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# Definition is defined as the production of an induced e.m.f. in a conductor/coil e.m.f.

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## 7.1 The Phenomenon of Electromagnetic Induction

Consider some experiments were conducted by Michael Faraday that led to the discovery of the Faradays law of induction as shown in figures 7.1a, 7.1b, 7.1c, 7.1d and 7.1e.

v =0

No movement

Fig. 7.1a

S
I
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N
I

Fig. 7.1b

v =0
No movement

Fig. 7.1c

N
I

S
I
Fig. 7.1d

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N
I

S
I

## Move towards the coil

Fig. 7.1e From the experiments : When the bar magnet is stationary, the galvanometer not show any deflection (no current flows in the coil). When the bar magnet is moved relatively towards the coil, the galvanometer shows a momentary deflection to the right. When the bar magnet is moved relatively away from the coil, the galvanometer is seen to deflect in the opposite direction (Fig.7.1d). Therefore when there is any relative motion between the coil and the bar magnet , the current known as induced current will flow momentarily through the galvanometer. This current due to an induced e.m.f across the coil.

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Conclusion : When the magnetic flux through a coil changes (magnetic field lines been cut) thus the induced e.m.f. will exist across the coil. The magnitude of the induced e.m.f. depends on the speed of the relative motion where when v increase induced e.m.f. also increase e.m.f. v decrease induced e.m.f. also decrease e.m.f.

## 7.2 Faradays law and Lenzs law

7.2.1 Faradays law of induction States the magnitude of the induced e.m.f. is proportional to the e.m.f. rate of change of the magnetic flux. flux. Mathematically,

where

## dB dB or = dt dt dB : change of magnetic flux dt : change of time : induced e.m.f.

(7.2a)

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The negative sign indicates that the direction of induced e.m.f. always 5 oppose the change of magnetic flux producing it (Lenzs law).

Since

= N

= N

( f i ) dt

## f : final magnetic flux i : initial magnetic flux

where

Note : if the coil is connected in series to a resistor of resistance R and the induced e.m.f exist in the coil as shown in figure 7.2a. Therefore the induced current I is given by d = B and = IR Fig. 7.2a
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## B = BA cos then eq. (7.2a) also can be written as d ( BA cos ) = dt

dt dB IR = dt

To calculate the magnitude of induced e.m.f., the negative sign can be ignored. If the coil has N turns, then each of turns will have a magnetic flux, B of BAcos through it, therefore the magnetic flux linkage (refer to the combined amount of flux through all the turns) is given by

## magnetic flux linkage = NB

Example 1 : A rectangular coil of sides 10 cm x 5.0 cm is placed between N and S poles with the plane of the coil parallel to the magnetic field as shown in figure below. R Q

I
P

If the coil is turned by 90 about its rotation axis and the magnitude of magnetic flux density is 1.0 T, find the change in the magnetic flux through the coil.
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## Solution: A=(10x10-2)(5.0x10-2)=50x10-4 Initially,

r A

m2,B=1.0 T

r B

From the figure, =90 thus the initial magnetic flux through the coil is

i = BA cos i = 0
Finally,

r B
r A

From the figure, =0 thus the final magnetic flux through the coil is

f = BA cos f = 50 x10 4 Wb

## Therefore the change in magnetic flux through the coil is

B = f i B = 50 x10 4 Wb

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Example 2 : The magnetic flux passing through a coil of 1000 turns is increased quickly but steadily at rate of 2.0 x 10-2 Wb s-1. Calculate the induced e.m.f. in the coil. Solution:

dB = 2.0 x10 2 Wb s -1 dt By applying the Faradays law equation for a coil of N turns , thus the
N=1000 turns,
= N
induced e.m.f. is

dB dt = 20 V

Example 3 : A circular shaped coil 3.0 cm in radius, containing 20 turns and have a resistance of 5.0 is placed perpendicular to a magnetic field of flux density of 5.0 x 10-3 T. If the magnetic flux density is reduced steadily to zero in time of 2.0 ms, calculate the induced current flows in the coil. Solution:

## N=20 turns, r=3.0x10-2 m, R=5.0 , Bi=5.0x10-3 T , Bf=0, dt=2.0x10-3 s

A = r 2 A = 2.8 x10 3 m 2

## The area of the circular shaped coil is

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initially,

r B
r A

From the figure, =0 thus the change in magnetic flux through the coil is

## By applying the Faradays law equation for a coil of N turns , thus

dB = f i dB = B f A cos Bi A cos dB = Bi A

## dB and = IR dt ( Bi A) IR = N dt I = 3.0 x10 2 A

= N

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Example 4 : (exercise) A flat coil having an area of 8.0 cm2 and 50 turns lies perpendicular to a magnetic field of 0.20 T. If the flux density is steadily reduced to zero, taking 0.50 s, find a. the initial flux through the coil. b. the initial flux linkage. c. the induced e.m.f. (Lowe&Rounce,pg.206,no.1) Ans. : 1.6 x 10-4 Wb, 80 x 10-4 Wb, 16 mV 10

7.2.2 Lenzs law States an induced electric current always flows in such a direction that it opposes the change producing it. it. This law is essentially a form of the law of conservation of energy. energy An illustration of lenzs law can be shown by using the experiments below. First experiment : (figure 7.2b) In figure 7.2b the magnitude of the magnetic field at the solenoid increases as the bar magnet is moved towards it. Direction of induced current Right hand grip rule. North pole An e.m.f is induced in the solenoid and galvanometer indicates that a current is flowing.

I
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To determine the direction of the current through the galvanometer which corresponds to a deflection in a particular sense, then the current through the solenoid seen is in the direction that make the solenoid upper end becomes a north pole. This opposes the motion of the bar magnet and obey the lenzs law.
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Fig. 7.2b

X X X X X X

Second experiment : Consider a straight conductor PQ is placed perpendicular to the magnetic field and move X X QX X X X X the conductor to the left with constant velocity v X X X X X X X as shown in figure 7.2c. When the conductor move to the left thus the r r induced current needs to flow in such a way X v X XFBX X X X to oppose the change which has induced it X X X X X X X based on lenzs law. Hence galvanometer I shows a deflection. X X X X X X X To determine the direction of the induced current (e.m.f.) flows in the conductor PQ, X X PX X X X X the Flemings right hand (Dynamo) rule is Fig. 7.2c used as shown in figure 7.2d.

Therefore the induced current flows from Q to P as shown in fig. 7.2c. Since the current flows in the conductor PQ and is placed in the magnetic field then this conductor will experience magnetic force. Its direction is in opposite direction of the motion. Only for the straight conductor. SF027 Thumb direction of Motion First finger direction of Field

r B

(motion)
Fig. 7.2d

induced I or e.m.f.

Important

## 12 Second finger direction of Induced current or Induced e.m.f. e.m.f.

Third experiment : Consider two solenoids P and Q arranged coaxially closed to each other as shown in figure 7.2e.

ind

S
I Switch, S
P

N
I
Fig. 7.2e

N +

I ind

S -I

ind

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At the moment when the switch S is closed, current I begins to closed flow in the solenoid P and producing a magnetic field inside the solenoid P. Suppose that the field points towards the solenoid Q. The magnetic flux through the solenoid Q increases with time. time According to Faradays law ,an induced current due to induced e.m.f. will exist in solenoid Q. The induced current flows in solenoid Q must produce a magnetic field that oppose the change producing it (increase in flux). Hence based on Lenzs law, the induced current flows in circuit consists of solenoid Q is anticlockwise (fig. 7.2e) and galvanometer shows a deflection. 13

At the moment when the switch S is opened, the current I starts opened to decrease in the solenoid P and magnetic flux through the solenoid Q decreases with time. According to Faradays law ,an time induced current due to induced e.m.f. will exist in solenoid Q. The induced current flows in solenoid Q must produce a magnetic field that oppose the change producing it (decrease in flux). Hence based on Lenzs law, the induced current flows in circuit consists of solenoid Q is clockwise (fig. 7.2f) and galvanometer seen to deflect in the opposite direction of fig.7.2e.

ind

S
I Switch, S
P

N
I
Fig. 7.2f

S -

I ind

N +

I ind

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Example 5 : A single turn circular shaped coil has resistance of 10 ohm and area of its plane is 5.0 cm2. It moves towards the north pole of a bar magnet as shown in figure below.

If the average rate of change of magnetic flux density through the plane of the coil is 0.50 T s-1, determine the induced current in the coil and state the direction of the induced current observed by the observer shown in figure above. Solution:

## By applying the Faradays law equation for a coil of N turns , thus

dB = 0.50 T s -1 dt

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## dB o where B = BA cos 180 and = IR dt d ( BA) NA dB IR = N I= I = 2.5 x10155 A dt R dt

= N

Based on the lenzs law, hence the direction of induced current is clockwise as shown in figure below.

SI

ind

Example 6 : (exercise) A bar magnet is held above a loop of wire in a horizontal plane, as shown in figure below. The south end of the magnet is toward the loop of the wire. The magnet is dropped toward the loop. Find the direction of the current through the resistor a. while the magnet falling toward the loop and b. after the magnet has passed through the loop and moves away from it.
(Serway&Jewett, pg.991, no.15)
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## Consider a linear (straight) conductor PQ of length L is moved

perpendicular with velocity v across a uniform magnetic field B as shown in figure 7.3a. r P X X X X X X X XB X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X

LX
X

rX vX X
X

X X

X X X x X QX X Fig. 7.3a

When the conductor moved through a distance x in time t, the area swept out by the conductor is given by

A = Lx

Since the motion of the conductor is perpendicular to the magnetic field B hence the magnetic flux cut by the conductor is given by
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B = BA cos 0 o

B = BLx

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According to Faradays law, the e.m.f. is induced in the conductor and its magnitude is given by d

In general, the magnitude of the induced e.m.f. in a linear conductor is given by (7.3a) = BLv sin where : angle between In vector form, form

## dt d (BLx ) = dt dx dx = BL =v and dt dt = BLv

r r v and B
(7.3b)

r r = L vB

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The induced e.m.f. exist in the linear conductor when cutting the magnetic flux is also known as motional induced e.m.f. e.m.f. The direction of the induced current due to induced e.m.f. flows in the linear conductor can be determine by using Flemings right hand Fleming rule (based on lenzs law).In case of figure 7.3a, the induced current 18 flows from P to Q.

Note that the eq. (7.3a) also can be used for the rectangular coil of one turn moved across the uniform magnetic field. For a rectangular coil of N turns, = NBLv sin (7.3c) Example 7 : A 20.0 cm long metal rod PQ is moved at speed of 100 m s-1 across a uniform magnetic field of flux density 100 mT. The motion of the rod is perpendicular to the magnetic field as shown in figure below. r P a. Calculate the motional induced e.m.f

## 100 m s 1b. If the rod is connected in series to the

i. the induced current and its direction. resistor in one minute. iii. the electrical energy dissipated through the resistor in one minute. Solution: Q ii. the total charge passing through the

## L=20.0x10-2 m, v=100 m s-1,B=100x10-3 T, =90

= 2.00 V

a. By applying the equation of motional induced e.m.f in the linear conductor, thus the induced e.m.f. is = BLv sin
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b. Given R=10.0

= IR I = 0.200 A
From P to Q

## i. From the Ohms law , thus

Direction : using Flemings right hand rule Fleming ii. Given t=60.0

E = 24.0 J

## The total charge flows through the resistor is

By using the equation of electrical energy, thus E = It or E = I 2 Rt Example 8 : (exercise) A linear conductor of length 20 cm moves in a uniform magnetic field of flux density 20 mT at a constant speed of 10 m s-1. The velocity makes an angle 30 to the field but the conductor is perpendicular to the field. Determine the induced e.m.f. across the two ends of the conductor. Ans. : 2.0 x 10-2 V
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## 7.4 Induced E.m.f. in a Rotating Coil

mechanically with constant angular velocity in a uniform magnetic field of flux density B about an axis as shown in figure 7.4a. Consider a rectangular coil of N turns, each of area A, being rotated

N
B = BA cos t

r A

S
r
o

## flux B through each turn of the coil is given by B = BA cos and = t

B Fig. 7.4a : side view When the vector of area, A is at an angle to the magnetic field the

where t : time that has elapsed since = 0 By applying the equation of Faradays law for a coil of N turns, thus the induced e.m.f. is given by
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= N

dB dt

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## d (BA cos t ) dt d (cos t ) = NBA dt = N

= NBA sin t
Induced e.m.f maximum therefore max = NBA where (7.4a)

From the eq. (7.4a), the induced e.m.f. varies with time, t where

Conclusion : A coil rotating with constant angular velocity in a uniform magnetic field produces a sinusoidally alternating e.m.f. is shown by e.m.f. the graph in figure 7.4b.

sin t = 1 or t = = 90 o 2 = 2 f or = T

(V)

max

= max sin t

0
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0.5T

1.5T

2T

t
22

max

## Fig. 7.4b : induced e.m.f. against time t graph e.m.f.

Note : This phenomenon was the important part in the development of the electric generator or dynamo. Eq. (7.4a) also can be written as

## r r where : angle between A and B

= NBA sin

(7.4b)

Example 9 : A rectangular coil of 200 turns has size 10 cm x 15 cm. It rotates at a constant angular velocity of 600 r.p.m. in a uniform magnetic field of flux density 20 mT. Calculate a. the maximum e.m.f. produced by the coil. b. the induced e.m.f. at the instant when the plane of the coil makes an angle of 60 with the magnetic field. Solution: N=200

## turns, A=(10x10-2)(15x10-2)=150 x 10-4 m2 , B=20x10-3 T , = 600 x 2 = 20 rad s -1 60

max = 3.77 V

a. By applying the equation of maximum induced e.m.f. for rotating coil, thus max = NBA
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b.

r B

60 o

r A

## = NBA sin and NBA = max = max sin = 1.88 V

Example 10 : (exercise) A coil of area 0.100 m2 is rotating at 60.0 rev s-1 with the axis of rotation perpendicular to a 0.200 T magnetic field. a. If the coil has 1000 turns, find the maximum e.m.f. generated in it. b. What is the orientation of the coil with respect to the magnetic field when the maximum induced e.m.f. occurs?
(Serway&Jewett, pg.991, no.15)

Ans. : 7.54 kV Example 11 : (exercise) A circular coil has 50 turns and diameter 1.0 cm. It rotates at a constant angular velocity of 25 rev s-1 in a uniform magnetic field of flux density 50 T. Determine the induced e.m.f. when the plane of the coil makes an angle 55 to the magnetic field. Ans. : 1.77 x 10-5 V
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## 7.5 Self-induction and Self-inductance

7.5.1 Self-induction Consider a solenoid which is connected to a battery , a switch S and variable resistor R, forming an open circuit as shown in figure 7.5a. When the switch S is closed, a current I begins to flow in the solenoid.

If the resistance of the variable resistor changes, thus the current flows in the solenoid also changed, then so too Fig. 7.5a does magnetic flux linkage . According to the Faradays law, an e.m.f. has to be induced in the solenoid itself since the flux linkage changes. In accordance with Lenzs law, the induced e.m.f. opposes the change that has induced it and it is therefore known as a back e.m.f. e.m.f ind For the current I increases : S R

The current produces a magnetic field whose field lines through the solenoid and generate the magnetic flux linkage.

S
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N
I
Fig. 7.5b : initial

SN
I ind

+ SN
I I ind

## Fig. 7.5c : I increases

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Direction of the induced e.m.f. is in e.m.f. the opposite direction of the current I. For the current I decreases :

S
I
Fig. 7.5d : initial

+ N SS
I ind I

ind

NN
I I ind

## Fig. 7.5e : I decreases

Direction of the induced e.m.f. is in e.m.f. the same direction of the current I. This process is known as self-induction. Self-induction is defined as the process of producing an induced Selfe.m.f. in the coil due to a change of current flowing through the e.m.f. same coil. This effect can be shown by the current I against time t graph for resistor and solenoid in figure 7.5d.

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Resistor

Solenoid

Self-induction Selfeffect

0
B I

Fig. 7.5d

B = LI
where

(7.5a)

## L : self - inductance of the coil I : current

dB dt d (LI ) = dt

= L
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dI dt

(7.5b)
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From the eq. 7.5b, Self-inductance is defined as the ratio of the self induced e.m.f. Selfe.m.f. to the rate of change of current in the coil. If the coil has N turns, hence

dB dt dI dB L =N dt dt L dI = N dB = N
LI = NB NB L= I

and

= L

dI dt

(7.5c)

Self-inductance is a scalar quantity and its unit is henry (H). (H) Unit conversion :

1 H = 1 Wb A-1 = 1 T m 2 A-1

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The value of the self-inductance depends on the size and shape of the coil the number of turn (N) the permeability of the medium in the coil ().

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A circuit element which possesses mainly self-inductance is known as an inductor. It is used to store energy in form of magnetic field. inductor field The symbol of inductor in the electrical circuit is shown in figure 7.5e.

Fig. 7.5e 7.5.3 Self-inductance of a Solenoid The magnetic flux density at the centre of the air-core solenoid is given N by B = 0 nI and n =

B=

0 NI l

where

## N : number of turns l : length of the solenoid

B = 0 NIA l

B = BA cos 0 o NI B = 0 A l

## Therefore the self-inductance of the solenoid is given by

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NB I N 0 NIA L= I l L=

L=

0 N 2 A l

or

L = 0 n 2 29 Al

## For the medium-core solenoid :

L=

N 2 A l
or

and

= r 0

Example 12 : At an instant, the current in an inductor increases at the rate of 0.06 A s-1 and back e.m.f. of 0.018 V was produced in the inductor. a. Calculate the self-inductance of the inductor. b. If the inductor is a solenoid with 300 turns, find the magnetic flux through each turn when the current of 0.80 A flows in it. Solution:

N 2 A : relative permeability r L= r 0 0 : permeability of free space l : permeability of medium A : area of the solenoid

where

=0.018 V, dI = 0.06 A s -1 dt

=L
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dI dt

L = 0.30 H
30

b. Given N=300

turns, I=0.80 A

## By using the equation below, thus

L=

NB I

B = 8.0 x10 4 Wb

Example 13 : (exercise) An e.m.f. of 24.0 mV is induced in a 500 turns coil at an instant when the current is 4.00 A and is changing at the rate of 10.0 A s-1. Find the magnetic flux through each turn of the coil.
(Serway&Jewett, pg.1025, no.6)

Ans. : 19.2 Wb Example 14 : (exercise) A 40.0 mA current is carried by a uniformly wound air-core solenoid with 450 turns, a 15.0 mm diameter and 12.0 cm length. Calculate a. the magnetic field inside the solenoid. b. the magnetic flux through each turn. c. the inductance of the solenoid. (Given 0 = 4 x 10-7 H m-1) Ans. :188 T, 33.3 nWb, 0.375 mH

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## 7.6 Energy Stored in an Inductor

Consider a coil of self-inductance L. Suppose that at time t the current in the coil is in the process of building up to its stable value I at a rate

=L

dI dt

## dI dt Pdt = LIdI and Pdt = dU (7.6a) dU = LIdI P = LI

The total energy stored in the inductor, U, as the current increases from 0 to I can be found by integrating the eq. (7.6a). Thus

P = I

dU = L IdI
0

U=
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1 2 LI 2

(7.6b) analogous to

U=

1 CV 2 2

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## Therefore the energy stored in the solenoid is given by

0 N 2 A L= l

1 U = LI 2 2
Note : a.

U=

1 0 N 2 AI 2 2 l

(7.6c)

I constant

=0
b.

VAB = 0

A
+

I increases

I decreases

B B +

VAB > 0

c.

A
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VAB < 0

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Example 15 : An 8.0 cm long solenoid with an air-core consists of 100 turns of diameter 1.2 cm. Find a. the self-inductance of the coil, and b. the energy stored in the coil, if the current flows in it is 0.77 A. (Given 0 = 4 x 10-7 H m-1) Solution:

## N=100 turn, l=8.0x10-2 m, d=1.2x10-2 m, I=0.77 A

L= d 2 0 N 2 A and A = 4 l 2 2 N d L= 0 4l L = 1.8 x10 5 H

## b. By applying the equation of energy stored in the inductor, thus

U=
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1 2 LI 2 U = 5.3 x10 6 J

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Example 16 : (exercise) A current of 1.5 A flows in an air-core solenoid of 1 cm radius and 100 turns per cm. Calculate a. the self-inductance per unit length of the solenoid. b. the energy stored per unit length of the solenoid. (Given 0 = 4 x 10-7 H m-1) Ans : 0.039 H m-1, 4.4 x 10-2 J m-1 Example 17 : (exercise) At the instant when the current in an inductor is increasing at a rate of 0.0640 A s-1, the magnitude of the back e.m.f. is 0.016 V. a. Calculate the self inductance of the inductor. b. If the inductor is a solenoid with 400 turns and the current flows in it is 0.720 A, calculate i. the magnetic flux through each turn. ii. the energy stored in the solenoid. Ans. : 0.250 H, 0.450 mWb, 64.8 mJ Example 18 : (exercise) At a particular instant the electrical power supplied to a 300 mH inductor is 20 W and the current is 3.5 A. Determine the rate at which the current is changing at that instant. 35 Ans. : 19 A s-1

## 7.7 Mutual induction and Mutual inductance

7.7.1 Mutual induction Consider two circular close-packed coils near each other and sharing a common central axis as shown in figure 7.7a. A current I1 flows in coil 1, produced by the battery in the external circuit. The current I1 produces a magnetic field lines inside it and this field lines also pass through coil 2 as shown in figure 7.7.a. If the current I1 changes with time, the magnetic flux through coils 1 and 2 will change with time simultaneously.

I1

Due to the change of magnetic flux through coil 2, an e.m.f. is induced in coil 2. This is in accordance to the Faradays law of induction. In other words, a change of current in one coil leads to the production of an induced e.m.f. in a second coil which is magnetically linked to the first coil.
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Fig. 7.7a
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This process is known as mutual induction. Mutual induction is defined as the process of producing an induced e.m.f. in one coil due to the change of current in another e.m.f. coil. At the same time, the self-induction occurs in coil 1 since the selfmagnetic flux through it changes. 7.7.2 Mutual inductance, M From the figure 7.7a, consider coils 1 and 2 have N1 and N2 turns respectively. If the current I1 in coil 1 is changes, the magnetic flux through coil 2 will change with time and an induced e.m.f will occur in coil 2, 2 where

dI 1 dt

2 = M 12

dI 1 dt

(7.7a)

## If vice versa, the induced e.m.f. in coil 1, 1 is given by

1 = M 21

Mutual inductance where Mutual inductance is a scalar quantity and its unit is henry (H). (H)
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dI 2 dt M 12 = M 21 = M

(7.7b)

Mutual inductance is defined as the ratio of induced e.m.f. in a coil e.m.f. to the rate of change of current in another coil. From the Faradays law for a coil of N turns,

2 = N 2
M 12

dI 1 d2 = N2 dt dt M 12 dI 1 = N 2 d2
M 12 I 1 = N 22 N M 12 = 2 2 I1

d2 dt

and

M 21 =

N 11 I2

(7.7c)

## Since M12=M21=M , eq. (7.7c) can be written as

M=
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N 22 N 11 = I1 I2

(7.7d)

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7.7.3 Mutual Inductance for two coaxial solenoids Consider a long solenoid with length l and cross sectional area A is closely wound with N1 turns of wire. A coil with N2 turns surrounds it at its centre as shown in figure 7.7b.

A N2 N1

## N1: primary coil N2: secondary coil

I1

l
Fig. 7.7b

I1

field B1 and thus the magnetic flux, 1. For solenoid, Boutside=0, hence
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When current I1 flows in the primary coil (N1), there exist a magnetic

1 = 2

## (if no flux leakage)

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Therefore

1 = B1 A

and

B1 =

N I 1 = o 1 1 A = 2 l

0 N 1 I 1 l

If the current I1 changes, an e.m.f is induced in secondary coils, therefore mutual inductance occurs and is given by

N 22 I1 N N I A M = 2 o 1 1 I1 l M=

M=

o N1 N 2 A
l

(7.7e)

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Example 19: A current of 2.0 A flows in coil P and produced a magnetic flux of 0.6 Wb in it. When a coil S is moved near to coil P coaxially, a flux of 0.2 Wb is produced in coil S. Given that, coil P has 100 turns and coil S has 200 turns. a. Calculate self-inductance of coil P and the energy stored in P before S is moved near to it. b. Calculate the mutual inductance of the coils. c. If the current in P decreasing uniformly from 2.0 A to zero in 0.4 s, calculate the induced e.m.f. in coil S. Solution: NP =100 a.

## Self Inductance of coil P is

LP =

N P P IP LP = 30 H

## The energy stored in coil P is

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U P = 60 J

2 1 U P = 2 LP I P
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b.

c.

## N S S IP M = 20 H Given dI P = (0 2.0 ) = 2.0 A M=

The induced e.m.f. in coil S is

Mutual Inductance is

and

dt = 0.4 s

dI P dt S = 100 V

S = M

Example 20 :(exercise) The primary coil of a solenoid of radius 2.0 cm has 500 turns and length of 24 cm. If the secondary coil with 80 turns surrounds the primary coil at its centre, calculate a. the mutual inductance of the coils b. the magnitude of induced e.m.f. in secondary coil if the current in primary coil changes at the rate 4.8 A s-1. Ans. : 26.32 mH ;126 mV
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7.8 Transformer
An electrical instrument is used to increase or decrease the e.m.f. or e.m.f. voltages of an alternating current. Consider a structure of the transformer as shown in figure 7.8a.

## laminated iron core

If NP > NS the transformer is a step-down transformer. steptransformer If NP < NS the transformer is a step-up transformer. steptransformer The symbol of transformer in circuit is shown in figure 7.8b.

## turns secondary coil

NS

Fig. 7.8a The working principle of transformer. (refer to mutual inductance) The characteristics of an ideal transformer: a. Zero resistance of primary coil. b. No magnetic flux leakage from the iron core. c. No dissipation of energy and power. power
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Fig. 7.8b
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By referring to mutual inductance, the induced e.m.f. in the primary and secondary coil is given by

P = N P
and

dP dt

(7.8a) (7.8b)

S = N S

dS dt

## For an ideal transformer, there is no flux leakage so that

dP dS = dt dt
By dividing eq. (7.8a) with (7.8b),

P N P = S N S
where

## For an ideal transformer, the electrical power is given by

PP = PS I P P = I S S

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P I S = S I P

## PP : power of primary PS : power of secondary

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In general:

P VP NP I S = = = S VS NS I P

(7.8c)

7.8.1 Energy losses in transformers Although transformers are very efficient devices, small energy losses do occur in them owing to four main causes: Resistance of coils The wire used for the primary and secondary coils has resistance and so ordinary (I2R) heat losses occur. Overcome : The transformer coils are made of thick copper wire. wire Eddy current The alternating magnetic flux induces eddy currents in the iron core. This current causes heating and dissipation of power in the core. Overcome : The effect is reduced by using laminated core as shown in figure 7.8c and 7.8d.

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Fig. 7.8c

Fig. 7.8d

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Hysteresis The magnetization of the core is repeatedly reversed by the alternating magnetic field. The resulting expenditure of energy in the core appears as heat. Overcome : By using a magnetic material (such as Mumetal) which has low hysteresis loss. loss Flux leakage The flux due to the primary may not all link the secondary. Some of the flux loss in the air. Overcome : By designing the iron core suitably. Example 21: The primary coil of a transformer has 1200 turns and the secondary coil has 60 turns. The primary coil is connected to an a.c. supply of 240 V. A resistor of resistance 3.0 is connected to the secondary coil. Assume that there are no loss of power and magnetic flux, calculate the current flows in the secondary circuit. Solution: NP =1200 turns, For ideal transformer, N P

NS
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P S

S = S P N P

S = 12 V

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## Thus the current flows in the secondary coil is

S = IS R

I S = 4.0 A
Example 22: (exercise) A transformer, assumed to be 100% efficient, is used with a supply voltage of 120 V. The primary winding has 50 turns. The required output voltage is 3000 V. The output power is 200 W. a. Name this type of transformer. b. Calculate the number of turns in the secondary winding. c. Calculate the current supplied to the primary winding Ans. : 1250 turns, 1.67 A Example 23: (exercise) A transformer with a 100 turns primary coil and a 500 turns secondary coil is connected to a supply voltage of 2.0 V. Calculate the output voltage and the maximum current in secondary coil if the current in primary coil is to be limited to 0.10 A. Ans. : 10 V, 0.020 A

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## 7.9 Back e.m.f. in d.c. motor

Fig 7.9a shows a simple d.c. motor.

r F

r F

When current, I flows in the coil of the armature which is in the magnetic field, magnetic force is produced and will cause the coil to rotate as shown in figure 7.9a. As the coil rotates, its magnetic flux changes and so an e.m.f. is induced across the coil. (Faradays law) By Lenzs law this induced e.m.f. opposes the current which is making the coil turns. Therefore

## Fig 7.9a proportional to the frequency, f

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B = NBA = (NBA2 ) f

B f

## initial f = initial final f final

(7.9a)
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When the motor is first switched on, the back e.m.f. is zero: it rises as the motor speeds up. When the motor is running freely, the back e.m.f is nearly equal to the supply voltage and so there will not be much current drawn. When a load is applied to the motor, the motor slows down, the back e.m.f. falls, and so the current in the coil increases. Figure 7.9a also can be simplified into circuit shown in figure 7.9b.

Motor B R

## Applying Kirchhoffs 2nd law:

V B = IR Eq. (7.9b) x I :
Loop L:

(7.9b)

VI B I = I 2 R

VI = B I + I 2 R
where

(7.9c)

Fig 7.9b

## VI : power supplied B I : mechanical power I2R : power lost as heat in coil

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Example 24: A motor rotates at a rate of 5000 rotations per minute. The supply voltage is 240 V and the resistance of the armature is 4.5 . a. Calculate the back e.m.f. if the current in the armature is 12 A. A load is applied to the motor and the speed of the rotation is found to decrease to 4000 rotations per minute. Calculate b. the back e.m.f. now. c. the new current in the armature. d. the mechanical power produced by the motor. Solution:

## a. By using the equation below:

B = V IR B = 186 V
Given final b.

V = B + IR

= 4000 rpm

final = 148.8 V
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## c. The new current in the armature is

240 = 148.8 + (4.5) I I = 20.3 A d. The mechanical power is Mechanical power = I B Mechanical power = (148.8 )(20.3) Mechanical power = 3020 W
Example 25: (exercise) The resistance of the armature of a d.c. motor is 0.75 . A supply of 240 V is connected to this motor. When the motor rotates freely without load, the current in the armature is 4.0 A and the rate of rotation is 400 rpm. Calculate a. the back e.m.f. produced. b. the mechanical power generated. If a load is applied, the current increases to 60 A. Calculate c. the back e.m.f. now. d. the mechanical power. e. the rotation speed of the armature. Ans. : 237 V, 948 W, 195 V, 11.7 kW, 329 rpm 51

V = B + IR

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