the help of decuriones.as Fr.Leyte. trained the of instruciion poteniialconverts to In addition the usuallrocal deuse made missionaries considerable of visualaidsas well.
.Inthe afternoon visited ranchergas he he the or clusters homes theoutskirts thevillage. XIII.II. 2) of of and4) Reward Christians thenextlife. We are informed that Fr. Immortality the soul. with of A missionary to Barili.He once arranged his with coadjutor companion at the most ferventpart of his discourse that on Hell the Brother shouldlighta pitchfirebehind him. Htstory.almostthe entire day was devotedto instruction. We left Cebu on Monday. Repem. see Blalr and Robertson. June 16.both Chrisiians pagans. 62. The picturesfrequently included largeariist's a conception Hell." with much fireandsmoke. part for when he went on a salidaor trip into a given area.Herehe repeated of on of the sermons hadpreached the morning.II.372 JESUIT MISSIONARY METHODS knowledgeof the languagewas limited..utThe listenerswere thereby relieved the tedium a long discourse they usually of of and managed to retain broad the outline theconference. Sermons to consisted ratherof a seriesof shortspiritual conferences which one or two in important ideaswere presented. and '° Ibid." impress to uponhis bearers horrors the punishthe of mentwhichmightbe theirs.At the end of the conference the preacher wouldreviewthe mainpointshe haddiscussed by means and of questionand answerrepeatthem.40 senses well as the intellectwere The as appealed by themissionaries. On Thursdaya large number. 121-124. thelisteners' for powers of concentration were not yet developed the full.he was assisted the task.The morningwas taken up with preaching shortdiscourses theChristians thepueblo teaching or to in and catechism the children. for it was to this motive of that the missionaries frequently appealed. 396. .3) Existence God. town on the southwest trip a coastof Cebu. though. Frein quently. 41For detailed accounts of preaching methods used by the missionanes. wasalone. op. the Father to If werefortunate enough have to a Lay Brother companion with him.Thosewho werenot Chrishe in tiansandwho desired be so were instructed the late afternoon. affords view of a wpicalmissionary a salida. to in The processwas repeated followingday until the missionwas the satisfied the progress hisneophytes. for in The method preaching of thesetopicswasnot so muchby means of reasoned argument continuous and discourse. cit. of Preaching playedan important in the life of a missionary. and arrivedin Barilion Wednesday before noon. Juande Torreswent several stepsfurther. to Sermons the neophytes to usuallyrevolved aboutfour basictopics: 1) Hell or Purgatory.
The recitationof the rosarywas taught and urged as a daily practice.so that the people thought of nothing else duringthat time. His example influenced many others. two or three leagues. God willing. We told them to return on Sunday and they went out to their fields in all directionsto distancesof one. Among the adults were some leading citizens and the chief principal who had held out against baptism. The people began to come in on Saturdayand in the evening we baptizeda large number of children. In Barili we found 16 ready for Baptism. The people were peaceable and well behaved because their principal was a good Christian. On Saturdaywe baptized the children and on Sunday 28 adults. On Monday we continued on to Agpile. the feast of St. From there we went to another town called Tuburan. Saturdayand Sundaythere.. We then ccle- . 15 of them being adults. Every morningand evening the people came to the church for instruction. Sunday morning the church could not hold everybody and after Mass I gave a sermon on eterni... They could be heardreciting prayers until midnight. 114 adults were baptized. the Sun of Justice would shed His rays on this people just as the sun risingin the east shedsits light over the world and dispelsdarkness.there was anotherlarge gatheringand 29 adults. 373 assembledin the church and after a prayer I gave a sermon in which I exhorted them to receive Baptism. The confessions of the Christianswere heard because there had been no priest there during Lent. We also instructed the Christiansto commend themselves to God and how to have recourse to him in case of necessity in the absence of a confessor. On Monday..catechizing. We were there ten days and morning and evening we were busy prayingsteaching.. Besides children.. On Thursday we set out with the reverend pastor of the district and came to a small village namedCarlumand we spent Friday.... were baptized. The houses in the town are small because tlley are not used much. On our return to Bariliwe passedthrough the two pueblos previously mentioned and baptized 11 adults and three children. In most of the towns we gave a written form of Baptismto some capable persons to use in case of necessity. although the baptism of some had to be deferred to another time. Every evening we had the Salveand Litany of our Lady after the instruction or Baptismbecause we hoped that through this most holy Lady. the inhabitantsof which gathered in the town.and taught them about God and His work of creation. In our journey we found many who had not been to confession for years and some who had been Christians many years but had never confor fessed. exclusive of children. The town was thus left purified by baptism and confession.. John the Baptist.. because they were not prepared. around which there are two or three smaller villages.NICHOLAS CUSHNER P. That was followed by a solemn baptism of boys..
they alsooffertheirprayers-sothat the Spaniards. The fiscalmaintains thema regular with planand order:morning andevening. . XIIi. 42 Once the Faithwas planted pagans and bapiized. Samar. theirprayers procession.In fact. History. .. mainlyin theirown characters. to maintain new Chrisiians their was the in newlyacquired Faith. an iron point as a pen. . "Blair and Roberuon.We do not possess overabundance material an of on how the missionaries attempted this. One of thesemethods the chanting the catechism young was of by andold.however. In a certain sense. usinga piece of reedas a book of and memorandum. .and the collectorsare notably edified thereby. one proved to be of greatassistance maintainingChristian in a amlosphere. In Palocas well no Doctrinalessons were held daily. whatwasmoredifficults the of But and of weightier responsibility. 96.. Therewere.274-276.Op. . . in the of In Tinagon. Father's the assistant.by way of resthe takeshis book.. The timeandplacevaried.InCarigara Christians the assembled in homeseach night and togetherchantedthe articlesof Faithand the prayers.. Don Gonzalo. to whom the churchis dedicated.. as good students. writetheirlessons(Doctrina). Anne. certain standard procedures which were introduced the missionaries by to thisend. at nightbeforeretiring and and andin the morning beforedawn. Someeven wrote theirprayers on camas (stripsof reed) in orderto remember continually and referto them. one of the firstinquiries the of missionary revisiting villagewas whetheror not the Christians on a werefaithful reciting doctrines the Faith. Ctt. He [OonGonzalo]not only looksafterthe knowl*2 Repem.374 JESUIT MISSIONARY METHODS bratedthe feast of gloriousSt. wheneverone ceaseshis labors. Not only do they.43 These are by no meansisolatedincidents are indicative a but of general methodical practice. . problem the arose of how to helpthe neophytes keepthe Faithandmaintain Christian a modeof life.In Dulac the Doctrinawas chantedin churchby an assembled congregation lessthanfourtimesa day.. their encomenderosaid.andspends some timein study. .it was not overlydifficult convert to and baptizesince the Visayans were peacefuland pliableenoughto embrace doctrines Christianity. II. .whetherat and homeor in the field. but they alwayscarryveth and them these matenals.
not all the villageswere equallyreceptiveto the new doctrine. 64.and othersmildly indifferent. XIII. ceremony of The often took placeon a specialfeast day.so that these may teach the others to pray daily instruct them in other matters touching religion.. '6 One of the possiblereasonsfor oppositionto the missionaries that they were was confusedwith Spanish coHectors. the the In many districts the religious make use.. arquebusiers thatcolorfulMediand terranean effervescence whichtheSpanish successfully so projected into the Filipino culture pattern. 153.: Are you determined leaveall of your falsegods and to to changethemfor the trueGod? C. wasthen it only a matterof time beforethe whole villagewould be convened. There was a choir. What swungthe balance several itl caseswas the persuasive presence of the encomendero..: Does the love of God andyour eternal salvation prompt you? C. However. Some were bitterlyhostile.NICHOLAS CUSHNER P.. of Antonio de Morga.. XVI. I P. and see that they come to Mass at the central missions.46 Beforeone was adrnitted baptismal to instruciion. 375 edge and recitaton of the doctrine. Father.a brassbandwhich included nativeandEuropean instruments. and punishesthem gently when they are at fault.. say this with my whole heart. set of questions A was sometimes to the candidate put whichfollowedthisgeneral foIm: Priest: Are you in earnest aboutreceiving sacrament? the Candidate: Yes.but even trainsthem in good habits. of certain of the natives who are clever and well instructed.. in their visitas. nothingelse. The first baptisms a villagewere usuallyperformed in with great solemnityin orderto impress upon the people the importance and sacred nature the sacrament. tax '6Sucesos .: Yes Father. P.44 Morga commented thisvery method employing persons on of lay to helppreserve Faithamong newly converted.Father..and in this way they succeed in preserung and maintaining their converts. If they weresuccessful.: Yes. was to give he ampleproof of his desirefor the sacrament.in Ibid. 44 lbid.45 In seekingprospective convertsthe missionaries first to win tried overthe principorles andcorciques.
withwhich some missionaries were very skillful.: C. areyou merelyspeaking or words? No otherdesire in my heart is thanto be a goodChristian. Ordinationsof Father Vice-Provincial Raymundo del Prado. They must not go to confess or visit the sick in the pueblos unless with a companion. Phela. in some house. Cit. Op.49 In addition thesesupposed to physical benefits. 17-20.: Are you resolved servethe true God andbe a good to Christian.. loc. so it was and possible give generaldirectives the activemissionaries. 287. Fromthe time of Magellan. however. Phelans loc.. to for because it was thoughtthatthe sacrament wouldprovide spiritual a immunity against illness. 88.: P. Spanish provided to a for law preferential treatment Christian for natives. and if. 4'Blairand Robertsons Cit. Jesuit del the Vice-Provincial.4t In spite of all the precautions.manywere drawnto the sacrament less worthy motives.48 Whatfurther enhanced medicinal the powersof baptism the in mindsof the peoplewas the fact thatthe missionaries frequently performedthe services the physician. 18. admityou as a I catechumen. p.The sections dealing withthe Visayan missions presented are herein part.see J..Op. Cit. 1596 to to In and 1598Father Prado. by the apparently physical curative powersof baptism enticeda certain number. II.376 JESUIT MISSIONARY 1\/1ETHODS P. Then you are to be congratulated. During one epidemica great number children of were brought the Fathers baptism. 2.and much less to other distant pueblos.They were intendedfor missionaries well as local as superiors they wereissued and only aftercloseinspections the Viceof Province. DIRECTIVES OF FATHER PRADO DEL Frequent correspondence betweenthe missionary residences the and superior Manila in was an important featureof missionmethods. 48 For a discussion of various monvesfor baposm. L. pp. in 1596.It enabled over-allsuperior obtaina fairly accurate the to idea of the accomplishments problems the various and of missioners.s XII. . cit.The administration baptism of of wasthusconfused withtheadministrationcurative of herbs. this can not be observed let them arrange to take some 47Colin. wasof distinct it social advantage become Christuan. issued sucha set of directives.
They were so called becausethe nativesthere tattood themselves.nor assumethe account of alms of the encomenderos.50 That which the same Father ordered in his nsitation of 1598 for the Fathers who are in the Pintados.and the other Fathersand Brothers.and on some Pascuas with a sermon in which the sacred mysteries and ceremoniesare explained. Baptismsshould be conferred with as much solemnity as possible. They must regulate matters and act as conformably as possible to what they have and no more. 14. Holy Water should be used solemnly on Sundays and the Masses and offices should be sung with the greatest solemnity possible. they are enjoined very exactly on the rule of the Rector that they must not incur debt or borrow anything. becausetheir example exerts great good or evil on others. To the superiorsof the Residencesand doctrinas. 6°The Englishtranslation these directivesis in Repetii. arranging to go out in the morning and return in the evening. 1. even though it may be to give alms and help to the natives. how to prepare persons for and Bapasm. "The Society of Jesus. Superior of Alangalang. . which should be well placed.especially the fiscales. and it might be possiblethat he would leave the Society and the latter would have nothing with which to pay its debts. if it is not known and definite. If not accompaniedby some other Father or Brother they must by no means sleep in such pueblos. Memorialfor Father Tomas Montoya. likewise pay them according to the just current price. 16. 10-17. and not like the King or aIcalde mayor. 15. Let the natives be paid justly for their work. likewise for their favors and all that may be taken. 61The people of the Visayasand the islandsthemselveswere often referredto as Pintados." of III. but return to sleep in our central house. 18.NICHOLAS CUSHNER P.51 1. 377 native as a companion. Make special efforts to gain over the chiefs. 12.and so we should respect them and cause them to be respectedin their pueblos. Your Reverence is very specially charged that in your pueblos. Let some natives be instructed how to baptize in extraordinary circumstances. because in another year another Father may succeed them in the Residenceand he would have nothing to eat nor anythingto give to the poor. having as many presentas possible.unless it may be seen that it is a just price.
To them. mustnot forgetthatthe Philippines a unique we was mission field. when they are to kneel. but only that they know the necessaryarticlesof our holy faith. 11. and in the absence of those who administer the sacraments baptismand penance. although live few.378 JESUIT MISSIONARY METHODS and more in those under your jurisdiction. Take noiice of the Chrisiianswho attend Mass and those who are not at the sermon. how to bapiize in extreme necessity and that there be many in all places who understandthis. secondly. and that they be present at both with becoming decency. believing firmly. charms.that they may not be dispensedin this. one. others.childrenand youth. the Our Father.the Hail Mary and the Creed. or very little. that they be attached to Chrisiiancustoms and life. For the third it will suffice if they know the Sign of the Cross. that they be well imbued th the truth of our holy faith and the falsiw of the idols. missionaries needed more were 6 Camotes are the nativesweet potatoand tuba is a drinkobtainedfrom the coconut tree. 5. of whichwas the presence large in one of numbers missionaries. 69 a considerable increase from the originalfour who arrived 1581. secondly. It is not necessary that the first know anything. and for this it will help that the Brotherbe among the naiives to show them how to act. as such and.000 square miles. 2. how to turn to God in case of necessity. by memory.Travelbetween islands difficult. telling them especiallynot to make mangitos. . and this is what is ordinary. and othersof middle age. 1604theJesuits of By alonecounted members.52 CONCLUSIONS There are several factorswhich contributed the rapidspread to of Christianity the Philippines.sorceries. It is necessarythat the second group know the entire Christiandoctrine by memory. Two things must be insisted upon with those who are bapiized. Do not put so much stresson the fact that they are baptizedas that they may be bapezed well and are Christians. the was dangerous.andtimeconsuming.the natives be instructed in two things.etc. Consequently.some camotes and tuba shouldbe given from iime to iime to awractthem to Ours and to the instruciion. that they be models in their pueblos. in However.in the sensethatit was a 7000-island archipelago extending over 115. 3. and to the other natives.with true sorrow for their sins of and a desirefor baptismor confession.first. The boys of the schools must be treated with great kindnessand must be allowed good periods of iime for play. Those who may be baptized are of three classes: some very old. etc.
the combined within Islands placedthe greaterpart of the Philippine successfully short of in thepaleof Christendom sucha shortperiod timewasnothing we And of remarkable.P. followed missionaries whichtheseJesuit and The procedure methods originalwith them. outstanding S. de Cagayan Oro. CUSHNER. instructional European which so effort of all the missionaries In any case. of of experience the Augustintans. although maylook uponit assimplyan extenone conquestof New Spain. P. 379 suchas wasNew frontier. Franciscans. They drew heavilyon the were by no m-eans all and Dominicans. And these as the residences. of to mightbe traced theConstitutions theSocietyanditS contemporary methods. J. NICHOLAS SanJoseSeminary. for thanwouldbe required one continuous pam.Philippines . of was What mightbe notedas original the organization Philippines. NICHOLAS CUSHNER S.it remains of the sion of the spiritual of conquests Christendom. both in New Spainand the whom worked long and successfully. well as certainmethodsof instruction.
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