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HOME AUTOMATION

Abstract:

Homeowners, and their property, safe from intruders.

INTRODUCTION Over the past decades, many of the earths resources are getting depleted, which has caused a variety of environmental problems, such as climate change and rising sea levels. Furthermore, fossil fuel is being exhausted because of a sharp increase in the consumption of energy after the Industrial Revolution. For this reason, recently Green IT technology used for sustainable growth is emerging and a lot of related works have been done by various researchers around the world. One of the researches is based on Smart Home. Smart homes connect all the devices and appliances in your home so they can Communicate with each other and with you. Anything in your home that uses electricity can be put on the home network and at your command. E.g. the heating is turned on automatically when the owner of the house comes home and the light is switched on in rooms where motion is detected. Security has been an important issue in the smart home applications. Conventional security systems keep

The assistive social-oriented application of Smart Houses is into the health domain, originating the concept of Health Smart Home (HSH). The key constraints in developing Health Smart Homes target satisfying the needs of elderly and impaired people. Early smart homes were designed to provide comfort to standard users by supporting the control of environment variables (lighting, temperature,) and a limited range of appliances such as doors and blinds. Nowadays, the design philosophy has shifted towards an approach commonly known as design for all which has a multidisciplinary connotation, And refers to the design of interactive products, services, and applications that are suitable for most potential users without any modifications. Security and privacy are two critical concerns in the field. The support of safety in Smart Homes is a domain, often regarded as being mainly

related with security and protection of privacy. The objective of Ambient Intelligence (AmI) is to broaden the interaction between human beings and digital information technology through the usage of ubiquitous computing devices. This is also achieved through smart home. We need to conserve energy so as to reduce the depletion of natural resources of the earth, to provide a better quality and luxury of life with increased safety, a necessity to provide security and friendly environment to disabled people and to effectively monitor the health of patients, serve as a motivation towards the development of this paper. Our contribution to this paper is that we have undertaken an extensive survey on the concepts dealing with smart home technologies and have obtained information from standard papers and other reliable sources. RELATED WORK Existing approaches for home automation can be divided in two categories according to the communication media used. 1. Wired networks ([1], [3]) 2. Wireless networks ([2], [3]). The wireless technologies are extremely vulnerable. Some solutions for this problem exist for wireless ad-hoc networks or sensor networks. The existing solutions for wireless ad-hoc networks can be grouped in four different categories, based on whether they employ symmetric cryptography or asymmetric cryptography, and whether they follow a centralized or a decentralized approach. a) Centralized asymmetric approaches b) Decentralized asymmetric approaches c) Centralized symmetric approaches d) Decentralized symmetric approaches A different approach was examined by Chan et al. [12]. This approach uses a

randomly pre-distributed set of keys. The Authors present several schemes that allow establishing shared keys after deployment of the devices. The main drawback of their design is that due to the random predistribution of keys, two arbitrary nodes might not be able to establish a shared key. Another decentralized symmetric approach by Zhu et al. [13] published concurrently to [12] proposes a similar scheme. It also uses a pre-distributed set of random keys. This way, devices cannot be integrated in a network without preparing it using a common programming device. Wireless Ad-hoc and Sensor Network: Information Management, Routing and Network Management In ad-hoc sensor networks, load distribution and battery life time are always huge issues in every sensor node. [3] Presents topology control which is named a hybrid, energy-efficient, distributed clustering (HEED) method for an ad hoc sensor network to balance load of sensor nodes and to increase network scalability and lifetime. Wireless Ad-hoc and Sensor Network for Smart Services [12] Presents an ad-hoc sensor network particularly developed for a disaster relief service that provides a cost effective, quickly deployable, and reliable system for the rescue teams to gather information about the presence of people in a collapsed building. Other related works are based on Zigbee, Environment monitoring sensors and Energy conservation systems at home. The above mentioned works finally provide a frame to support HumanComputer interactions.

THE SURVEY Energy saving is considered as one of the most important issue that affects the consumers, power system quality and the global environment. The automation system is designed to collaborate with environment that assists the inhabitants of a smart residential home in order to meet two main goals, energy-efficiency and user-comfort. Let us consider an adaptive intelligent home energy management system (AiHEMS) using a wireless ad-hoc and sensor network, which consists of a monitoring sensor and a management gateway. The AiHEMS adopts an information convergence mechanism, so that when the system generates patterns it interconnects with the AiHEMS in other domains and then utilizes information from other domains for pattern generation. The AiHEMS is composed of eight components: A mining manager (MM), a pattern generating manager (PGM), a network interface manager (NIM), a pattern manager (PM), a knowledge repository (KR), a control manager, a service manager (SM), and an information convergence manager (ICM). This is a go green project which invokes an energy conservation mechanism for the future world to survive.

Classification Details Main process 8bit microprocessor Network interface ZigBee (IEEE 802.15.4) System interface RS232, I2C Interface, ADC interface Power Battery Sensors Temperature, humidity, illumination, air pollution level, gas detection, motion detection.

Nowadays, a building is often documented by a building information model which starts with the development of the building from design via construction to occupation. With the help of a BIM data are integrated in one model which is available in an open format. It can be concluded, that these data are useful to make the smart home more energyefficient by knowing its own characteristics. For example, if the thickness and material of walls, the adjacent spaces and the

geometry of a room are known, it can be calculated in advance when conditioning of the room has to start at the latest in order to provide comfortable environmental conditions at the moment the room is going to be occupied. There exist some works with focus on construction and building management, which utilize Semantic Web methods to make information available in a formal knowledge base. Drogemuller and Schevers propose the application of Semantic Web technologies for use in the field of facility management and some of C.H the difficulties on how to convert the Industry Foundation Classes to the Web Ontology language in [10]. Another viable technology is the Autonomic computing (AC) envisions computing environments that evolves without the need for human intervention. A system with autonomic capabilities installs, configures, tunes, and maintains its own components at runtime. Defining appropriate abstractions and models for understanding, controlling, and designing autonomic behaviour is a challenge at the D. heart of AC. Smart home technology is a good choice for people who not only care about security, comfort but energy saving as well. It minimizes the domestic energy waste and can be adapted according to the user habits. One of the major benefits of smart home to consumers is their ability to incorporate energy management features through lighting, air conditioning and home appliances. A. LIGHTING The lights in a smart home can be turned on and off automatically based on occupancy sensor. As example , when a person enters a room in the day time, the system will open the drapes instead of turning on the lights, but at night it would

make sure the lights came on and they turned off when no one is in the room hence waste of energy can be preserved. B. AIR CONDITIONING An appropriate placement of temperature sensors and the use of heating and cooling timers can reduce the energy used and hence saving money and also the house can set to turn off air conditionings when no one is in the room. HOME APPLIANCES Smart homes can even go further in energy management by keeping track of the energy usage of each and every appliance in the house. The smart house controllers could schedule the operation of heavy power consuming appliances (such as dish washers and electric water heaters) to take maximum advantage of off-peak electric rates. HEATING Install a programmable thermostat to automatically control the temp in a closed environment. Sun Tempered Super insulated (STS) Homes A STS house uses passive solar design concepts with super insulation construction techniques. The sensors are distributed into home in order to provide accurate information about the occupant's location and activities. Occupancy sensors are used instead of motion sensors because the latter is preferred for security rather than for building and lighting control. They respond only to moving objects, so if an individual in a room is working at a desk, motion sensors will often cease to see him.

Another important modern technology that is being used is the ZigBee. The various applications of ZigBee are as listed below: Home Control: Security, Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning (HVAC), Lighting control, Access control, Irrigation, Personal health care: Patient monitoring, Fitness monitoring, Industrial control: Asset management, Process control, Energy management, Environmental, Building automation: Automatic Meter Reading (AMR), Security, HVAC, Lighting control, Access control, Consumer electronics: Remote control, PC & peripherals: Mouse, keyboard, joystick, Environment: Environment monitoring. CONCLUSION & FUTURE WORK: In this paper, we propose an adaptive intelligent home energy management system (AiHEMS) using a wireless ad-hoc and sensor network in pervasive environments. We propose the information convergence scheme, the dynamic pattern based service prediction, and the adaptive light-weight middleware architecture. We built a test bed using two offices and conducted experiments based on a light control method for saving power to verify the efficiency of our system. The results show that the power saving using dynamic patterns without information convergence and with information are approximately 18% and 26% respectively compared to fixed value based control. There is an inevitable compromise between computational power and power

consumption of several possible embedded platforms available in the ZigBee market today. Our goal is to use the best performing microcomputer device while maintaining an acceptable power usage. This is directly related to the choice and optimization of the algorithms used on the mobile device, therefore leads to a complicated decision making process. A home energy management is presented based on a set of sensors to minimize the domestic energy waste according to human habits. A proposed scenario is suggested for daily routine to maximize the occupant's energy saving. Smart home based on a set of sensors could perform energy management which is not only an individual need but economical target. REFERENCES: Colorado State University Extensions website (www.ext.colostate.edu) R. G. Aldunate, "Understanding the capabilities of a vehicle Ad-hoc Network for highway systems," in Electro/Information Technology (EIT), 2010 IEEE International Conference on, 2010, pp. 1-5. S. M. George, Z. Wei, H. Chenji, W. Myounggyu, L. Yong Oh, A. Pazarloglou, R. Stoleru, and P. Barooah, "DistressNet: a wireless ad hoc and sensor network architecture for situation management in disaster response," Communications Magazine, IEEE, vol. 48, pp. 128-136, 2010. J. Wang, "Exploiting Mobility Prediction for Dependable Service Composition in Wireless Mobile Ad Hoc Networks," Services Computing, IEEE Transactions on, vol. 4, pp. 44-55, 2011.

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