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Easy Install is a python module (easy_install) bundled with setuptools that lets you automatically download,
build, install, and manage Python packages.
Please share your experiences with us! II you encounter diIIiculty installing a package, please contact us via the
distutils mailing list. (Note: please DO NOT send private email directly to the author oI setuptools; it will be
discarded. The mailing list is a searchable archive oI previously-asked and answered questions; you should begin your
research there beIore reporting something as a bug -- and then do so via list discussion Iirst.)
(Also, iI you'd like to learn about how you can use setuptools to make your own packages work better with
EasyInstall, or provide EasyInstall-like Ieatures without requiring your users to use EasyInstall directly, you'll probably
want to check out the Iull setuptools documentation as well.)
Table of Conen
Using "Easy Install"
Installing "Easy Install"
Windows Notes
Downloading and Installing a Package
Upgrading a Package
Changing the Active Version
Uninstalling Packages
Managing Scripts
Tips & Techniques
Multiple Python Versions
Restricting Downloads with --allow-hosts
Installing on Un-networked Machines
Packaging Others' Projects As Eggs
Creating your own Package Index
Password-Protected Sites
Controlling Build Options
Editing and Viewing Source Packages
Dealing with Installation ConIlicts
Compressed Installation
ReIerence Manual
ConIiguration Files
Command-Line Options
Custom Installation Locations
Administrator Installation
Mac OS X "User" Installation
Creating a "Virtual" Python
"Traditional" PYTHONPATH-based Installation
Package Index "API"
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Backward Compatibility
Release Notes/Change History
Future Plans
U "E I"
I "E I"
Please see the setuptools PyPI page Ior download links and basic installation instructions Ior each oI the supported
You will need at least Python 2.3.5, or iI you are on a 64-bit platIorm, Python 2.4. An easy_install script will be
installed in the normal location Ior Python scripts on your platIorm.
Note that the instructions on the setuptools PyPI page assume that you are are installling to Python's primary
site-packages directory. II this is not the case, you should consult the section below on Custom Installation
Locations beIore installing. (And, on Windows, you should not use the .exe installer when installing to an alternate
Note that easy_install normally works by downloading Iiles Irom the internet. II you are behind an NTLM-based
Iirewall that prevents Python programs Irom accessing the net directly, you may wish to Iirst install and use the APS
proxy server, which lets you get past such Iirewalls in the same way that your web browser(s) do.
(Alternately, iI you do not wish easy¸install to actually download anything, you can restrict it Irom doing so with the
--allow-hosts option; see the sections on restricting downloads with --allow-hosts and command-line options Ior
more details.)
II EasyInstall/setuptools appears to install correctly, and you can run the easy_install command but it Iails with an
ImportError, the most likely cause is that you installed to a location other than site-packages, without taking any
oI the steps described in the Custom Installation Locations section below. Please see that section and Iollow the steps
to make sure that your custom location will work correctly. Then re-install.
Similarly, iI you can run easy_install, and it appears to be installing packages, but then you can't import them, the
most likely issue is that you installed EasyInstall correctly but are using it to install packages to a non-standard location
that hasn't been properly prepared. Again, see the section on Custom Installation Locations Ior more details.
On Windows, an easy_install.exe launcher will also be installed, so that you can just type easy_install as
long as it's on your PATH. II typing easy_install at the command prompt doesn't work, check to make sure your
PATH includes the appropriate C:\\Python2X\\Scripts directory. On most current versions oI Windows, you can
change the PATH by right-clicking "My Computer", choosing "Properties" and selecting the "Advanced" tab, then
clicking the "Environment Variables" button. PATH will be in the "System Variables" section, and you will need to exit
and restart your command shell (, cmd.exe, bash, or other) Ior the change to take eIIect. Be sure to
add a ; aIter the last item on PATH beIore adding the scripts directory to it.
Note that instead oI changing your PATH to include the Python scripts directory, you can also retarget the installation
location Ior scripts so they go on a directory that's already on the PATH. For more inIormation see the sections below
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on Command-Line Options and ConIiguration Files. You can pass command line options (such as --script-dir)
to to control where easy_install.exe will be installed.
For basic use oI easy_install, you need only supply the Iilename or URL oI a source distribution or .egg Iile
(Python Egg).
Eample 1. Install a package by name, searching PyPI Ior the latest version, and automatically downloading,
building, and installing it:
easy_install SQLObject
Eample 2. Install or upgrade a package by name and version by Iinding links on a given "download page":
easy_install -f SQLObject
Eample 3. Download a source distribution Irom a speciIied URL, automatically building and installing it:
Eample 4. Install an already-downloaded .egg Iile:
easy_install /my_downloads/OtherPackage-3.2.1-py2.3.egg
Eample 5. Upgrade an already-installed package to the latest version listed on PyPI:
easy_install --upgrade PyProtocols
Eample 6. Install a source distribution that's already downloaded and extracted in the current directory (New in
easy_install .
Eample 7. (New in 0.6a1) Find a source distribution or Subversion checkout URL Ior a package, and extract it or
check it out to /projects/sqlobject (the name will always be in all-lowercase), where it can be examined or
edited. (The package will not be installed, but it can easily be installed with easy_install
/projects/sqlobject. See Editing and Viewing Source Packages below Ior more inIo.):
easy_install --editable --build-directory /projects SQLObject
Easy Install accepts URLs, Iilenames, PyPI package names (i.e., distutils "distribution" names), and
package¹version speciIiers. In each case, it will attempt to locate the latest available version that meets your criteria.
When downloading or processing downloaded Iiles, Easy Install recognizes distutils source distribution Iiles with
extensions oI .tgz, .tar, .tar.gz, .tar.bz2, or .zip. And oI course it handles already-built .egg distributions as well as
.win32.exe installers built using distutils.
By deIault, packages are installed to the running Python installation's site-packages directory, unless you provide
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the -d or --install-dir option to speciIy an alternative directory, or speciIy an alternate location using distutils
conIiguration Iiles. (See ConIiguration Files, below.)
By deIault, any scripts included with the package are installed to the running Python installation's standard script
installation location. However, iI you speciIy an installation directory via the command line or a conIig Iile, then the
deIault directory Ior installing scripts will be the same as the package installation directory, to ensure that the script will
have access to the installed package. You can override this using the -s or --script-dir option.
Installed packages are added to an easy-install.pth Iile in the install directory, so that Python will always use the
most-recently-installed version oI the package. II you would like to be able to select which version to use at runtime,
you should use the -m or --multi-version option.
You don't need to do anything special to upgrade a package: just install the new version, either by requesting a
speciIic version, e.g.:
easy_install "SomePackage==2.0"
a version greater than the one you have now:
easy_install "SomePackage>2.0"
using the upgrade Ilag, to Iind the latest available version on PyPI:
easy_install --upgrade SomePackage
or by using a download page, direct download URL, or package Iilename:
easy_install -f ExamplePackage
easy_install my_downloads/ExamplePackage-2.0.tgz
II you're using -m or --multi-version , using the require() Iunction at runtime automatically selects the newest
installed version oI a package that meets your version criteria. So, installing a newer version is the only step needed to
upgrade such packages.
II you're installing to a directory on PYTHONPATH, or a conIigured "site" directory (and not using -m), installing a
package automatically replaces any previous version in the easy-install.pth Iile, so that Python will import the
most-recently installed version by deIault. So, again, installing the newer version is the only upgrade step needed.
II you haven't suppressed script installation (using --exclude-scripts or -x), then the upgraded version's scripts
will be installed, and they will be automatically patched to require() the corresponding version oI the package, so
that you can use them even iI they are installed in multi-version mode.
easy_install never actually deletes packages (unless you're installing a package with the same name and version
number as an existing package), so iI you want to get rid oI older versions oI a package, please see Uninstalling
Packages, below.
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II you've upgraded a package, but need to revert to a previously-installed version, you can do so like this:
easy_install PackageName==1.2.3
Where 1.2.3 is replaced by the exact version number you wish to switch to. II a package matching the requested
name and version is not already installed in a directory on sys.path, it will be located via PyPI and installed.
II you'd like to switch to the latest installed version oI PackageName, you can do so like this:
easy_install PackageName
This will activate the latest installed version. (Note: iI you have set any find_links via distutils conIiguration Iiles,
those download pages will be checked Ior the latest available version oI the package, and it will be downloaded and
installed iI it is newer than your current version.)
Note that changing the active version oI a package will install the newly active version's scripts, unless the
--exclude-scripts or -x option is speciIied.
II you have replaced a package with another version, then you can just delete the package(s) you don't need by
deleting the PackageName-versioninIo.egg Iile or directory (Iound in the installation directory).
II you want to delete the currently installed version oI a package (or all versions oI a package), you should Iirst run:
easy_install -mxN PackageName
This will ensure that Python doesn't continue to search Ior a package you're planning to remove. AIter you've done
this, you can saIely delete the .egg Iiles or directories, along with any scripts you wish to remove.
Whenever you install, upgrade, or change versions oI a package, EasyInstall automatically installs the scripts Ior the
selected package version, unless you tell it not to with -x or --exclude-scripts. II any scripts in the script
directory have the same name, they are overwritten.
Thus, you do not normally need to manually delete scripts Ior older versions oI a package, unless the newer version oI
the package does not include a script oI the same name. However, iI you are completely uninstalling a package, you
may wish to manually delete its scripts.
EasyInstall's deIault behavior means that you can normally only run scripts Irom one version oI a package at a time. II
you want to keep multiple versions oI a script available, however, you can simply use the --multi-version or -m
option, and rename the scripts that EasyInstall creates. This works because EasyInstall installs scripts as short code
stubs that require() the matching version oI the package the script came Irom, so renaming the script has no eIIect
on what it executes.
For example, suppose you want to use two versions oI the rst2html tool provided by the docutils package. You
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might Iirst install one version:
easy_install -m docutils==0.3.9
then rename the to r2h_039, and install another version:
easy_install -m docutils==0.3.10
This will create another script, this one using docutils version 0.3.10 instead oI 0.3.9. You now have
two scripts, each using a diIIerent version oI the package. (Notice that we used -m Ior both installations, so that
Python won't lock us out oI using anything but the most recently-installed version oI the package.)
T & T
As oI version 0.6a11, EasyInstall installs itselI under two names: easy_install and easy_install-N.N, where
N.N is the Python version used to install it. Thus, iI you install EasyInstall Ior both Python 2.3 and 2.4, you can use the
easy_install-2.3 or easy_install-2.4 scripts to install packages Ior Python 2.3 or 2.4, respectively.
Also, iI you're working with Python version 2.4 or higher, you can run Python with -m easy_install to run that
particular Python version's easy_install command.
R D --a11oW-hosfs
You can use the --allow-hosts (-H) option to restrict what domains EasyInstall will look Ior links and downloads
on. --allow-hosts=None prevents downloading altogether. You can also use wildcards, Ior example to restrict
downloading to hosts in your own intranet. See the section below on Command-Line Options Ior more details on the
--allow-hosts option.
By deIault, there are no host restrictions in eIIect, but you can change this deIault by editing the appropriate
conIiguration Iiles and adding:
allow_hosts = *,*
The above example would then allow downloads only Irom hosts in the and domains, unless overridden on the command line.
I U- M
Just copy the eggs or source packages you need to a directory on the target machine, then use the -f or
--find-links option to speciIy that directory's location. For example:
easy_install -H None -f somedir SomePackage
will attempt to install SomePackage using only eggs and source packages Iound in somedir and disallowing all
remote access. You should oI course make sure you have all oI SomePackage's dependencies available in somedir.
II you have another machine oI the same operating system and library versions (or iI the packages aren't platIorm-
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speciIic), you can create the directory oI eggs using a command like this:
easy_install -zmaxd somedir SomePackage
This will tell EasyInstall to put zipped eggs or source packages Ior SomePackage and all its dependencies into
somedir, without creating any scripts or .pth Iiles. You can then copy the contents oI somedir to the target machine.
(-z means zipped eggs, -m means multi-version, which prevents .pth Iiles Irom being used, -a means to copy all the
eggs needed, even iI they're installed elsewhere on the machine, and -d indicates the directory to place the eggs in.)
You can also build the eggs Irom local development packages that were installed with the develop
command, by including the -l option, e.g.:
easy_install -zmaxld somedir SomePackage
This will use locally-available source distributions to build the eggs.
P O' P A E
Need to distribute a package that isn't published in egg Iorm? You can use EasyInstall to build eggs Ior a project.
You'll want to use the --zip-ok, --exclude-scripts, and possibly --no-deps options (-z, -x and -N,
respectively). Use -d or --install-dir to speciIy the location where you'd like the eggs placed. By placing them in
a directory that is published to the web, you can then make the eggs available Ior download, either in an intranet or to
the internet at large.
II someone distributes a package in the Iorm oI a single .py Iile, you can wrap it in an egg by tacking an
#egg=name-version suIIix on the Iile's URL. So, something like this:
easy_install -f "" foo
will install the package as an egg, and this:
easy_install -zmaxd. \
-f "" foo
will create a .egg Iile in the current directory.
In addition to local directories and the Python Package Index, EasyInstall can Iind download links on most any web
page whose URL is given to the -f (--find-links) option. In the simplest case, you can simply have a web page
with links to eggs or Python source packages, even an automatically generated directory listing (such as the Apache
web server provides).
II you are setting up an intranet site Ior package downloads, you may want to conIigure the target machines to use
your download site by deIault, adding something like this to their conIiguration Iiles:
find_links =
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As you can see, you can list multiple URLs separated by whitespace, continuing on multiple lines iI necessary (as long
as the subsequent lines are indented.
II you are more ambitious, you can also create an entirely custom package index or PyPI mirror. See the
--index-url option under Command-Line Options, below, and also the section on the Package Index "API".
II a site you want to download Irom is password-protected using HTTP "Basic" authentication, you can speciIy your
credentials in the URL, like so:
You can do this with both index page URLs and direct download URLs. As long as any HTML pages read by
easy¸install use relative links to point to the downloads, the same user ID and password will be used to do the
EasyInstall respects standard distutils ConIiguration Files, so you can use them to conIigure build options Ior packages
that it installs Irom source. For example, iI you are on Windows using the MinGW compiler, you can conIigure the
deIault compiler by putting something like this:
compiler = mingw32
into the appropriate distutils conIiguration Iile. In Iact, since this is just normal distutils conIiguration, it will aIIect any
builds using that conIig Iile, not just ones done by EasyInstall. For example, iI you add those lines to distutils.cfg
in the distutils package directory, it will be the deIault compiler Ior all packages you build. See ConIiguration
Files below Ior a list oI the standard conIiguration Iile locations, and links to more documentation on using distutils
conIiguration Iiles.
Sometimes a package's source distribution contains additional documentation, examples, conIiguration Iiles, etc., that
are not part oI its actual code. II you want to be able to examine these Iiles, you can use the --editable option to
EasyInstall, and EasyInstall will look Ior a source distribution or Subversion URL Ior the package, then download and
extract it or check it out as a subdirectory oI the --build-directory you speciIy. II you then wish to install the
package aIter editing or conIiguring it, you can do so by rerunning EasyInstall with that directory as the target.
Note that using --editable stops EasyInstall Irom actually building or installing the package; it just Iinds, obtains,
and possibly unpacks it Ior you. This allows you to make changes to the package iI necessary, and to either install it in
development mode using develop (iI the package uses setuptools, that is), or by running easy_install
projectdir (where projectdir is the subdirectory EasyInstall created Ior the downloaded package.
In order to use --editable (-e Ior short), you must also supply a --build-directory (-b Ior short). The
project will be placed in a subdirectory oI the build directory. The subdirectory will have the same name as the
project itselI, but in all-lowercase. II a Iile or directory oI that name already exists, EasyInstall will print an error
message and exit.
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Also, when using --editable, you cannot use URLs or Iilenames as arguments. You must speciIy project names
(and optional version requirements) so that EasyInstall knows what directory name(s) to create. II you need to Iorce
EasyInstall to use a particular URL or Iilename, you should speciIy it as a --find-links item (-f Ior short), and
then also speciIy the project name, e.g.:
easy_install -eb /projects \
-f \
(NOTE: As oI 0.6a11, this section is obsolete; it is retained here only so that people using older versions oI
EasyInstall can consult it. As oI version 0.6a11, installation conIlicts are handled automatically without deleting the old
or system-installed packages, and without ignoring the issue. Instead, eggs are automatically shiIted to the Iront oI
sys.path using special code added to the easy-install.pth Iile. So, iI you are using version 0.6a11 or better oI
setuptools, you do not need to worry about conIlicts, and the Iollowing issues do not apply to you.)
EasyInstall installs distributions in a "managed" way, such that each distribution can be independently activated or
deactivated on sys.path. However, packages that were not installed by EasyInstall are "unmanaged", in that they
usually live all in one directory and cannot be independently activated or deactivated.
As a result, iI you are using EasyInstall to upgrade an existing package, or to install a package with the same name as
an existing package, EasyInstall will warn you oI the conIlict. (This is an improvement over install,
becuase the distutils just install new packages on top oI old ones, possibly combining two unrelated packages or
leaving behind modules that have been deleted in the newer version oI the package.)
By deIault, EasyInstall will stop the installation iI it detects a conIlict between an existing, "unmanaged" package, and a
module or package in any oI the distributions you're installing. It will display a list oI all oI the existing Iiles and
directories that would need to be deleted Ior the new package to be able to Iunction correctly. You can then either
delete these conIlicting Iiles and directories yourselI and re-run EasyInstall, or you can just use the
--delete-conflicting or --ignore-conflicts-at-my-risk options, as described under Command-Line
Options, below.
OI course, once you've replaced all oI your existing "unmanaged" packages with versions managed by EasyInstall,
you won't have any more conIlicts to worry about!
EasyInstall tries to install packages in zipped Iorm, iI it can. Zipping packages can improve Python's overall import
perIormance iI you're not using the --multi-version option, because Python processes zipIile entries on
sys.path much Iaster than it does directories.
As oI version 0.5a9, EasyInstall analyzes packages to determine whether they can be saIely installed as a zipIile, and
then acts on its analysis. (Previous versions would not install a package as a zipIile unless you used the --zip-ok
The current analysis approach is Iairly conservative; it currenly looks Ior:
Any use oI the __file__ or __path__ variables (which should be replaced with
pkg_resources API calls)
Possible use oI inspect Iunctions that expect to manipulate source Iiles (e.g.
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Top-level modules that might be scripts used with python -m (Python 2.4)
II any oI the above are Iound in the package being installed, EasyInstall will assume that the package cannot be saIely
run Irom a zipIile, and unzip it to a directory instead. You can override this analysis with the -zip-ok Ilag, which will
tell EasyInstall to install the package as a zipIile anyway. Or, you can use the --always-unzip Ilag, in which case
EasyInstall will always unzip, even iI its analysis says the package is saIe to run as a zipIile.
Normally, however, it is simplest to let EasyInstall handle the determination oI whether to zip or unzip, and only
speciIy overrides when needed to work around a problem. II you Iind you need to override EasyInstall's guesses, you
may want to contact the package author and the EasyInstall maintainers, so that they can make appropriate changes in
Iuture versions.
(Note: II a package uses setuptools in its setup script, the package author has the option to declare the package
saIe or unsaIe Ior zipped usage via the zip_safe argument to setup(). II the package author makes such a
declaration, EasyInstall believes the package's author and does not perIorm its own analysis. However, your
command-line option, iI any, will still override the package author's choice.)
(New in 0.4a2)
You may speciIy deIault options Ior EasyInstall using the standard distutils conIiguration Iiles, under the command
heading easy_install. EasyInstall will look Iirst Ior a setup.cfg Iile in the current directory, then a
/.pydistutils.cfg or $HOME\\pydistutils.cfg (on Unix-like OSes and Windows, respectively), and Iinally
a distutils.cfg Iile in the distutils package directory. Here's a simple example:
# set the default location to install packages
install_dir = /home/me/lib/python
# Notice that indentation can be used to continue an option
# value; this is especially useful for the "--find-links"
# option, which tells easy_install to use download links on
# these pages before consulting PyPI:
find_links =
In addition to accepting conIiguration Ior its own options under [easy_install], EasyInstall also respects deIaults
speciIied Ior other distutils commands. For example, iI you don't set an install_dir Ior [easy_install], but
have set an install_lib Ior the [install] command, this will become EasyInstall's deIault installation directory.
Thus, iI you are already using distutils conIiguration Iiles to set deIault install locations, build options, etc., EasyInstall
will respect your existing settings until and unless you override them explicitly in an [easy_install] section.
For more inIormation, see also the current Python documentation on the use and location oI distutils conIiguration
--z1p-ok, -z
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Install all packages as zip Iiles, even iI they are marked as unsaIe Ior running as a zipIile. This can be useIul
when EasyInstall's analysis oI a non-setuptools package is too conservative, but keep in mind that the package
may not work correctly. (Changed in 0.5a9; previously this option was required in order Ior zipped installation
to happen at all.)
--a1Ways-unz1p, -Z
Don't install any packages as zip Iiles, even iI the packages are marked as saIe Ior running as a zipIile. This can
be useIul iI a package does something unsaIe, but not in a way that EasyInstall can easily detect. EasyInstall's
deIault analysis is currently very conservative, however, so you should only use this option iI you've had
problems with a particular package, and after reporting the problem to the package's maintainer and to the
EasyInstall maintainers.
(Note: the -z/-Z options only aIIect the installation oI newly-built or downloaded packages that are not
already installed in the target directory; iI you want to convert an existing installed version Irom zipped to
unzipped or vice versa, you'll need to delete the existing version Iirst, and re-run EasyInstall.)
--mu1f1-ve¡s1on, -m
"Multi-version" mode. SpeciIying this option prevents easy_install Irom adding an easy-install.pth
entry Ior the package being installed, and iI an entry Ior any version the package already exists, it will be
removed upon successIul installation. In multi-version mode, no speciIic version oI the package is available Ior
importing, unless you use pkg_resources.require() to put it on sys.path. This can be as simple as:
from pkg_resources import require
require("SomePackage", "OtherPackage", "MyPackage")
which will put the latest installed version oI the speciIied packages on sys.path Ior you. (For more advanced
uses, like selecting speciIic versions and enabling optional dependencies, see the pkg_resources API doc.)
Changed in 0.6a10: this option is no longer silently enabled when installing to a non-PYTHONPATH, non-
"site" directory. You must always explicitly use this option iI you want it to be active.
--upg¡ade, -u (Ne in 0.5a4)
By deIault, EasyInstall only searches online iI a project/version requirement can't be met by distributions
already installed on sys.path or the installation directory. However, iI you supply the --upgrade or -U Ilag,
EasyInstall will always check the package index and --find-links URLs beIore selecting a version to install.
In this way, you can Iorce EasyInstall to use the latest available version oI any package it installs (subject to any
version requirements that might exclude such later versions).
--1nsfa11-d1¡=Dlk, -d Dlk
Set the installation directory. It is up to you to ensure that this directory is on sys.path at runtime, and to use
pkg_resources.require() to enable the installed package(s) that you need.
(New in 0.4a2) II this option is not directly speciIied on the command line or in a distutils conIiguration Iile, the
distutils deIault installation location is used. Normally, this would be the site-packages directory, but iI you
are using distutils conIiguration Iiles, setting things like prefix or install_lib, then those settings are taken
into account when computing the deIault installation directory, as is the --prefix option.
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--sc¡1pf-d1¡=Dlk, -s Dlk
Set the script installation directory. II you don't supply this option (via the command line or a conIiguration Iile),
but you have supplied an --install-dir (via command line or conIig Iile), then this option deIaults to the
same directory, so that the scripts will be able to Iind their associated package installation. Otherwise, this
setting deIaults to the location where the distutils would normally install scripts, taking any distutils conIiguration
Iile settings into account.
--exc1ude-sc¡1pfs, -x
Don't install scripts. This is useIul iI you need to install multiple versions oI a package, but do not want to reset
the version that will be run by scripts that are already installed.
--a1Ways-copy, -a (Ne in 0.5a4)
Copy all needed distributions to the installation directory, even iI they are already present in a directory on
sys.path. In older versions oI EasyInstall, this was the deIault behavior, but now you must explicitly request it.
By deIault, EasyInstall will no longer copy such distributions Irom other sys.path directories to the installation
directory, unless you explicitly gave the distribution's Iilename on the command line.
Note that as oI 0.6a10, using this option excludes "system" and "development" eggs Irom consideration
because they can't be reliably copied. This may cause EasyInstall to choose an older version oI a package than
what you expected, or it may cause downloading and installation oI a Iresh copy oI something that's already
installed. You will see warning messages Ior any eggs that EasyInstall skips, beIore it Ialls back to an older
version or attempts to download a Iresh copy.
--f1nd-11nks=ukL5¸Ok¸IlLLNAML5, -f ukL5¸Ok¸IlLLNAML5
Scan the speciIied "download pages" or directories Ior direct links to eggs or other distributions. Any existing
Iile or directory names or direct download URLs are immediately added to EasyInstall's search cache, and any
indirect URLs (ones that don't point to eggs or other recognized archive Iormats) are added to a list oI
additional places to search Ior download links. As soon as EasyInstall has to go online to Iind a package (either
because it doesn't exist locally, or because --upgrade or -U was used), the speciIied URLs will be
downloaded and scanned Ior additional direct links.
Eggs and archives Iound by way oI --find-links are only downloaded iI they are needed to meet a
requirement speciIied on the command line; links to unneeded packages are ignored.
II all requested packages can be Iound using links on the speciIied download pages, the Python Package Index
will not be consulted unless you also speciIied the --upgrade or -U option.
(Note: iI you want to reIer to a local HTML Iile containing links, you must use a file: URL, as Iilenames that
do not reIer to a directory, egg, or archive are ignored.)
You may speciIy multiple URLs or Iile/directory names with this option, separated by whitespace. Note that on
the command line, you will probably have to surround the URL list with quotes, so that it is recognized as a
single option value. You can also speciIy URLs in a conIiguration Iile; see ConIiguration Files, above.
Changed in 0.6a10: previously all URLs and directories passed to this option were scanned as early as
possible, but Irom 0.6a10 on, only directories and direct archive links are scanned immediately; URLs are not
retrieved unless a package search was already going to go online due to a package not being available locally,
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or due to the use oI the --update or -U option.
--de1efe-conf11cf1ng, -D (Remoed in 0.6a11)
(As oI 0.6a11, this option is no longer necessary; please do not use it!)
II you are replacing a package that was previously installed without using EasyInstall, the old version may end
up on sys.path beIore the version being installed with EasyInstall. EasyInstall will normally abort the
installation oI a package iI it detects such a conIlict, and ask you to manually remove the conIlicting Iiles or
directories. II you speciIy this option, however, EasyInstall will attempt to delete the Iiles or directories itselI,
and then proceed with the installation.
--1gno¡e-conf11cfs-af-my-¡1sk (Remoed in 0.6a11)
(As oI 0.6a11, this option is no longer necessary; please do not use it!)
Ignore conIlicting packages and proceed with installation anyway, even though it means the package probably
won't work properly. II the conIlicting package is in a directory you can't write to, this may be your only
option, but you will need to take more invasive measures to get the installed package to work, like manually
adding it to PYTHONPATH or to sys.path at runtime.
--1ndex-u¡1=ukL, -1 ukL (Ne in 0.4a1; defal changed in 0.6c7)
SpeciIies the base URL oI the Python Package Index. The deIault is iI not
speciIied. When a package is requested that is not locally available or linked Irom a --find-links download
page, the package index will be searched Ior download pages Ior the needed package, and those download
pages will be searched Ior links to download an egg or source distribution.
--ed1fab1e, -e (Ne in 0.6a1)
Only Iind and download source distributions Ior the speciIied projects, unpacking them to subdirectories oI the
speciIied --build-directory. EasyInstall will not actually build or install the requested projects or their
dependencies; it will just Iind and extract them Ior you. See Editing and Viewing Source Packages above Ior
more details.
--bu11d-d1¡ecfo¡y=Dlk, -b Dlk (UPDATED in 0.6a1)
Set the directory used to build source packages. II a package is built Irom a source distribution or checkout, it
will be extracted to a subdirectory oI the speciIied directory. The subdirectory will have the same name as the
extracted distribution's project, but in all-lowercase. II a Iile or directory oI that name already exists in the given
directory, a warning will be printed to the console, and the build will take place in a temporary directory
This option is most useIul in combination with the --editable option, which Iorces EasyInstall to onl Iind
and extract (but not build and install) source distributions. See Editing and Viewing Source Packages, above,
Ior more inIormation.
--ve¡bose, -v, --qu1ef, -q (Ne in 0.4a4)
Control the level oI detail oI EasyInstall's progress messages. The deIault detail level is "inIo", which prints
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inIormation only about relatively time-consuming operations like running a setup script, unpacking an archive, or
retrieving a URL. Using -q or --quiet drops the detail level to "warn", which will only display installation
reports, warnings, and errors. Using -v or --verbose increases the detail level to include individual Iile-level
operations, link analysis messages, and distutils messages Irom any setup scripts that get run. II you include the
-v option more than once, the second and subsequent uses are passed down to any setup scripts, increasing
the verbosity oI their reporting as well.
--d¡y-¡un, -n (Ne in 0.4a4)
Don't actually install the package or scripts. This option is passed down to any setup scripts run, so packages
should not actually build either. This does not skip downloading, nor does it skip extracting source distributions
to a temporary/build directory.
--opf1m1ze=LLvLL, -O LLvLL (Ne in 0.4a4)
II you are installing Irom a source distribution, and are not using the --zip-ok option, this option controls the
optimization level Ior compiling installed .py Iiles to .pyo Iiles. It does not aIIect the compilation oI modules
contained in .egg Iiles, only those in .egg directories. The optimization level can be set to 0, 1, or 2; the
deIault is 0 (unless it's set under install or install_lib in one oI your distutils conIiguration Iiles).
--¡eco¡d=IlLLNAML (Ne in 0.5a4)
Write a record oI all installed Iiles to FILENAME. This is basically the same as the same option Ior the
standard distutils "install" command, and is included Ior compatibility with tools that expect to pass this option
to " install".
--s1fe-d1¡s=DlkLl51, -5 DlkLl51 (Ne in 0.6a1)
SpeciIy one or more custom "site" directories (separated by commas). "Site" directories are directories where
.pth Iiles are processed, such as the main Python site-packages directory. As oI 0.6a10, EasyInstall
automatically detects whether a given directory processes .pth Iiles (or can be made to do so), so you should
not normally need to use this option. It is is now only necessary iI you want to override EasyInstall's judgment
and Iorce an installation directory to be treated as iI it supported .pth Iiles.
(II you want to make a non-PYTHONPATH directory support .pth Iiles, please see the Administrator
Installation section below.)
--no-deps, -N (Ne in 0.6a6)
Don't install any dependencies. This is intended as a convenience Ior tools that wrap eggs in a platIorm-speciIic
packaging system. (We don't recommend that you use it Ior anything else.)
--a11oW-hosfs=PA11LkN5, -h PA11LkN5 (Ne in 0.6a6)
Restrict downloading and spidering to hosts matching the speciIied glob patterns. E.g. -H *
restricts web access so that only packages listed and downloadable Irom machines in the
domain. The glob patterns must match the entire user/host/port section oI the target URL(s). For example,
* will NOT accept a URL like or Multiple patterns can be speciIied by separting them with commas. The
deIault pattern is *, which matches anything.
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In general, this option is mainly useIul Ior blocking EasyInstall's web access altogether (e.g. -Hlocalhost), or
to restrict it to an intranet or other trusted site. EasyInstall will do the best it can to satisIy dependencies given
your host restrictions, but oI course can Iail iI it can't Iind suitable packages. EasyInstall displays all blocked
URLs, so that you can adjust your --allow-hosts setting iI it is more strict than you intended. Some sites
may wish to deIine a restrictive deIault setting Ior this option in their conIiguration Iiles, and then manually
override the setting on the command line as needed.
--p¡ef1x=Dlk (Ne in 0.6a10)
Use the speciIied directory as a base Ior computing the deIault installation and script directories. On Windows,
the resulting deIault directories will be prefix\\Lib\\site-packages and prefix\\Scripts, while on
other platIorms the deIaults will be prefix/lib/python2.X/site-packages (with the appropriate version
substituted) Ior libraries and prefix/bin Ior scripts.
Note that the --prefix option only sets the default installation and script directories, and does not override
the ones set on the command line or in a conIiguration Iile.
--1oca1-snapshofs-ok, -1 (Ne in 0.6c6)
Normally, EasyInstall preIers to only install released versions oI projects, not in-development ones, because
such projects may not have a currently-valid version number. So, it usually only installs them when their directory is explicitly passed on the command line.
However, iI this option is used, then any in-development projects that were installed using the
develop command, will be used to build eggs, eIIectively upgrading the "in-development" project to a
snapshot release. Normally, this option is used only in conjunction with the --always-copy option to create a
distributable snapshot oI every egg needed to run an application.
Note that iI you use this option, you must make sure that there is a valid version number (such as an SVN
revision number tag) Ior any in-development projects that may be used, as otherwise EasyInstall may not be
able to tell what version oI the project is "newer" when Iuture installations or upgrades are attempted.
EasyInstall manages what packages are active using Python .pth Iiles, which are normally only usable in Python's
main site-packages directory. On some platIorms (such as Mac OS X), there are additional site-packages
directories that you can use besides the main one, but usually there is only one directory on the system where you can
install packages without extra steps.
There are many reasons, however, why you might want to install packages somewhere other than the
site-packages directory. For example, you might not have write access to that directory. You may be working
with unstable versions oI packages that you don't want to install system-wide. And so on.
The Iollowing sections describe various approaches to custom installation; Ieel Iree to choose which one best suits
your system and needs.
Adminiao Inallaion
This approach is Ior when you have write access to site-packages (or another directory where .pth Iiles
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are processed), but don't want to install packages there. This can also be used by a system administrator to
enable each user having their own private directories that EasyInstall will use to install packages.
Mac OS X "Ue" Inallaion
This approach produces a result similar to an administrator installation that gives each user their own private
package directory, but on Mac OS X the hard part has already been done Ior you. This is probably the best
approach Ior Mac OS X users.
Ceaing a "Vial" Phon
This approach is Ior when you don't have "root" or access to write to the site-packages directory, and
would like to be able to set up one or more "virtual python" executables Ior your projects. This approach gives
you the beneIits oI multiple Python installations, but without having to actually install Python more than once and
use up lots oI disk space. (Only the Python executable is copied; the libraries will be symlinked Irom the
systemwide Python.)
II you don't already have any PYTHONPATH customization or special distutils conIiguration, and you can't use
either oI the preceding approaches, this is probably the best one Ior you.
"Tadiional" PYTHONPATH-baed Inallaion
II you already have a custom PYTHONPATH, and/or a custom distutils conIiguration, and don't want to change
any oI your existing setup, you may be interested in this approach. (II you're using a custom .pth Iile to point
to your custom installation location, however, you should use Administrator Installation to enable .pth
processing in the custom location instead, as that is easier and more Ilexible than this approach.)
II you have root access to your machine, you can easily conIigure it to allow each user to have their own directory
where Python packages can be installed and managed by EasyInstall.
First, create an altinstall.pth Iile in Python's site-packages directory, containing the Iollowing line
(substituting the correct Python version):
import os, site; site.addsitedir(os.path.expanduser('/lib/python2.3'))
This will automatically add each user's /lib/python2.X directory to sys.path (iI it exists), and it will process any
.pth Iiles in that directory -- which is what makes it usable with EasyInstall.
The next step is to create or modiIy distutils.cfg in the distutils directory oI your Python library. The correct
directory will be something like /usr/lib/python2.X/distutils on most Posix systems and something like
C:\\Python2X\Lib\distutils on Windows machines. Add the Iollowing lines to the Iile, substituting the correct
Python version iI necessary:
install_lib = /lib/python2.3
# This next line is optional but often quite useful; it directs EasyInstall
# and the distutils to install scripts in the user's "bin" directory. For
# Mac OS X framework Python builds, you should use /usr/local/bin instead,
# because neither /bin nor the default script installation location are on
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# the system PATH.
install_scripts = /bin
This will conIigure the distutils and EasyInstall to install packages to the user's home directory by deIault.
OI course, you aren't limited to using a /lib/python2.X directory with this approach. You can substitute a speciIic
systemwide directory iI you like. You can also edit /.pydistutils.cfg (or /pydistutils.cfg on Windows)
instead oI changing the master distutils.cfg Iile. The true keys oI this approach are simply that:
1. any custom installation directory must be added to sys.path using a site.addsitedir() call Irom a
working .pth Iile or
2. The active distutils conIiguration Iile(s) or easy_install command line should include the custom directory in
the --site-dirs option, so that EasyInstall knows that .pth Iiles will work in that location. (This is because
Python does not keep track oI what directories are or aren't enabled Ior .pth processing, in any way that
EasyInstall can Iind out.)
As long as both oI these things have been done, your custom installation location is good to go.
M OS X "U" I
II you are on a Mac OS X machine, you should just use the /Library/Python/2.x/site-packages directory
as your custom installation location, because it is already conIigured to process .pth Iiles, and EasyInstall already
knows this.
BeIore installing EasyInstall/setuptools, just create a /.pydistutils.cfg Iile with the Iollowing contents (or add
this to the existing contents):
install_lib = /Library/Python/$py_version_short/site-packages
install_scripts = /bin
This will tell the distutils and EasyInstall to always install packages in your personal site-packages directory, and
scripts to /bin. (Note: do not replace $py_version_short with an actual Python version in the conIiguration Iile!
The distutils will substitute the correct value at runtime, so that the above conIiguration Iile should work correctly no
matter what Python version you use, now or in the Iuture.)
Once you have done this, you can Iollow the normal installation instructions and use easy_install without any other
special options or steps.
(Note, however, that /bin is not in the deIault PATH, so you may have to reIer to scripts by their Iull location. You
may want to modiIy your shell startup script (likely .bashrc or .profile) or your
/.MacOSX/environment.plist to include /bin in your PATH.
C "V" P
II you are on a Linux, BSD, Cygwin, or other similar Unix-like operating system, but don't have root access, you can
create your own "virtual" Python installation, which uses its own library directories and some symlinks to the site-wide
In the simplest case, your virtual Python installation will live under the /lib/python2.x, /include/python2.x,
13/03/2012 EasInstall - The PEAK Developers' Center
and /bin directories. Just download and run it using the site-wide Python. II you want to
customize the location, you can use the --prefix option to speciIy an installation base directory in place oI . (Use
--help to get the complete list oI options.)
When you're done, you'll have a /bin/python executable that's linked to the local Python installation and inherits all
its current libraries, but which allows you to add as many new libraries as you want. Simply use this new Python in
place oI your system-deIined one, and you can modiIy it as you like without breaking anything that relies on the
system Python. You'll also still need to Iollow the standard installation instructions to install setuptools and EasyInstall,
using your new /bin/python executable in place oI the system Python.
Note that iI you were previously setting a PYTHONPATH and/or had other special conIiguration options in your
/.pydistutils.cfg, you may need to remove these settings before running This is
because your new Python executable will not need an custom conIiguration Ior the distutils or EasyInstall; everything
will go to the correct /lib and /bin directories automatically.
You should, however, also make sure that the bin subdirectory oI your installation preIix (e.g. /bin) is on your
PATH, because that is where EasyInstall and the distutils will install new Python scripts.
"T" PY1hONPA1h- I
This installation method is not as robust or as Ilexible as creating a "virtual" python installation, as it uses various tricks
to Iool Python into processing .pth Iiles where it normally wouldn't. We suggest you at least consider using one oI the
other approaches, as they will generally result in a cleaner, more usable Python conIiguration. However, iI Ior some
reason you can't or won't use one oI the other approaches, here's how to do it.
Assuming that you want to install packages in a directory called /py-lib, and scripts in /bin, here's what you
need to do:
First, edit /.pydistutils.cfg to include these settings, iI you don't already have them:
install_lib = /py-lib
install_scripts = /bin
Be sure to do this before you try to run the installation script. Then, Iollow the standard installation
instructions, but make sure that /py-lib is listed in your PYTHONPATH environment variable.
Your library installation directory must be in listed in PYTHONPATH, not only when you install packages with
EasyInstall, but also when you use any packages that are installed using EasyInstall. You will probably want to edit
your /.profile or other conIiguration Iile(s) to ensure that it is set, iI you haven't already got this set up on your
Custom package indexes (and PyPI) must Iollow the Iollowing rules Ior EasyInstall to be able to look up and
download packages:
1. Except where stated otherwise, "pages" are HTML or XHTML, and "links" reIer to href attributes.
2. Individual project version pages' URLs must be oI the Iorm base/projectname/version, where base is the
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package index's base URL.
3. Omitting the /version part oI a project page's URL (but keeping the trailing /) should result in a page that is
a. The single active version oI that project, as though the version had been explicitly included, OR
b. A page with links to all oI the active version pages Ior that project.
4. Individual project version pages should contain direct links to downloadable distributions where possible. It is
explicitly permitted Ior a project's "long¸description" to include URLs, and these should be Iormatted as
HTML links by the package index, as EasyInstall does no special processing to identiIy what parts oI a page
are index-speciIic and which are part oI the project's supplied description.
5. Where available, MD5 inIormation should be added to download URLs by appending a Iragment identiIier oI
the Iorm #md5=..., where ... is the 32-character hex MD5 digest. EasyInstall will veriIy that the
downloaded Iile's MD5 digest matches the given value.
6. Individual project version pages should identiIy any "homepage" or "download" URLs using rel="homepage"
and rel="download" attributes on the HTML elements linking to those URLs. Use oI these attributes will
cause EasyInstall to always Iollow the provided links, unless it can be determined by inspection that they are
downloadable distributions. II the links are not to downloadable distributions, they are retrieved, and iI they are
HTML, they are scanned Ior download links. They are not scanned Ior additional "homepage" or "download"
links, as these are only processed Ior pages that are part oI a package index site.
7. The root URL oI the index, iI retrieved with a trailing /, must result in a page containing links to all projects'
active version pages.
(Note: This requirement is a workaround Ior the absence oI case-insensitive safe_name() matching oI project
names in URL paths. II project names are matched in this Iashion (e.g. via the PyPI server, mod¸rewrite, or a
similar mechanism), then it is not necessary to include this all-packages listing page.)
8. II a package index is accessed via a file:// URL, then EasyInstall will automatically use index.html Iiles, iI
present, when trying to read a directory with a trailing / on the URL.
Package indexes that wish to support setuptools versions prior to 0.6b4 should also Iollow these rules:
Homepage and download links must be preceded with "<th>Home Page" or "<th>Download URL", in
addition to (or instead oI) the rel="" attributes on the actual links. These marker strings do not need to be
visible, or uncommented, however! For example, the Iollowing is a valid homepage link that will work with any
version oI setuptools:
<strong>Home Page:</strong>
<!-- <th>Home Page -->
<a rel="homepage" href=""></a>
Even though the marker string is in an HTML comment, older versions oI EasyInstall will still "see" it and know
that the link that Iollows is the project's home page URL.
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The pages described by paragraph 3(b) oI the preceding section must contain the string "Index of
Packages</title>" somewhere in their text. This can be inside oI an HTML comment, iI desired, and it can
be anywhere in the page. (Note: this string MUST NOT appear on normal project pages, as described in
paragraphs 2 and 3(a)!)
In addition, Ior compatibility with PyPI versions that do not use #md5= Iragment IDs, EasyInstall uses the Iollowing
regular expression to match PyPI's displayed MD5 inIo (broken onto two lines Ior readability):
<a href="([^"#]+)">([^<]+)</a>\n\s+\(<a href="[^?]+\?:action=show_md5
Fix installed script .exe Iiles not working with 64-bit Python on Windows (wasn't actually released in
0.6c10 due to a lost checkin)
Fix easy¸install.exe giving UAC errors on Windows Vista
Support Ior the most recent SourceIorge download link insanity
Stop crashing on certain types oI HTTP error
Stop re-trying URLs that already Iailed retrieval once
Fixes Ior various dependency management problems such as looping builds, re-downloading packages
already present on sys.path (but not in a registered "site" directory), and semi-randomly preIerring local
"-I" packages over local installed packages
Fixed win32.exe support Ior .pth Iiles, so unnecessary directory nesting is Ilattened out in the resulting
egg. (There was a case-sensitivity problem that aIIected some distributions, notably pywin32.)
Prevent --help-commands and other junk Irom showing under Python 2.5 when running
easy_install --help.
Fixed GUI scripts sometimes not executing on Windows
Fixed not picking up dependency links Irom recursive dependencies.
Only make .py, .dll and .so Iiles executable when unpacking eggs
Changes Ior Jython compatibility
Improved error message when a requirement is also a directory name, but the speciIied directory is not a
source package.
Fixed --allow-hosts option blocking file: URLs
Fixed HTTP SVN detection Iailing when the page title included a project name (e.g. on SourceForge-
hosted SVN)
Fix Jython script installation to handle #! lines better when sys.executable is a script.
Removed use oI deprecated md5 module iI hashlib is available
Keep site directories (e.g. site-packages) Irom being included in .pth Iiles.
ftp: download URLs now work correctly.
The deIault --index-url is now, to use the Python Package
Index's new simpler (and Iaster!) REST API.
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EasyInstall no longer aborts the installation process iI a URL it wants to retrieve can't be downloaded,
unless the URL is an actual package download. Instead, it issues a warning and tries to keep going.
Fixed distutils-style scripts originally built on Windows having their line endings doubled when installed
on any platIorm.
Added --local-snapshots-ok Ilag, to allow building eggs Irom projects installed using
Fixed not HTML-decoding URLs scraped Irom web pages
Fixed .dll Iiles on Cygwin not having executable permisions when an egg is installed unzipped.
Added support Ior HTTP "Basic" authentication using http://user:pass@host URLs. II a
password-protected page contains links to the same host (and protocol), those links will inherit the
credentials used to access the original page.
Removed all special support Ior SourceIorge mirrors, as SourceIorge's mirror system now works well
Ior non-browser downloads.
Fixed not recognizing win32.exe installers that included a custom bitmap.
Fixed not allowing oI paths outside the sandbox, even iI they are opened read-only (e.g.
reading /dev/urandom Ior random numbers, as is done by os.urandom() on some platIorms).
Fixed a problem with .pth testing on Windows when sys.executable has a space in it (e.g., the user
installed Python to a Program Files directory).
You can once again use "python -m easy¸install" with Python 2.4 and above.
Python 2.5 compatibility Iixes added.
Windows script wrappers now support quoted arguments and arguments containing spaces. (Patch
contributed by Jim Fulton.)
The script now actually works when you put a setuptools .egg alongside it Ior
bootstrapping an oIIline machine.
A writable installation directory on sys.path is no longer required to download and extract a source
distribution using --editable.
Generated scripts now use -x on the #! line when sys.executable contains non-ASCII characters,
to prevent deprecation warnings about an unspeciIied encoding when the script is run.
EasyInstall now includes setuptools version inIormation in the User-Agent string sent to websites it
Fix creating Python wrappers Ior non-Python scripts
Fix ftp:// directory listing URLs Irom causing a crash when used in the "Home page" or "Download
URL" slots on PyPI.
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Fix sys.path_importer_cache not being updated when an existing zipIile or directory is
Fix not recognizing HTML 404 pages Irom package indexes.
Allow file:// URLs to be used as a package index. URLs that reIer to directories will use an
internally-generated directory listing iI there is no index.html Iile in the directory.
Allow external links in a package index to be speciIied using rel="homepage" or rel="download",
without needing the old PyPI-speciIic visible markup.
Suppressed warning message about possibly-misspelled project name, iI an egg or link Ior that project
name has already been seen.
Fix local --find-links eggs not being copied except with --always-copy.
Fix sometimes not detecting local packages installed outside oI "site" directories.
Fix mysterious errors during initial setuptools install, caused by ez_setup trying to run
easy_install twice, due to a code Iallthru aIter deleting the egg Irom which it's running.
Don't install or update a patch when installing to a PYTHONPATH directory with
--multi-version, unless an easy-install.pth Iile is already in use there.
Construct .pth Iile paths in such a way that installing an egg whose name begins with import doesn't
cause a syntax error.
Fixed a bogus warning message that wasn't updated since the 0.5 versions.
Better ambiguity management: accept #egg name/version even iI processing what appears to be a
correctly-named distutils Iile, and ignore .egg Iiles with no -, since valid Python .egg Iiles always have
a version number (but Scheme eggs oIten don't).
Support file:// links to directories in --find-links, so that easy¸install can build packages Irom
local source checkouts.
Added automatic retry Ior SourceIorge mirrors. The new download process is to Iirst just try, then randomly select mirror IPs and remove ones that Iail, until something works. The
removed IPs stay removed Ior the remainder oI the run.
Ignore bdist¸dumb distributions when looking at download URLs.
Process dependency_links.txt iI Iound in a distribution, by adding the URLs to the list Ior scanning.
Use relative paths in .pth Iiles when eggs are being installed to the same directory as the .pth Iile. This
maximizes portability oI the target directory when building applications that contain eggs.
Added easy_install-N.N script(s) Ior convenience when using multiple Python versions.
Added automatic handling oI installation conIlicts. Eggs are now shiIted to the Iront oI sys.path, in an
order consistent with where they came Irom, making EasyInstall seamlessly co-operate with system
package managers.
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The --delete-conflicting and --ignore-conflicts-at-my-risk options are now no longer
necessary, and will generate warnings at the end oI a run iI you use them.
Don't recursively traverse subdirectories given to --find-links.
Added exhaustive testing oI the install directory, including a spawn test Ior .pth Iile support, and
directory writability/existence checks. This should virtually eliminate the need to set or conIigure
Added --prefix option Ior more do-what-I-mean-ishness in the absence oI RTFM-ing. :)
Enhanced PYTHONPATH support so that you don't have to put any eggs on it manually to make it work.
--multi-version is no longer a silent deIault; you must explicitly use it iI installing to a non-
PYTHONPATH, non-"site" directory.
Expand $variables used in the --site-dirs, --build-directory, --install-dir, and
--script-dir options, whether on the command line or in conIiguration Iiles.
Improved SourceForge mirror processing to work Iaster and be less aIIected by transient HTML
changes made by SourceForge.
PyPI searches now use the exact spelling oI requirements speciIied on the command line or in a project's
install_requires. Previously, a normalized Iorm oI the name was used, which could lead to
unnecessary Iull-index searches when a project's name had an underscore (_) in it.
EasyInstall can now download bare .py Iiles and wrap them in an egg, as long as you include an
#egg=name-version suIIix on the URL, or iI the .py Iile is listed as the "Download URL" on the
project's PyPI page. This allows third parties to "package" trivial Python modules just by linking to them
(e.g. Irom within their own PyPI page or download links page).
The --always-copy option now skips "system" and "development" eggs since they can't be reliably
copied. Note that this may cause EasyInstall to choose an older version oI a package than what you
expected, or it may cause downloading and installation oI a Iresh version oI what's already installed.
The --find-links option previously scanned all supplied URLs and directories as early as possible,
but now only directories and direct archive links are scanned immediately. URLs are not retrieved unless
a package search was already going to go online due to a package not being available locally, or due to
the use oI the --update or -U option.
Fixed the annoying --help-commands wart.
Fixed .pth Iile processing picking up nested eggs (i.e. ones inside "baskets") when they weren't
explicitly listed in the .pth Iile.
II more than one URL appears to describe the exact same distribution, preIer the shortest one. This
helps to avoid "table oI contents" CGI URLs like the ones on
Quote arguments to python.exe (including python's path) to avoid problems when Python (or a script) is
installed in a directory whose name contains spaces on Windows.
Support Iull roundtrip translation oI eggs to and Irom bdist_wininst Iormat. Running
bdist_wininst on a setuptools-based package wraps the egg in an .exe that will saIely install it as an
egg (i.e., with metadata and entry-point wrapper scripts), and easy_install can turn the .exe back
into an .egg Iile or directory and install it as such.
Update Ior changed SourceForge mirror Iormat
13/03/2012 EasInstall - The PEAK Developers' Center
Fixed not installing dependencies Ior some packages Ietched via Subversion
Fixed dependency installation with --always-copy not using the same dependency resolution
procedure as other operations.
Fixed not Iully removing temporary directories on Windows, iI a Subversion checkout leIt read-only Iiles
Fixed some problems building extensions when Pyrex was installed, especially with Python 2.4 and/or
packages using SWIG.
Fixed not being able to install Windows script wrappers using Python 2.3
Added support Ior "traditional" PYTHONPATH-based non-root installation, and also the convenient script, based on a contribution by Ian Bicking. The setuptools egg now contains
a hacked site module that makes the PYTHONPATH-based approach work with .pth Iiles, so that
you can get the Iull EasyInstall Ieature set on such installations.
Added --no-deps and --allow-hosts options.
Improved Windows .exe script wrappers so that the script can have the same name as a module
without conIusing Python.
Changed dependency processing so that it's breadth-Iirst, allowing a depender's preIerences to override
those oI a dependee, to prevent conIlicts when a lower version is acceptable to the dependee, but not
the depender. Also, ensure that currently installed/selected packages aren't given precedence over ones
desired by a package being installed, which could cause conIlict errors.
Improved error message when trying to use old ways oI running easy_install. Removed the ability to
run via python -m or by running; easy_install is the command to run on all
supported platIorms.
Improved wrapper script generation and runtime initialization so that a VersionConIlict doesn't occur iI
you later install a competing version oI a needed package as the deIault version oI that package.
Fixed a problem parsing version numbers in #egg= links.
EasyInstall can now install "console¸scripts" deIined by packages that use setuptools and deIine
appropriate entry points. On Windows, console scripts get an .exe wrapper so you can just type their
name. On other platIorms, the scripts are installed without a Iile extension.
Using python -m easy_install or running is now DEPRECATED, since an
easy_install wrapper is now available on all platIorms.
EasyInstall now does MD5 validation oI downloads Irom PyPI, or Irom any link that has an "#md5÷..."
trailer with a 32-digit lowercase hex md5 digest.
EasyInstall now handles symlinks in target directories by removing the link, rather than attempting to
overwrite the link's destination. This makes it easier to set up an alternate Python "home" directory (as
described above in the Non-Root Installation section).
Added support Ior handling MacOS platIorm inIormation in .egg Iilenames, based on a contribution by
13/03/2012 EasInstall - The PEAK Developers' Center
Kevin Dangoor. You may wish to delete and reinstall any eggs whose Iilename includes "darwin" and
"Power¸Macintosh", because the Iormat Ior this platIorm inIormation has changed so that minor OS X
upgrades (such as 10.4.1 to 10.4.2) do not cause eggs built with a previous OS version to become
easy¸install's dependency processing algorithms have changed. When using --always-copy, it now
ensures that dependencies are copied too. When not using --always-copy, it tries to use a single
resolution loop, rather than recursing.
Fixed installing extra .pyc or .pyo Iiles Ior scripts with .py extensions.
Added --site-dirs option to allow adding custom "site" directories. Made easy-install.pth
work in platIorm-speciIic alternate site directories (e.g. /Library/Python/2.x/site-packages on
Mac OS X).
II you manually delete the current version oI a package, the next run oI EasyInstall against the target
directory will now remove the stray entry Irom the easy-install.pth Iile.
EasyInstall now recognizes URLs with a #egg=project_name Iragment ID as pointing to the named
project's source checkout. Such URLs have a lower match precedence than any other kind oI
distribution, so they'll only be used iI they have a higher version number than any other available
distribution, or iI you use the --editable option. The #egg Iragment can contain a version iI it's
Iormatted as #egg=proj-ver, where proj is the project name, and ver is the version number. You
must use the Iormat Ior these values that the bdist_egg command uses; i.e., all non-alphanumeric runs
must be condensed to single underscore characters.
Added the --editable option; see Editing and Viewing Source Packages above Ior more inIo. Also,
slightly changed the behavior oI the --build-directory option.
Fixed the setup script sandbox Iacility not recognizing certain paths as valid on case-insensitive
Fix python -m easy_install not working due to setuptools being installed as a zipIile. Update
saIety scanner to check Ior modules that might be used as python -m scripts.
Misc. Iixes Ior win32.exe support, including changes to support Python 2.4's changed bdist_wininst
Put the easy_install module back in as a module, as it's needed Ior python -m to run it!
Allow --find-links/-f to accept local directories or Iilenames as well as URLs.
EasyInstall now automatically detects when an "unmanaged" package or module is going to be on
sys.path ahead oI a package you're installing, thereby preventing the newer version Irom being
imported. By deIault, it will abort installation to alert you oI the problem, but there are also new options
(--delete-conflicting and --ignore-conflicts-at-my-risk) available to change the deIault
behavior. (Note: this new Ieature doesn't take eIIect Ior egg Iiles that were built with older setuptools
versions, because they lack the new metadata Iile required to implement it.)
The easy_install distutils command now uses DistutilsError as its base error type Ior errors that
should just issue a message to stderr and exit the program without a traceback.
EasyInstall can now be given a path to a directory containing a setup script, and it will attempt to build
and install the package there.
EasyInstall now perIorms a saIety analysis on module contents to determine whether a package is likely
13/03/2012 EasInstall - The PEAK Developers' Center
to run in zipped Iorm, and displays inIormation about what modules may be doing introspection that
would break when running as a zipIile.
Added the --always-unzip/-Z option, to Iorce unzipping oI packages that would ordinarily be
considered saIe to unzip, and changed the meaning oI --zip-ok/-z to "always leave everything
There is now a separate documentation page Ior setuptools; revision history that's not speciIic to
EasyInstall has been moved to that page.
Made easy_install a standard setuptools command, moving it Irom the easy_install module
to setuptools.command.easy_install. Note that iI you were importing or extending it, you must
now change your imports accordingly. is still installed as a script, but not as a
Added --always-copy/-a option to always copy needed packages to the installation directory, even
iI they're already present elsewhere on sys.path. (In previous versions, this was the deIault behavior, but
now you must request it.)
Added --upgrade/-U option to Iorce checking PyPI Ior latest available version(s) oI all packages
requested by name and version, even iI a matching version is available locally.
Added automatic installation oI dependencies declared by a distribution being installed. These
dependencies must be listed in the distribution's EGG-INFO directory, so the distribution has to have
declared its dependencies by using setuptools. II a package has requirements it didn't declare, you'll still
have to deal with them yourselI. (E.g., by asking EasyInstall to Iind and install them.)
Added the --record option to easy_install Ior the beneIit oI tools that run install
--record=filename on behalI oI another packaging system.)
Fixed not setting script permissions to allow execution.
Improved sandboxing so that setup scripts that want a temporary directory (e.g. pychecker) can still run
in the sandbox.
Fix stupid stupid reIactoring-at-the-last-minute typos. :(
Added support Ior converting .win32.exe installers to eggs on the Ily. EasyInstall will now recognize
such Iiles by name and install them.
Fixed a problem with picking the "best" version to install (versions were being sorted as strings, rather
than as parsed values)
Added support Ior the distutils "verbose/quiet" and "dry-run" options, as well as the "optimize" Ilag.
Support downloading packages that were uploaded to PyPI (by scanning all links on package pages,
13/03/2012 EasInstall - The PEAK Developers' Center
not just the homepage/download links).
Add progress messages to the search/download process so that you can tell what URLs it's reading to
Iind download links. (HopeIully, this will help people report out-oI-date and broken links to package
authors, and to tell when they've asked Ior a package that doesn't exist.)
Added support Ior installing scripts
Added support Ior setting options via distutils conIiguration Iiles, and using distutils' deIault options as a
basis Ior EasyInstall's deIaults.
Renamed --scan-url/-s to --find-links/-f to Iree up -s Ior the script installation directory
Use urllib2 instead oI urllib, to allow use oI https: URLs iI Python includes SSL support.
Added --scan-url and --index-url options, to scan download pages and search PyPI Ior needed
Restrict --build-directory=DIR/-b DIR option to only be used with single URL installs, to avoid
running the wrong
Added --build-directory=DIR/-b DIR option.
Added "installation report" that explains how to use 'require()' when doing a multiversion install or
alternate installation directory.
Added SourceForge mirror auto-select (Contributed by Ian Bicking)
Added "sandboxing" that stops a setup script Irom running iI it attempts to write to the Iilesystem outside
oI the build area
Added more workarounds Ior packages with quirky install_data hacks
Added subversion download support Ior svn: and svn+ URLs, as well as automatic recognition oI
HTTP subversion URLs (Contributed by Ian Bicking)
Misc. bug Iixes
Initial release.
Additional utilities to list/remove/veriIy packages
Signature checking? SSL? Ability to suppress PyPI search?
Display byte progress meter when downloading distributions and long pages?
Redirect stdout/stderr to log during run¸setup?
13/03/2012 EasInstall - The PEAK Developers' Center


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