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1 Prof.

Z Ghassemlooy
Optical Fibre Communication
Systems
Professor Z Ghassemlooy
Electronics & It Division
School of Engineering
Sheffield Hallam University
U.K.
www.shu.ac.uk/ocr
Lecture 4 - Detectors & Receivers
2 Prof. Z Ghassemlooy
Contents
§ Properties and Characteristics
§ Types of Photodiodes
§ PIN
§ APD
§ Receivers
§ Noise Sources
§ Performance
§ SNR
§ BER
3 Prof. Z Ghassemlooy
Photodetection - Definition
iIt converts the optical energy into an electrical
current that is then processed by electronics to
recover the information.
Detection Techniques
• Thermal Effects
• Wave Interaction Effects
• Photon Effects
4 Prof. Z Ghassemlooy
Photodiode - Characteristics
An electronics device, whose vi-characteristics is sensitive to the
intensity of an incident light wave.
• Small dark current due to:
• leakage
• thermal excitation
• Quantum efficiency
(electrons/photons)
• Responsivity
P
o
Dark current
V
I
Forward-biased
“Photovoltic”
operation
Reverse-biased ü
“photoconductive”
operation
Short-circuit
“photoconductive”
operation
5 Prof. Z Ghassemlooy
Photodetector - Types
iThe most commonly used photodetectors in optical
communications are:
– Positive-Intrinsic-Negative (PIN) a
• No internal gain
• Low bias voltage [10-50 V @λ = 850 nm, 5-15 V @λ = 1300 –1550 nm]
• Highly linear
• Low dark current
• Most widely used
– Avalanche Photo-Detector (APD)
• Internal gain (increased sensitivity)
• Best for high speed and highly sensitive receivers
• Strong temperature dependence
• High bias voltage[250 V @ λ = 850 nm, 20-30 V @λ = 1300 –1550 nm]
• Costly
6 Prof. Z Ghassemlooy
Photodiode (PIN) - Structure
p n
electron
hole
I
Depletion
region
• No carriers in the I region
• No current flow
• Reverse-biased
• Photons generated electron-hole pair
• Current flow through the diode
p n
electron
hole I
Photons
R
L
(load
resistor)
Output
I
o
Bias voltage
7 Prof. Z Ghassemlooy
Reponsivity
PIN: APD:
R = I
o
/P
o
A/W R
APD
= G R
I
o
= Photocurrent
P
o
= Incident(detected) optical power
G = APD gain
η = Quantum efficiency
= average number of electron-hole pairs emitted r
e
/ average
number of incident photons r
p
Note: r
p
= P
o
/hf and I
o
= ηqP
o
/hf
Thus R = qη/hf
η = 99% ~ 1
8 Prof. Z Ghassemlooy
Photodiode Responsivities
G Keiser , 2000
iSilicon (Si)
– Least expensive
iGermanium (Ge)
– “Classic” detector
iIndium gallium
arsenide (InGaAs)
– Highest speed
9 Prof. Z Ghassemlooy
Photodiode - Equivalent Circuit
C
T
= C
j
+ C
amp
R
T
= R
j
|| R
L
|| R
amp
The detector behaves approximately like a first
order RC low-pas filter with a bandwidth of:
T T
R C
B
π
·
2
1
Photodiode
Contact leads
R
s
L
R
L
R
j
C
j
I
o
R
s
= Small, (i.e s/c) L = Large, (i.e o/c)
Amplifier
R
amp
C
amp
Output
10 Prof. Z Ghassemlooy
Photodiode Pulse Responses
G Keiser , 2000
• At low bias levels rise and fall times are different. Since photo
collection time becomes significant contributor to the rise time.
11 Prof. Z Ghassemlooy
Photodiode Pulse Responses
G Keiser , 2000
w = depletion layer
α
s
= absorption coefficient
Small area photodiode
Large area photodiode
Small area photodiode
Due to carrier generated in w
Due to diffusion of carrier from the edge of w
12 Prof. Z Ghassemlooy
Photodiodes – Typical Characteristics
0.1-0.5 0.06-0.5 0.5-0.8 0.1-0.5 0.1-2 0.5-1 Rise time (ns)
1-5 - 10-500 50-500 0.1-1 1-10 Dark current (nA)
<30 5 20-35 6-10 220 45-100 Bias voltage (-V)
2-5
55-75
2.5-25
2-5
50-55
0.5-0.65
800-1800
1550 1300
Ge
PIN APD
0.1-0.5 0.5-2 1.3-2 1.2-3 Capacitance (pF)
60-70 60-70 77 65-90
Quantum
Efficiency (%)
- 0.5-0.7 50-120 0.35-
0.55
Responsivity
(A/W)
900-1700
1300 1300
(1550) (1550)
400-1100
900 830
Wavelength range
Peak
(nm)
InGaAS
PIN APD
Si
PIN APD
Parameters
Source: R. J. Hoss
13 Prof. Z Ghassemlooy
Minimum Received Power
• Is a measure of receiver sensitivity defined for a specific:
• Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR),
• Bit error Rate (BER),
• Bandwidth (bit rate),
at the receiver output.
P
o
P
r
Detector
Amplifier
Power loss
MRP = Minimum Detected Power (MDP) – Coupling Loss
MRP = Minimum Detected Power (MDP) – Coupling Loss
14 Prof. Z Ghassemlooy
MRP Vs. Bandwidth
-70
-60
-50
-40
-30
-20
M
R
P

(
-
d
B
m
)
1 2 5 10 20 50 100 200 500 1000
Bandwidth (MHz)
50
30
10
0
SNR (dB)
λ =1300
15 Prof. Z Ghassemlooy
Optical Receiver
Photo-
detection
Photo-
detection
Amplification
(Pre/post)
Amplification
(Pre/post)
Filtering
Filtering
Signal Processing
Signal Processing
Converting
optical
signal into
an electrical
signal
Limiting the
bandwidth,
thus reducing
the noise
power
To recover the
information signal
Optical signal
Information signal
16 Prof. Z Ghassemlooy
Selection Criteria and Task
Optical
iOptical Sensitivity for a given
BER and SNR
iOperating wavelength
iDynamic range
iSimplicity
iReliability and stability
Task:
•To extract the optical signal (low level) from various
noise disturbances
•To reconstruct the original information correctly
Electrical
iData rate
iBit error rate (digital)
iMaximum Bandwidth
(analogue)
iSignal-to-noise ratio
(analogue)
17 Prof. Z Ghassemlooy
Receivers: Basics
iThe most important and complex section of an optical
fibre system
iIt sensitivity is design dependent, particularly the first
stage or front-end
iMain source of major noise sources:
– Shot noise current
– Thermal noise: Due to biasing/amplifier input impedance
– Amplifier noise:
• Current
• Voltage
– Transimpedance noise
18 Prof. Z Ghassemlooy
Receiver - Bandwidth
A range of frequencies that can be defined in terms of:
• Spectral profile of a signal
• Response of filter networks
• Equivalent bandwidth: Defines the amount of noise in a
system
Types of Bandwidth
• Ideal
• Baseband
• Passband
• Intermediate-Channel
• Transmission
• Noise
19 Prof. Z Ghassemlooy
Ideal, Low-pass and Band-pass Filters
Frequency
Low-pass filter
0 dB
-3
Ideal
B
bp
B
lp
Band-pass filter
Higher order
filter
20 Prof. Z Ghassemlooy
Noise Equivalent Bandwidth (NEB) B
Defines as the ideal
bandwidth
describing the point where:
Area under the response
cure
=
Area under the noise curve.
0
-3 dB
B
3dB
B
Filter response
NEB
21 Prof. Z Ghassemlooy
Optical System
)) ( 1 ( ) ( t Mm P t P
t
+ ·
Optical drive
circuit
Optical drive
circuit
Light
source
Light
source
m(t)
Photodiode
Photodiode
Amplifier
Amplifier
Fibre
i
p
(t)
P(t)
)) ( 1 ( ) ( ) ( t Mm P R t P R t i
t p
+ ⋅ · ⋅ ·
Photocurrent
Average photocurrent
(DC current) I
o

Signal current
i
o
(t)
+ Photocurrent =
22 Prof. Z Ghassemlooy
Optical System - contd.
For m(t) = sin ωt
The mean square signal current is
APD for G t i i
PIN for t i i
o s
o s
2
2 2
2 2
) (
) (
·
·
23 Prof. Z Ghassemlooy
Optical System - Noise Sources
i Source Noise
i Modal noise
– Due to interaction of (constructive &
destructive) multiple coherent modes, resulting
in intensity modulation.
i Photodetector Noise a
i Preamplifier (receiver) Noise a
i Distortion due to Non-linearity
i Crosstalk and Reflection in the Couplers
24 Prof. Z Ghassemlooy
Noise - Source Noise - contd.
iLED: Due to:
– In-coherent intensity fluctuation
– Beat frequencies between modes
iLD: Due to:
– Non-linearities
– Quantum noise: In the photon generation
– Mode hopping: Within the cavity
– Reflection from the fibre back into the cavity, which reduces
coherence
– Difficult to measure, to isolate and to quantify
– Most problematic with multimode LD and multimode fibre
25 Prof. Z Ghassemlooy
Photocurrent Statistics
iIs inherently a statistical process, which has mean and variance
– The mean correspond to the signal that we are interested to
recover
– The variance represents the noise power at the detector’s output
iLet noise current be defined as:
i
noise
(t) = i(t) - I
DC
(Amps)
I
DC
= Photocurrent I
o
Noise current from random current pulses is termed as shot-noise.
iShot-noise:
• Quantum
• Dark current
26 Prof. Z Ghassemlooy
Quantum Shot Noise
The photons arrive randomly in a packet form, with no two
packets containing the same amount of photons.
Variation of the total current generated, about an average value.
Random generation of electron-hole pair, thus current.
This variation is best known as QUANTUM SHOT NOISE.
This variation is best known as QUANTUM SHOT NOISE.
27 Prof. Z Ghassemlooy
Shot Noise - PIN
Total shot noise current I
Ts
= Dark current + Photocurrent
• The mean square quantum shot noise current on I
o
) (A
2
2
2 B qI i
o sh
·
• The mean square dark current noise (also classified as shot noise)
) (A
2
2
2 B qI i
l ds
·
The total mean square
shot noise
) (A ) (
2
2
2 B I I q i
l o Ts
+ ·
Where I
l
= surface leakage current
28 Prof. Z Ghassemlooy
Noise Power Spectrum
Shot noise
I
2
o
Power spectrum
Frequency
I
Ts
2
B
0
Modulation
bandwidth
29 Prof. Z Ghassemlooy
Shot Noise - APD
) (A ] ) [(
2 2
2
2 B I F G I I q i
l d o Ts
+ + ·
• The mean square photocurrent noise
where
I
d
= Bulk dark current,
F = The noise figure = G
x
for 0<x<1
hf
R
L
A
v
V
i
Bias voltage
V
o
30 Prof. Z Ghassemlooy
Noise - contd.
Thermal Noise
L
th
R
KTB
i
4
2
·
R
L
= Total load seen at the input of the preamplifier
K = Boltzmann’s constant = 1.38x10
-23
J/K
T = Temperature in degree Kelvin = C
o
+ 273
Total Noise
2 2 2 2
th ds sh T
i i i i + + ·
2 2 2 2 2
th ds d sh T
i i i i i + + + ·
APD
PIN
31 Prof. Z Ghassemlooy
Electrical Amplifier Noise
Amplifier type BJT JEFT
Amplifier type BJT JEFT
B qI i
b a
2
2
·
B qI i
g a
2
2
·
- Voltage Noise
- Current Noise
B
g
qI
v
m
c
a
2
2
2 ·
B
g
qI
v
m
d
a
2
2
2 ·

+ ·
B
a a A
df Z v i
B
i
0
2 2 2
1
)] / ( [
Total amplifier noise
32 Prof. Z Ghassemlooy
Receiver Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR)
i
o
i
T
i
A
2
2
T
o
i
i
SNR ·
• PIN
A
L
d o
o
i
R
KTB
I I qB
I
SNR
2
2
4
2 + + +
·
) (
• APD
A
n
L
l
x
d o
o
i F
R
KTB
I G I I qB
I G
SNR
2 2
2
2
4
2 + + + +
·
+
] ) [(
hf
33 Prof. Z Ghassemlooy
SNR - Quantum Limit
N
bit
n
s bit
s n
B
r
B
hf P I
qB
hf q P I
qB
I
SNR
electron electron
e
o o
o o o
Q
· · · ·
η
·
η
· ·
/
/
/
/
)
2
2 2
Shot noise
Poisson
The mean square quantum shot noise current on I
o
) (A
2
2
2 B qI i
o sh
·
34 Prof. Z Ghassemlooy
Type of Receivers - Low Impedance
Voltage Amplifier
- Simple
- Limited dynamic range
- It is prone to overload and saturation
• RC limited bandwidth
L T
R C
B
π
·
2
1
R
L
= R
detector
|| R
amp
.
R
amp
= High
hf
C
T
R
L
A
v
V
i
V
o
35 Prof. Z Ghassemlooy
Type of Receivers - High Impedance
Voltage Amplifier with Equaliser
• R
detector
is large to reduce the effect of thermal noise
• Detector out put is integrated over a long time constant, and is
restored by differentiation
hf
C
T
R
L
Equaliser
V
i
V
o
A
v
36 Prof. Z Ghassemlooy
Type of Receivers - Transimpedance
Feedback Amplifier
• The most widely used b
• Wide bandwidth
• No equalisation
• Greater dynamic range (same gain at all frequencies)
• Slightly higher noise figure than HIVA
F T
R C
A
B
v
π
·
2
Bandwidth
hf
C
T
R
F
Av
R
L
V
i
V
o
37 Prof. Z Ghassemlooy
Transimpedance Feedback Amplifier
( )
( )
B C BR
R
V
I
R
kT
G F G qI
I G
SNR
T
T T
A
A o
o

,
_

¸
¸
π + + + +
·
} ) ( { ) (
*
* 2
2
2
2
2 2
2
3
1
1
4
2
*
A
I
*
A
V
*
Th
I L R
T C
*
sh
I
*
F
V F
R
V
i
V
i
-A
Where is the noise power spectral density, and R
T
= R
L
||R
F
*
.
I
38 Prof. Z Ghassemlooy
Optical Receiver - Analogue
iEmploy an analogue preamplifier stage, followed by
either an analogue output stage (depending on the type
of receiver).
Comms. Special. Inc.
39 Prof. Z Ghassemlooy
Optical Receiver - Digital
i1st stage is a current-to-voltage converter.
i2nd stage is a voltage comparator, which produces a clean,
fast rise-time digital output signal. The trigger level may be
adjusted to produce a symmetrical digital signal.
40 Prof. Z Ghassemlooy
Receiver Performance
iSignal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR)
iBit Error Rate (BER)
41 Prof. Z Ghassemlooy
SNR Vs Receiver Sensitivity
G Keiser , 2000
Note: I
o
=RP
o
P
o
(dBm)
42 Prof. Z Ghassemlooy
Bit Error Rate (BER)
1
0
b
on
b
off
Variance σ
2
on
Variance σ
2
off
v
th
1
]
1

¸

,
_

¸
¸
− · ·
2
1
2
1 Q
erf P BER
e
1
]
1

¸

σ

·
1
1
]
1

¸

σ

·
on
th on
off
off th
v b
b v
Q
Where
43 Prof. Z Ghassemlooy
Bit Error Rate (BER) - contd.
1
]
1

¸

,
_

¸
¸
σ
− ·
2 2
1
2
1 V
erf P
e
For
• σ
off
= σ
on
= σ RMS noise
• b
on
= V, and b
off
= 0
• Thus v
th
= V/2 and Q = V/2σ
Therefore:
1
1
]
1

¸

,
_

¸
¸
− ·
N
S
erf P
e
345 0 1
2
1
.
In terms of power signal-to-noise ratio (S/N)
44 Prof. Z Ghassemlooy
BER Performance
G Keiser , 2000
iMinimum input power
depends on acceptable bit
error rate
iMany receivers designed
for 1E-12 or better BER
45 Prof. Z Ghassemlooy
AGC
AGC
-g
Bias
Bias
Clock
Recovery
Clock
Recovery
Decision
Circuit
Decision
Circuit
0110
Remote
Control
Remote
Control
Temperature
Control
Temperature
Control
Monitors
& Alarms
Monitors
& Alarms
iOptimized for one particular
– Sensitivity range
– Wavelength
– Bit rate
iCan include circuits
for telemetry
Basic Receiver Design
Agilent Tech.
46 Prof. Z Ghassemlooy
Optical Receivers - Commercial
Devices
i28 GHz Monolithic InGaAs PIN Photodetector
i100 kHz- 40 Gb/s
iDC - 65 Gb/s InGaAs PIN Photodiodes
i100 GHz Dual-Depletion InGaAs/InP Photodiode
47 Prof. Z Ghassemlooy
Wide-Band Optical Receiver (40 Gb/s)
• Bandwidth: 100 KHz to 35 GHz
• Responsivity: 0.6 A/W
• Wavelength response: 800 - 1600 nm
• Operating current 75 mA
• Power dissipation: 400 mW
• Power gain: 8 dB
Typical eye diagram
Linearity response Sensitivity response
48 Prof. Z Ghassemlooy
Wide-Band Optical Receiver (DC - 65
Gb/s)
iInGaAs PIN Photodiodes
iReverse bias voltage: +3V
iResponsivity: 0.5 A/W at 1300 and 1550 nm wavelength.
iOpto-electronic Integrated Circuits (OEICs) which combine
optical, microwave, and digital functions on the same chip
iApplication:
– Ethernet fiber local area networks
– Synchronized Optical Network SONET,
– ISDN,
– Telephony
– Digital CATV).
49 Prof. Z Ghassemlooy
Summary
iPhotodiode characteristics
iTypes of photodiode: PIN and APD
iPhotodiode responsivity & equivalent circuit
iMinimum received power
iOptical receiver:
– Types
– Bandwidth
iNoise
iSignal-t-noise ratio
iBit error rate

Contents
§ Properties and Characteristics § Types of Photodiodes § Receivers § Noise Sources § Performance
§ SNR § BER § PIN § APD

Prof. Z Ghassemlooy

2

Photodetection - Definition
iIt converts the optical energy into an electrical current that is then processed by electronics to recover the information. Detection Techniques • Thermal Effects • Wave Interaction Effects • Photon Effects

Prof. Z Ghassemlooy

3

Photodiode - Characteristics
An electronics device, whose vi-characteristics is sensitive to the intensity of an incident light wave. I

Forward-biased “Photovoltic” operation

Dark current

V
Po Reverse-biased ü “photoconductive” operation Short-circuit “photoconductive” operation
Prof. Z Ghassemlooy

• Small dark current due to: • leakage • thermal excitation • Quantum efficiency (electrons/photons) • Responsivity

4

Types iThe most commonly used photodetectors in optical communications are: – Positive-Intrinsic-Negative (PIN) a • • • • • • • • • • No internal gain Low bias voltage [10-50 V @λ = 850 nm. Z Ghassemlooy 5 – Avalanche Photo-Detector (APD) . 5-15 V @λ = 1300 –1550 nm] Highly linear Low dark current Most widely used Internal gain (increased sensitivity) Best for high speed and highly sensitive receivers Strong temperature dependence High bias voltage[250 V @ λ = 850 nm.Photodetector . 20-30 V @λ = 1300 –1550 nm] Costly Prof.

Photodiode (PIN) .Structure Photons Depletion region n electron I p hole Output Io n electron RL (load resistor) p I hole Bias voltage • No carriers in the I region • No current flow • Reverse-biased • Photons generated electron-hole pair • Current flow through the diode Prof. Z Ghassemlooy 6 .

Reponsivity PIN: R = Io/Po A/W APD: RAPD = G R Io = Photocurrent Po = Incident(detected) optical power G = APD gain η = Quantum efficiency = average number of electron-hole pairs emitted re/ average number of incident photons rp Note: rp = Po/hf Thus and Io = ηqPo/hf R = qη/hf Prof. Z Ghassemlooy 7 η = 99% ~ 1 .

2000 Prof.Photodiode Responsivities i Silicon (Si) – Least expensive i Germanium (Ge) – “Classic” detector i Indium gallium arsenide (InGaAs) – Highest speed G Keiser . Z Ghassemlooy 8 .

e o/c) Rs = Small.e s/c) CT = Cj + Camp RT = Rj || RL || Ramp The detector behaves approximately like a first order RC low-pas filter with a bandwidth of: Prof.Photodiode .Equivalent Circuit Photodiode Contact leads Amplifier Rs Io Cj Rj L RL Ramp Camp Output L = Large. (i. (i. Z Ghassemlooy 1 B= 2πCT RT 9 .

Z Ghassemlooy 10 . G Keiser . 2000 Prof. Since photo collection time becomes significant contributor to the rise time.Photodiode Pulse Responses • At low bias levels rise and fall times are different.

Photodiode Pulse Responses Small area photodiode Large area photodiode Small area photodiode Due to carrier generated in w Due to diffusion of carrier from the edge of w w = depletion layer αs = absorption coefficient G Keiser . Z Ghassemlooy 11 . 2000 Prof.

Hoss Prof.7 60-70 5 0.1-0.3-2 Ge APD 800-1800 1550 1300 0.1-2 1.5-0.5-1 1.5-0.8 2-5 InGaAS PIN APD 900-1700 1300 1300 (1550) (1550) 0.5-25 55-75 20-35 10-500 0.5 0.1-0.5-0.5-2 60-70 <30 1-5 0.1-0.55 65-90 45-100 1-10 0.350.5 Source: R.5 2-5 2.1-1 0.5 0. Z Ghassemlooy 12 . J.Photodiodes – Typical Characteristics Parameters PIN Wavelength range Peak (nm) Responsivity (A/W) Quantum Efficiency (%) Bias voltage (-V) Dark current (nA) Rise time (ns) Capacitance (pF) Si APD PIN 400-1100 900 830 0.65 50-55 6-10 50-500 0.2-3 50-120 77 220 0.06-0.

Detector Pr Amplifier Power loss Po MRP = Minimum Detected Power (MDP) – Coupling Loss Prof. at the receiver output. Z Ghassemlooy 13 . • Bandwidth (bit rate). • Bit error Rate (BER).Minimum Received Power • Is a measure of receiver sensitivity defined for a specific: • Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR).

MRP Vs. Z Ghassemlooy 14 . Bandwidth -20 -30 SNR (dB) 50 MRP (-dBm) -40 30 -50 -60 -70 1 2 5 10 20 50 100 200 500 1000 10 0 λ =1300 Bandwidth (MHz) Prof.

thus reducing the noise power Signal Processing Information signal Prof. Z Ghassemlooy 15 .Optical Receiver Optical signal To recover the information signal Photodetection Converting optical signal into an electrical signal Amplification (Pre/post) Filtering Limiting the bandwidth.

Selection Criteria and Task Optical i Optical Sensitivity for a given BER and SNR i Operating wavelength i Dynamic range i Simplicity i Reliability and stability Electrical i Data rate i Bit error rate (digital) i Maximum Bandwidth (analogue) i Signal-to-noise ratio (analogue) Task: •To extract the optical signal (low level) from various noise disturbances •To reconstruct the original information correctly Prof. Z Ghassemlooy 16 .

Z Ghassemlooy 17 . particularly the first stage or front-end iMain source of major noise sources: – Shot noise current – Thermal noise: Due to biasing/amplifier input impedance – Amplifier noise: • Current • Voltage – Transimpedance noise Prof.Receivers: Basics iThe most important and complex section of an optical fibre system iIt sensitivity is design dependent.

Bandwidth A range of frequencies that can be defined in terms of: • Spectral profile of a signal • Response of filter networks • Equivalent bandwidth: Defines the amount of noise in a system Types of Bandwidth • Ideal • Baseband • Passband • Intermediate-Channel • Transmission • Noise Prof.Receiver . Z Ghassemlooy 18 .

Low-pass and Band-pass Filters Band-pass filter 0 dB -3 Higher order filter Low-pass filter Ideal Frequency Bbp Prof.Ideal. Z Ghassemlooy Blp 19 .

Z Ghassemlooy 20 .Noise Equivalent Bandwidth (NEB) B 0 NEB -3 dB Defines as the ideal bandwidth describing the point where: Area under the response cure = Area under the noise curve. B3dB B Filter response Prof.

Z Ghassemlooy 21 .Optical System P(t) m(t) Optical drive circuit Light source Fibre Photodiode ip(t) Amplifier P(t ) = Pt (1 + Mm (t )) Photocurrent i p (t ) = R ⋅ P(t ) = R ⋅ Pt (1 + Mm(t )) Signal current Average photocurrent Photocurrent = + io(t) (DC current) Io Prof.

Z Ghassemlooy 22 .Optical System .contd. For m(t) = sin ωt The mean square signal current is is = io (t ) 2 2 2 2 for PIN 2 is = io (t ) G for APD Prof.

Optical System . resulting in intensity modulation. i Photodetector Noise a i Preamplifier (receiver) Noise a i Distortion due to Non-linearity i Crosstalk and Reflection in the Couplers Prof.Noise Sources i Source Noise i Modal noise – Due to interaction of (constructive & destructive) multiple coherent modes. Z Ghassemlooy 23 .

Z Ghassemlooy 24 .Source Noise . which reduces coherence – Difficult to measure. iLED: Due to: – In-coherent intensity fluctuation – Beat frequencies between modes iLD: Due to: – – – – Non-linearities Quantum noise: In the photon generation Mode hopping: Within the cavity Reflection from the fibre back into the cavity.Noise .contd. to isolate and to quantify – Most problematic with multimode LD and multimode fibre Prof.

which has mean and variance – The mean correspond to the signal that we are interested to recover – The variance represents the noise power at the detector’s output iLet noise current be defined as: inoise(t) = i(t) .Photocurrent Statistics iIs inherently a statistical process. iShot-noise: • Quantum • Dark current Prof. Z Ghassemlooy 25 .IDC (Amps) IDC = Photocurrent Io Noise current from random current pulses is termed as shot-noise.

with no two packets containing the same amount of photons. about an average value. This variation is best known as QUANTUM SHOT NOISE. Random generation of electron-hole pair. Z Ghassemlooy 26 . Variation of the total current generated.Quantum Shot Noise The photons arrive randomly in a packet form. Prof. thus current.

Z Ghassemlooy (A 2 ) 27 .PIN • The mean square quantum shot noise current on Io ish = 2 qI o B 2 (A 2 ) 2 • The mean square dark current noise (also classified as shot noise) ids = 2qI l B 2 Where Il = surface leakage current (A ) Total shot noise current ITs = Dark current + Photocurrent The total mean square shot noise iTs = 2q( I o + I l ) B 2 Prof.Shot Noise .

Z Ghassemlooy 28 .Noise Power Spectrum Power spectrum I2o ITs2 0 Modulation bandwidth Shot noise B Frequency Prof.

Shot Noise . Z Ghassemlooy 29 . F = The noise figure = Gx for 0<x<1 Bias voltage hf Av RL Vi Vo Prof.APD • The mean square photocurrent noise iTs = 2 q[( I o + I d )G F + I l ]B 2 2 (A ) 2 where Id = Bulk dark current.

Thermal Noise ith = 2 4 KTB RL RL = Total load seen at the input of the preamplifier K = Boltzmann’s constant = 1.38x10 -23 J/K T = Temperature in degree Kelvin = Co + 273 Total Noise PIN iT = ish + ids + ith 2 2 2 2 APD iT = ish + id + ids + ith 2 2 2 2 Prof.contd. Z Ghassemlooy 2 30 .Noise .

Voltage Noise 2 BJT JEFT va = 2 2 qI c gm 2 B va = 2 2 qI d gm 2 B . Z Ghassemlooy .Electrical Amplifier Noise Amplifier type .Current Noise ia = 2qI b B i2 A 1 = B B ia = 2 qI g B 2 Total amplifier noise [i 2 a + (v 2 a / Z )] df ∫ 0 31 Prof.

Z Ghassemlooy .Receiver Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) hf io iT iA • PIN SNR = io 2 2 SNR = Io 2 2qB( I o + I d ) + 4 KTB 2 +i A RL 2 iT • APD SNR = G2 Io 2qB[( I o + I d )G 2+ x + I l ] + 4 KTB Fn + i 2 A RL 32 Prof.

Quantum Limit The mean square quantum shot noise current on Io ish = 2 qI o B 2 (A 2 ) Io SNR )Q = 2 qB IoηP oq / hf = 2 qB Ioη Po / hf = 2B re nelectron / s nelectron = = = = N B bit / s bit Shot noise Prof.SNR . Z Ghassemlooy Poisson 33 .

Simple .Limited dynamic range . Z Ghassemlooy Ramp= High 34 .Type of Receivers .It is prone to overload and saturation Av CT Vi Vo hf RL 1 • RC limited bandwidth B = 2πCT RL RL = Rdetector || Ramp.Low Impedance Voltage Amplifier . Prof.

Type of Receivers .High Impedance Voltage Amplifier with Equaliser Equaliser Av hf Vi CT RL Vo • Rdetector is large to reduce the effect of thermal noise • Detector out put is integrated over a long time constant. Z Ghassemlooy 35 . and is restored by differentiation Prof.

Type of Receivers .Transimpedance Feedback Amplifier • The most widely used b • Wide bandwidth • No equalisation • Greater dynamic range (same gain at all frequencies) • Slightly higher noise figure than HIVA RF Av hf CT RL Vi Vo Bandwidth B= Av 2πCT RF Prof. Z Ghassemlooy 36 .

and RT = RL||RF Prof.Transimpedance Feedback Amplifier V* F R F V* A -A I* sh RL CT I* Th I* A 2 G 2 Io 2 Vi Vi SNR =   2 qI G 2 F (G ) + 4 kT + I * o A  RT  ( ) {1 + 1 ( 2 πBR C ) } B  ( )+ R  3 * 2 VA T T 2  * Where I . is the noise power spectral density. Z Ghassemlooy 37 .

Special.Optical Receiver . followed by either an analogue output stage (depending on the type of receiver). Comms. Prof. Inc. Z Ghassemlooy 38 .Analogue iEmploy an analogue preamplifier stage.

i 2nd stage is a voltage comparator. The trigger level may be adjusted to produce a symmetrical digital signal.Optical Receiver . which produces a clean. Prof. Z Ghassemlooy 39 .Digital i 1st stage is a current-to-voltage converter. fast rise-time digital output signal.

Receiver Performance iSignal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) iBit Error Rate (BER) Prof. Z Ghassemlooy 40 .

Z Ghassemlooy 41 . 2000 Po(dBm) Prof.SNR Vs Receiver Sensitivity Note: Io =RPo G Keiser .

Z Ghassemlooy .Bit Error Rate (BER) bon Variance σ2on 1 vth 0 boff Variance σ2off 1  Q  BER = Pe = 1 − erf   2  2  Where  vth − boff Q=  σ off    bon − vth  =  σon     42 Prof.

Z Ghassemlooy 43 .contd. and boff = 0 • Thus Therefore: vth = V/2 and Q = V/2σ 1  V  Pe = 1 − erf   2  2 2 σ  In terms of power signal-to-noise ratio (S/N)  1 S   Pe = 1 − erf  0. For • σoff = σon = σ RMS noise • bon = V.Bit Error Rate (BER) .345  2 N     Prof.

Z Ghassemlooy 44 .BER Performance i Minimum input power depends on acceptable bit error rate i Many receivers designed for 1E-12 or better BER G Keiser . 2000 Prof.

Z Ghassemlooy 45 .Basic Receiver Design Bias Bias AGC AGC Clock Clock Recovery Recovery -g Decision Decision Circuit Circuit Monitors Monitors & Alarms & Alarms Remote Remote Control Control 0110 Temperature Temperature Control Control i Optimized for one particular – Sensitivity range – Wavelength – Bit rate i Can include circuits for telemetry Agilent Tech. Prof.

Z Ghassemlooy 46 .Commercial Devices i28 GHz Monolithic InGaAs PIN Photodetector i100 kHz.40 Gb/s iDC .65 Gb/s InGaAs PIN Photodiodes i100 GHz Dual-Depletion InGaAs/InP Photodiode Prof.Optical Receivers .

1600 nm • Power gain: 8 dB Linearity response Typical eye diagram Sensitivity response Prof.6 A/W • Wavelength response: 800 . Z Ghassemlooy 47 .Wide-Band Optical Receiver (40 Gb/s) • Operating current 75 mA • Bandwidth: 100 KHz to 35 GHz • Power dissipation: 400 mW • Responsivity: 0.

Z Ghassemlooy 48 .65 Gb/s) i InGaAs PIN Photodiodes i Reverse bias voltage: +3V i Responsivity: 0. i Opto-electronic Integrated Circuits (OEICs) which combine optical.Wide-Band Optical Receiver (DC . Telephony Digital CATV). microwave.5 A/W at 1300 and 1550 nm wavelength. Prof. and digital functions on the same chip i Application: – – – – – Ethernet fiber local area networks Synchronized Optical Network SONET. ISDN.

Summary iPhotodiode characteristics iTypes of photodiode: PIN and APD iPhotodiode responsivity & equivalent circuit iMinimum received power iOptical receiver: – Types – Bandwidth iNoise iSignal-t-noise ratio iBit error rate Prof. Z Ghassemlooy 49 .