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Copyright © 2005 Journal of Media Business Studies.

Cinzia Dal Zotto, “Human Resource
Leadership in Highly Dynamic Environments: Theoretically Based Analyses of 3 Publishing
Companies,” 2(1): 51-70 (2005).

Human Resource Leadership in
Highly Dynamic Environments:
Theoretically Based Analyses of
3 Publishing Companies

Cinzia Dal Zotto
Jönköping International Business School

ABSTRACT ThIs nrfIcIo oxµIoros fho roIo of IondorshIµ nnd fho offocfs of
dIfforonf fyµos of µorsonnoI µInnnIng, hIrIng, nnd dovoIoµmonf In
µubIIshIng comµnnIos. Insod on fhroo cnsos from fho Cormnn nowsµnµor
Indusfry, If fInds fhnf humnn rosourco µInnnIng Is IncronsIngIy roIovnnf
fo modIn fIrms, fhnf mnny hIrIng µrncfIcos Inck soµhIsfIcnfIon nnd
sfrnfogIc orIonfnfIon, nnd fhnf dovoIoµmonf ncfIvIfIos nro roInfIvoIy
wonk. Tho nrfIcIo suggosfs fhnf gronfor nffonfIon fo humnn roInfIons
ncfIvIfIos shouId nssIsf comµnnIos In coµIng wIfh fho dynnmIc
onvIronmonfs curronfIy fncod by modIn fIrms nnd In µroµnrIng fIrms fo
dovoIoµ nnd chnngo ns modIn mnrkofs nro nIforod.

KEY WORDS: humnn rosourcos, IondorshIµ, dynnmIc onvIronmonfs,
nowsµnµors, Cormnny

Tho Imµncf of fho IncronsIngIy dynnmIc confoxf on IondorshIµ hns boon
roInfIvoIy nogIocfod In rosonrch. A fIrsf suµµosIfIon couId bo fhnf
IondorshIµ chnngos from dIrocfIvo or cooµornfIvo sfyIos fo soIf-dIrocfIng
nffIfudos whon fho confoxf bocomos hIghIy dynnmIc. An oxµInnnfIon for
fhIs hyµofhosIs Is µrovIdod by fho obsorvnfIon fhnf hIghIy dynnmIc
onvIronmonfs forco mnnngors Info vory quIck roncfIons. Thoso roncfIons
wouId bo ImµossIbIo If usunI concoµfs of IondorshIµ nro nµµIIod bocnuso
fhoso µrocossos nro foo sIow nnd usunIIy undorfnkon fnr nwny from fho
µrobIoms oncounforod In hIghIy dynnmIc mnrkofs. Tho modIn IndusfrIos
fodny roµrosonf fyµIcnI hIghIy dynnmIc mnrkofs bocnuso fhoy nro
doµondonf uµon fochnoIogy nnd knowIodgo fhnf ngos nnd chnngos vory
rnµIdIy nnd bocnuso fhoIr µroducfs nnd sorvIcos consfnnfIy oncounfor
Dal Zotto

hIghIy voInfIIo domnnd. Tho objocf of fhIs nrfIcIo Is fo oxµIoro fho
chnrncforIsfIcs nnd µocuIInrIfIos of humnn rosourco mnnngomonf In
modIn fIrms In ordor fo hoIµ dovoIoµ nµµroµrInfo IondorshIµ nµµronchos
In n hIghIy dynnmIc worId. Tho humnn rosourco-roInfod µocuIInrIfIos of
fho modIn IndusfrIos nro oxµIorod fhrough fhroo cnso sfudIos of Cormnn
µubIIshIng comµnnIos. Tho rosuIfs from fho cnso sfudIos nro combInod
wIfh fho fhoorofIcnI fIndIngs fo buIId uµ n sof of hyµofhosIs for offocfIvo
humnn rosourco mnnngomonf nnd nn nµµroµrInfo IondorshIµ nµµronch In
modIn fIrms In dynnmIc onvIronmonfs.

In ordor fo nnnIyzo fho µocuIInrIfIos of IondorshIµ In modIn fIrms wo fIrsf
nood fo dofIno fho modIn Indusfry nnd modIn fIrms. If wo choso ns
doIImIfnfIon crIforIn fho fIrm ncfIvIfIos, fhon nII fIrms fhnf µroduco or
dIsfrIbufo modIn µroducfs In fho mnrkof cnn bo rognrdod ns modIn fIrms.
ModIn roµrosonf fhoso µroducfs fhnf nIm nf communIcnfIng oµInIons,
InformnfIon or cuIfuro (WIrfz, 2000). ThIs dofInIfIon usunIIy nµµIIos fo
fho mnss modIn, I.o. modIn chnrncforIzod by hnvIng ono sondor nnd nn
IndofInIfo numbor of rocoIvors (ono-fo-mnny communIcnfIon) such ns
nowsµnµors, mngnzInos, books, rndIo, nnd foIovIsIon. Tho fochnIcnI
chnrncforIsfIcs of fho Infornof nIIow fhough n ono-fo-ono communIcnfIon
ovon whon consIdorIng fho cInssIcnI modIn: fhrough fho Infornof If Is
µossIbIo fo dovoIoµ nn IndIvIdunIIzod nowsµnµor nccordIng fo fho rondors`
roquIromonfs (ZImmor, l999). ThIs gIvos ovIdonco of fho occurrIng
convorgonco of fho modIn, comµufor nnd foIocommunIcnfIon IndusfrIos
whIch mnkos fho doIImIfnfIon of n mnrkof for fho modIn Indusfry dIffIcuIf
(WIrfz, 2000; Schumnnn & Hoss, 2000). ThIs nrfIcIos donIs wIfh fho
sfrnfogIc nnd oµornfIvo mnnngomonf of humnn rosourcos In modIn fIrms
nnd sµocIfIcnIIy wIfhIn fho nowsµnµor socfor.
MnnngIng modIn fIrmsnnd fhoroforo mnnngIng humnn rosourcos
wIfhIn fhoso fIrmsmonns nof onIy fncIng convorgonco, nnd fhoroforo nn
oxµnndod comµofIfIvo onvIronmonf, buf nIso undorIyIng fo vory dIfforonf
condIfIons comµnrod fo ofhor IndusfrIos. IIrsf of nII, by dIffusIng confonf
modIn fIrms cronfo n form of µubIIc oµInIon whIch cnn InfIuonco socIofy
nnd domocrncy. ThIs socInI rosµonsIbIIIfy µIncos somo modIn undor
govornmonfnI suµorvIsIon (WIrfz, l994). Socond, modIn fIrms oµornfo In
sµocIfIc mnrkofs. As fhoIr µorformnnco Is doµondonf on bofh fho
InformnfIon nnd onforfnInmonf (confonf) fhnf fhoy µrovIdo, nnd fho
ndvorfIsIng sµnco fhnf fhoy cnn soII, modIn comµnnIos fnco sovornI
chnIIongos. IIrsf, confonf noods fo bo roIovnnf nnd fnrgofod, nnd If musf
bo nbIo fo rosµond fo ovor chnngIng mnrkof domnnds (!uhrmnnn, l999;
Hngon, l999). Socond, confonf Is doIIvorod In mnny moro wnys fhnn If
onco wns nnd modIn comµnnIos nood fo undorsfnnd fho roIovnnco nnd
Imµorfnnco of onch chnnnoI fhoy uso, ns woII ns fo hnvo fho oxµorfIso fo
doIIvor fhrough fhoso chnnnoIs. If fhoy cnn do fhIs, If Is much moro IIkoIy
fhnf fhoy wIII bo nbIo fo mnxImIzo ndvorfIsIng oµµorfunIfIos (SIogorf,
Journal of Media Business Studies

l999). ThIrd, modIn fIrms µroduco onIy µnrf of fho confonf fhoy soII.
AcquIsIfIon mnrkofs nro fhoroforo vory Imµorfnnf nnd fhoy cnn nIso bo
soon ns dIsfrIbufIon mnrkofs. Moroovor ncquIsIfIon mnrkofs nro roIovnnf
nof onIy In ncquIrIng confonf buf nIso In ncquIrIng humnn rosourcos or
Tho succoss of modIn fIrms on fho dIfforonf mnrkofs doµonds n Iof
uµon fho nvnIInbIIIfy of nµµroµrInfo humnn rosourcos, whIch Is bound fo
fho fInnncInI rosourcos of n fIrm. Mnrkofs nro fhoroforo vory
Infordoµondonf. Iurfhor, comµofIfIon on fho dIfforonf mnrkofs fnkos
µInco nf fho snmo fImo (Souforf, l999; Schumnnn & Hoss, 2000). ThIs
muIfIdImonsIonnI Infordoµondonco of modIn mnrkofs nffocfs nof onIy fho
gonornI mnnngomonf buf nIso fho humnn rosourco mnnngomonf nnd
IondorshIµ wIfhIn modIn fIrms.
Ior fhoso fIrms oµornfIng In hIghIy dynnmIc mnrkofs, µrofossIonnI
skIIIs nnd cnµnbIIIfIos of µorsonnoI roµrosonf n crIfIcnI succoss fncfor.
Iocnuso modIn fIrms oxIsf In n fochnoIogy nnd knowIodgo doµondonf
onvIronmonf nnd domnnd In modIn mnrkofs Is vory voInfIIo, onIy fhoso
fIrms whoso omµIoyoos hnvo boffor skIIIs nf usIng fochnoIogIos nnd
cronfIng knowIodgo cnn gnIn comµofIfIvo ndvnnfngos. Whofhor n modIn
fIrm bocomos n mnrkof Iondor or n mnrkof foIIowor doµonds on Ifs
InnovnfIon IovoI: onIy fhrough InnovnfIon cnn modIn fIrms Incronso
domnnd nnd fhoroforo fhoIr µrofIfnbIIIfy (IIcnrd, 2002). As InnovnfIons
nro cronfod nnd ImµIomonfod by µooµIo, fho combInod Invosfmonf In
humnn cnµIfnI nnd In rosonrch nnd dovoIoµmonf sfImuInfos InnovnfIons
nnd suµµorfs fIrm growfh (Ionroso, l959; !omor, l999 nnd 2000).
Thoroforo, bofh fho ncquIsIfIon of skIIIod omµIoyoos nnd omµIoyoos`
dovoIoµmonf consfIfufo fwo ossonfInI fIoIds of humnn rosourco
mnnngomonf In modIn fIrms. Iofh nro InfIuoncod by mnnngorInI choIcos.
Tho rnµId ndnµfnfIon of skIIIod omµIoyoos fo chnngos In fho worId Is n
socond mnjor roquIromonf, fho fuIfIIImonf of whIch shouId bo onhnncod
by nnd consfIfufos n mnjor chnIIongo for IondorshIµ. In moofIng fhIs
objocfIvo, IondorshIµ cnn bo µooµIo- nnd/or fnsk-orIonfod doµondIng uµon
fho sIfunfIon. Howovor, Iondors musf bo quIck nnd offocfIvo. Iocnuso
cInssIcnI concoµfs of IondorshIµ do nof µInco much sIgnIfIcnnco on fhoso
fncfors, howovor, IondorshIµ hns fo chnngo from n concoµfunI nµµronch fo
ono of InfoIIIgonf ImµrovIsnfIon.

MnnngIng humnn rosourcos In n dynnmIc onvIronmonf roquIros n fIrm fo
µInn In ndvnnco bofh fho qunnfIfy nnd qunIIfy of skIIIs noodod. Among
fhoso, fho nbIIIfIos fo undorsfnnd nnd Ionrn rnµIdIy nro fho mosf
Imµorfnnf nnd bocomo crucInI In comµnny growfh µhnsos, osµocInIIy
whon n fIrm oµornfos In furbuIonf onvIronmonfs. ThIs Is fho cnso of
modIn fIrms fhnf hnvo fo mnnngo ncquIsIfIon of skIIIod omµIoyoos nnd
rodundnncy of unskIIIod onos, somofImos sImuIfnnoousIy. Tho modIn
Indusfry`s µroducfs nnd sorvIcos hnvo shorf InnovnfIon cycIos. As n
Dal Zotto

consoquonco, µormnnonf IonrnIng µrocossos nro roquIrod. !ndor fhoso
condIfIons wo wouId oxµocf modIn fIrms fo l) µInn humnn rosourco noods
bocnuso of fho sµocIfIc skIIIs roquIrod; 2) Infroduco n rodundnncy µInn In
roInfIon fo fho Incronso of fIxod omµIoyoos; nnd 3) µInn fho ncquIsIfIon of
humnn rosourcos In ordor fo mInImIzo fho rIsk of hIrIng wrong µooµIo.
AccordIng fo somo oxµorfs (KIobon, 2002; Iockorf, 2002), fhoro Is n
gonornI Inck of sfrnfogIc µInnnIng In humnn rosourco mnnngomonf. As n
rosuIf, fho Idon of µormnnonf chnngo Is fho onIy vnIunbIo sfrnfogy. Iuf
ovon µormnnonf chnngo noods µInnnIng If n fIrm wnnfs fo bo µroncfIvo
Insfond of onIy roncfIvo: µInnnIng nIIows fIrms fo sof uµ In ndvnnco
nIfornnfIvos fhnf cnn bo nµµIIod fo nnfIcIµnfo comµofIfors` ncfIons nnd/or
fo roncf µromµfIy fo chnngos. Iocnuso modIn mnrkofs oµornfo In rnµIdIy
chnngIng onvIronmonfs, modIn Iondors musf know how fo swIfch from n
µInnnIng modo fo n moro onfroµronourInI or ImµrovIsnfIon modo In whIch
nII omµIoyoos nro nskod fo roncf quIckIy nnd dIrocfIy Insfond of foIIowIng
n µInn. In bofh cnsos fho InfrInsIc mofIvnfIon of onch omµIoyoo bocomos
crIfIcnI nnd If Is oxncfIy fhIs fyµo of mofIvnfIon fhnf Is noodod fo hnndIo
gonI-orIonfod ncfIons. ConI orIonfod nnd InfrInsIcnIIy mofIvnfod ncfIons
nro fho bnsIs for nµµroµrInfo nnd ncfIvo soIf-IondorshIµ In n hIghIy
dynnmIc worId. Tho hIghor fho qunIIfIcnfIon, Indoµondonco nnd IonrnIng
skIIIs of omµIoyoos, fho moro fho IondorshIµ sfyIo furns nwny from
doµondonco fownrds µnrfIcIµnfIon nnd nufonomy forosooIng concoµfs
(IorfhoI, l99?; Iuhnor, l994; Ðrumm, 2005). Tho moro fho mnnngorInI
µrIncIµIos rosµond fo fho sIfunfIonnI vnrInbIos, fho Iowor fho frnnsncfIon
cosfs roInfod fo fho suµorvIsIon of mnnngorInI ncfIons nnd fo fho fnuIfs
ndjusfmonf In cnso of n wrong choIco of fho µrIncIµIo (IIgIor, l996;
Ðrumm, 2005).
As µoInfod ouf onrIIor, fho sµocIfIcIfy of humnn rosourco mnnngomonf
funcfIons wIfhIn modIn fIrms doµonds uµon voInfIIIfy of domnnd, fho
dynnmIcs of fho onvIronmonf, nnd sµocIfIc µorformnncos. Howovor, fho
IovoI of sµocIfIcIfy vnrIos wIfh fho sIzo of fho fIrm. Iffor osfnbIIshod
fIrmsmnnngIng rodundnncIos µInys nn Imµorfnnf roIo bocnuso of fho
hIgh domnnd oInsfIcIfy nnd fho voInfIIIfy of µroducfs, fhon smnIIor fIrms
oµornfo wIfh fowor µormnnonf omµIoyoos so dIsmIssnIs nro n Ioss
roIovnnf oµfIon. In Inrgor modIn fIrms, fho IondorshIµ nµµronch Is sImIInr
fo fhnf of ofhor IndusfrIos, whIIo In smnIIor fIrms IondorshIµ Is focusod on
fho roInfIonshIµ bofwoon fho fIrm nnd non-µormnnonf omµIoyoos so fhnf
If rosuIfs fo bo cIonror nnd sImµIor (Ðonnu OnIIno). In nddIfIon,
mofIvnfIonnI Issuos nro InfIuoncod by fho sIzo of fho fIrm. If omµIoyoos
nro nof InfrInsIcnIIy mofIvnfod, fhoy musf bo mofIvnfod oxfrInsIcnIIy.
ThIs Is dIffIcuIf fo do wIfh µormnnonf omµIoyoos. On fho confrnry, ns fho
ronownI of fhoIr confrncf doµonds on fhoIr µorformnnco, non-µormnnonf
sfnff cnn bo onsIIy mofIvnfod oxfrInsIcnIIy. Wo cnn fhoroforo sny fhnf fIrm
sIzo nnd Inbor confrncfs roµrosonf nddIfIonnI fncfors fhnf chnrncforIzo fho
sµocIfIcIfy of fhIs dynnmIc nnd voInfIIo Indusfry. IInnIIy, If cnn bo
quosfIonod whofhor fho chnrncforIsfIcs of fho modIn Indusfry nIIow n
sfrnfogIc nµµronch fo humnn rosourco mnnngomonf or If µorsonnoI
mnnngomonf Is moro n funcfIon of fho Iondors` ¨brIcoIngo¨ cnµnbIIIfIos
Journal of Media Business Studies

(CIborrn, 2002; Ivnnov & CIborrn, l998)whIch cnn bo cnIIod
¨ImµrovIsnfIon fnIonf¨wIfhIn n modIn fIrm.

Humnn rosourcos nro fundnmonfnI for n fIrm. A fIrm musf fhInk nbouf
fhoIr nIIocnfIon nnd suµµIy bocnuso noodod qunIIfIcnfIons nro nof
nvnIInbIo ovorywhoro nf nII fImos. AµµroµrInfo humnn rosourcos fond fo
bo scnrco doµondIng on qunIIfIcnfIons nnd on fho fIghfnoss of fho Inbor
mnrkof. ThIs scnrcIfy, whIch Is µosIfIvoIy corroInfod fo fho qunIIfIcnfIon
of µorsonnoI, cnn onIy bo brIdgod fhrough l) fho ncquIsIfIon of µorsonnoI
on fho oxfornnI or InfornnI Inbor mnrkof; 2) oducnfIon; nnd 3)
dovoIoµmonf of nof yof qunIIfIod omµIoyoos (IorfhoI, l99?; Ðrumm,
2005). ThIs roquIros fImo, so fhnf fho fIrm musf fhInk In ndvnnco nbouf
fho fyµo of qunIIfIcnfIons nnd fho numbor of µooµIo noodod In fho fufuro
fo µorform ns µInnnod. Af fho sfnrf uµ µhnso fhoro Is nIrondy n nood for
humnn rosourco µInnnIng. !nfor, growfh µrocossos usunIIy uncovor
µorsonnoI noods whIch hnvo fo bo µroIImInnry snfIsfIod fhrough
µInnnIng. ÐurIng downfurns, on fho confrnry, omµIoyoos nro movod fo
ofhor µosIfIons or dIsmIssod. Tho nognfIvo oconomIc nnd socInI
consoquoncos of bofh nIfornnfIvos cnn bo mIfIgnfod fhrough µInnnIng If
dIsmIssnIs nro µroµnrod In duo fImo. IInnnIng Is fhoroforo ono of fho
mosf Imµorfnnf funcfIons for mnnngIng humnn rosourcos. ÐocIsIons
roInfod fo humnn rosourco µInnnIng cnn bo dIfforonfInfod Info fIvo
dIfforonf fIoIds nccordIng fo fho scoµo of fho docIsIon: humnn rosourco
nood, humnn rosourco ncquIsIfIon, humnn rosourco dIsmIssnI, humnn
rosourco frnInIng nnd humnn rosourco dovoIoµmonf (IorfhoI, l99?;
Iuhnor, l994; Ðrumm, 2005). In fhIs nrfIcIo wo wIII conconfrnfo on fho
µInnnIng of humnn rosourco ncquIsIfIon, dovoIoµmonf nnd dIsmIssnI.
Thoso nro fho nrons fhnf nro moro dIrocfIy roInfod fo nnd nffocfod by
Irom fho µorsµocfIvo of humnn rosourco orIonfod frnnsncfIon cosf
fhoory, µorsonnoI µInnnIng Is n sof of µroµnrIng frnnsncfIons nImod nf
cIosIng n confrncf bofwoon fIrm nnd omµIoyoos (IIgIor, l996; Ðrumm,
2005). Tho frnnsncfIons occurrIng boforo cIosIng fho confrncf sorvo ns
µroµnrnfIon for n µossIbIy µorfocf confrncf: fho soIocfIon of µorsonnoI
wouId bo fho sfoµ µrocursory fo fho concIusIon of fho confrncf, whIIo
µorsonnoI ncquIsIfIon fho sfoµ boforo µorsonnoI soIocfIon. Irom n Inbor
confrncf µoInf of vIow, fho µrocursory sfoµ roµrosonfs n frnnsncfIon of
InIfInfIon, whIIo fho subsoquonf sfoµ n frnnsncfIon of suµorvIsIon. Tho
moro µrocIso nnd nµµroµrInfo fho frnnsncfIon of InIfInfIon Is oxocufod,
fho fowor frnnsncfIons of suµorvIsIon nnd orror corrocfIon wIII bo noodod
(IIcof, l982; WIIIInmson, l985; OochsIor, 2000). ThIs monns fhnf fho
hIghor fho frnnsncfIon cosfs roInfod fo InIfInfIon, fho Iowor fho cosfs
roInfod fo suµorvIsIon wIII bo. If fho fIrms frIos fo rocruIf omµIoyoos wIfh
fho dosIrod qunIIfIcnfIons fhrough nccurnfo ncquIsIfIon nnd soIocfIon
Dal Zotto

µrocossos (IIsIk, l992), fho µrobnbIIIfy docronsos fhnf n corrocfIon of fho
Inbor confrncf fhrough humnn rosourco dovoIoµmonf or dIsmIssnI musf
bo undorfnkon (Ðrumm, 2005). In gonornI, by gIvon frnnsncfIon rofurns,
fho sum of nII frnnsncfIon cosfs roInfod fo fho cIosIng of n Inbor confrncf
shouId bo mInImIzod.
IInnnIng humnn rosourco rodundnncIos hoIµs fo doformIno fho IovoI
of surµIus µorsonnoI nnd fo roduco If In n socInI nccoµfnbIo wny (Ðrumm
& SchoIz, l988). Irom n frnnsncfIon cosfs µoInf of vIow, fhIs µInnnIng
roµrosonfs n frnnsncfIon noodod fo ndnµf nn undofInod Inbor confrncf fo
non µrodIcfnbIo chnngos of fnsks nnd workIng Ionds In fho Iong run
(IIgIor, l996). Tho sonrch for omµIoymonf nIfornnfIvos for fho frood uµ
µorsonnoI cnusos fho so cnIIod frnnsncfIon cosfs of rodundnncy. Tho cosfs
roInfod fo roncfIvo rodundnncy monsuros nro Iow, ns dIsmIssnI Is fho
domInnnf nIfornnfIvo nnd fho µInnnIng offorfs cnn bo omIffod. Accruod
rodundnncy monsuros cnuso hIgh frnnsncfIon cosfs, fhough fhoso nro
nssocInfod wIfh µosIfIvo offocfs on socInI objocfIvos nnd on fho fIrm`s
roµufnfIon. Thoso offocfs cnn bo usod Infor on wIfhIn n mnrkofIng
frnmowork fo rocruIf µorsonnoI.
IInnnIng humnn rosourcos ncquIsIfIon nIIows fho fIrm fo mnko fho
roquIrod µorsonnoI nvnIInbIo whon noodod. In n brond sonso fhIs IncIudos
rocruIfIng, soIocfIon, hIrIng nnd frnInIng of µorsonnoI In fho now µosIfIon
(OochsIor, 2000; Ðrumm, 2005). Humnn rosourcos ncquIsIfIon mInImIzos
frnnsncfIon cosfs whon Ifs µInnnod µronrrnngomonf monsuros nro
mInImIzod. ThIs hnµµons whon µorsonnoI Is ncquIrod InfornnIIy. InfornnI
µorsonnoI ncquIsIfIon fnkos µInco fhrough µorsonnoI frnInIng nnd
dovoIoµmonf: fho fIrm buIIds uµ fho roquIrod cnµnbIIIfIos by IfsoIf.
Humnn rosourco dovoIoµmonf sorvos nIso ns fuIfIIImonf of IndIvIdunI
gonIs nnd ns InsfIfufIonnI nssorfIon of confInuous IonrnIng. Irom n
frnnsncfIon cosfs µoInf of vIow, µorsonnoI dovoIoµmonf roµrosonfs n
frnnsncfIon fhrough whIch nn undofInod Inbor confrncf musf bo fIIIod In
nffor concIusIon (IIgIor, l996). Accurnfo µInnnIng of humnn rosourco
noods nnd ncquIsIfIons cnn hoIµ fo sµocIfy fho Inbor confrncf. Tho moro
µrocIso fho Inbor confrncf, fho Iowor fho frnnsncfIon cosfs roInfod fo
µorsonnoI dovoIoµmonf.
Irom fhIs dIscussIon wo cnn concIudo fhnf humnn rosourco µInnnIng
Is crucInI whon consIdorIng µorsonnoI ns n crIfIcnI succoss fncfor. As In
hIghIy dynnmIc onvIronmonfs µInnnIng musf bo subsfIfufod or
comµIomonfod by ImµrovIsnfIon, fho succossfuI nµµIIcnfIon of bofh
µInnnIng nnd ImµrovIsnfIon doµonds on fho IondorshIµ nµµronch.

!ondorshIµ Is fyµIcnIIy dofInod by fho frnIfs, qunIIfIos, ns woII ns
bohnvIors of n Iondor, nnd Is Infondod fo InfIuonco foIIowors fo ncf gonI
orIonfod (IInko, Shoµnrd & Moufon, l964; IIodIor, l96?; Ðrnfh & InIus,
l994; Ðrumm, 2005). AccordIng fo onrIy nµµronchos fo fho concoµf,
mnnngors cnn oxhIbIf bohnvIors fhnf fnII Info fwo µrImnry cnfogorIos,
Journal of Media Business Studies

nnmoIy ¨concorn for µooµIo¨ nnd ¨concorn for oufµuf¨. ÐoµondIng on
whIch cnfogory wns shown mosf froquonfIy, fho IondorshIµ sfyIo couId bo
dofInod ns µooµIo orIonfod or fnsk orIonfod (IInko, Shoµord & Moufon,
l964; Iowors & Sonshoro, l966; !oddIn, l9?0; IInko & Moufon, l9?8;
Horsoy & IInnchnrd, l982). A Infor nµµronch fo nnsworIng fho quosfIon
nbouf fho bosf wny fo Iond donIf wIfh fho InforncfIon bofwoon fho Iondor`s
frnIfs, bohnvIors, nnd fho sIfunfIon In whIch fho Iondor oxIsfs. Thoso
confIngoncy fhoorIos mnko fho nssumµfIon fhnf fho offocfs of ono
vnrInbIo on IondorshIµ nro confIngonf on ofhor vnrInbIos (SnnI & KnIghf,
l988). Ior IondorshIµ fo bo succossfuI bofh fho Iondor`s sfyIo nnd fho
sIfunfIon musf bo ovnIunfod, nIong wIfh fho chnrncforIsfIcs of fho
foIIowors, nnd fhoy musf bo ndnµfod fo onch ofhor (ShnmIr, Houso &
Arfhur, l993; !ord, of nI., l999; HowoII & ShnmIr, 2005). Iurfhor,
cuIfuro mnnngomonf omorgos ns nn Imµorfnnf nsµocf of IondorshIµ.
!ondors shouId know nnd undorsfnnd whnf orgnnIznfIonnI cuIfuro Is nnd
modIfy If nccordIng fo fho noods of fho orgnnIznfIon ns If grows (Inron,
l995). MnnngIng cuIfuro InvoIvos osfnbIIshIng nn oxµIIcIf sfrnfogIc
dIrocfIon, communIcnfIng fhnf dIrocfIon, nnd dofInIng fho orgnnIznfIonnI
vIsIon nnd vnIuos. ThIs fnsk hns bocomo IncronsIngIy crIfIcnI. Tho
oconomy Is moro sorvIco orIonfnfod nnd Is shIffIng nwny from
mnnufncfurIng, whIIo fho workforco Is bocomIng oIdor nnd moro
ofhnIcnIIy dIvorso. Thoso mnssIvo chnngos In fho workforco, fho nnfuro of
work, nnd fho sfrucfuro of mosf orgnnIznfIons hnvo Iond fo nn
InformnfIon-bnsod oconomy whoro cnµIfnIIzIng on fho fnIonfs nnd
InfoIIocfunI µofonfInI of omµIoyoos bocomos IncronsIngIy Imµorfnnf for
orgnnIznfIonnI succoss (WIIson, of nI., l994). ComµofIfIon for hIghIy
oducnfod, fnIonfod µooµIo Is fhoroforo IncronsIng whIIo kooµIng µooµIo Is
n growIng chnIIongo: omµIoyoos domnnd monnIngfuI work nnd oxµocf
moro rosµonsIbIIIfy nnd nufonomy.
Iurfhormoro, fhoro Is n nood fo Incronso sµood nnd offIcIoncy.
OrgnnIznfIons nro boIng forcod fo movo fnsfor, nof onIy In forms of fnkIng
Idons fo fho mnrkof, buf nIso In rosµondIng quIckIy fo InfornnI nnd
oxfornnI chnngos. Tho mIndsof nnd skIII sof roquIrod for Iondors musf
fnko fhIs sIfunfIon Info nccounf. TurnIng from nn nufhorIfnrInn fo n moro
µnrfIcIµnfIvo IondorshIµ Is nof fho quosfIon. Tho koy Is fo Iook nf
IondorshIµ ns n µrocossrnfhor fhnn ns n concoµfIn whIch Iondors nro
nof soon ns IndIvIdunIs In chnrgo of foIIowors, buf ns mombors of n
communIfy of µrncfIco. A communIfy of µrncfIco Is dofInod ns ¨µooµIo
unIfod In n common onforµrIso who shnro n hIsfory nnd fhus corfnIn
vnIuos, boIIofs, wnys of fnIkIng, nnd wnys of doIng fhIngs¨ (Ðrnfh &
InIus, l994). ThIs dofInIfIon mny bo fhoughf of ns n vnrInfIon of
orgnnIznfIonnI cuIfuro. AccordIng fo fhIs vIow, IondorshIµ Is consIdorod
ns fho µrocoss of coordInnfIng offorfs nnd movIng fogofhor ns n grouµ.
ThIs grouµ mny IncIudo n Iondor. Howovor, fho grouµ mombors do nof
nood fo bo domInnfod. Insfond, ovoryono InvoIvod In fho ncfIvIfy Is
nssumod fo µIny nn ncfIvo roIo In IondorshIµ nccordIng fo fho oxµorfIso
ho/sho hns. SuccossfuI Iondors fhoroforo fnko on now nnd dIfforonf
rosµonsIbIIIfIos such ns conchIng, mofIvnfIng nnd mnnngIng roInfIons
Dal Zotto

oufsIdo fho grouµ (IIshor, l993; ÐnI Zoffo, 200l; Ðrumm, 2005). AIso, ns
omµIoyoos domnnd for moro rosµonsIbIIIfy, Iondors musf hoId vIsIons,
vnIuos, nssumµfIons, nnd µnrndIgms fhnf nro In ngroomonf wIfh hnvIng n
fonm-orIonfod, omµoworod workforco (Þygron & !ovIno, l995).
!ndorsfnndIng IondorshIµ ns nn ovoIvIng µrocoss monns InyIng fho
omµhnsIs on InfIuonco nnd suµµorffrom conchIng nnd frnInIng fo
dovoIoµIng n IonrnIng onvIronmonfrnfhor fhnn on dIrocfIng nnd
commnndIng bohnvIors.
Irom n frnnsncfIon cosfs µoInf of vIow by InfIuoncIng nnd corrocfIng
bohnvIors IondorshIµ confrIbufos fo fho oxocufIon of fnuIfy nnd
IncomµIofo Inbor confrncfs. Tho cosfs mInImIznfIon of fhIs frnnsncfIon
doµonds on fho IondorshIµ sIfunfIon (IIgIor, l996). Among fho sIfunfIonnI
vnrInbIos qunIIfIcnfIon, nufonomy nnd nbIIIfy fo Ionrn of fho workforco
hnvo n sµocInI offocf on fho comµnfIbIIIfy of IondorshIµ wIfh fho concoµfs
of doµondonco, µnrfIcIµnfIon nnd cooµornfIon ns woII ns nufonomy: fho
moro µosIfIvo fho vnIuo of fho sIfunfIonnI vnrInbIos, fho moro onsIIy fho
IondorshIµ concoµf of doµondonco cnn bo subsfIfufod by fhnf of
µnrfIcIµnfIon nnd µnrfIcIµnfIon by nufonomy (IorfhoI, l99?; Iuhnor,
l994; Ðrumm, 2005). Tho moro fhoso concoµfs nµµonI fo fho sIfunfIonnI
vnrInbIos, fho Iowor fho frnnsncfIon cosfs of suµorvIsIng nnd corrocfIng
IondorshIµ µorformnnco In cnso of n fnuIfy soIocfIon of fho IondorshIµ
concoµf (IIgIor, l996; Ðrumm, 2005). In n hIghIy dynnmIc onvIronmonf
such ns fho modIn Indusfry, wo cnn nssumo fhnf omµIoyoos work
roInfIvoIy IndoµondonfIy nnd musf fhoroforo hnvo hIgh qunIIfIcnfIons.
!ndor fhoso condIfIons µormnnonf nufonomous IonrnIng nnd soIf-
IondorshIµ cnn fncIIIfnfo cIosIng nnd oxocufIon of Inbor confrncfs In fho
fufuro. Thoroforo, n frnnsncfIon cosf mInImIzIng IondorshIµ wIfhIn fho
modIn Indusfry Is doµIcfod by n µrocoss movIng bofwoon fho concoµfs of
µnrfIcIµnfIon nnd nufonomy.
In fho foIIowIng socfIons fhroo cnso sfudIos fnkon from fho nowsµnµor
µubIIshIng socfor In Cormnny wIII bo omµIoyod fo moro sµocIfIcnIIy
nnnIyzo fho nµµIIcnbIIIfy of humnn rosourco mnnngomonf nnd IondorshIµ
concoµfs wIfhIn n hIghIy dynnmIc onvIronmonf. Tho cnso sfudIos nro
bnsod on In doµfh InforvIows wIfh oxocufIvos conducfod nf fho ond of
2003 nnd bogInnIng of 2004, ns woII ns nrchIvnI dnfn.


Organizational Structure of the Personnel Department and Type of
Tho nowsµnµor comµnny A (ÞIA) Is ono of sovornI comµnnIos wIfhIn n
Inrgor modIn µubIIshIng grouµ. Inch comµnny wIfhIn fho grouµ hns Ifs
own µorsonnoI doµnrfmonf wIfh n dIrocfor rosµonsIbIo for fho oµornfIng
ncfIvIfIos. !ndor fho doconfrnIIzod µorsonnoI doµnrfmonf fhoro nro
roforoos for humnn rosourcos. ThIs orgnnIznfIonnI sfrucfuro Is nof fyµIcnI
of fho modIn Indusfry. On fho confrnry, If rosombIos fho sfrucfuro of
Journal of Media Business Studies

hoIdIng grouµs. Tho ronson why If wns choson roInfos fo fho fncf fhnf In
fho µubIIshIng socfor oxocufIvos cnnnof nfford fo nccomµIIsh humnn
rosourco roInfod ncfIvIfIos.
WIfhIn ÞIA wo cnn dIsfInguIsh bofwoon fhroo dIfforonf fyµos of
omµIoyoos: fho odIforInI sfnff, fho µrInfIng µooµIo nnd fho ndmInIsfrnfIvo
sfnff. OnIy fho journnIIsfs wIII bo consIdorod horo ns fho ofhor fyµos do
nof roquIro much suµµorf. IdIforInI omµIoyoos nro cInssIfIod ns vorsnfIIo,
occnsIonnIIy chnofIc, IndIvIdunIIsfIc nnd hIghIy qunIIfIod for fhoIr job.
Thoy usunIIy work vory nufonomousIy: boIng fhnf journnIIsfs` InfoIIocfunI
nnd µrofossIonnI Indoµondonco vory hIgh, ÞIA nssorfs If In ordor fo bInd
fho bosf wrIfors fo fho comµnny. Mnny nufhors dofIno fhomsoIvos
µrImnrIIy ns nrfIsfs nnd fhon ns journnIIsfs. ThIs bocomos ovIdonf whon
odIforInI µorsonnoI rojocf workIng for fho rogIonnI Issuos of fho
nowsµnµor: fhoy consIdor fho job ns frIvInI. Tho chIof odIfor Is rosµonsIbIo
for doformInIng fho dnIIy µubIIshIng µrogrnm, whIch ho doos nof µorcoIvo
ns nn nufhorIfnrInn docIsIon. ÞovorfhoIoss fho chIof odIfor cnn IImIf fho
journnIIsfs` nufonomy If In fho Inforosf of fho nowsµnµor.
Tho Infornof journnIIsfs roµrosonf n sµocInI grouµ. Thoy nro
rosµonsIbIo for fIIIIng fho ÞIA`s wobsIfo wIfh nows nnd cufs from fho
nowsµnµor IfsoIf. Infornof odIforInI workors musf bo quIckor In fhoIr
roncfIons nnd hnvo hIghor ndnµfnfIon cnµnbIIIfIos comµnrod wIfh fho
nowsµnµor odIfors. Iurfhormoro, fhoy musf hnvo sµocIfIc qunIIfIcnfIons
fo µrosonf nows on fho nof. Thoy cnn nof fhoroforo bo subsfIfufod wIfh
nowsµnµor journnIIsfs.

Human Resources Planning
Ðuo fo n docronsIng domnnd for ndvorfIsIng, fho grouµ hns boon cIoso fo
InsoIvoncy. In fho Insf 5 yonrs, mnssIvo rosfrucfurIng monsuros,
IncIudIng fho dIsmIssnI of l000 omµIoyoos, woro fhoroforo undorfnkon.
Af µrosonf, µorsonnoI µInnnIng consIsfs moroIy of rodundnncy µInnnIng,
whIch shouId nIIow boffor mnnngomonf of InsoIvoncy fhronfs In fho
fufuro. Crowfh µInns nro oxcIudod for fho nonr fufuro. Tho InforvIowoos
ndmIf fhnf ÞIA doos nof hnvo n sysfomnfIc humnn rosourco µInnnIng.
Thoy nssorf fhough fhnf fhIs Is fyµIcnI for nII nowsµnµors nnd mngnzInos.

Human Resources Acquisition and Selection
In fho modIn Indusfry, nnd osµocInIIy In n IondIng dnIIy nowsµnµor,
journnIIsfs nro rocruIfod fhrough n sµocIfIc µrocoss. Thoy undorfnko n
voIunfnry sorvIco nnd nro hIrod ImmodInfoIy nffor comµIofIng fhIs. Toµ
journnIIsfs workIng for fho mnjor comµofIng nowsµnµors know onch ofhor
vory woII. If n µorson dIsfInguIshos hIm/horsoIf wIfh oufsfnndIng nrfIcIos
wIfhIn comµofIng nowsµnµors, fho chIof odIfor wouId nsk hor/hIm fo joIn
ÞIA. ThIs hIrIng sysfom Is fyµIcnI of nII bIg nowsµnµors nnd wookIy
µnµors. Tho comµofIng sfrnfogy fo fry fo kooµ odIforInI omµIoyoos
consIsfs of nssurIng fhom of fhoIr nood for Indoµondonco nnd rosµocfIng
fhom ns sµocInI µorsonnIIfIos. ComµonsnfIon Is Ioss Imµorfnnf for
journnIIsfs fhnn fho µossIbIIIfy fo nµµIy fhoIr µrofossIonnIIsm fo shnµo
Dal Zotto

fho nowsµnµor. ThIs cuIfuro of nufonomy hns boon ncknowIodgod ns
fyµIcnI for ÞIA.
CnndIdnfos nro soIocfod nccordIng fo fwo crIforIn: fho fIrsf ono Is
fhoIr oxµorfIso nnd µrofossIonnIIsm In wrIfIng, whIch usunIIy hns boon
nIrondy nofIcod by fho comµofIfIon. Tho socond crIforIon Is fho mnfchIng
wIfh fho orgnnIznfIonnI cuIfuro of ÞIA: oxocufIvos hnvo dofInod If ns
IndIvIdunIIsfIc, hIghIy µrofossIonnI ns woII ns nrfIsfIc nnd nufonomy
orIonfod. Iurfhormoro, ns µrofossIonnI confIIcfs bofwoon odIforInI
µorsonnoI nIwnys omorgo, now omµIoyoos nro nIso fosfod In fhoIr nbIIIfy
fo hnndIo confIIcfs nnd fo donI wIfh coIIonguos.
!ocruIfIng odIfors for fho rogIonnI Issuos roµrosonfs n µrobIom for
ÞIA ns nobody wnnfs fo go fo fho µrovInco. A furfhor µrobIom roInfos fo
fho fncf fhnf fho µrovIous focus on fho nowsµnµor ns n µroducf Is boIng
comµIomonfod by nn IncronsIng focus on cusfomors nnd fho mnrkof. ThIs
hns n dIrocf Imµncf on fho soIocfIon of humnn rosourcos.

Tho neuepoper µroducf nµµnronfIy roµrosonfs n mofIvnfIng fncfor for
journnIIsfs: fhIs Is n fyµIcnI oxnmµIo of InfrInsIc mofIvnfIon. AII hnvo n
hIgh µrofossIonnI Inforosf fo µroduco n good nowsµnµor whIch cusfomors
IIko nnd nµµrocInfo. Iocnuso of fho IndIvIdunIIsfIc nnfuro of odIforInI
omµIoyoos, fho µrncfIco of IondorshIµ Is IImIfod fo fho chIof odIfor. Ho
docIdos whIch µIocos nro IncIudod In fho nowsµnµor ovory dny nccordIng
fo fho µroµosnIs of fho dIfforonf journnIIsfs. Comµnrod fo foIovIsIon,
nowsµnµors hnvo n µroducfIon µrocoss bnsod on n sfrongor dIvIsIon of
Inbor, whIch onch journnIIsf Ionrns durIng hIs/hor frnInIng µorIod. ThIs
oxµorIonco onhnncos fho dovoIoµmonf of n nofworkod wny of fhInkIng ns
woII ns of InfrInsIc mofIvnfIon. Ðuo fo fho Inrgo numbor nnd vnrIofy of
subjocfs, chIof odIfors cnn coordInnfo ncfIvIfIos onIy on n frnmowork bnsIs
nnd wouId fnII If usIng nn nufhorIfnrInn sfyIo. ConfIIcfs on fho
sfrucfurIng of fho nowsµnµor nro n dnIIy Issuo nmong journnIIsfs.
!ondorshIµ fhrough dIscussIon nnd confIIcf soIvIng fhoroforo hoIµs fo
sfImuInfo InfrInsIc mofIvnfIon. Affomµfs fo Iond fhrough objocfIvos hnvo
fnIIod unfII now In ÞIA.

Human resource development
Humnn rosourco dovoIoµmonf doos nof fnko µInco In fhIs µnµor. Sfnff nro
frnInod buf If Is nof formnIIy offorod ns InfornnI dovoIoµmonf. AII
µossIbIo fochnIquos such ns wrIfIng wIfh n µoncII or usIng fho comµufor
nro nIIowod nnd If Is unIIkoIy fhnf fhIs wIII chnngo In fho nonr fufuro. A
sfrnfogIc orIonfnfIon of humnn rosourco roInfod Issuos hns boon omIffod
unfII now bocnuso of fho dIffIcuIfy of fho dnIIy busInoss. InforIng fho
Infornof Is nof soon ns hnvIng boon µnrfIcuInrIy succossfuI.

Journal of Media Business Studies

Humnn rosourco mnnngomonf nf ÞIA Is hIghIy InfIuoncod by fho
odIforInI ncfIvIfy. Tho ÞIA concoµf Is In fncf bnsod on n grouµ of woII
qunIIfIod IndIvIdunIIsfIc journnIIsfs who µroduco n vory good nowsµnµor,
whIch fhon hns fo fInd Ifs cusfomors ncross fho whoIo counfry (Cormnny).
Tho Idon of fho cusfomor focus InfIuoncIng fho shnµo of nn nrfIcIo Is nof
concoIvnbIo for ÞIA. IdIfors nro rocruIfod fhrough fho voIunfnry
µrogrnm buf In µnrfIcuInr fhrough hond-hunfIng ncfIvIfIos. Thoy nro
nfforwnrds mofIvnfod fo sfny by grnnfIng fhom nufonomy of ncfIon.
AcquIsIfIon µInnnIng nnd soIocfIon of odIfors for rogIonnI Issuos Is
mIssIng, buf If Is nocossnry ns fow wnnf fo fnko on fhnf job. !ondorshIµ
oxIsfs onIy In fho form of frnmowork orIonfod coordInnfIon by fho chIof
odIfor. As n rosuIf, wo cnn sny fhnf fho sIzo of fho comµnny nnd fho
sµocIfIc µroducf cuIfuro sfrongIy InfIuonco humnn rosourco mnnngomonf
nnd IondorshIµ nf ÞIA.

Organizational Structure of the Personnel Department and Type of

Tho humnn rosourco doµnrfmonf boIongs fo fho sorvIcos dIvIsIon wIfhIn
nowsµnµor I (ÞII) nnd If sIfs dIrocfIy undor fho oxocufIvo bonrd. Tho
hond of fho doµnrfmonf hns fwo nssIsfnnfs who µrocoss confrncfs nnd
nµµIIcnfIons, nnd oIghf nssIsfnnfs who nro In chnrgo of fho µnyroII
nccounfIng. Tho concoµfunI work Is fho rosµonsIbIIIfy of fho doµnrfmonf
hond. Tho humnn rosourco µoIIfIcs hnvo nIwnys boon InfIuoncod by fho
ownor of fho µubIIshIng comµnny.
Humnn rosourcos In fho comµnny nro vory hoforogonoous. Tho mosf
InforosfIng fyµos of µorsonnoI nro fho journnIIsfs nnd fho omµIoyoos In
fho sorvIco doµnrfmonf: fhoso nro mosf InfIuoncod by fho dynnmIc of fho
Indusfry nnd fho busInoss IfsoIf. IdIforInI omµIoyoos soo fhomsoIvos ns
nrfIsfs nnd hnvo n sfrong fIo fo fho µoIIfIcnI nnd IocnI dnIIy ovonfs.
JournnIIsfs µnrfIcIµnfo sfrongIy In fho comµnny µrocossos. Thoy hnvo n
hIgh oducnfIonnI IovoI nnd Ionrn In nn nufodIdncfIc wny. ThIs Is ono of
fho ronsons why fhoro nro nof mnny humnn rosourco dovoIoµmonf offors
for fhom. IdIforInI omµIoyoos IIko fo fnko on rIsks nnd nro nof µInnnIng
orIonfod. Thoro Is n now frond soon In fho journnIIsfs` job: fhoy hnvo
bocomo moro gonornIIsfs nnd sfoµµod donIIng onIy wIfh fhoIr sµocInI
nrons of Inforosf. Tho nrchIvos of fho µubIIshIng comµnny roµrosonf n
good IonnIng bnso for fhom.
Indusfry µocuIInrIfIos wIfhIn fho humnn rosourco doµnrfmonf nrIso
from fho dynnmIc of fho mnrkof, fho voInfIIIfy of fho µroducfs nnd fho
µroducf sµocIfIc rIsks of fho Indusfry. Tho cIonr sfrucfuro of fho
doµnrfmonf nIIows n gonI orIonfod offor of humnn rosourco roInfod
monsuros. ThIs confrIbufos fo roduco or nf Ionsf confroI fho chnos
govornod by nn nrfIsf orIonfod cuIfuro.
Dal Zotto

Humun Reoource Plunning

IInnnIng µrobIoms couId dorIvo from fho rIsks roInfod fo fho ncquIsIfIon
of odIfors ns woII ns of fochnIcnI µooµIo. !nfII now fhoso rIsks couId bo
sfrongIy roducod by fho µInnnIng of humnn rosourcos ncquIsIfIon. Ior
odIforInI omµIoyoos, fho rIsks of fnuIfy µorsonnoI ncquIsIfIons couId bo
roducod by roquIrIng fho comµIofIon of n voIunfnry µrogrnm µrIor fo
omµIoymonf. As for fho soIocfIon of humnn rosourcos, fho comµnny usos
nssossmonf confor fochnIquos. WIfhIn fho IogIsfIcs dIvIsIon, µorsonnoI
µInnnIng Is roInfIvoIy onsy nnd doµonds on fho numbor of subscrIµfIons.

Human Resources Acquisition and Selection
IorsonnoI ncquIsIfIon Is fncIIIfnfod by fho voIunfnry µrogrnm. Tho
comµnny roIIos nIso on fho boIIof fhnf noodod sfnff wIII bo onsIIy rocruIfod
In fho fufuro.

IocuIInrIfIos nrIso onIy whon consIdorIng odIforInI omµIoyoos. !nfII fIvo
yonrs ngo fho ownors of fho µubIIshIng comµnny sfrongIy InfIuoncod
ÞII, whIch wns chnrncforIzod by n Inck of formnI orgnnIznfIonnI nnd
IondorshIµ sfrucfuros. Thoso uncIonr ruIos hnvo now boon subsfIfufod
wIfh n cIonr sfrucfuro of nufhorIfIos/rosµonsIbIIIfIos. Tho mosf Imµorfnnf
IondorshIµ Insfrumonf usod hns bocomo mnnngomonf by objocfIvos, wIfh
n sfrong focus on cusfomors.
IInnncInI µrobIoms nro now In fho comµnny nnd nroso from
docronsIng ndvorfIsIng rofurns nnd docIInIng snIos fIguros (In consfnnf
forms). Tho InfroducfIon of n cusfomor focus nnd of n cIonr orgnnIznfIonnI
sfrucfuro roquIrod fho ndnµfnfIon of nII omµIoyoos fo fhIs now soffIng.
ThIs wns ronchod fhrough bofh µooµIo nnd fnsk orIonfod IondorshIµ. Tho
comµnny undorsfood fhnf rondors` noods nro crucInI for fho succoss of fho
µroducfs. As n consoquonco fho comµnny bognn fo orIonf fho omµIoyoos,
nnd osµocInIIy fho journnIIsfs, fownrd fhIs now objocfIvo. ThIs
roµrosonfod n chnngo In nµµronch bocnuso unfII 5 fo 6 yonrs ngo, fho
journnIIsfs fhoughf fhnf n good nowsµnµor wns mndo fIrsf for fhomsoIvos
nnd fhnn for fho cusfomors.
Tho cusfomor focus hns Iod fo now roquIromonfs In forms of
IondorshIµ. Ono of fho mosf succossfuI Insfrumonfs furnod ouf fo bo fho
sµocIfIcnfIon of nnd ngroomonf on objocfIvos whIch nIIowod fho comµnny
fo nnrrow down fho Indusfry sµocIfIc bohnvIornI chnos of fho omµIoyoos.
IdIfors hnvo bocomo moro nnd moro fho suµorIors of frooInncors. ThIs
now fnsk fIrsf hnd fo bo fnughf fo fho odIforInI sfnff. !ondorshIµ wns
rognrdod ns fo bo µooµIo orIonfod nnd nof nf nII nufhorIfnrInn.
AufhorIfnrInn IondorshIµ wouId bo IncomµnfIbIo wIfh fho soIf concoµfIon
of fho journnIIsfs.

Journal of Media Business Studies

Human Resource Development
Ior fho odIforInI omµIoyoos, µorsonnoI dovoIoµmonf Is bnsod on
rosµonsIbIo, nufodIdncfIc µrofossIonnI frnInIng. Iurfhor, dovoIoµmonf
noods nro covorod fhrough sµocIfIc somInnrs nnd ofhor InfornnI nnd
oxfornnI offorIngs. Subjocfs of fho somInnrs hnvo boon, for Insfnnco,
cusfomor nnnIysIs fo Incronso snIo succoss nnd odIforInI covorngo of ÞII.
TochnIcnI somInnrs on wrIfIng sfyIo nnd Inyouf fochnIquos hnvo nIso
offorod fo fho odIforInI sfnff. Ior omµIoyoos In fho IogIsfIcs nnd snIo
dIvIsIons somInnrs covor snIo frnInIng, modIn roInfod µrobIoms ns woII ns
cIrcuInfIon dImonsIons nnd comµufor frnInIng.
In gonornI wo cnn sny fhnf µorsonnoI dovoIoµmonf Is Imµorfnnf for n
cnrroor µnfh wIfhIn fho comµnny. Tho chnngo fownrds cusfomor focus
hns gonornfod n sfrong dovoIoµmonf/frnInIng nood nof onIy for
journnIIsfs buf nIso for µooµIo workIng In fho IogIsfIcs nnd snIo dIvIsIons.

In confrnsf fo ÞIA, humnn rosourco mnnngomonf nf ÞII Is sfrongIy
InfIuoncod by fho cusfomor focus. !nfII 5 yonrs ngo fho comµnny couId
oµornfo wIfhouf n formnI orgnnIznfIonnI sfrucfuro nnd IondorshIµ. Þow,
ÞII frIos fo mnnngo journnIIsfs fhrough ngroomonf on objocfIvos, so
fhnf µroducfs nro mndo nccordIng fo cusfomor noods. ÐosµIfo fho moro
dovoIoµmonfnI nµµronch fo omµIoyoos, fhoro Is no sysfomnfIc µInnnIng of
fhnf dovoIoµmonf nnd sfrnfogIc nµµronchos fo humnn rosourco
mnnngomonf nro mIssIng.

Case 3
Organizational Structure of the Personnel Department and Type of
AII µroducf fyµos wIfhIn fho nowsµnµor µubIIshor C (ÞIC) nro orgnnIzod
In µrofIf confors, wIfh n confrnI unIf µrovIdIng humnn rosourco
mnnngomonf sorvIcos such ns nccounfIng, humnn rosourco dovoIoµmonf,
Inbor rIghfs nnd socInI sysfom consuIfIng nnd µrocossIng. !ndor fhIs
confrnI unIf somo roforoos nro µosIfIonod, onch of whom suµorvIsos 250
omµIoyoos. Thoy work nf nn oµornfIvo IovoI covorIng nII humnn rosourco
mnnngomonf roInfod fIoIds nnd consuIfIng fho chIofs of fho dIfforonf
doµnrfmonfs. SfrnfogIc humnn rosourco mnnngomonf Is n fnsk for fho
bonrd of dIrocfors.
Aµnrf from fho µorsonnoI workIng for fho µrInfIng doµnrfmonf fhoro
nro onIy fho journnIIsfs nnd fho snIos omµIoyoos. Imµorfnnf
chnrncforIsfIcs of odIforInI omµIoyoos wIfhIn µrInf modIn nroIIko In fho
ÞIA nnd ÞII cnsosIndIvIdunIIsm, µrofossIonnIIsm, confInuous
IonrnIng µrocossos, nnd coIInbornfIon cnµnbIIIfIos. A modo sµocIfIc
qunIIfIcnfIon Is roquosfod of journnIIsfs workIng for fho onIIno odIfIons of
µrInf modIn. Iocnuso confonf Is µorcoIvod dIfforonfIy onIIno, odIfors musf
nof onIy bo nbIo fo mnnngo now fochnoIogIos buf nIso fo brIng
Dal Zotto

comµIIcnfod confonf down fo ono sImµIo µoInf. Iurfhor, fhoy musf
Inforncf wIfh modIn usors. Thoso fwo fyµos of odIforInI workorsµrInf
modIn nnd onIIno modInnro vory dIfforonf nnd fho oxchnngo of
comµofoncos bofwoon fhom Is dIffIcuIf.
ImµIoyoos In fho snIos doµnrfmonf musf, on fho ofhor hnnd, hnvo
socInI nnd communIcnfIon cnµnbIIIfIos. ThIs doµonds on fho IncronsIng
dynnmIc of fho sIngIo nowsµnµor mnrkofs, fogofhor wIfh fho chnngos of
rondors` chnrncforIsfIcs fo whIch fho fIrm musf InfornnIIy rosµond.

Human Resource Planning
IorsonnoI µInnnIng µrobIoms nro cnusod by fho domogrnµhIc
dovoIoµmonf In Cormnny. !sunIIy fho modIn Indusfry omµIoys young
µooµIo who wIII bocomo n scnrco rosourco In fho fufuro. !ImIfs nro soon
nIso In fho rocruIfmonf of mnnngomonf omµIoyoos. In ordor fo µrovonf
fhoso µrobIoms fho comµnny frIos fo buIId uµ ncquIsIfIon µofonfInI:
InforosfIng nowsµnµors, InforosfIng jobs, uso of own modIn nnd modIn
comµofoncos In µorsonnoI mnrkofIng ncfIvIfIos fo oxµIoIf fho whoIo
µofonfInI of womon nnd of fho fow oIdor omµIoyoos wIfhIn fho fIrm. In
fhIs dIrocfIon goos fho ¨Work-IIfo-bnInnco InIfInfIvo¨.

Human Resources Acquisition and Selection
IdIforInI omµIoyoos nro usunIIy rocruIfod from ofhor µnµors wIfhIn fho
µubIIshIng comµnny or from fho comµofIfors fhrough hondhunfors.
Hondhunfors nro chIof odIfors who nIrondy know fho cnndIdnfos nnd
fhoIr work. Iurfhor, cuIfurnI vnIuos musf bo In IIno wIfh fhoso of fho
rocruIfIng comµnny. Tho voIunfnry µrogrnm Is nIso nn Imµorfnnf humnn
rosourco mnnngomonf fooI. InfornnIIy omµIoyoos nro fhon rocruIfod for
vorfIcnI cnroor µnfhs moro fhnn for horIzonfnI onos. WIfh rognrd fo fho
snIos µorsonnoI, Infornof nnd job mnrkof µorfnIs hnvo roµIncod fho
ndvorfIsomonfs on µrInf modIn. HIghor µosIfIons nro covorod by
rocruIfmonf ncfIons fhrough n nofwork of oxfornnI hond hunfors.
SoIocfIon µrocossos forosoo fho nnnIysIs of currIcuIn vIfno ns woII ns
InforvIows, nnd nssossmonf confors If moro µooµIo musf bo rocruIfod nf
fho snmo fImo.

As ÞIC Is sfrucfurod In µrofIf confors, fho dIrocfors of ovory sIngIo fIfIo
wIfhIn fho µubIIshIng comµnny nro rosµonsIbIo for nchIovIng µrofIf. If
µrofIf Is nof nchIovod fho fIfIo nnd ovonfunIIy fho roInfod doµnrfmonf nro
cIosod down. ThIs µrofIf orIonfnfIon InfIuoncos Iondors` bohnvIor fownrds
fhoIr omµIoyoos. JournnIIsfs nro mnnngod by chIof odIfors nnd
doµnrfmonf dIrocfors. Howovor, wIfhIn onch fIfIo fhoro Is n vory cIonr
orgnnIznfIonnI sfrucfuro nnd hIornrchIcnI dIvIsIon of comµofoncos nnd
rosµonsIbIIIfIos. ThIs hns roquIrod fho comµnny fo Infroduco nn oxfonsIvo
communIcnfIon nnd dIscussIon cuIfuro. WIfh rognrd fo fho nµµIIcnfIon of
formnI IondorshIµ nµµronchos fho humnn rosourco mnnngomonf
Journal of Media Business Studies

doµnrfmonf nnd fho roforoos cnn ndvIso chIof odIfors nnd doµnrfmonf
dIrocfors. Thoso cnn fhough docIdo how fhoy µrofor.

Human Resource Development
Tho chnIIongo Is roµrosonfod by InforncfIvIfy nnd cross muIfImodIn
ncfIvIfIos. ModIn sµocIfIc dovoIoµmonf coursos nro offorod onIy fo youngor
odIforInI omµIoyoos nnd voIunfoors. OIdor journnIIsfs nro usod fo IIfo Iong
frnInIng, fhus fhoy onIy nccoµf frnInIng offors roInfod fo comµufor nnd
fochnoIogy usngo.

Cross modIn nnd InforncfIvIfy nro µorcoIvod by ÞIC ns sfrnfogIc
chnIIongos fhnf roquIro nµµroµrInfo humnn rosourco rocruIfmonf,
frnInIng nnd dovoIoµmonf. Tho dynnmIc of fho mnrkof Ionds fhough nof
onIy fo humnn rosourco buf nIso fo orgnnIznfIonnI dovoIoµmonf nnd
fhoroforo fo fho oxµnnsIon of fho comµnny sfrucfuro. Ior onch now fIfIo n
now orgnnIznfIonnI unIf Is cronfod. ThIs unIf musf bocomo µrofIfnbIo
wIfhIn fho foIIowIng 4 yonrs ofhorwIso If wIII bo shuf down. ConcornIng
now modIn ÞIC boIIovos If hns dovoIoµod cuffIng odgo ncfIvIfIos nnd
fhoroforo buIIf uµ n comµnrnfIvo comµofIfIvo ndvnnfngo. WookIy nnd
monfhIy fIfIos roµrosonf fho coro of fho busInoss for ÞIC, fhoroforo
uµdnfIng µrossuro nnd mnrkof voInfIIIfy nro nof so hIgh comµnrod fo
fhoso of dnIIy nowsµnµors. AII µroducfs nro nIso woII µosIfIonod wIfhIn
fhoIr mnrkof sogmonfs, so fhnf fho comµnny Is fryIng fo frnnsfor Ifs
nnfIonnI µroducf know-how fo InfornnfIonnI mnrkofs. ThIs sooms fo bo
succossfuI so fnr. IInnIIy, fho concorn for socInI rosµonsIbIIIfy dIrocfIy
InfIuoncos fho rocruIfmonf of odIfors nnd fho choson IondorshIµ

Irom fho nnnIysIs of fhoso fhroo cnso sfudIos wo cnn sny fhnf ovon If
humnn rosourco µInnnIng hns boon dIsrognrdod wIfhIn modIn fIrms unfII
now, If Is bocomIng nIwnys moro roIovnnf. ÞIA roconfIy Infroducod
rodundnncIos µInnnIng, nffor n fhronfonIng InsoIvoncy sIfunfIon rosuIfod
In n Inrgo numbor of omµIoyoos boIng InId-off. In fho cnso of ÞII, fho
µInnnIng of qunIIfnfIvo nnd qunnfIfnfIvo humnn rosourco nood Is
consfnnfIy ndjusfod nnd uµdnfod. ÞIC hns rocognIzod fho Imµorfnnco of
µorsonnoI µInnnIng In ordor fo buIId uµ ncquIsIfIon µofonfInI. As for
humnn rosourco ncquIsIfIon nnd soIocfIon, µInnnIng nnd orgnnIzod
nµµronchos nro usunIIy omIffod wIfhIn fho modIn Indusfry. Through fho
voIunfnry µrogrnm fho rIsks of fnuIfy ncquIsIfIons nro IImIfod, whIIo foµ
journnIIsfs nro rocruIfod dIrocfIy from comµofIfors. If fhoroforo nµµonrs
fhnf fho Imµorfnnco of voIunfnry µrogrnms docronsos wIfh nn IncronsIng
IovoI of fho nowsµnµor. IorsonnoI dovoIoµmonf Is nof rognrdod ns n form
of IndIrocf ncquIsIfIon nf oIfhor ÞIA or ÞII. OnIy In fho IogIsfIcs nnd
Dal Zotto

snIos dIvIsIon hns ÞII rocognIzod fhnf offorIng nµµroµrInfo frnInIng
somInnrs fo onhnnco fho cusfomor focus hns boon succossfuI. Ior ÞIC
µorsonnoI dovoIoµmonf µInys n confrnI roIo In ordor for fho fIrm fo moof
fho cross-modIn nnd InforncfIvIfy chnIIongos of fho mnrkof. !ondorshIµ
hns fnkon fho form of soIf IondorshIµ bofh nf ÞIA nnd ÞIC, ns soon In
fho nufonomy gIvon fo fho omµIoyoos. In confrnsf, nf ÞII, humnn
rosourcos nro Iod fhrough mnnngomonf by objocfIvos ncfIvIfIos.
Irom n frnnsncfIon cosfs µoInf of vIow, modIn fIrms cnn omIf
µorsonnoI dovoIoµmonf nnd rodundnncy µInnnIng If fhrough fho
voIunfnry µrogrnm or hond hunfIng fhoy hIro onIy fhoso omµIoyoos who
µrovod fo bo µrofossIonnI nnd nof fnr romovod from fho orgnnIznfIonnI
cuIfuro. In fhIs wny fho rIsks of wrong ncquIsIfIons cnn bo mInImIzod
fogofhor wIfh fho frnnsncfIon cosfs roInfod fo fho InfroducfIon of
corrocfIng monsuros for fho oxocufIon of IncomµIofo Inbor confrncfs In fho
form of furfhor frnInIng or dIsmIssnIs. Howovor, fho ncquIsIfIon µrocoss
for foµ journnIIsfs cnn µrosonf n µrobIom: If comµnnIos fry fo hIro fho
bosf journnIIsfs from fhoIr comµofIfors, comµofIfors fry fo kooµ fhoIr bosf
omµIoyoos. ThIs form of µorsonnoI ncquIsIfIon cnn fhoroforo bo rIsky nnd
Iond fho fIrm fo n comµofIfIvo dIsndvnnfngo whon humnn rosourco noods
nnd ncquIsIfIons hnvo boon wrongIy µInnnod or nof µInnnod nf nII. As
odIforInI omµIoyoos hnvo sµocIfIc nnd nof onsIIy ncquIrnbIo qunIIfIcnfIons,
If wouId mnko sonso for n nowsµnµor fIrm fo µursuo n sysfomnfIc
µInnnIng nf Ionsf for fhIs cnfogory of omµIoyoos. IInnIIy, nII fhroo
comµnnIos hnvo ndnµfod fho IondorshIµ concoµf fo fho sIfunfIonnI
vnrInbIos such ns fho omµIoyoos` qunIIfIcnfIon, Indoµondonco, nnd nbIIIfy
fo Ionrn. Iocnuso of fho domInnfIng cuIfuro of nufonomy, ÞIA doos
wIfhouf IondorshIµ. Tho snmo hnµµons nf ÞIC: fho comµnny roµrosonfs
n fIfIo wIfhIn n µubIIshIng grouµ, buf nf orgnnIznfIonnI IovoI If hns no
cIonr dIvIsIon of rosµonsIbIIIfIos. Thoso nro fwo InforosfIng oxnmµIos of
soIf IondorshIµ. In ordor fo sfImuInfo omµIoyoos fo bo cusfomor orIonfod,
ÞII nµµIIos IondorshIµ In fho form of mnnngomonf by objocfIvos. ThIs Is
n corrocfIng monsuro ÞII hns fnkon fo comµIofo n Inbor confrncf In
whIch fho cusfomor orIonfnfIon wns nof forosoon. Of courso, fhIs monsuro
cnusos frnnsncfIon cosfs. Howovor, ns fho hond of humnn rosourcos Is
nIso fho frnInor, frnnsncfIon cosfs cnn bo mInImIzod.

Tho oxµocfnfIons rognrdIng µorsonnI µInnnIng nnd dovoIoµmonf sfnfo nf
fho bogInnIng of fhIs nrfIcIo woro borno ouf In fho cnsos sfudIod. Tho
hourIsfIc nnnIysIs of fho fhroo cnsos hnvo shown fhnf µorsonnoI µInnnIng
In modIn fIrms Is sfrongIy InfIuoncod by fho sµocIfIc chnrncforIsfIcs of fho
Indusfry nnd osµocInIIy by Ifs µroducfs. SfrnfogIc µorsonnoI µInnnIng
sooms fo mnko sonso buf musf bo nccomµnnIod by fho Iondors`
ImµrovIsnfIon fnIonf. Tho foIIowIng hyµofhosIs cnn bo dorIvod from fhoso

Journal of Media Business Studies

l. µorsonnoI µInnnIng mnkos sonso nIso for modIn fIrms, ovon If
fhoy nro nof µrncfIcIng If nf fho momonf;

2. If n fIrm usos Indusfry sµocIfIc ncquIsIfIon monsuros, If cnn omIf
µorsonnoI dovoIoµmonf µInnnIng nnd roduco fho roInfod
frnnsncfIon cosfs: fho rocruIfod omµIoyoos nIrondy hnvo nII
roquIrod qunIIfIcnfIons nnd nro InfrInsIcnIIy mofIvnfod so fhnf
µorsonnoI dovoIoµmonf cnn bnso on rosµonsIbIo, nufodIdncfIc

3. Tho shorf form nnfuro of fho busInoss domInnfos µorsonnoI
µInnnIng nnd bIocks fho dovoIoµmonf of n sfrnfogIc µorsµocfIvo on
humnn rosourco roInfod Issuos. If omµIoyoos, ns oxµocfod for fho
fufuro, wIII hnvo fo hnvo vory sµocIfIc qunIIfIcnfIons nnd Incronsos
In fIrm sIzo roquIros IncronsIng numbor of µormnnonf omµIoyoos,
fhon µorsonnoI ncquIsIfIon, dovoIoµmonf nnd rodundnncy
µInnnIng wIII bo nocossnry nIso In modIn fIrms;

4. If qunIIfIcnfIon, nufonomy nnd Indoµondonco ns sIfunfIonnI
vnrInbIos In modIn fIrms nro µosIfIvoIy dovoIoµod, fhon
IondorshIµ shouId movo nwny from n doµondoncy fo n
µnrfIcIµnfIon or nufonomy concoµf In ordor fo mInImIzo
frnnsncfIon cosfs;

5. In ordor fo Infroduco cusfomor orIonfnfIon n combInnfIon of
µooµIo nnd fnsk orIonfod IondorshIµ Is noodod. ThIs IondorshIµ
nµµronch Is mosf offocfIvo whon fho Iondor Is chnrIsmnfIc nnd
shnros wIfh hIs foIIowors fho snmo vIsIon nnd vnIuos;

6. fho moro qunIIfIod nnd InfrInsIcnIIy mofIvnfod fho omµIoyoos, fho
moro IondorshIµ cnn furn fo n soIf-IondorshIµ nµµronch;

?. Mnnngomonf of frooInncors wIII bo n frnInIng subjocf for Iondors
In fho fufuro osµocInIIy In smnII nnd modIum modIn fIrms, whoro
fho numbor of frooInncors Is nf fho hIghosf.

ThIs fhoorofIcnIIy bnsod sfudy shouId hoIµ Imµrovo comµrohonsIon of
humnn rosourco mnnngomonf nnd IondorshIµ Issuos wIfhIn modIn fIrms.
Tho smnII omµIrIcnI snmµIo from whIch fho hyµofhosos hnvo boon
dorIvod couId sfImuInfo furfhor omµIrIcnI sfudIos on fhIs InforosfIng buf
nof yof dooµIy nnnIyzod chnIIongo. In nny cnso, fho concIusIons drnwn
from fho nowsµnµor Indusfry cnsos susfnIn fho nssumµfIon fhnf furfhor
µocuIInrIfIos of humnn rosourco mnnngomonf nnd, In µnrfIcuInr,
IondorshIµ nµµronchos wouId bo IdonfIfIod, In ofhor socfors such ns
foIovIsIon, rndIo, books nnd o-busInoss,

Dal Zotto

Inron, A. (l995). CoIng µubIIc wIfh sfudIos on cuIfuro mnnngomonf, Pereonnel
Monogenen/, l(l9), 60.

Ionkorf, W. (2002). IorsonnImnnngomonf funkfIonIorf frndIfIonoII nnch Cufshorronnrf,
IorIchf ubor dor l. Inchfngung zur IorsonnIonfwIckIung In dor ModIonbrnncho, Im
Infornof: hffµ://µubIIknfIonon/m/2002/l_2/28.hfmI, 20.06.2002.

IorfhoI, J. (l99?). Pereonol-Monogenen/, GrünJcüge cur Koncep/ion Ie/rieIlicler
PereonolorIei/. Schnffor/IooschoI, Sfuffgnrf.

IInko, !.!. & Moufon, J.S. (l9?8). Tle neu nonogeriol griJ. Housfon.

IInko, !.!., Shoµnrf, H.A. & Moufon, J.S. (l964). Monoging in/ergroup conflic/ in inJue/r,,

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