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Scientific name “Tribulus Terrestris “It consist of dried fully ripe fruit of the plant “Tribulus Terrestris “belonging to the family “Zygophyllaceae”. It is native of southern Europe, Africa Tribulus Terrestris probably originated in the Saharan region and spread into the Mediterranean region. Tribulus Terrestris is a C4 summer annual reproducing by seed Tribulus Terrestris plant from California was found to be diploid 2n=24 this plant develop woody roots and become perennial, prostate spreading radically less than 3.3 ft [1 m] in diameter. Tribulus Terrestris have a different chemical constituent like chlorogenin, Diosgenin, Harmin, Harmaline, Resins, fixed oil etc. There are several similar native species in the genus like kallstroemia [family Zygophyllaceae] that could be confused with Tribulus Terrestris kallstromia parviflora and kallstromia californica especially when the plants haven’t begun to flowers and fruit aren’t present. Tribulus Terrestris use as Dietary supplement, it is also use in the treatment of Angina Pectoris ,and Smooth Muscle Spasm , also use in the treatment of Impotence and Libido Disorders plant and spiny fruit are esteemed as Cooling, Diuretic, Demulcent, Tonic, Aphrodisiac.
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ORIGIN AND HISTORY OF INTRODUCTION (1-6)
Tribulus Terrestris is native to southern Europe , Africa, temperate and tropical Asia (Afghanistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, China, Cyprus Sinai, Georgia, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Lebanon, Mongolia, Russian Federation (Ciscaucasia, southeast Western Siberia), Saudi Arabia, Syria, Tajikistan, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, India, Pakistan), and north Australia. It was introduced here from the Mediterranean. Squires (1979) comments that Tribulus Terrestris probably originated in the Saharan region and spread into the Mediterranean region Tribulus Terrestris was accidentally imported from the Mediterranean into the United States on livestock. It was first reported in California in 1903.
BIOLOGICAL SOURCE (7)
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It consist of dried fully ripen fruit of the plant Tribulus Terrestris Scientific classification Kingdom: (unranked): (unranked): (unranked): Order: Family: Genus: Species: Plantae Angiosperms Eudicots Rosids Zygophyllales Zygophyllaceae Tribulus T. Terrestris
Family- Zygophyllaceae (8)
VERNACULAR NAME (8)
. SANSKRIT · HINDI » Gokshuru, Trikantakah
» Bada gokhru, Bara gokhru, Bara-gokhru, Baragokhru, Faribduti, Farid-buti,
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· · · · · · · · ·
BENGALI » Gokhari KANNADA » Anenegaligida, Anne-galu-gida, Annegalugida MALYALAM » Ana-nerinnil, Ananerinnil, Caca-mullu, MARATHI » Mothe-gokharu, Moto, Mothe-gokhru, Karonta, Ubha-gokhru, TAMIL TELGU ENGLISH ARAB PUNJABI » » » » » Gokhura, Anainerunji, Ananeringie, Pedda palleru Small Caltrop Khara Khus Kurkundi
Geographical Source (7, 12)
On the North American continent: Tribulus Terrestris is found throughout California to Wyoming, to eastern United States, and south to central Mexico Tribulus Terrestris habitat is disturbed places, along city streets and roadsides, railways, cultivated fields and orchards, barnyards and pastures, fallow fields, lawns and yards, playgrounds, waste places, open sandy sites, and walk ways In Arizona, Tribulus Terrestris is found to 7000 ft. (2134 m). Tribulus Terrestris occurs widely throughout the world from latitudes 35°S
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to 47°N. As a weed, it occurs in the subtropics and warm temperate zone. It frequently concentrates at low elevations in coastal areas. In its native area: Within its native range in Eurasia, from the central Russian steppe through Mongolia, Manchuria, Germany, Poland, and the countries bordering the Mediterranean (Squires1979) it is present at elevations ranging from near sea level to above 3,280 ft. (1000 m)
Arizona, Arkansas, California, Colorado, Florida, Hawaii, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, North Carolina, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Virginia, Washington, Wisconsin
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Arizona, By County:
Found throughout the state, 7000 ft. or lower
MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERS (10)
A procumbent herb, stems and branches pilose young parts silky-vollous leaves opposite abruptly pinnate one of each pain smaller than other sometimes wanting stipuller lanceolate hairy ,leaflets 3-6 pairs 6-12mm long ablong muconate sericeo villous with appressed hair beneath and more or less so on the upper surface base rounded oblique petiolules very short pilvse flowers auxiliary or opposed solitary pedicets 1.2-2 cm long slender hairy petals 1cm long oblong-obviate claw chart hairy ovary bristly style short ,stout stigmatic lobes longer than the diameter of style .Fruit globus consisting of usually s hairy or nearly globuros often muriculate
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,woody coal each with two pair of hard sharp spines one pair longer than the other seeds several in each coccus with transverse partition between them. The root and fruits are sweetish cooling tonic, fattening aphrodisiac alterative improve appetite useful in strangury. Roots: deep taproot (to 8.5 ft. (2.6 m)); slender, branched, often somewhat woody, with a network of fibrous roots. Stems: prostrate stems up to 8 ft. (2.4 m) long. Stems highly branched, green to reddish-brown, and spreading radially from the crown along open ground; can be more or less erect when shaded or competing with other plants. Stems are silky or appressed-hairy, sharply bristly to glabrous. Branching: radially spreading stems (from the crown); the stems highly branched. Stipules: stipules leaf-like, subulate, 2-3 mm long. Leaves: cotyledons oblong, 0.2-0.6 in. (5-15 mm) long, creased down the center, slightly indented at the tips. Leaves opposite; even-pinnate compound, approximately 0.4-2 in. (1-5 cm) long, with 3-7 leaflet pairs per leaf; and having a small extension at the rachis tip. Leaflets elliptic or oblong, 0.1 -0.6 in. (3-15) mm long, with more or less oblique bases; lower leaflet pair unequal in size. Foliage often sparse to moderately silky-strigose to glabrous. Inflorescence: peduncles flowers, solitary in axils of leaves. Calyx/Sepals or Phyllaries: sepals 5 (occasionally 4), caducous. Sepals narrowly lance-ovate, 0.1-0.14 in. (3-3.5 mm) long. Corolla/Petals: peduncle reflexes; shorter than subtending leaves. Flowers are auxiliary, solitary; corolla/petals bright yellow, 0.2-0.6 in. (5-15 mm) in diameter, 0.2 in. (5 mm) or less long. Petals 5 (occasionally 4) deciduous. 5 glands occur between the stamens at the base of the ovary. Flowers perfect. Flowers are open in the mornings, close in the afternoons. Gynoecium: ovary has 5 carpals. Ovary chambers twice the number of petals; a traverse partition separates seeds in each carpel. Style deciduous. Styles connate into a stout column Stigmas 5. Androecium: stamens twice the number of petals, usually 10. 5 shorter stamens, anthers well below the level of the stigma, opposite the sepals, each subtended by a small gland; 5 longer stamens, anthers at the same height of the
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stigma, opposite the petals. Fruit: a schizocarp; woody burrs, gray to yellow-tan, hairy, to approximately 0.4-0.7 in. (1-1.8 cm) in diameter, more or less flattened, lobed; separates into 5 (occasionally 4) wedge-shaped, indehiscent nut lets (cocci), each with 2 stout dorsal spines 0.15-0.27 in. (4-7 mm) long and spreading, and several prickles.
Seeds: usually 2-5 per nut let (coccus), remain enclosed within the burrs (coccus).
SIMILAR NATIVE OR NON-NATIVE SPECIES THAT COULD CONFUSE IDENTIFICATION (1-6)
There are several native species in the genus Kallstroemia (family: Zygophyllaceae) that could be confused with Tribulus Terrestris: Kallstroemia parviflora and K. californica; especially when the plants haven't begun to flowers and fruits aren't present. They can occur with Tribulus Terrestris in disturbed areas, especially when disturbance occurs in a more ‘natural’ setting, or they can occur in those same areas alone. They are easiest to distinguish from each other when the
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fruits have fully matured, the fruits being very different from each other. Tribulus Terrestris more often has the smaller flowers that are brighter yellow (versus yellow-orange), although variability within each species and taxa often makes these generalities deficient for proper identification. Also, there are some general and subtle differences in the leaves (leaflet number, shape, and hairiness), and getting to know each plant well seems to be the best remedy for proper in-the-field identification. Below are descriptions of the taxa; see glossary above for definitions of terminology. Kallstroemia parviflora: spreading stems, branched, to 3.3 ft. (1 m) long, mat forming. Leaves are 0.4-1.2 in. (1-3 cm) long; with 3-5 pairs of leaflets, 0.3-0.4 in. (710 mm) long, acute at both ends, hirsute beneath, glabrous above. Stipules 0.2-0.3 in. (6-7 mm) long, linear lanceolate; persistent. Flower pedicels 0.4 -0.8 in. (1-2 cm) long; up to 1.6 in. (4 cm) in fruit. Sepals approximately 0.2 in. (5 mm) long, hirsute, persistent. Petals orange-yellow, often fading, 0.2-0.5 in. (6-12 mm) long, 0.1-0.2 in. (2-4 mm) wide; deciduous. Fruit 0.2 in. (5-6 mm) wide; carpals bluntly tuberculate on backs; beak 0.2 in. (4-6 mm) long, strongly conic at base, columnar (Kearney and Peebles 1960, Shreve and Wiggins 1964). Occurs in Navajo to Mohave counties, south to Greenlee, Cochise, Santa Cruz, and Pima counties; 1000-5000 ft. Kallstroemia californica var. californica: spreading stems, branched, to 4-24 in. (1-6 dm) long. Leaves 0.6-2.4 in. (1.5-6 cm) long; with 4-7 pairs of leaflets, broadly elliptic, 0.2-0.4 in. (4-10 mm) long; obliquely obtuse at base, obtuse or rounded at apex; strigose-canescent or tardily glabrate above, most of the hairs appressed. Stipules linear-subulate to ovate, 0.05-0.1 in. (1.5-3 mm) long; usually caducous. Flower pedicels 0.6 in. (1.5 cm) long or less. Sepals narrowly lance-ovate, 0.1-0.2 in. (3-4 mm) long; usually deciduous in fruit. Petals orange-yellow, 0.2 in. (4-6 mm) long; deciduous. Fruit 0.1-0.2 in. (3-4.5 mm) in diameter, 0.1 in. (3-3.5 mm) high, puberulent; carpals with sharp tubercles, often to 1.5 mm long, on backs; beak 3 mm long, conic at base, glabrous in fruit (Kearney and Peebles 1960, Shreve and Wiggins 1964). Occurs in south and southwestern Arizona, Graham to Yuma counties; 7000 ft. or lower. Kallstroemia californica var. brachystylis: spreading stems, branched, to 4SSDJ College of Pharmacy, Chandwad Page | 9
24 in. (1-6 dm) long. Leaves 0.6-2.4 in. (1.5-6 cm) long; with 3-5 pairs of leaflets, broadly elliptic, 0.2-0.6 in. (6-15 mm) long; obliquely obtuse at base, obtuse or rounded at apex; strigose-canescent or tardily glabrate above. Stipules linear-subulate to ovate, 0.05-0.1 in. (1.5-3 mm) long; usually caducous. Flower pedicels 0.6 in. (1.5 cm) long or less. Sepals narrowly lance-ovate, 0.1-0.2 in. (3-4 mm) long; usually deciduous in fruit. Petals orange-yellow, 0.2 in. (4-6 mm) long; deciduous. Fruit 0.10.2 in. (3-4.5 mm) in diameter, 0.1 in. (3-3.5 mm) high; carpals with low, rounded tubercles, on backs, these sometimes sharper; sides of carpels strongly reticulate. Occurs in central and northern Arizona, Apache, Coconino, and Yavapai counties, south to central Arizona; 7000 ft or lower.
Growth and Reproductive Strategy:
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Tribulus Terrestris is a C4, summer annual, reproducing by seed; it is prostrate and mat-forming. Tribulus Terrestris plant material from California was found to be diploid; 2n=24. Generally, Tribulus Terrestris has a considerable seed dormancy lasting over fall and winter months with some seeds staying dormant for longer periods of time. Its seedlings emerge in the early spring through summer, often in flushes following increased soil moisture. It germinates after the start of the monsoon rains, on any type of barren soil, in southern Arizona . In Washington and Australia, it germinates in the late spring to early summer, when necessary soil moisture conditions are met. It is a prostrate mat-forming plant with trailing stems, although can be more ascending when light competition exists on a site. Seedlings develop a deep root system in a few weeks; flowers may be produced within 3 weeks, fruits/burrs within 6 weeks. Tribulus Terrestris roots can develop nitrogen-fixing nodules. Athar and Mahmood (1985) observed that plants having root nodules had more lush green healthy growth and greater dry weight versus stunted growth in plants without nodules. Boydston (1990) reports that flowering occurred within 3-4 weeks of emergence when temperatures were consistently above 68°F (20°C), regardless of planting date. Tribulus Terrestris flowers March through October in Arizona, although primarily from July to August. Once the plant begins to flower, it is continuous throughout the plant's life. Tribulus Terrestris flowers are cross-pollinated by insects (foragers include: Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera, Thysanoptera) along with being self-pollinated, which occurs at the end of each flower's receptive period (within one day) . Self-pollination is accomplished when the petals begin to close and push the stamen inward toward the stigma, the longer anthers making direct contact; the potential of this system is 100% seed set. Fruits mature in approximately 2 weeks, and subsequently split apart into segments soon afterward. Plants continue to reproduce and produce fruit until the cool season begins. fruit/burr production stopped in October when average temperatures were under 68°F (20°C) Squires (1979) reports that the plant can be killed by frost or drought. At senescence, the fruits/burrs often remain on the plant or the soil surface. In India, it was observed that seeds may still germinate in the fall, yet the seedlings fail to
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establish due to declining seasonal temperatures. In tropical regions under suitable conditions, Tribulus Terrestris develops woody roots and becomes perennial
Tribulus Terrestris plants typically bear numerous fruits/schizocarps/burrs (averaging 200- 5000 per plant). Boydston (1990) reports that seeds planted in May, June, July, and August subsequently produced 5600, 5200, 3600, and 200 burrs/plant, respectively. Although, fruit/burr production seemingly responds to temperatures during a season's growth, enabling greater production for a longer period of time in warmer years . Each fruit/burr usually contains 5 nut lets (cocci), each nut let (coccus) can contain 2-5 seeds.
Each fruit section (coccus) has 2 sharp divergent spines and several other spines and warty protuberances enabling the Tribulus Terrestris fruits to easily attach to animals and humans and to stick onto vehicle tires (cars, farm, airplane), subsequently facilitating long distance dispersion and spread. Holm (1991) points out that due to the architecture of the schizocarp/fruit, the large and small spines are arranged at different angles with at least one of the spines always pointing upward no matter how the fruits/burrs fall from the plant, and can easily imbed into feet, hooves, or tires. After getting caught or imbedded into the hooves, feet, and wool of livestock and other animals, the fruits/burrs are subsequently broken off as the animals try to rid themselves of the irritation . Furthermore, they can stick to the shoes and clothing of people, and the fur and feathers of animals. Tribulus Terrestris fruits/burrs are also a contaminate of seed, feed, and wool of livestock. Foy (1983) report that Tribulus Terrestris "presumably" was unintentionally
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imported into the United States on the tires of military planes returning from the Sahara Desert region; and has been further spread on this continent on the tires of aircraft and cars.
Buried Tribulus Terrestris seed can remain viable for several years, staying dormant in the soil for 4-5 year.
Life strategy: a C4, summer annual; ephemeral. Reproduces by seed. In tropical
areas, this plant develops woody roots and becomes perennial. 2n=12, 24, 36, 48.
Structure: prostrate spreading radially, generally less than 3.3 ft. (1 m) in
diameter, herbaceous annual plant; mat forming.
Climatic Requirements and Limitations:
Tribulus Terrestris is adapted to warm, temperate regions and is prevalent in areas having hot summers, on dry soils. Tribulus Terrestris requires relatively high temperatures for growth, and is intolerant of freezing temperatures. In Australia in places where Tribulus Terrestris is a major weed, the daily maximum temperatures in summer are above 84°F (29°C) (Squires 1979). In a database covering the northwestern United States, Tribulus Terrestris occurs in areas having a mean minimum July temperature of 67°F (19.4°C) and a mean maximum July temperature of 73°F (22.8°C), and a mean minimum January temperature of 17°F (-8.3°C), and a mean maximum January temperature of 24F(4.4°C). Tribulus Terrestris occurs in areas with a mean annual minimum precipitation of 11 in. (28 cm) and a mean annual maximum precipitation of 15 in. (38 cm). Tribulus Terrestris seedling establishment was observed to be poor on sites that were shaded.
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Most newly matured Tribulus Terrestris seeds are dormant and require an after-ripening period of approximately 6-12 months. Ernst and Tolsma (1988) report that dormancy of seeds was very high in both fresh seeds and 3-6 year old seeds. Squires reports that freshly harvested seeds have a germination rate of 10%, and drystored 6-month-old seeds have a germination rate of 84%. Imbibition of water differed in dormant versus non-dormant seeds: measurements taken at one hour and periodically through one day of imbibition showed dormant seeds had approximately half of the water content of non- dormant seeds. The largest seed within a nut let (coccus) is usually the first to germinate; the remaining seeds may germinate or remain dormant depending on moisture availabilities this large seed is usually positioned near the basal end of the burr (coccus). Pathak (1971 in Squires 1979) reports that Tribulus Terrestris germination is inhibited by low temperatures, low light intensities, and wet soil. The optimum temperature range for germination to occur is 81-95°F (27-35°C). In Australia, germination occurs when the maximum air temperature is approximately 75-81°F (24-27°C). During trials, Tribulus Terrestris emergence was initiated when average soil temperatures reached 59°F (15°C) for at least 2 weeks and approached 68° F (20°C). After initial emergence occurred, emergence was multipeaked with no relationship existing with temperature for the remainder of the summer. In subsequent years, emergence occurred and peaked at similar times regardless of the age of the seed, indicating environmental stimuli influencing emergence. Tribulus Terrestris seedlings emerge during early spring through summer, often in flushes following increased soil moisture. During field observations in Botswana, Tribulus Terrestris was observed to germinate and emerge following a rain shower having more than 0.04 in. (10 mm) of precipitation. Maximum germination occurred after a series of heavy rains, facilitating a 35% germination rate, with continued germination of seeds lasting for another 4 months. On sandy soils, seedlings emerge from depths to approximately 5 cm (less on heavy soils). Squires (1968 in Squires 1979) reports that seeds buried more than 4 in. (10 cm) deep in sandy soils, can successfully emerge. Germination was irregular in Tribulus Terrestris seeds, whether seeds remained in the fruit (cocci) or were isolated. In greenhouse trials, the highest
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germination rate was achieved by isolated seeds with a maximum of 66.9%, and a mean of 37.3±25.1% (ranging from 68/59°F (20/15°C) up to 95/86°F (35/30°C), in 5°C increments, alternating day/night temperatures). Seeds that remained in the fruits rarely germinated synchronously . Ernst and Tolsma (1988) add that because of this pattern, direct competition for water and nutrients is avoided.
Tribulus Terrestris grows best on dry, sandy soils, but can tolerate most soil types. In Australia, Tribulus Terrestris is found on sandy and silty, and on saline soils. In India, Tribulus Terrestris is found primarily on loose and compact sandy loam soils, and reportedly grows on sand dunes in the desert regions. It also thrives on loose, blown soil by field margins . Plants are typically more robust on sites without compacted soils, yet can grow on compacted soils, such as those found alongside unsurfaced roads and in playgrounds. It also can grow in heavier soils, especially when fertile and moist. During tests in India, soil moisture was observed to average 3.54-6.74%, and occasionally lowered to 1.8% during Tribulus Terrestris life. Water holding capacity of soils of acceptable habitat for Tribulus Terrestris range between 35.36-44.9%, with compact soils having lower capacities. Additionally, the plant was observed to grow on soils of low nitrogen. Measurements of Tribulus Terrestris taken during trials in India uncovered factors affecting the plant's success; that is, dry weight and the plant's seed output was influenced by the amount of organic matter in the soils (ranging between 1.073.94% on tested sites). Exchangeable soil calcium influenced dry weight of the shoots and the plant's seed output. And, soil moisture of the soil with the presence of organic matter and exchangeable calcium influenced the dry weight of the shoot and the plant's seed output.
CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS (8)
Chlorogenin, Diosgenin, Gitogenin, Astragalin, Gracillin, Hecogenin, Ruscogenin, Trillin, Furostanol glycoside, Spirosterol saponin, Kaempferol, Kaempferol-3-rutinoside, Glucose, Rhamnose, Rutin, Harmine, Neogitogenin, Quercetin, Stigmasterol, Amino acids, Harmaline, Harman, Tetra hydroharmine, Neotigogenin
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Extract of the powder fruit was found to contain alkaloid resin, fat, mineral matter and water.”The fruit is said it contains a substance having aromatic smell and it gives of a fragrant odor when it is burnt.” The fruit contains substance having
1. An Alkaloid traces (0.001%) 2. A fixed OIL 3.5% CONSISTING mainly unsaturated acid 3. A essential oil in small quantity
5. Fair amount of nitrates
An aqueous solution of tartarate of the alkoloidal, after removal of alkoloidal was found to contain sugar but on physiologically active substances.
Gokshur contains Dioscin, protodioscin, Diosgenin and similar. These substances have effect on sexual performance and may treat various sexual disorders, they regulate sexual energy level and strength by increasing the percentage of free testosterone level for men and they affect pregnenolone, progesterone and estrogen. The hormone balancing effects of Bulgarian Tribulus Terrestris for women makes this herb suitable for premenstrual syndrome and menopausal syndrome Sterols like betasitosterols or stigma. These substances protect the prostate from swelling and in combination with the X steroidal saponin, protect the prostate from cancer. Proprietary steroidal saponin is currently referred to as X steroidal saponin. This X steroidal saponin affects the complete immune system. They have been demonstrated to possess anti-bacterial and anti-viral effects. Bulgarian Tribulus Terrestris may be used internally and externally to treat herpes, and virus infections such as influenza and the common cold.
Fixed Oils. The fruit contains 5% of a semidrying oil, peroxides,
diastase, traces of a glycoside resin, proteins and inorganic matter. The protein fraction (estimated as 10.85 %) contains 14amino acids 6 of which are essential amino acids. The stems are, rich in starch, fructose and sucrose. On alcohol ether extraction an instable, water soluble compound, probably a cardiac glycoside - has been isolated. The carboline alkaloids, Harmine, Harmaline and 2 more alkaloids, Harman and tetrahydroharmine have been,
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isolated. Steroidal saponin, mainly Furostanol glycosides have been isolated. Hecogenin, containing protodioscin and protogracilin has been identified. Terrestrioside-F is another saponin isolated.
PHYSICAL CONSTANTS (17)
Root 1 Foreign matter 2 %, 2 Total ash 13 %, 3 Acid insoluble ash 3 % 4 Alcohol soluble extractive 4 % Fruit 1 Foreign matter 2 % 2 Total ash 15 % 3 Acid insoluble ash 2 % 4 Alcohol soluble extractive 6 % 5 Water soluble extractive 10 %
· · · · · · · · · · Guna (Quality) Rasa (Taste) Vipak (Metabolism) virya (Potency) Prabhav (Impact) Guru, Snigdh Madhur Madhur Sheet Mutra-virechniya
EFFECT ON NATURAL PROCESSES / DESCRIPTION OF THE THREAT (1-6)
No information was found on Tribulus Terrestris' impacts to natural areas. A few examples of how it impacts life in general: Tribulus Terrestris is listed as a regulated and restricted noxious weed in Arizona, causing impacts to crops and animals.
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Tribulus Terrestris fruits (with their sharp, stout spines) cause considerable nuisance in public areas. They also can seriously injure grazing animals.
Arizona, by County:
Found throughout the state, 7000 ft. or lower. As stated previously, waterlogged sites may cause poor seedling establishment, whereas it was observed that plants were abundant on arable and well-drained sites.
Due to its ability to extract soil moisture from great depth in the soil, Tribulus Terrestris competes well in crops. There is also research demonstrating that seedling growth of Pennisetum typhoides is inhibited by root extracts of Tribulus Terrestris; root extracts were most harmful when followed by leaf and stem extracts. Tribulus Terrestris is sensitive to competition; typically, where perennial plants are maintained Tribulus Terrestris does not become problematic. In India, it was noted that Tribulus Terrestris does not grow in continuous patches, and chooses a sunny location on a site. When it is observed in continuous patches on a site, the competition is low on the site.
Why it does well as an Exotic? (1-6)
Tribulus Terrestris is capable of massive population increases over short periods of time, when conditions are favorable. Boydston (1990) notes that erratic and continuous germination of Tribulus Terrestris, its seed dormancy enabling seed to germinate over several years from one reproductive effort, and its ability to flower rapidly after emergence makes control difficult. As with other weedy species, it insures not all seeds germinate during favorable conditions, in the event a mass failure occurs. Germination of Tribulus Terrestris seed is quick under suitable moisture and temperature conditions. And, Tribulus Terrestris fruits only 10 days old potentially have viable seeds. Germination after sufficient rain may only yield about 35% germination of seeds; suggest that this
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heterogeneity of seed germination may reduce intraspecific competition for light and nutrients on a site. As stated previously, the seeds of Tribulus Terrestris are viable in soil for up to 4-5 years (making eradication difficult). Tribulus Terrestris plants have deep, and somewhat woody, taproots; the plants are able to obtain moisture and to grow under conditions too rigorous for most plants. Its large root volume has a tremendous ability to remove water from the soil at very high moisture tension levels. Also, it was found during trials in Texas that its water requirements are much lower than other plants (sorghum, alfalfa), needing 212 lbs. (96 kg) of water to produce 2.2 lbs. (1 kg) of dry biomass. Tribulus Terrestris plants potentially produce many thousands of seeds. Also, its long-distance method of dispersion enables the plant to move almost anywhere.
Plant and dried spiny fruits are used in decoction or infusion in cease of
spermatorrhoea phosphotaria diseases of the genitor urinary system such as dysciria gonorrhea gleets chronic cystitis calculous affections urinary disorders incontinence urine gout and impotence. •
Also in uterine disorder after parturition and to ensure fecundity Uses in northern India in cough disorder Of the heart Suppression of the urine
Water render mucilaginous by the plant is drunk as a remedy for impotence and infusion of stem is administered in gonorrhea. It is generally given with hyoscymus and opium.“in inflammatory conditions of the urinary passage” chakra-data recommends a decoction of the fruit with the addition of the impure carbonate of the potash to be given in the painful micturition.
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“The fruit also form an ingredient in medicines for urinary disorders and impotence and is one of the 10 ingredients of the “Dasamulla-kvatha”. A compound decoction often mention in Sanskrit works” a compound powder called gokhuradi churnumis popular in all urinary diseases. It is made up of Tribulus Terrestris 9 tolas, cubes, mesua ferrea, rhei radix and potassium nitrate each 3 tolas powder and mix dose is 10-20 grains. This drug was given in good trials in cases of Bright’s diseases with dropsy all patients derive much benefits by its use It was also combined with bdellium in a patient suffering from gonorrheal rheumatism with cystitis. The patient recovered without interruption. Decoction of the entire plant is given with the silajatu and honey in the same affection. Equal parts of gokhru and sesamum seeds taken with goat’s milk and honey cure impotence arising from the vicious practices. Bhavaprakashana gives the composition of the electuary known as gokhuradyava leha recommended in the painful micturition suppression of urine bloody urine calalous affections etc it is prepared as follows Take the entire plant of Tribulus Terrestris 12 and a half seers water 64seers and boil till reduced to 1/4. To the strength decoction and 6 ¼ seers of sugar and again boil to reduce to proper consistence for electuary then add the following substances in the fine powder- ginger long pepper black pepper cinnamon cardamom flowers of messua ferrea tejpatra leaves nutmeg bark of terminalia arjuna and cucumber seeds each 16 tolas bamboo manna ½ seers and prepare electuary . it is given in doses 2 tolas a compound pill known as gokhuradi guggla it is prescribed for albuminuria dysuria calculi gonorrhea rheumatism Chief ingredients in it are Gokshur guggula trikatu and triphala dose 1-4 pills of grains each TTD these were tired in a case of gonorrhea rheumatism and gleets and found beneficial. Following compound decoction is used as cooling soothing and aphrodisiac in cases of impotence resulting from gonorrhea with painful micturition Take a 10 parts of trikata(long pepper, black pepper, and ginger)5, cinnamon 4, cardamom 4, saffron 1, tejpatra 2, nutmeg 3, lettuce 3, bounduction 4 and bamboo mahna 5 parts mix and make a decoction. The dose is 2-6 drachon
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T. Terrestris is now being promoted as a booster for the purpose of increasing sex drive. Its use for this purpose originated from a Bulgarian study conducted in the 1970s, which found effects on free testosterone and luteinizing hormone in men belonging to infertile couple healthy individuals. The extract is claimed to increase the body's natural testosterone levels and thereby improve male sexual performance and help build muscle. Its purported muscle-building potential was popularized by American IFBB bodybuilding champion Jeffrey Peterman in the early 1970s. However, T. Terrestris has consistently failed to increase testosterone levels in controlled studies It has also failed to demonstrate strength-enhancing properties. Tribulus has been shown to enhance sexual behavior in an animal model It appears to do so by stimulating androgen receptors in the brain. Some body builders use T. Terrestris as post cycle therapy or "PCT".[citation
needed] citation needed
A research review conducted
in 2000 stated that the lack of data outside of this study prevents generalizing to
After they have completed an anabolic-steroid cycle, they use it under the Antimicrobial activity of organic and aqueous extracts from fruits, leaves and
assumption that it will restore the body's natural testosterone levels roots of Tribulus Terrestris L., an Iraqi medicinal plant used as urinary anti-infective in folk medicine, was examined against 11 species of pathogenic and non-pathogenic microorganisms: Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtitules, Bacillus cereus, Corynebacterium diphtheriae, Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris, Serratia marcescens, Salmonella typhimurium, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans using microdilution method in 96 multiwell microtiter plates. All the extracts from the different parts of the plant showed antimicrobial activity against most tested microorganisms. The most active extract against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria was ethanol extract from the fruits with a minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) value of 0.15 mg/ml against B. subtilis, B. cereus, P. vulgaris and C. diphtheriae. In addition, the same extract from
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the same plant part demonstrated the strongest antifungal activity against C. albicans with an MIC value of 0.15 mg/ml. Traditional medicine has been practiced for many centuries by a substantial proportion of the population of Iraq. The interest in the study of medicinal plants as a source of pharmacologically active compounds has increased worldwide. It is recognized that in some developing countries, plants are the main medicinal source to treat infectious diseases. Plant extracts represent a continuous effort to find new compounds with the potential to act against multi-resistant bacteria. Approximately 20% of the plants found in the world have been submitted to pharmacological or biological test, and a substantial number of new antibiotics introduced on the market are obtained from natural or semi-synthetic resources. Tribulus Terrestris (Puncture Vine, Caltrop, Yellow Vine and Goat head) is a flowering plant of the Zygophyllaceae family, native to warm temperature and tropical regions of the old world in Southern Europe, Southern Asia, Africa and Northern Australia. It can thrive even in desert climates and poor soil. In Iraq T. terrestris is used in folk medicine as tonic, aphrodisiac, analgesic, astringent, stomachic, anti-hypertensive, diuretic, lithon-triptic and urinary anti-infective. Different parts of Turkish and Iranian T. Terrestris have been reported to have antibacterial activity however, the antimicrobial activity of Iraqi T. Terrestris has not been studied. In the current study, we evaluated in vitro antimicrobial activity of different parts of T. Terrestris growing in Iraq using different extracts.
Use of Tribulus Terrestris in angina pectoris (9)
It is shown that saponin of Tribulus Terrestris has the action of dilating coronary artery and improving coronary circulation, and thus has better effects on improving ECG of myocardial ischemia. If taken for a long time, it has no adverse reaction on blood system and hepatic and renal functions. Neither does it have side effects. It is one of the ideal medicines to treat angina pectoris.
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Use of Tribulus Terrestris in impotency. Tribulus Terrestris is a testosterone enhancer. Studies show that it works very well when stacked with DHEA and androstenedione Instead of being a testosterone precursor; it leads to the production of the luteinizing hormone (LH). When LH levels are increased, the natural production of testosterone also increases. LH is a hormone that also deals with sex drive. Laboratory animal studies found that Tribulus Terrestris increased sperm count as well as motility levels after taking it for 30 days. Protodioscin is a phytochemical agent derived from Tribulus Terrestris L plant, which has been clinically proven to improve sexual desire and enhance erection via the conversion of protodioscin to DHEA (De-Hydro-Epi-Androsterone). Adimoelja A School of medicine 'Hang Tuah' University, Teaching and Naval Hospital, Surabaya, Indonesia.
Use of Tribulus Terrestris in smooth muscles
According to studies it has been suggested that T. Terrestris L. or its saponin mixture may be useful on some smooth muscle spasms or colic pains.
Health Benefits of Gokhru (14)
Among the clinically significant effects of Tribulus Terrestris identified in various human and animal studies are : 1. Improves muscle growth and body strength.
2. Reported to enhance libido sexualize and erectile function.
3. Reported to increase the number and motility of spermatozoa. 4. Increases LH levels by 72% and testosterone levels by 41% in only five days. 5. Helps in alleviating some symptoms associated with male menopause. 6. Reduction in cholesterol. 7. Reductions in high blood pressure. 8. Inhibition of stress-induced clumping of blood platelets. 9. Increases in strength of contraction of the heart muscle. 10. Reductions in sodium and fluid retention. 11. Anti-urolithiatic (urinary/kidney stone preventing) and litholytic (dissolving) activities.
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12. Improvement of the profile of red and white blood cells, including V and T lymphocytes and stimulation of the humoral immune system. 13. Anti-bacterial, anti-malarial and anti-fungal properties, anti-inflammatory activity. 14. Analgesic effects. 15. No adverse effects. 16. No toxicity and side effects. 17. Most Common and very Effective in problems connected with Urination
18. Used for dysuria, kidney stone and uncomfortable urination. 19. Used in various herbal formulas to cure headache, eye problem as hives,
conjunctivitis (inflammation at the membrane eye), weak eyesight and anxiety 20. It is used to cure high blood pressure and flank pain.
21. Tribulus Terrestris has been promoted and marketed for athletic performance,
muscle mass enhancement, and as a testosterone booster. 22. This herb is suitable for premenstrual syndrome and menopausal syndrome. Anthelmintic activityThe 50% methanolic extract of Indian T. Terrestris (whole plant) has been reported as anthelmintic activity, it is due to the tribulosin and sitosterol glycosides.  Tribulus Terrestris is a famous herb traditionally used by different civilizations for different purposes. In Ayurveda, the herb is known for anti-urolithic, diuretic and aphrodisiac while in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), it is used for eye trouble, edema, abdominal distention, sexual dysfunction and veiling. In Bulgaria as a folk medicine, it is used for blood purification and hemorrhoids while in south Aphrica it is used as tonic for diarrhea and disease of throat and eyes. In the 'ShernNong Pharmacopoeia' (the oldest known pharmacological work in China) T. Terrestris is described as a highly valuable drug to restore the depressed liver Tribulus Terrestris as adaptogenic: Multi-herbal formulation in Ayurveda with T. Terrestris exerts significant adaptogenic activity. Stress induced paradigms were found to be reversed by the multi-herbal preparation. Tribulus Terrestris in the treatment of cardiac diseases: The clinical trial shows that a saponin of T. Terrestris have action of dilating coronary artery and improving coronary circulation, so recommended for treating angina pectoris. Chinese drug named 'Xinnao Shutong' is made of crude saponin of Chinese T.
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Terrestris, which has significant effect in the treatment of coronary disease, myocardial Infraction and cerebral diseases. Tribulus Terrestris in diabetes management: (5) In a comparative study for hypoglycemic and Hypolipidemic properties of T. alatus and T. Terrestris in streptozotocin-induced hypoglycemic rats, 50 mg/kg body wt. concentration of alcoholic extract of T. alatus and T.Terrestris , produces significant decrease in blood glucose level, after 2, 4 and 6 hours of treatment as compared to untreated diabetic rats. After 4 and 6 hours of treatment, the percent of reduction in blood glucose level produced by T. alatus extract was significantly higher (74±2.2) (74±1.0) when compared with that of T. Terrestris (59±5.7), (58±4.8). The percentage of reduction in both these groups was higher than that seen in glibenclamide treated group (31.2±0.8) and (31.8±0.8). After three weeks of treatment, blood glucose level in diabetic rats treated with T. alatus and T. Terrestris decreases (83-84%) to below normal level, similar to glibenclamide (84% reduction).Treatment of diabetic rats with T. alatus extract resulted in significant decreases of serum triglycerides (TAG), total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL- C ) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) as compared to untreated diabetic rats and the value came down significantly below those in the normal healthy control group. However treatment of diabetic rats by T. Terrestris extract resulted in significant decrease in TAG, TC and LDL-c as compared to untreated diabetic rats. TC and LDL-c were equal to those of control group and HDL-c was significantly higher (36±1) than that of control group (27±2.7) an indication for better health however it was much lower (17±1.1) in case of T. alatus extract treated group. EFFECT OF TRIBULUS TERRESTRIS TREATMENT ON
IMPOTENCE AND LIBIDO DISORDERS (19) To test the effectiveness of Tribulus Terrestris in treating impotence and male libido disorders, we enrolled 11 subjects, composed of 4 men diagnosed with lowered or nonexistent libido and 7 impotent men. To these two groups, 3 x 1 Libilov tablets were administered per day for 2 weeks, without any additional vitamin supplements or pharmaceutical therapeutics. 50% of the subjects with reduced libido reported increased sex drive after Libilov treatment. Close to 60% of impotent subjects experienced improved erection, including prolonged duration of erection after
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treatment. This trial suggested that even a short period of treatment with Libilov was effective in treating these two conditions. Furthermore, as with previous trials, no adverse side-effects were observed. This clinical trial suggests that even a short period of treatment with Tribulus extract is effective in treating libido disorders and impotence: 50% of subjects diagnosed with decreased libido experienced significant improvement in sex drive and more than 57% of subjects diagnosed with erectile dysfunction or impotence experience improvement in the quality and duration of penile erection. Previous clinical trials of Libilov involved administration of the preparation for 30 to 60 days, with dosage as much as 3 x 2 tablets / day. This trial suggests that a much shorter period of treatment, involving a lower dose of 3 x 1 tablet / day can be as effective in treating libido disorders and impotence. As with previous trials, no adverse side-effects were reported. Furthermore, administration of only Libilov was sufficient to achieve the benefits, as no additional vitamin supplements or pharmacotherapeutics were administered. Libilov treatment of cases of libido disorders and impotence has been proven to be beneficial, due to its high effectiveness, absence of side-effects, and the absence of requirement of supplemental medications or vitamins.
Diuretic and increases sexual performance Action:
Plant and dried spiny fruit are esteemed as cooling, demulcent, diuretics, tonic, approdisiac.The diuretic property of plant are on doubt are due to the large quantity of nitrates. Present as well as the essential oils which occur in the seeds stems are considered astringent.” its action on the mucous membrane of the urinary tract closely resemble that of buchu and uvaursi flowers,” the plant which are also known by the Greek physician is used in south Europe as an aperients and diuretics. Action and uses in unani Murakabul,khava,diuretics,aphrodisiac,increases semen, removes stones causes nurj in madda calic due to heat Action and uses in ayurveda and siddha Mathura rusam seethe veer yam mootralam vrishyam dipanam balakaram pushtikaram in asamari pramacheam arsas kricharm swasakaram hridrogam
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. Cough · Uterine disorders · Strength and vigour · Abdominal disorders · Analgesic · Nervine disorders · General weakness
Following are few simple Home Remedies1) Take a Gokharu 10, Hyogrophlilarphinosa 5, Glycyrrhiza glabra 6, withania
samni fera 6,Hyoscyamus albur 5, curculigo orchiodides 6,mace 4, Eulophiacampertris 6,parts mix and make a powder. 2) Dose is 10-15 grains used in a seminal debility
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Tribulus Terrestris 3) Take a Gokhru impure a carbonate of potash 5 parts each, makes a decoction
in the useful way Dose is 1 drachma used in painful micturition.
4) Take a Gokhru 10, carbonate and iron lime 6 cinnamomus cassid 5, cardamom
6, and sugar 10 parts mix and make powder. Dose of the 10-15 grains used in jaundice.
5) Take a Gokhru 4 Drs. Terminalia Chula 3 Drs. Oxalis corniculata 3drs.mix
and reduce the whole to a fine powder. Dose is ½ to 1 drachma three times a day. Used in gonorrhea gleets and genitor urinary disease.
6) Take a Gokhru 12, Splianthes alracea 9,Camphur 9,Balsaod end he mukul 9,
Opium 1, and Honey sufficient quantity mix and make all pill mass. Dose is 5 grains used in gleets and painful disease of the bladder and urethra an Alcoholic extract of the drug was prepared & tried in the series of cases by chopra found to have undoubted diuretic properties. The drug is also used in scorpion sting. In India the succulent leaves are reported to be edible analysis of leaves from hisar (Haryand) gave (dry matter basis); fat 2,crude drug 2, total available carbohydrate 79,B-Carbonate 141,and ascorbic acid 5mg/100mg,The minerals present are ca 842 ,p 280,zn 3,fe 32,and mn 5mg,The anti-nutritional factors reports reported are phytic acid 83,phytate p 12,phytet cas % of total p 4 and oxalic acid 600mg/100g. The presence of high amount of oxalic acid may hinder the biological atitieation of leaves as source of minerals. The cinnamic amide derivative terrtstramide [C18H17O5N] m.p-<18-20 along with 7-mehylhydroindanone has been isolated from the plant from china. Presence of Quercetin is reported in fruits and stems. The fruit show amylase inhibitory and lipase activating activities. The roots from Rajasthan contain 40mg/100gm ascorbic acid. Diosgenin, Hecogenin, Rurcogenin and spirosta 3,5 dien have been isolated from the flowers, A homogeneous polysaccharide are been purified from the crude mixture of hetro polysaccharides extracted from the stem and leay (from chinese sample) after the removal of crude saponin root cutters of T. Terrestris contain Hecogenin and neotigogenin.
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The crude alcoholic extract of the plant shows anti-urolithic activity. It reduced the weight of stone by 60-80% in induced arolithiaris in albino Rats. The chloroform butonol and aqueous fractions of the alcoholic extract almost completely inhibited stone format.The extract also normalized other biochemical parameters in the urine as also a serum histopathology of kidney and urinary bladder that was altered during the process of stone formation The extract also diuretic activity. Aqueous extract of the plant at a dose of 5g/kg body wt. within 21 days of oral administration reversed the urinary oxalate excretion to normal in induced hyperoxalurid in male adult rats it remains so far for15 days after withdrawal of extract the plant also exhibits hepatic protective activity. Pet extract plant exhibited growth regulatory activity against potato tuber moth pthorimaea operculella 1st to 4th instars larvet (35-40%) and (40%) failed to become adult. The extract of leaves (at 500ppm) shows juvenile bormone activity (16.5) against the lepidopteron pest porthesia scientillas.The activity was more pronounced than parthenium hystrophorus at 500 mg against the penultimate instars of dysdercus koenigii. The essential of herb or seed shows significant numerical activity against the larva of root knot nematode meloidogyne incognita chitwood.Aqueous extract of whole plant (from Iraq) shows mollucicidal activity against bulins tranceatus. The plant is very toxic to cattle in Australia the ingestion of the plant by sheep has resulted in outbreaks of a locomotors disorder which developed due to a functional abnormality in the central nerves system fresh mature aerial plant parts contain 44 mg/kg (dry matter ) of extrable alcoloides.The major alkoiods being Bcarbollne indoleaminer the period of tribus and gradually interacts inversely with a specific neuronal gene DNA sequence.an a barmane and norbarmane although the alkaloid content in the plant was found to be very low to cause acute nervous effect. But the alkaloid level may become pharmacologically significant when the plant is ingested over tribur neurotoxicity. In Bulgaria the plant is used as a folk medicine for treating impotency. A pharmaceutical preparation tribertan developed from the plant has been found to be increase the libibo .The number and motive of sperm in men in women it improves ovarian functions it was found to be non toxic and showed no side effect. The
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preparation contain steroidal saponin of furastation contain steroidal saponins and protogracilin as the main component the fruit are cooling ,tonic ,diuretic and useful in painful micturition calculus effect and other urinary disorder aqure metabolic fraction (10%) of the ethanolic extract of fruit showed maximum activity against the induced urolithiasis in albino rats it provide the significance protection against the leucocytosis and elevation in blood serum urea level The administration of aqueus extract of fruit to sodium glycote fed rats to induced hyper oxide produced a significant decrease in urinary oxalate excretion accompanied by an increased rate of glyoxylate exertion .The effect of extract in lowring hyperoxalueia seems to be mainly medicated through its inhibitory action on oxalate synthesizing enzymes of liver viz Glycolate oxalate (GAO)and glycolate deyhdrogenase (GAD) and its enhanced the production of glyoxlate
Side Effects and Warnings (23, 28)
Tribulus Terrestris appears to be generally safe with a few adverse events of insomnia and menorrhagia (heavy menstrual bleeding) occurring. Use cautiously in patients with menstrual disorders. One case of pneumothorax (air between the lungs and the lining of the chest cavity) upon digestion of the fruit has been reported. In another case report, the patient developed a polyp in the lobar bronchus of the right interior lobe due to the presence a Tribulus fruit spine. In a case report, gynecomastia (excessive development of male breasts) was observed in a weighttrainer taking an herbal supplement containing Tribulus. Most adverse effects reported, such as exceptionally strong libido, general excitation, and insomnia have been from use of the combination product Tribestan®. However, these adverse effects cannot be solely attributed to Tribulus, due to the other ingredients in this product. Although not well studied in humans, a saponin from Tribulus may reduce levels of glucose and total cholesterol. Use cautiously in patients with diabetes (high blood sugar) or using hypoglycemic (blood sugar altering) medication, as Tribulus may decrease blood sugar levels. Although not well studied in humans, Tribulus may increase prostate weight. Use cautiously in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (enlarged prostate) or prostate cancer.
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Cautions and Considerations:
Herbicides, as with all management / control methods, take careful planning and attention to detail for a particular site (climate/weather, soils, topography, vegetation or lack thereof, sensitive areas, land use, target plant and infestation characteristics) and the goals to be accomplished on the site. A major consideration when using herbicides is the sensitivity and hazard to other non-target species and organisms in the area. Many of the herbicides are 'nonselective' and useful for agricultural operations, but not necessarily intended for natural environments. Even the 'selective' chemicals can harm other plants when not applied properly or when used in places where other native plants are vulnerable to their mode of action . Improper application and /or application rates can harm many other species, along with affecting water quality; the eventual accumulation of these compounds in underground and aboveground water bodies. Also, to be considered is the potential resistance a biotype may develop to some of these compounds over time. The information provided here is meant to give a glimpse of what has been learned, and found effective. It might not necessarily be the best approach in the Sonoran Desert; generally the environments reported on are not desert lands as little research has been done in natural environments of the Sonoran Desert to date. Nor do the same application or herbicide use laws apply across state borders in all cases. Contacts / specialists' names or offices are provided in the following section for follow up and gathering of more information pertinent to a specific environment or site.
ADVERSE REACTIONS (23, 28)
Most herbs and supplements have not been thoroughly tested for interactions with other herbs, supplements, drugs, or foods. The interactions listed below are based on reports in scientific publications, laboratory experiments, or traditional use. You should always read product labels. If you have a medical condition, or are taking other drugs, herbs, or supplements, you should speak with a qualified healthcare provider before starting a new therapy.
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Interactions with Drugs
Tribulus may add to calcium channel blocker or beta-blocker effects due to its negative chronotropic activity in cardiac muscle. Tribulus may exacerbate digoxin effects. Caution is advised. Tribulus may exhibit diuretic effects (increases urine flow). Caution is advised when used with other drugs that have diuretic effects. Tribulus may lower blood glucose levels. Caution is advised when using medications that May also lower blood sugar. Patients taking drugs for diabetes by mouth or insulin should be monitored closely by a qualified healthcare professional, including a pharmacist. Medication adjustments may be necessary. Tribulus has been found to have blood pressure lowering effects, and may affect patients taking drugs that also alter blood pressure. Based on preliminary study and studies of combination products containing tribulus, tribulus may increase levels of steroid hormones. Interactions with Herbs and Dietary Supplement Tribulus may exacerbate the effects of cardiac glycoside herbs. Tribulus may exhibit diuretic effects (increase urine flow). Caution is advised when used with other herbs that have diuretic effects. Tribulus may lower blood glucose levels. Caution is advised when using herbs or supplements that May also lower blood sugar. Blood glucose levels may require monitoring, and doses may need adjustment. Tribulus has been found to have blood pressure lowering effects, and may affect patients taking herbs that also alter blood pressure. Based on preliminary study and studies of combination products containing tribulus, tribulus may increase levels of steroid hormones.
Pregnancy and Breastfeeding
Tribulus is not recommended in pregnant or breastfeeding women due to a lack of available scientific evidence. Traditionally, Tribulus has been used abortifacient (induces abortion).
FORMULATIONS (Yog) (1-6)
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Abhrak bhasma Amritarishta Brahma rasayan Dadhika ghrita Dashamula taila Dashmool kvath churna Dashmularishta Drakshadi churna Guduchyadi modaka Maha panchgavya ghrita Mehamudgar rasa Mushikadya taila Shira shuladi vajra rasa Trayodasanga guggulu Vayucchaya surendra taila
Agastya haritki rasayana Ashmarihar kashay churna Brhacchagaladya ghrita Dantyadyarishta Dashmool ghrita Dashmoolpanchakoladi kvath churna Dhanvantara ghrita Garbh chintamani rasa Indukanta ghrita Maha vishgarbha taila Mritasanjivani sura Narasimha churna Shira shuladi vajra rasa Varunadi kvath churna Vidaryadi kvath churna
Amritaprasa ghrita Bharngi guda Brihatmasa taila Darunagaradi kvath churna Dashmool katutray kvath churna Dashmoolsatpalaka ghrita Dhanvantara taila Gokshuradi guggulu Kumaryasava (a) Manasamitra gutika Mushali churna Rasnadi kvath churna Sukumar ghrita Vastyamayantaka ghrita Yogaraj guggulu
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1. A REVIEW ON THE AYURVEDIC HERB TRIBULUS TERRESTRIS L. M.D. UKANI, D.D. NANAVATI and N.K. MEHTA ABSTRACT: Gokhshura (Tribulus Linn) of Family Zygophyllaceae is an indigenous plant which has been mentioned in Ayurveda with several clinical properties. The plant finds use in one for or the other in various Ayurvedic preparations and this has been made it necessary to review the various studies carried out in its chemistry as well as pharmacology. 2. EFFECT OF TRIBULUS TERRESTRIS EXTRACT ON SEMEN QUALITY AND SERUM TOTAL CHOLESTEROL CONTENT IN WHITE PLYMOUTH ROCK-MINI COCKS S. Grigorova, B. Kashamov, V. Sredkova, S. Surdjiiska, H. Zlatev ABSTRACT: Tribulus terrestris extract was added to the water of 10 cocks from the population White Plymouth Rock – mini cocks once daily in dose 10mg/kg body weight for a period of 11weeks. The trial lasted 20 weeks-1week preparatory and 19 weeks experimental period. Eight weeks of the experimental period were intended to
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measure the aftereffect of the tested product. It was found, that Tribulus terrestris extract improves cocks semen quality : volume of ejaculate, spermatozoids concentration and motility, and shortened the time of methylen blue decolouration. Serum total cholesterol content in the experimental cocks was 9,24% lower (p>0,05) in comparison with the control group. The aftereffect of Tribulus terrestris on the studied parameters was maintained for 8 weeks. Key words: Tribulus terrestris extract, cocks, semen quality, serum cholesterol content 3. INVESTIGATION OF TRIBULUS TERRESTRIS EXTRACT ON THE BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS OF EGGS AND BLOOD SERUM IN LAYING HENS S. Grigorova, D. Vasileva, B. Kashamov, V. Sredkova, S. Surdjiiska ABSTRACT: The effect of the product Vemoherb –T (extract from Tribulus terrestris) on the serum levels of total cholesterol, glucose, alkaline phosphatase and egg yolk lipids in laying hens was evaluated. An experiment was carried out with 22 laying hens at the age of 21 weeks from the hybrid combination Lohman-red, randomly divided in two groups – control (n=11) and experimental (n=11). The birds from the both groups were fed the same mixture. Experimental birds were given Vemoherb-T (10mg/kg body weight daily) dissolved in the drinking water. The treatment continued for 65 days. The serum glucose level of experimental hens decreased significantly (P< 0,001) at 30 and 65 day in comparison with the control group. Serum total cholesterol tended to be lower in experimental group relative to control birds. There were no significant differences between the groups concerning the rest evaluated indices. Keywords: Tribulus terrestris, hen, egg yolk lipids, serum cholesterol 4. APHRODISIAC PROPERTIES OF TRIBULUS TERRESTRIS EXTRACTS [PROTODIOSCIN] IN NORMAL and CASTRATED RATS Gauthaman K, Adaikan PG, Prasad R ABSTRACT: Tribulus terrestris (TT) has long been used in the traditional Chinese and Indian systems of medicine for the treatment of various ailments and is popularly claimed to improve sexual functions in man. Sexual behaviour and tracavernous pressure (ICP) were studied in both normal and castrated rats to further understand the role of TT containing protodioscin (PTN) as an aphrodisiac. Adult SpragueSSDJ College of Pharmacy, Chandwad Page | 35
Dawley rats were divided into five groups of 8 each that included distilled water treated (normal and castrated), testosterone treated (normal and castrated, 10 mg/kg body weight, subcutaneously, bi-weekly) and TT treated (castrated, 5 mg/kg body weight, orally once daily). Decreases in body weight, prostate weight and ICP were observed among the castrated groups of rats compared to the intact group. There was an overall reduction in the sexual behaviour parameters in the castrated groups of rats as reflected by decrease in mount and intromission frequencies (MF and IF) and increase in mount, intromission, ejaculation latencies (ML, IL, EL) as well as postejaculatory interval (PEI). Compared to the castrated control, treatment of castrated rats (with either testosterone or TT extract) showed increase in prostate weight and ICP that were statistically significant. There was also a mild to moderate improvement of the sexual behaviour parameters as evidenced by increase in MF and IF; decrease in ML, IL and PEI. These results were statistically significant. It is concluded that TT extract appears to possess aphrodisiac activity probably due to androgen increasing property of TT (observed in our earlier study on primates). 5. TRIBULUS TERRESTRIS INHIBITS CARIES-INDUCING PROPERTIES OF STREPTOCOCCUS MUTANS Hong-Keun Oh, Soo Jeong Park, Hae Dalma Moon, Seung Hwan Jun, Na-Young Choi and Yong-Ouk You ABSTRACT: In the present study, we examined the inhibitory effects of the ethanol extract of Tribulus terrestris on the growth, acid production, adhesion, and water-insoluble glucan synthesis of Streptococcus mutans. The growth and acid production of S. mutans were significantly inhibited in the presence of the ethanol extract of T. terrestris (0.1 to 0.5 mg/ml). The ethanol extract of T. terrestris (0.1 to 0.5 mg/ml) also significantly lowered the adherence of S. mutans in a dose-dependent manner. In the water-insoluble glucan synthesis assay, 0.025 to 0.5 mg/ml of the ethanol extract of T. terrestris significantly inhibited the formation of water-insoluble glucans. These results suggest that T. terrestris may inhibit the caries-inducing properties of S. mutans. Further studies are necessary to clarify the active constituents of T. terrestris responsible for such biomolecular activities. Key words: Tribulus terrestris, acid production, adhesion, water-insoluble glucan, Streptococcus mutans.
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6. TRIBULUS TERRESTRIS: PRELIMINARY STUDY OF ITS DIURETIC AND CONTRACTILE EFFECTS AND COMPARISON WITH ZEA MAYS Muneer Al-Ali a, , Salman Wahbi b, Husni Twaij c, Ahmad Al-Badr c ABSTRACT: Tribulus terrestris L. (Zygophyllaceae) which is called Al-Gutub (in Iraqi dialect) or Qutˆıba (in classical Arabic medicine), and Zea mays were both used alone or in combination by Iraqi herbalists to propel urinary stones. We studied the aqueous extract of the leaves and fruits of T. terrestris and the hair of Z. mays, to determine their diuretic activity and the contractile effect of T. terrestris. Methods: The aqueous extract was filtered and the solvent was evaporated to produce a dry crude extract. The dry extract was then dissolved in physiological saline to make the required concentrations. Wistar male rats were used for the diuresis test and strips of isolated Guinea pig ileum were used for the contractility test. Results: The aqueous extract of T. terrestris, in oral dose of 5 g/kg elicited a positive diuresis, which was slightly more than that of furosemide. Z. mays aqueous extract did not result in significant diuresis when given alone in oral dose of 5 g/kg, while combination of Z. mays and T. terrestris extracts produced the same extent of diuresis as that produced by T. terrestris alone. Na+, K+ and Cl+ concentrations in the urine had also much increased. In addition to its diuretic activity T. terrestris had evoked a contractile activity on Guinea pig ileum. Conclusion: T. terrestris has long been used empirically to propel urinary stones. The diuretic and contractile effects of T. terrestris indicate that it has the potential of propelling urinary stones and merits further pharmacological studies. © 2003 Published by Elsevier Science Ireland Ltd. Keywords: Diuresis; Smooth muscles; Tribulus terrestris; Ureter; Urinary stones; Zea mays 7. A REVIEW OF THE BIOLOGICAL AND PHARMACOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES OF SAPONINS. PHYTOMEDICINE. Lacaille-Dubois M, Wagner H. ABSTRACT :(16) Three different extracts from fruits, leaves and roots of Iraqi T. Terrestris were tested at various concentrations (0.01~5.00 mg/ml), and the evaluated MIC values are reported in Table Table1.1. All the plant parts showed antibacterial activity against most tested bacteria. Aqueous extract from T. Terrestris fruits showed good activity against the tested bacteria and the strongest activity was seen against C.
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diphtheriae (MIC=0.62 mg/ml), which was similar to what was achieved by the standard drug Maxipime; meanwhile, S. typhimurium was inhibited using the highest extract concentration (MIC=5.00 mg/ml). In addition, S. marcescens and P. aeruginosa resisted all aqueous extracts of various concentrations. Ethanol and chloroform extracts of T. Terrestris fruits demonstrated very close activities against all reference bacteria. Very strong activity was seen against S. aureus, B. subtilis, B. cereus, C. diphtheriae, E. coli and P. vulgaris using both extracts. The highest antibacterial activity was seen against B. subtilis, B. cereus, C. diphtheriae and P. vulgaris in the ethanol extract (MIC=0.15 mg/ml), while B. subtilis, B. cereus and C. diphtheriae were the most sensitive bacteria to the chloroform extract (MIC=0.31 mg/ml). S. marcescens, S. typhimurium, K. pneumoniae and P. aeruginosa were inhibited by high concentrations of ethanol and chloroform extracts (MIC=2.50 and 1.25 mg/ml). Table 1 In vitro antimicrobial activity of different parts of Tribulus Terrestris
Aqueous extract from T. Terrestris leaves revealed close results to the fruit extract, except it was active against P. vulgaris with an MIC value of 2.50 mg/ml and resisted by S. typhimurium, S. marcescens and P. aeruginosa. Ethanol and chloroform extracts from leaves also possessed promising results against the tested bacteria with less action compared with fruit ethanol and chloroform extracts. The best MIC values were calculated against B. subtilis, P. vulgaris and K. pneumoniae (MIC=0.31 mg/ml) using the ethanol extract and B. subtilis (MIC=0.31 mg/ml) using chloroform extract. S. marcescens resisted the chloroform extract and was inhibited by the highest ethanol extract concentration. The different extracts from T. terrestris roots exhibited from moderate to no activity against tested bacteria. The weakest extract from the roots was the aqueous
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extract, which was only active against B. subtilis, B. cereus, C. diphtheriae and P. aeruginosa using high concentrations (MIC=5.00 and 2.50 mg/ml). Chloroform extract showed high antibacterial activity against some of the tested bacteria, with all the calculated MIC values greater than those of ethanol extract from the same plant part. The standard drug Maxipime showed a greater antibacterial activity than that of most used plant extracts, and the strongest action was seen against B. subtilis (MIC=0.01 mg/ml). Regarding antifungal activity, all aqueous extracts from different parts of T. terrestris were resisted by C. albicans. The strongest antifungal activity was observed using the ethanol extract from T. Terrestris fruits with an MIC value of 0.62 mg/ml. The standard drug Amphotericin B achieved the highest antifungal activity against C. albicans (MIC=0.15 mg/ml). All the extracts were able to inhibit the growth of one or more of the tested microorganisms. The Gram-positive bacteria B. subtilis, B. cereus and C. diphtheriae were the most sensitive strains to the ethanol extract of T. Terrestris fruits (MIC=0.15 mg/ml), while the strongest activity was demonstrated against the Gram-negative bacterium P. vulgaris (MIC=0.15 mg/ml) using the same extract. The activity of the plant against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria may be indicative to the presence of broad spectrum antibiotic compounds or simply general metabolic toxins in the plant, in addition to the plant (fruits, leaves and root) content of pharmacological active metabolites like furostanol and spirostanol saponins, flavonoid glycosides , phytosterols and some amides. The plant also contains a mixture of B-carboline alkaloids: harmane, norharmane, tetrahydroharmane, harmine, harmaline, harmol, harmalol, ruin and dihydroruin. Saponins have been reported to possess a wide range of biological activities. The toxicity of saponins to insects (insecticidal activity), parasite worms (anthelmintic activity), molluscs (molluscicidal), and fish (piscidal activity), and their antifungal, antiviral, and antibacterial activities are well documented. The mode of action of antibacterial effects of saponins seems to involve membranolytic properties, rather than simply altering the surface tension of the extracellular medium, thus being influenced by microbial population density. Flavonoids are phenolic structures containing one carbonyl group. Since they are known to be synthesized by plants in response to microbial infection, it should not
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be surprising that they have been found in vitro to be effective antimicrobial substances against a wide array of microorganisms. Their activity is probably due to their ability to complex with extracellular and soluble proteins and to complex with bacterial cell walls. More lipophilic flavonoids may also disrupt microbial membranes. Alkaloids isolated from plant are commonly found to have antimicrobial properties. Alkaloids may be useful against HIV infection as well as intestinal infections associated with AIDS. Berberine and harmane are important representatives of the alkaloid group. The mechanism of action of highly aromatic planar quaternary alkaloids such as berberine and harmane is attributed to their ability to intercalate with DNA. The best MIC values against most bacteria were seen in the ethanol extract from the plant fruits followed by leaf extracts and finally root extracts which were resisted by most of the Gram-negative bacteria specially S. marcescens. Candida albicans remains the most common infection-causing fungus; about 45% of clinical fungal infections are caused by C. albicans . The present study shows that ethanol extract from T. Terrestris fruits had potent anti-C. albicans activity with an MIC value of 0.62 mg/ml. The antifungal activity of T. Terrestris may be attributed to various chemicals detectable in its extracts such as saponins . The action mechanisms of saponins may lie in damage to the membrane and leakage of cellular materials, ultimately leading to cell death. All parts (fruits, stems plus leaves and roots) of Turkish and Iranian T. Terrestris showed antibacterial activity against Enterococcus faecalis, S. aureus, E. coli and P. aeruginosa in contrast to aerial parts of Yemeni T. terrestris which had no detectable antibacterial activity against these bacteria, and only fruits and leaves of Indian T. Terrestris were active exclusively against E. coli and S. aureus . It can be argued that antibacterial activity of Iraqi T. Terrestris is similar to Turkish and Iranian T. Terrestris. Different results concerning the antibacterial activity of T. Terrestris might be due to different geographic sources of the plant used, different types of strains used, and different assay methods. The optical density was determined using a Spectro SC spectrophotometer at 630 nm. The MIC values were taken as the lowest concentration of the extracts that showed no growth after 48 h of incubation by comparing with the control tube that included 9.8 ml Mueller-Hinton broth.
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 Andres, L.A., and R.D. Goeden. 1995. Puncturevine. In: Nechols, J.R. et al. (eds). Biological control in the western United States: Accomplishments and benefits of regional research project W-84, 1964-1989. University of California Publication 3361.  Boydston, R.A. 1990. Time of emergence and seed production of Longspine sandbur (Cenchrus longispinus) and Puncturevine (Tribulus Terrestris). Weed Science38(1)16-21.  Callihan, B., L. Smith, J. McCaffrey, and E. Michalson. 1995. Yellow starthistle management for small acreages. University of Idaho, Cooperative Extension System, Agricultural Experiment Station; CIS 1025. 8 pp.  Davis, R., A Wiese, and J. Pafford. 1965. Root moisture extraction profiles of various weeds. Weeds 13(2):98-100.  Felger, R.S. 2000. Flora of the Gran Desierto and Rio Colorado of northwestern Mexico. The University of Arizona Press. Tucson, Arizona. 673 pp.  Gould, J.R., and C.J. DeLoach. 2002. Biological control of invasive exotic plant species; protocol, history, and safeguards. In: Tellman, B. (ed.). Invasive exotic species in the Sonoran Desert region. The University of Arizona Press and The Arizona-Sonora Desert Museum, Tucson, Arizona. 424 pp.  Kokate C.K, Purohit A.P, Gokhale S.B, “Pharmacognosy” vol-1 & 2, 45 th edition, Nirali Prakashan, pg no. 8.66-8.67
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 Nadkarni A.K, “Indian Materia Medica”, vol-1, second edition (2002), popular prakashan, pg no.1229-1232  The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia Of India, Part I, Vol.I, pg 38-39  Kirtikar and Basu. “Indian Medicinal Plant”, vol-1, first edition,periodical expert book agency, New Delhi, pg no. 420  “Wealth Of India”, A Dictionary Of Indian Raw Materials and Industrial Products, first supplement series, vol-5, New Delhi, pg no.240-246  Prof P.V Sharma, Dravya Guna Vigyana, Vol II, pg 632-634.  www.ayurveda consultant.com  Rogerson S, Riches CJ, Jennings C, Weatherby RP, Meir RA, MarshallGradisnik SM. (2007). "The Effect of Five Weeks of Tribulus terrestris Supplementation on Muscle Strength and Body Composition during Preseason Training in Elite Rugby League Players". The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research 21 (2): 348–53.  Neychev VK, Mitev VI (Oct 2005). "The aphrodisiac herb Tribulus terrestris does not influence the androgen production in young men". Journal of Ethnopharmacology 101 (1-3): 319–23.  Lacaille-Dubois M, Wagner H. A review of the biological and pharmacological activities of saponins. Phytomedicine. 1996;2(4):363–386.  "Tribulus terrestris information from NPGS/GRIN". www.ars-grin.gov. http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/taxon.pl?100965. Retrieved 2008-03-18.  Bucci LR (2000). "Selected herbals and human exercise performance". The American journal of clinical nutrition 72 (2 Suppl) . H. Basjuriddin and A.W. Nasution (1993). The disturbance of sexual drive of post-stroke male subjects. The 4th Biennial Asian Pacific Meeting on Impotence in Denpasar, Indonesia.  G. Paat (1985). Impotence's effect on family life. Male Reproductive Process and Fertility. FKUI Jakarta.  I.G. Mansur (1985). Erection problem and male impotence. Male Reproductive
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Proc , Indonesia.  W. Pangkahila (1986). Pathophysiology of impotence. Impotence Seminar in Denpasar ess and Fertility. FKUI Jakarta. Bedir E, Khan IA, Walker LA. Biologically active steroidal glycosides from Tribulus Terrestris. Pharmazie 2002;57(7):491-493.  Bedir E, Khan IA, Walker LA. Biologically active steroidal glycosides from Tribulus terrestris. Pharmazie 2002;57(7):491-493. View Abstract  Brown GA, Vukovich MD, Martini ER, et al. Effects of androstenedioneherbal supplementation on serum sex hormone concentrations in 30- to 59year-old men. Int J Vitam.Nutr.Res 2001;71(5):293-301.  Conrad J, Dinchev D, Klaiber I, et al. A novel furostanol saponin from Tribulus terrestris of Bulgarian origin. Fitoterapia 2004;75(2):117-122.  De Combarieu E, Fuzzati N, Lovati M, et al. Furostanol saponins from Tribulus terrestris. Fitoterapia 200374(6):583-591.  Deepak M, Dipankar G, Prashanth D, et al. Tribulosin and beta-sitosterol-Dglucoside, the anthelmintic principles of Tribulus terrestris. Phytomedicine. 2002;9(8):753-756.  Deng Y, Yang L, An SL. [Effect of Tribulus terrestris L decoction of different concentrations on tyrosinase activity and the proliferation of melanocytes]. Di Yi.Jun.Yi.Da.Xue.Xue.Bao. 2002 22(11):1017-1019.  M.D. UKANI, D.D. NANAVATI and N.K. MEHTA  Grigorova, B. Kashamov,V. Sredkova, S. Surdjiiska, H. Zlatev  S. Grigorova, D. Vasileva, B. Kashamov, V. Sredkova, S. Surdjiiska  Gauthaman K, Adaikan PG, Prasad R  Hong-Keun Oh, Soo Jeong Park, Hae Dalma Moon, Seung Hwan Jun, Na-Young Choi and Yong-Ouk You  Muneer Al-Ali , Salman Wahbi , Husni Twaij , Ahmad Al-Badr
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BIOLOGICAL SOURCE (1) It consist of Dried fully ripen fruit of the plant Tribulus Terrestris Scientific classification Kingdom: (unranked): (unranked): (unranked): Order: Family: Genus: Species: Plantae Angiosperms Eudicots Rosids Zygophyllales Zygophyllaceae Tribulus T. Terrestris
Family- Zygophyllaceae (2)
VERNACULAR NAME (2) SANSKRIT HINDI BENGALI KANNADA MALYALAM » Gokshuru, Trikantakah » Bada gokhru, Bara gokhru, » Gokhari » Anenegaligida, Anne-galu-gida, » Ana-nerinnil, Caca-mullu,
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MARATHI TAMIL TELGU ENGLISH ARAB PUNJABI
» » » » » »
Mothe-gokharu, Moto, Anainerunji, Ananeringie, Pedda palleru Small Caltrop Khara Khus Kurkura
GEOGRAPHICAL SOURCE (4) On the North American continent: Tribulus Terrestris is found throughout California to Wyoming, to eastern United States, and south to central Mexico Tribulus Terrestris habitat is disturbed places, along city streets and roadsides, railways, cultivated fields and orchards, barnyards and pastures, fallow fields, lawns and yards, playgrounds, waste places, open sandy sites, and walk ways Tribulus Terrestris occurs widely throughout the world from latitudes 35°S to 47°N MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERS (3) Roots: deep taproot (to 8.5 ft. (2.6 m)); slender, branched, often somewhat woody, with a network of fibrous roots. Stems: prostrate stems up to 8 ft. (2.4 m) long. Stems highly branched, green to reddish-brown, and spreading radially from the crown along open ground; can be more or less erect when shaded or competing with other plants. Stems are silky or appressed-hairy, sharply bristly to glabrous. Branching: radially spreading stems (from the crown); the stems highly branched. Stipules: stipules leaf-like, subulate, 2-3 mm long. Leaves: cotyledons oblong, 0.2-0.6 in. (5-15 mm) long, creased down the center, slightly indented at the tips. Leaves opposite; even-pinnate compound, approximately 0.4-2 in. (1-5 cm) long, with 3-7 leaflet pairs per leaf; and having a small extension at the rachis tip. Leaflets elliptic or oblong, 0.1 -0.6 in. (3-15) mm long, with more or less oblique bases; lower leaflet pair unequal in size. Foliage often sparse to moderately silky-strigose to glabrous Inflorescence: peduncles flowers, solitary in axils of leaves. Fruit: a schizocarp; woody burrs, gray to yellow-tan, hairy, to approximately 0.40.7 in. (1-1.8 cm) in diameter, more or less flattened, lobed; separates into 5 (occasionally 4) wedge-shaped, indehiscent nut lets (cocci), each with 2 stout
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dorsal spines 0.15-0.27 in. (4-7 mm long and spreading, and several prickles. CULTIVATION (4) Life strategy: a C4, summer annual; ephemeral. Reproduced by seeds In tropical areas, this plant develops woody roots and becomes perennial. 2n=12, 24, 36, 48. Structure: prostrate spreading radially, generally less than 3.3 ft. (1 m) in diameter, herbaceous annual plant; mat forming. Climatic Requirements and Limitations: Tribulus Terrestris is adapted to warm, temperate regions and is prevalent in areas having hot summers, on dry soils CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS (2) Chlorogenin, Diosgenin, Gitogenin, Astragalin, Gracillin, Hecogenin, Ruscogenin, Trillin, Furostanol glycoside, Spirosterol saponin, Kaempferol, Kaempferol-3-rutinoside, Glucose, Rhamnose, Rutin, Harmine, Neogitogenin, Quercetin, Stigmasterol, Amino acids, Harmaline, Harman, Tetra hydroharmine, Neotigogenin Extract of the powder fruit was found to contain alkaloid resin, fat, mineral matter and water.”The fruit is said it contains a substance having aromatic smell and it gives of a fragrant odor when it is burnt.” The fruit contains substance having 6. An Alkaloid traces (0.001%)
7. A fixed OIL 3.5% CONSISTING mainly unsaturated acid 8. A essential oil in small quantity
9. Resins 10. Fair amount of nitrates USES (2)
Plant and dried spiny fruits are used in decoction or infusion in cease of
spermatorrhoea phosphotaria diseases of the genitor urinary system such as dysciria gonorrhea gleets chronic cystitis calculous affections urinary disorders incontinence urine gout and impotence. • • Also in uterine disorder after parturition and to ensure fecundity Uses in northern India in cough disorder
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Of the heart Suppression of the urine Improves muscle growth and body strength. Reported to enhance libido sexualize and erectile function. It is used to cure high blood pressure and flank pain. Tribulus Terrestris has been promoted and marketed for athletic performance, This herb is suitable for premenstrual syndrome and menopausal syndrome. Anthelmintic activityThe 50% methanolic extract of Indian T. Terrestris
• • • •
muscle mass enhancement, and as a testosterone booster.
(whole plant) has been reported as anthelmintic activity, it is due to the tribulosin and sitosterol glycosides. SIMILAR NATIVE OR NON-NATIVE SPECIES THAT COULD CONFUSE IDENTIFICATION (4) There are several native species in the genus Kallstroemia (family: Zygophyllaceae) that could be confused with Tribulus Terrestris: Kallstroemia parviflora and K. californica; especially when the plants haven't begun to flowers and fruits aren't present.
 Kokate C.K, Purohit A.P, Gokhale S.B, “Pharmacognosy” vol-1 & 2, 45 th edition, Nirali Prakashan, pg no. 8.66-8.67  Nadkarni A.K, “Indian Materia Medica”, vol-1, second edition (2002), popular prakashan, pg no.1229-1232  Kirtikar and Basu. “Indian Medicinal Plant”, vol-1, first edition,periodical expert book agency, New Delhi, pg no. 420  Andres, L.A., and R.D. Goeden. 1995. Puncturevine. In: Nechols, J.R. et al. (eds). Biological control in the western United States: Accomplishments and benefits of regional research project W-84, 1964-1989. University of California Publication 3361.
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