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Copyright©2012 by Women's Committee of the National Council of Resistance of Iran (NCRI)
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopy, recording, or any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.

A publication of the Women's Committee of the National Council of Resistance of Iran
Correspondence address: B.P. 18, 95430 Auvers-sur-Oise, France. Email: womencommittee.ncri@gmail.com

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From the report of the Special Rapporteur, Ahmed Shaheed, on the situation of human rights in the Islamic Republic of Iran 23 September 2011 Sixty-sixth session Agenda item 69 (c) Promotion and protection of human rights: human rights situations and reports of special rapporteurs and representatives A/66/374 C. Women‟s rights 54. Moreover, the application of certain laws that erect barriers to gender equality undermine the Government‟s ability to equally protect those human rights stipulated in the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights for all its citizens. For example, a woman‟s worth and testimony in a court of law are regarded as half that of a man‟s. Men have absolute rights to divorce, while women may initiate divorce only if they meet certain conditions, some of which must be agreed to in a marriage contract. Mothers can never be awarded guardianship rights for their children, even upon the death of their husbands. Women do not have equitable inheritance rights, and even when a wife is the sole survivor to her husband‟s estate, she may not inherit more than a quarter of the estate. If she is not the sole survivor, she is limited to an eighth. 56. Moreover, strict implementation of the morality code concerning dress and attempts to criminalize improper veils have limited women‟s participation in public and social arenas. Equally worrisome are statements made by authorities that blame victims for inducing attackers to violate their physical integrity. These include reports of Government officials citing women‟s dress as the cause of recent attacks that took place in Isfahan in June 2011, where 14 women were kidnapped and gangraped while attending a private party. Government statements asserted that the women‟s dress was a source of the violence perpetrated against them and a rationale for the lack of action in bringing the perpetrators to justice.

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Contents

From the report of the Special Rapporteur on the situation of human rights in the Islamic Republic of Iran 6

Contents Systematic violations of the right to life - Executions - Arbitrary killings - Deaths in custody - Death sentences Inhumane treatment and cruel punishments Arbitrary arrests - Political arrests - Social arrests - Prison condition - Prison sentences Basic freedom and rights abused - Mandatory veil - Gender Segregation - Crack down on social freedoms Suppression of religious and ethnic minorities Discrimination against women Appendices List of women executions - March 20111 to Feb. 2012 List of arbitrary killings of women – March 2011 – Feb. 2012 List of political arrests and female political prisoners

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32 36 40 48 50 56 64 68 74 80 92

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Right to Life

Systematic violations of the right to life
Execution and death sentence

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Execution
Nine prisoners including 2 women hanged in Orumieh Prison in mass execution On the dawn of Monday, February 28, nine prisoners were hanged in the yard of the Central Orumieh Prison on orders of judicial officials. According to reports, from the nine executed prisoners, seven were Kurds, two were Azari and there were two women among them. All of these prisoners were convicted with drug related charges. There were also unconfirmed reports that two other prisoners were hanged on February 28. (Human Rights Activists in Iran – Mar. 1, 2011) Daughter of female executed political prisoner under pressure and threats one month after mother‟s execution One month after the inhumane death sentence for political prisoner Zahra Bahrami was carried out, interrogators of the Intelligence Agency and Tehran Prosecutor Abbas Jafari Dolat Abadi refuse to hand over her will and personal belongings to her family. Reza Arefi, an interrogator and torturer who works for the Intelligence Agency in the Sepah Cellblock in Gohardasht Prison in Karaj, summoned Bahrami‟s daughter, Banafsheh Naebpour, and her husband some time ago to the Karaj Intelligence Agency and interrogated and threatened them for a prolonged amount of time. Arefi told her that if she called the Dutch Embassy (Zahra Bahrami had a dual Dutch-Iranian nationality) the media or human rights activists she and her husband would be arrested. He also threatened that they would charge her mother with immoral conduct in a TV show called 20:30 to bring disgrace to their family. Arefi also told them that they were not allowed to put a stone on her grave and no more than 10 people were allowed to go to her gravesite at one time. (Human Rights and Democracy Activists in Iran – Mar. 2, 2011) Iran secretly hangs Christian- Jewish couple and three others in Evin Prison http://www.hra-news.org/1389-01-28-00-30-11/7525-1.html On the dawn of Monday March 4, a Christian man and Jewish woman along with another woman and two men were secretly hanged in Evin Prison. According to reports, the Sentry Office of the 28th branch of the Revolutionary Court confirmed the implementation of the death sentence of 5 people on Monday morning but refused to give further explanations on details of the handover of the bodies to their families and their burial. Mrs. Adiva Mirza Suleiman, who was Jewish along with her Christian husband Varezhan Petrosian and one woman and two men whose identities are unknown were secretly hanged in Evin Prison. There are no reports on their charges. The families of the executed couple who intended to hold a service for their loved ones according to their religious ceremonies were threatened with arrest by security forces. (Human Rights Activists in Iran – Mar. 26, 2011) Iran secretly buries mutilated bodies of five executed political prisoners in desert This report has come to us from Iran. Some of it has been omitted to keep the identity of the sender secret. This report was received at 4 am on Monday March 21. Five people were hanged on charges of espionage for Israel and acting against national security. Two of these people had cards with old pictures from the 80‟s. They were a husband and wife. The woman did not have a left ear as if it was completely cut off in the past. Their tongues were also cut off halfway in a way that they were unable to speak. A woman and two other men were also executed but did not have pictures on their cards. Their bodies were full of wounds and bruises. They (security forces) had brought their dossiers with them and buried these five people in the desert region in the Qom road. According to the contents of their case and the sentence referred to the Sentence Implementation Unit from the 28th branch of the Revolutionary Court in Tehran their names were as follows:

Hojat Nahavandi, son of Mohammad, about 38 years old Zahra Ismaili, daughter of Janali, about 30 years old Adiva Mirza Soleiman, Jewish, daughter of Yaqub, according to the card she was 55 years old Varia Ahmadi, son of Iraj, about 25 years old Varouzhan Petrosian, (Christian) son of Rubic, according to the card, he was 60 years old. (Pars Daily News – Mar. 31, 2011) Wife of executed political prisoner says she was raped by security forces http://www.parsdailynews.com/81282.htm Letter of wife of executed political prisoner Hojjat Nahavandi Hello, My husband was only a construction worker and after months of unemployment was able to get work about six months ago in a construction site in Sorkhe Hesar In Tehran and went to Tehran with his Kurd friend Veria (also executed) who was a Sunni Muslim. Because the work was in a military base, they paid well and my husband came home once a month. But their work was hard and they had to work under ground for hours. He constantly talked of the sounds of moans and cries and torture and that the place he was working in was suspicious and was like a prison. He said they were very strict on those who were entering and leaving the area. Because my husband was illiterate and very simple, I told him to look the other way and not say anything or else he Confidential letter to the Prosecutor General by a Shobeiri and Ahmad would be fired. We lived in Islamshahr. Two Vahid announcing their agreement with the execution of five political months ago, when he had come home, prisoners charged with espionage for Israel. The above mentioned security forces stormed our home at night officials request that these executions be secretly carried out stating that and arrested Hojjat and I had no news on because they include a Christian, Jewish and Baha‟i, the execution my husband. His parents are very old and should be organized in a way to prevent media attention and suggest feeble and Hojjat always sent them money. that they be hanged in the New Year holiday. After the (New Year) holiday, four people came to our home from the police station and said that my husband and his friend were executed on charges of espionage and threatened that if we talk, they would do something to me and my infant child. My husband was illiterate and only knew how to do construction work, clean houses and wash carpets. They did not even tell me where he was buried. What‟s more, they came to my home twice while I was alone and in mourning and raped me in police uniform. I have not been able to pay my rent for three months and I cannot tolerate this condition anymore. I have decided to end my life and that of my child because I have no one to support me. Hojjat always worked hard and wanted our son to be educated but took this dream with him to his grave. We will soon join him. 13

Somayey Akbari Tikeyeh (Pars Daily News Website – Apr. 13, 2011) “His Last Wish Was To Embrace Me, But They Didn‟t Allow It,” Says Mother Of Executed Inmates On 17 May the death sentences of two brothers, Mohammad and Abdollah Fathi Shoorbariki, were carried out. Their mother, Mahvash Alasvandi, told the International Campaign for Human Rights in Iran that her children‟s grievances were never reviewed and their last wishes of embracing their mother were not granted. “All we said was that their complaints be reviewed before executing them. We said what is the rush? They are in your hands and they are not going anywhere. You have held them for nine months. Review their complaint first and then execute them. But unfortunately they didn‟t do this.” Abdollah and Mohammad Fathi Shoorbariki were arrested along with five others last March on charges of armed robbery from Karaj jewelry stores. Branch 4 of the Isfahan Revolutionary Court issued their death sentence, and it was upheld during the appeal process. In a March 1 letter addressed to the Isfahan Military Court, Abdollah Fathi filed a grievance against individuals he called “my torturers,” naming Colonel Hosseinzadeh, Isfahan Police Chief, Major Ghodratollah Rahimi, Lieutenant Bahrami, and several other military personnel, claiming he had been tortured by flogging, severe beating, and being threatened with rape. A day later, he wrote a letter to the Judges‟ Court, filing a grievance against Judge Moghtazi, Mohammad Reza Habibi,the Deputy Prosecutor of Isfahan, and Investigative Judge Najafi, of Branch 10 of the Isfahan Court, claiming that they did not follow due process in his and his brother‟s cases and did not take note of their grievances. “Their lawyer was not informed about the executions at all. Only one day before, they contacted me from the prison and said to come in tomorrow morning because we want to execute the kids, and I couldn‟t believe it. This morning, after I saw my children, I asked the warden of Ward A-T and the Deputy Head Warden of the prison: „Are you going to finally show me the sentence document, so that I know on what verdict my kids are being executed?‟ and they told me that the verdict had not yet arrived, and that the Judge still had it. I asked them „Will you show it to my kids?‟ They said „Sure.‟ I said „How would I know that you showed it to them?‟ My son said: „Mom, don‟t argue any more, it‟s useless,‟” said Alasvandi. “We were in front of the prison at 4:00 a.m. There was a large crowd outside the prison, too. We kept knocking on the door, but they wouldn‟t open it. They said that they will open the door right at 6:00 a.m. After I entered and they conducted a body search, I entered the prison courtyard where everyone had gathered, the prison authorities and 30 to 40 armed soldiers. They spread a blanket on the ground and told me to sit down until they brought the kids. They brought them out one at a time, and Abdollah came first”. “I heard that the convict‟s last wishes are asked just before execution and then the execution is carried out. But when my son said „Untie my hands so that I can embrace my mother,‟ they said „The law doesn‟t allow us to do this.‟ I said „Sweetheart, you know that everything is according to law here and this place is full of law-abiding individuals. It‟s O.K., I will embrace you.‟ But it was hard for me to see that my son‟s last wish which was embracing me was not carried out,” continued Alasvandi. “I still don‟t know whether my sons‟ charge was moharebeh (enmity against God) or robbery. I don‟t believe they were at war with the regime or with God,” the executed brothers‟ father, Bijan Fathi, told the Campaign. Referring to his and his brother-in-law‟s political activism, he said that during his sons‟ interrogations, they were accused of connections to their uncle who was previously sentenced to d«eath (and later pardoned) during the 1980′s mass executions; the uncle now lives abroad. (International Campaign for Human Rights in Iran – May 19, 2011) Iran secretly hangs another 16 people including 3 sisters in Mashhad‟s Vakil Abad Prison In the ongoing executions in the Vakil Abad Prison in Mashhad which has not been announced by judicial forces in the past few months, credible sources have said that on May 23 and 24, 16 people were executed in this prison. These sources have said that on May 23, 12 prisoners were secretly hanged en mass in this prison. They were all convicted of drug related charges. Four other prisoners were hanged on May 24. Three sisters were among the four executed and according to reports, they were also convicted of drug related charges. The fourth prisoner was hanged on rape charges…

Various sources have told the International Campaign for Human Rights in Iran that hundreds of prisoners were secretly hanged in only Vakil Abad Prison since 2009 and hundreds remain on death row. Despite the fact that reports of these widespread and secret executions in Vakil Abad have been published and despite global protests, judicial and government officials in Iran have still kept their silence. In addition to the Campaign‟s sources in judicial and government institutions and Vakil Abad Prison, numerous eye witnesses have also talked about these mass executions. (International Campaign for Human Rights in Iran – Jun. 9, 2011) Iran hangs 7 people including woman http://www.isna.ir/ISNA/NewsView.aspx?ID=News-1810634 Iran has hanged four drug smugglers, including a woman, and three men convicted of rape, media reports said on Wednesday. Two men, identified as Abbas A. and Ali B., were hanged in prison in the southern city of Jiroft, in Kerman province, on Wednesday after they were found guilty of drug trafficking, ISNA news agency reported. A convicted female drug smuggler, identified as Begom N., along with fellow trafficker Khodadad M. were also executed in prison in the city of Rafsanjan, in the same province, the report added. Meanwhile Khorasan newspaper reported three men convicted of rape had been sent to the gallows in a prison in the northeastern city of Qoochan on Tuesday. The daily did not provide further details. The latest hangings bring to 171 the number of executions reported in Iran so far this year, according to an AFP tally based on media and official reports. (AFP, ISNA state-run News Agency – Jul. 20, 2011) State-run daily boasts presence of „women and children‟ for public execution http://www.farsnews.com/newstext.php?nn=13900628001388 Fars state-run News Agency - According to the Fars reporter from Nabovat Square in Tehran, all the arrangements have been made for the implementation of the death sentence of Sajjad, the murderer of Dr. Sarabi… According to this report, security forces have been stationed in the eastern side of the Nabovat Square and in East Janbazan Street… the crowds coming to watch the execution in the square are increasing. The presence of some children and women amongst the people who have come to this location so early in the morning attracts more attention. (Fars state-run News Agency – Sep. 20, 2011) Iran hangs nine people including woman http://isna.ir/ISNA/NewsView.aspx?ID=News-1900919&Lang=P http://www.asriran.com/fa/news/191381 Iran on Tuesday hanged three convicted rapists and six drug traffickers -- one of them a woman -- in different cities, local media reported. Two of the men, aged 23 and 25, were hanged in public in the western city of Kermanshah, Fars news agency reported. They were executed after being found guilty of raping a number of women, some of them university students. They were not identified. Fars also said five men and one woman were hanged on Tuesday for drug trafficking, notably dealing in heroin. They were not identified either. ISNA news agency also reported a young man convicted of rape and identified by the initials M.S. was hanged publicly on Tuesday in the central town of Saveh, some 120 kilometers (72 miles) southwest of the capital. (AFP - Nov 29, 2011)

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Women and children watch brutal hanging in Qarchak

http://www.mehrnews.com/fa/NewsDetail.aspx?NewsID=1443498 http://www.farsnews.com/newstext.php?nn=13900803000911 http://www.mehrnews.com/fa/NewsDetail.aspx?NewsID=1443760 http://www.mehrnews.com/fa/NewsDetail.aspx?NewsID=1443789 http://www.asriran.com/fa/news/186904 Iran hanged a convicted sex murderer in public on Wednesday in the central town of Qarchak, state television's website reported. The man, who was identifed only by his first name and age Bakhshali, 25, was found guilty of murdering an elderly woman before raping and killing her nine-year-old grandchild, the report said. (AFP - Oct 26, 2011) Iran hangs 7 people in group execution in Orumieh including one woman On the dawn of Wednesday December 24, seven prisoners were hanged in the courtyard of the Central Orumieh Prison on orders of the Judiciary. In an interview with the Mukrian News Agency, the lawyer of one of these prisoners, Massoud Shams Nejad identified these prisoners as Yusef A., Heidar D., Mehdi S., Qorbanali Sh. Saied M., Sirous M. and Nahid A. “Judicial sources announced their crime as drug related”, he added. He said that he was not informed of the implementation of the execution. Notably, yesterday afternoon, these seven people had been transferred to the quarantine section of the Orumieh Prison for their sentence to be carried out. (Mukrian News Agency – Dec. 24, 2011)

Arbitrary killings
Women‟s rights activist killed by security forces in father‟s funeral Haleh Sahabi [women‟s rights activist who was on leave from prison after her father went into a coma] stood at the front of the funeral procession which carried the body of [her father] Sahabi. She protested the violent measures of security forces in the funeral and was attacked [by security forces]. She fainted as a result of the attack and was transferred to a hospital but the doctors attempts to save her life were in vain and the eldest daughter of Ezatollah Sahabi passed away… Her uncle has announced that she died because she was struck in the stomach and lungs and suffered a heart attack. Ahmad Montazeri, son of the late Ayatollah Montazeri who was present in the funeral also confirmed that she was beaten by security forces and said that she was also insulted by the agents… Haleh Sahabi was a member of the Mothers for Peace Organization and a was women‟s rights activist… She was beaten and arrested last year in a gathering in protest to the swearing in ceremony of Ahmadinejad and was held in detention for some time. She was released after 13 days on bail but was later tried in the 26th branch of the Revolutionary Court and sentenced to two years of prison and a fine which was upheld by the court of review. Haleh was in Evin Prison until last week serving her prison term [and received a leave from prison to see her ailing father]. (Jaras Website – Jun. 1, 2011) Security forces attack partygoers in Mashhad; Young woman falls to death trying to run away from agents The head of the Khorasan Razavi Public Security Police said that a young woman who intended to escape when partygoers were being arrested in a party fell down from the sixth floor of an apartment building in Mashhad and died on the spot. “A number of the residents of a large residential area in the Hashemiyeh Blvd. in Mashhad had reported that suspicious people were coming and going to an apartment”, Colonel Naser Najarian said. “The dissatisfied [neighbors] said they were holding loud parties”, he added. “Special operation teams of the Public Security Police started an undercover observance of the site and last Wednesday night when a number of girls and boys were holding a party in the apartment, they searched the location after coordinating with judicial officials”. “In this operation, four young men and 4 young women were arrested and unfortunately one of the young women who was trying to run away immediately after being informed of police presence fell off from the sixth floor of the building out of fear”, he said. “In this incident, the young woman who sustained severe injuries in the head died on the spot”, the head of the Public Police said. He said that the main suspect and two other suspects who had escaped were also arrested and handed over to judicial officials. “The body of the victim of this evil party was transferred to the coroners”, he added. (ISNA state-run News Agency – Sep. 24, 2011)

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Deaths in custody
Three female prisoners suspiciously pass away in Evin Prison because of appalling prison conditions According to reports, a number of female prisoners in cellblock 1 in Evin Prison suspiciously passed away in the past few weeks. In the past month, at least three female prisoners in this cellblock suspiciously passed away. The last of these prisoners was 38 year old Touran Torbati who passed away about five days ago. The other prisoner was identified as Fatemeh Abbas but the identity of the third prisoner will be announced in the future. The condition of these prisoners has deteriorated from some time ago. A large number of them are ill and need medical treatment. Despite this, they have been denied medical treatment. The food conditions in this prison are also deplorable and red meat, chicken and fish have been taken off their menu from a long time ago and most of the time, they only eat eggs and potatoes. The sanitary conditions are also appalling and medieval. Most of the women in cellblock 1 have been jailed on drug related charges. They are given high doses of methadone which is addictive. Female prisoners between the ages of 20 to 40 are given methadone mixed with other drugs which results in gashes and sores on their bodies and sometimes kill them. (Human Rights and Democracy Activists in Iran – Mar. 26, 2011) Young female inmate left to die after committing suicide becuase of prison violence A young woman who was jailed in the Shahre Rey Prison died after committing suicide because of the medieval prison conditions and violent treatment by prison guards. Sahar Hadadi, 21, was married and had a child. She committed suicide because of the intolerable prison conditions and the violent attacks by prison guards to prison cells where female prisoners were violently beaten. Despite the fact that prison guards were informed that this female inmate had committed suicide, they did not take any measures to save her and left her to die. She died in front of her cellmates. (Human Rights and Democracy Activists in Iran - Jul. 15, 2011) Female prisoner murdered in Qarchak Prison on orders of prison officials On Wednesday September 28, Maliheh Mashhadi known as Donya who was about 43 years old was murdered as a result of multiple blows to her head. She was beaten up by the prison gang which works under the command of prison officials in Hall 4 of this prison. Maliheh sustained severe wounds in several parts of her head. Instead of taking her to a hospital, prison officials transferred her from hall 4 to hall 6 in this prison and left her on her own until she died as a result of a brain hemorrhage on Wednesday. The prison gangs who participated in this murder freely operate in prison and deal narcotics and suppress women. (Human Rights and Democracy Activists in Iran – Oct. 7, 2011) Five women suspiciously die in Varamin Prison According to reports, in the past two nights, five women suspiciously died in the Qarchak Prison in Varamin. This prison is used to detain female prisoners in Tehran. During the nights of January 5 and 6, five prisoners suspiciously died in cellblock 4 and 5 in Qarchak Prison. These women‟s physical condition deteriorated during the night and despite their cellmates‟ efforts in transferring them to the prison infirmary, the infirmary refused to accept and treat them which resulted in their deaths. The prison infirmary refuses to treat female prisoners who commit suicide, due to pressure from the intolerable prison conditions, which usually leads to their deaths. The women who passed away in the past two nights are: 1- Fatemeh Mohammadnia, 28, detained in Hall 4 2- Shadi Nikkho, 22, Hall 5 3- Fataneh Abdali, 40, Hall 5 4- Sahar Soleimani, 21, Hall 5 5- Maryam Qods, 30, Hall 5 (Human Rights and Democracy Activists in Iran – Jan. 7, 2012)

Death sentence
Three mothers sentenced to death in Iran URGENT ACTION Three women and two men are facing execution for drug trafficking in Iran , possibly as soon as 26 June , after unfair trials. They have not had the opportunity to appeal against their convictions and sentences. Their requests for pardon have been rejected on two occasions. Amnesty International is calling for the immediate commutation of their death sentences. Hourieh Sabahi, Leila Hayati and Roghieh Khalaji were arrested on 30 January 2009 along with two men whose names are not known to Amnesty International. All five are believed to be low-ranking members of a larger drug-trafficking operation. During their interrogation, they had no access to a lawyer. They were tried before Branch 2 of the Revolutionary Court in Hamedan, Iran, and sentenced to death. The death penalty is a mandatory sentence for those convicted of trafficking more than specified amounts of certain drugs. They had no right to appeal, as their sentences were only confirmed by the Prosecutor-General, as permitted under the Anti-Narcotics Law. There are reports that they may be executed as soon as 26 June. The women are all mothers of dependent children, currently cared for by relatives. Hourieh Sabahi has four children, one of whom is disabled. Two of them are aged 15 and 13; Amnesty International has no information about the ages of the others. Leila Hayati has a 10-year-old son and Roghieh Khalaji has a 14-year-old son and a 12-year-old daughter. Their husbands are reported to be drug addicts, either serving life sentences in prison or homeless, who are unable to support the children. The women reportedly turned to drug trafficking as a result of their poverty. UN human rights experts have repeatedly clarified that drugs offences do not meet the criterion of “most serious crimes”, to which the use of the death penalty must be restricted under international law. Additional Information Iran has one of the highest rates of drug addiction in the world; in May 2011 the Head of the Law Enforcement Force Esma‟il Ahmadi-Moghaddam said that there were probably more than 2 million users of illegal drugs in the country. It is also second only to China in the number of executions carried out each year. In 2010, 170 of the 253 executions acknowledged by the authorities were of individuals convicted of drugs offences. The executions of over 200 other convicted drugs offenders were not acknowledged by the authorities, or were carried out secretly. So far in 2011, over 120 of the 183 executions acknowledged by the authorities and recorded by Amnesty International have been of convicted drugs offenders. Well over 100 others are reported by unofficial sources to have been executed for drugs offences across the country, mainly in Vakilabad Prison, Mashhad. In October 2010, the Interior Minister stated that the campaign against drug trafficking was being intensified, and the Prosecutor-General stated in the same month that new measures had been taken to speed up the judicial processing of drug-trafficking cases, including by referring all such cases to his office. In December 2010, amendments to the AntiNarcotics Law extended the scope of the death penalty to include additional categories of illegal drugs (for example, methamphetamine - “crystal meth”), possession of more than specified amounts of which carry a mandatory death sentence. The UN Human Rights Committee has stated that “the automatic and mandatory imposition of the death penalty constitutes an arbitrary deprivation of life, in violation of Article 6(1) of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR), in circumstances where the death penalty is imposed without any possibility of taking into account the defendant's personal circumstances or the circumstances of the particular offence”. The Iranian authorities do not provide statistics on the numbers of executions carried out annually, nor information concerning those held on death row, although the number is almost certainly in the thousands. UN bodies have repeatedly called upon member states to make publicly available information on the use of the death penalty. In a 1989 resolution, the UN Economic and Social Council urged member states to publish comprehensive information about the death penalty, including death sentences, executions, and those held on death row, as well as on reversals, commutations and pardons. (Amnesty International – Jun. 16, 2011)

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Young mother of two sentenced to death for killing husband in self defense http://aftabnews.ir/vdch6qnzi23nxwd.tft2.html The third wife of a painter who had killed her husband after family disputes was sentenced to death on the request of the painter‟s two first wives and their children... The 24 year old wife of the murdered man confessed to killing her husband. Setrareh said, “I had a very hard life while living in a janitor‟s room in a residential building with my children. I met Vahid [the painter] a year ago... He promised that he would provide an easy life for my children and I after I married him. Despite the fact that I knew Vahid had two other wives, I had no other choice but to marry him. But when I got engaged to him, unfortunately, he did not live up to any of his promises and he also mistreated my children. He forced my 9 year old son to go to work with him and constantly hit him. He did not allow my little daughter to go to school and in a way imprisoned us in our house... I was living in sorrow until the day of the incident when we were having a severe argument, I yelled out, “Either kill me or divorce me so that we can all live in peace!” He suddenly came towards me to attack me and I stabbed him with a fruit knife in his chest. I never intended to kill him and did not imagine that he would die so easily”. (Iran state-run daily, Aftab state-run website – Oct. 29, 2011) Iran 'stoning woman' may be hanged: report http://isna.ir/ISNA/NewsView.aspx?ID=News-1917859 A woman sentenced to death by stoning in Iran for adultery may be hanged instead, a justice official was quoted as saying by the Fars news agency on Sunday. The woman, Sakineh Mohammadi Ashtiani, 'has two sentences, one regarding adultery for which she was sentenced to stoning, and the other for being an accomplice to murdering her husband for which she received a 10-year prison term,' said Malek Ajdar Sharifi, head of Iran's East Azarbaijan province's justice department. But, 'since we did not have facilities for stoning her,' authorities were informed, Fars news agency quoted Sharifi as saying. Sharifi said the chief of Iran's judiciary, Ayatollah Sadeq Larijani, had responded by saying that 'since the main purpose is execution then, if there are no facilities for stoning according to sharia, it could be changed to hanging‟. But Larijani decided 'to wait to get the view of other religious scholars and then a clear decision will be taken,' according to Sharifi. „We said there was no hurry,' as Mohammadi Ashtiani is serving her 10-year jail sentence, he said. 'We are waiting for for the results of deliberations‟. Mohammadi Ashtiani was sentenced to death by two courts in the northwestern city of Tabriz, capital of East Azarbaijan province, in separate trials in 2006. A sentence to hang for her involvement in the murder of her husband was commuted to the 10-year jail term by an appeals court in 2007. The second sentence, to be executed by stoning, was on adultery charges leveled over several relationships, notably with the man convicted of her husband's murder. The stoning sentence was upheld by another appeals court the same year, in a case that drew widespread international condemnation. But in July 2010, Iran suspended the stoning sentence pending a new examination of her case. Sharifi earlier this year said 'anything is possible' when asked by Fars news agency whether Mohammadi Ashtiani's sentence for adultery could be overturned. (AFP, ISNA state-run News Agency - Dec 25, 2011)

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Cruel punishment

Inhumane treatment and cruel punishments
Torture, rape, abuse, flogging and humiliation

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Arrests and Abuse of Ayatollah Kazemeini Boroujerdi‟s Followers in Mashad An informed source told the International Campaign for Human Rights in Iran that in the past weeks, supporters of Ayatollah Kazemini Boroujerdi have been subjected to abuse and mistreatment by security authorities in Mashad, and some have been arrested and detained inside Mashad‟s Intelligence Office Detention Center. “Starting in mid-March, with the attack of security forces on the residence of the Khodadai family and the arrest of their son, Iman Khodadai, the abuse and mistreatment of the followers of Ayatollah Boroujerdi entered a new phase. After Iman Khodadai‟s release, purple bruises were quite visible on his body,” a human rights activist who requested anonymity told the Campaign. The source also told the Campaign about repeated threats on the families of Ayatollah Kazemini Boroujerdi‟s followers and the arrest of another follower. “Security forces contacted Ayatollah Boroujerdi‟s followers and unleashed verbal abuse and threats on them, and in an unusual move, they have their homes under surveillance from inside vans parked in front of their homes. Another woman related to this religious group, referred to as “Bibi” by other Ayatollah Boroujerdi followers, has been arrested,” the source said. Previously, several news items pertaining to the arrests of those close to, or followers of, Ayatollah Kazemini Boroujerdi in Tehran were published. Only in November, six supporters of this cleric were arrested. Also, followers of Ayatollah Kazemini Boroujerdi who were arrested in October 2006 were tortured and threatened inside Ward 209 of Evin Prison during their interrogations. About 11 months later, all of them were temporarily released on bails of $50,000 to $100,000. (International Campaign for Human Rights in Iran – Apr. 11, 2011) Iran sentences tortured lawyer of woman sentenced to stoning to 11 years of prison Houtan Kian was arrested on October 10, 2010 in a meeting with two German journalists and the son of (his client) Sakineh Mohammadi Ashtiani, sentenced to death by stoning. Security and Intelligence forces in the East Azarbaijan province arrested this lawyer in his office… Agents of the Intelligence Agency have put pressure on this lawyer in interrogations in addition to the physical tortures by using his previous case when he was expelled from university and detained on charges of apostasy in relation to a book he wrote in 1993, his links to the case of Shahram Jazayeri and also the fact that his father was executed by the firing square in 1980. According to reports, some of the tortures used on him are as follows: 1- He was forced to wear plastic shorts and was burned with cigarettes more than 40 times on his legs, upper arms and neck. The signs of these burns are clearly evident on his body. 2- His nose and 10 ribs were broken 3- He was given one meal a day for four months and lost 51 kilograms (112 pounds) during this time. 4- His clothes were soaked with water and he was kept outside in freezing cold temperatures. 5- His prison shopping card was blocked after he was transferred to the public cellblock and he cannot provide his needs from the prison store. After more than one month of torture in solitary cells until November 14, 2010 in cellblock 209 in Evin Prison, he was once again transferred to a solitary cell in the Tabriz Intelligence Agency… He was sentenced to one year of prison and a five year ban on practicing law on charges of propagating against the government, three years of prison on charges of assembling and conspiring to disrupt the internal security of the country and another three years on charges of acting against national security by the first branch of the Tabriz Revolutionary Court. The 15th branch of the Tehran Revolutionary Court sentenced him to another four years of prison and his espionage charge is still under investigation. According to report, Mr. Houtan Kian has been denied the right to see his lawyer and family and his bank account has still not been opened while his confiscated personal belongings and automobile are still in the hands of the Ministry of Intelligence.

Mr. Kian is currently detained in cellblock 8 in Tabriz Prison and is unable to eat properly because of digestive problems as a result of torture. He also uses strong pills and has convulsion when put under pressure. (Human Rights Activists in Iran – May 14, 2011) Student activist sentenced to 7 years of prison and 74 lashes Tara Sepehri Far, the former Secretary of the Student Association of the Sharif Industrial University was sentenced to seven years of prison and 74 lashes. The Tehran Prosecutor has also confiscated the money surrendered to court to bail her out of prison. The student activist‟s case was seen to by the 26th branch of the Tehran Revolutionary Court headed by Judge Pir Abbasi. This is while even her lawyer was not informed of the trial and her sentence was issued in absentia. According to the court ruling, Sepehri Far was sentenced to five years of prison on charges of „conspiring and assembling against the security of the country‟, one year of prison on charges of „propagating against the government‟ and another year of prison and 74 lashes on charges of „disrupting public order‟. In addition to this, the bail money surrendered to court for her release in February 2010 was also seized. Tara Sepehri Far was arrested after the post-election protests on February 9, 2010 and was released on a 50 million toman (about 50,000 dollar) bail after more than a month in prison. (Committee of Human Rights Reporters in Iran – Jun. 23, 2011) Female political prisoner refused medical treatment and transferred to insane asylum According to reports, political prisoner Zahra Jabari is suffering from a severe heart condition and rheumatism and according to a letter by the Medical Commission, confirmed by the Medical Examiner, which was submitted to Tehran Prosecutor Abbas Jafari Dolat Abadi, she is to be transferred to a hospital to receive treatment for her heart condition and rheumatism. Agents of the Ministry of Intelligence who make the decisions behind the scenes about the fate of political prisoners transferred Jabari to the Amin Abad Insane Asylum in Shahre Rey instead to put her under physical and mental pressure and make her already poor health worse. The Ministry of Intelligence has ordered that her hands and legs be shackled and that four agents watch her on a 24 hour basis. Political prisoner Zahra Jabari had warned her interrogators that if she was not transferred to a hospital for her ailments she would go on a dry hunger strike for an unlimited amount of time. After these warnings, she was transferred to the Rozbeh Insane Asylum. Since her transfer to the asylum on June 18, she has been banned from seeing her son and family. (Human Right and Democracy Activists in Iran – Jul. 5, 2011) Female political prisoner severely tortured in prison According to reports, political prisoner Arezu Qebal Azraqash has been detained for more than 4 years in various prisons in Iran and was recently transferred to the Shahre Rey Prison. This 26 year old political prisoner was born in Mahabad and was arrested in 2007 in the border area in Piranshahr. She was transferred to a solitary cell in the Orumieh Intelligence Agency and was subjected to severe torture for six months in this prison by intelligence agents. Arezu was subjected to sleep deprivation, toilet deprivation, was kept in a standing position for hours which usually resulted in fainting spells, and was subjected to violent physical beatings where she was punched and kicked or beaten with batons which led to injuries in her reproductive organs and severe bleeding. She received 27 stiches for this injury. She was transferred from Orumieh Prison at night and was abused and subjected to a mock execution from which resulted in a 24 hour coma. This political prisoner was unable to move for two months because of injuries she sustained in her back and neck… 25

Arezu Qebal Azraqash was tried in 2008 by the 101st branch of the Orumieh Revolutionary Court where she was sentenced to three years of prison on charges of „espionage for Kurdistan and Iraqi Intelligence Agencies and cooperating with outsiders‟. Despite the fact that she has served her three year prison term, she is still kept in prison in dire conditions. (Human Rights and Democracy Activists in Iran – Jul. 17, 2011) Man and women sentenced to 99 lashes each for illicit relationship http://www.farsnews.com/newstext.php?nn=9005081101 A young man who killed another man with the complicity of the man‟s wife was sentenced to retribution [death] in court. The convicts were sentenced to 198 lashes overall for having an illicit relationship… After the remarks of the condemned in their last defense, Judge Mohammad Kashkouli held counsel with the court counselors and sentenced Rafi [who killed Mahin‟s husband] to death on charges of complicity in murder and 99 lashes for having an illicit relationship with Mahin and also sentenced Mahin to 10 years of prison and 99 lashes on charges of complicity in murder and having an illicit relationship with Rafi. (Fars state-run News Agency – Jul. 30, 2011) Varamin Prison guards violently beat 23 year old female death row prison for protesting prison conditions A young woman was violently beaten in the Varamin Prison in Qarchak on Monday September 5. Twenty three year old Sogand Jahani who is on death row has been jailed for close to 4 years. She was violently beaten by prison guards and was injured. The signs of beatings and bruises are evident on her body. The prison gang [which is under the control of prison authorities] has threatened her to death and she is in serious danger. Jahani had protested the violent treatment and injustice in prison which has angered prison officials. (Human Rights and Democracy Activists in Iran – Sep. 6, 2011) Women‟s rights activist in critical condition after being beaten by plainclothes agents in environmentalist gathering According to reports from Tabriz, women‟s rights activist, Faranak Farid, was severely beaten by plainclothes agents upon her arrest. As result, her elbow and left ear were severely injured to the extent that she reportedly lost her hearing. Also due to a lack of medical attention and facilities in the State Security Forces Detention Center in Tabriz, her condition has deteriorated. According to reports, she was interrogated for hours by the Tabriz Intelligence Agency in the first couple days of her arrest and was charged with „insulting the leader, propagating against the Islamic Republic and acting against national security‟… This women‟s researcher in Azarbaijan was arrested on Saturday September 3 simultaneous with a gathering by environmentalists in protest to the gradual death of Orumieh Lake. The gathering in Tabriz and Orumieh turned violent after security forces interfered. (Committee of Human Rights Reporters – Sep. 7, 2011) Female student activist flogged 50 times http://khabarfarsi.com/n/1121050/%D8%AA%D8%B9%D8%B2%DB%8C%D8%B1_%DB%8C%DA%A9_%D9 %86%D9%88%DB%8C%D8%B3%D9%86%D8%AF%D9%87 According to reports, the flogging sentence for Somayeh Tohidlou, an active member of Moussavi‟s election campaign, was carried out. Her feet and hands were chained when she was lashed 50 times. Somayeh Tohidlou who was born in 1978 and is a Ph.D. sociology student at Tehran University, went to Evin Prison where her flogging sentence was carried out… This activist played a major part in organizing [protests]… After she was released on bail from prison, she was sentenced to one year of prison and 50 lashes. Her one year prison term was commuted but her 50 lashes were carried out. The

flogging was carried out by a male interrogator. (Iran Press News website, state-run Khabar Online Website – Sep. 15, 2011) Couple sentenced to more than 200 lashes http://www.farsnews.com/newstext.php?nn=13900624000181 A man who murdered the temporary husband of his ex-wife was sentenced to retribution [death], prison and flogging. His ex-wife was sentenced to 18 years of prison… After the suspects spoke in court, the judge announced the end of the court session and sentenced Saber to retribution, 2.5 years of prison, 74 lashes and blood money on charges of intentional murder and burning the body [of the victim] while Mahnaz was sentenced to 18 years of prison and 165 lashes on charges of complicity in murder, robbery and having an illegitimate relationship. (Fars state-run News Agency – Sep. 15, 2011) Iran sentences 5 young people including 15 year old girl to 99 lashes for „illegitimate relationship‟ http://khabarfarsi.com/ext/1203808 Five convicts in a Satanist case were cleared of the devil worshipping charges but were convicted of other charges. According to the bill of indictment from the Mashhad Public and Revolutionary Court, in March 2010, the residents of a neighborhood in Mashhad called the police complaining of unconventional noise and a gathering by young girls and boys in a home. After this report and after getting judicial warrants, security agents inspected the home at 1 am and arrested four young men and a 15 year old girl... According to the court ruling, each one of the suspects in the case was sentenced to 99 lashes for having illegitimate relationships. (Khorasan state-run daily, Tabnak state-run website – Sep. 29, 2011) Iran sentences actress to 90 lashes Marzieh Vafamehr, the wife of Naser Taqvani and an actress in the movie, „My Tehran for Sale‟ who was arrested in July was sentenced to one year of prison and 90 lashes. (Kalameh website – Oct. 9, 2011) IRAN: Flogging sentences used to repress free expression Amnesty International is renewing its call on the Iranian authorities to stop cruel, inhuman and degrading punishments such as flogging after a spate of such sentences in the country. The organization said it feared such punishment is being meted out to deter others from criticising the authorities, particularly in the run-up to parliamentary elections scheduled for March 2012. Actress Marzieh Vafamehr has become the latest individual to face such a sentence, after she was sentenced on or around 8 October 2011 to a year in prison and 90 lashes in connection to her appearance in the film My Tehran for Sale, in which she appears in one scene without the mandatory head covering which women in Iran are required to wear and appears to drink alcohol in another, although her husband Nasser Taghvai has denied she had actually drunk any alcohol. The exact charge of which she was convicted is not known to Amnesty International. The consumption of alcohol is a criminal offence in Iran, punishable by 80 lashes for a first offence. Article 640 of the Penal Code also provides for between three to 12 months‟ imprisonment and up to 74 lashes for “anyone who exhibits or puts for public viewing ….films … which offends public decency or morals”. Amnesty International considers the imposition of mandatory dress codes, such as that in Iran, to be a violation of the internationally recognized rights to freedom of expression and belief. Her lawyer is reported to have appealed against her conviction and sentence. Marzieh Vafamehr, believed to have been arrested in late June 2011, is held in Gharchak (or Qarchak) Prison in Varamin, where conditions are harsh. If Marzieh Vafamehr is held solely on account of the peaceful exercise of her right to freedom of expression, she should be released immediately and unconditionally. In September 2011, Somayeh Tohidlou, a well known blogger and opposition activist was flogged 50 times for “insulting” the country‟s President. Afterwards, she recounted on her blog how she was taken to Tehran‟s Evin Prison on 14 September 2011 and chained hand and foot before being lashed 50 times.

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Somayeh Tohidlou confirmed that while the lashing was largely “symbolic” and did not cause extreme pain, it was deeply embarrassing. In a message to those who carried out the punishment she said “Be happy, because if you wanted to humiliate me, my entire body is burning with humiliation.” More recently, student activist Peyman Aref was flogged 74 times on the day of his release for “insulting the president” after serving a one year prison sentence for his peaceful political activities. He said that the flogging had been carried in a harsher manner than that prescribed by law. Under the law, flogging sentences should be carried out more or less harshly, depending on the offence. A picture of the wounds to his back can be viewed on the website Human Rights House of Iran. He left prison supported by friends, as his injuries left him unable to walk unaided. “I could not hold my back straight from the pain of being flogged. My heart condition is not good. On the advice of the doctors I took a shower but the pain and burning sensation is severe,” he told the opposition website Jaras. 'I just sent an open letter to the president to describe the catastrophic situation of universities. It did not bear any insults against him. I only said that I would never greet him,' he added. Treating “insults” to officials as a criminal offence breaches international law and standards on freedom of expression, which permit only such restrictions as are demonstrably necessary and proportionate for the protection of certain public interests or the rights or reputations of others. It is well established in international human rights law that public officials should tolerate more, rather than less, criticism than private individuals. The Iranian courts impose flogging sentences for a wide range of offences, including sexual offences, drug-related offences, drinking alcohol, theft, and some relating to freedom of expression and assembly, such as “insulting others” or “disturbing public order”. Most flogging sentences are imposed on men and are in some cases commuted to cash fines. Another cruel punishment, amputation, is also provided as punishment for certain cases of theft; cross amputation, where a hand and opposite foot is cut off is one of four possible punishments for the offences of “enmity against God” and “corruption on earth”. Amnesty International recorded at least 12 cases of amputation for theft in 2010, with a further case of cross-amputation. As judicial punishments, flogging and amputation both violate the international prohibition on torture and other cruel, inhuman and degrading treatment. According to Article 7 of the International Covenant of Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR), which Iran is a state party, “no one shall be subjected to torture or to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment.” IRAN‟s report on the implementation of the ICCRP will be considered by the UN Human Rights Committee on 1718 October 2011 and the authorities will have to answer for their continued resort to a punishment which is banned in international law. (Amnesty International – Oct. 11, 2011) Jailed woman commits suicide after getting maiming sentence http://isna.ir/ISNA/NewsView.aspx?ID=News-1884700 The suspect in the acid throwing case committed suicide in the Hamedan Prison. According to reports, Mona K, who threw acid on Tahereh Bahrami on May 5, 2010, committed suicide last Thursday in Hamedan. “Her body is in the Hamedan Coroner‟s Office”, Dr. Ali Ehsan Saleh, the Director of the Coroner‟s Office in Hamedan said. He refused to comment on why and how Mona committed suicide... The Hamedan Public and Revolutionary Prosecutor had announced before that a retribution sentence was issued for the convict in this case. (ISNA state-run News Agency – Nov. 5, 2011)
(Note: Retribution in this case means that Iranian officials would have burned or damaged Mona’s body and face the same way her victim Tahereh was injured.)

Women sentenced to 99 lashes for „illegitimate relationship‟ http://www.asriran.com/fa/news/188339 The Supreme Court confirmed the sentence for the culprit in the case known as the Kaj Square Murder. Thirty-two year old Kimia, who was the reason behind a clash between two men which led to the murder of one of the men and

the execution of the other, was sentenced to flogging and a ban on economic activities after being tried by the 77 th branch of the Tehran Penal Court... Kimia was sentenced to 99 lashes for having an illegitimate relationship with two men and a three year ban on all kinds of economic activities for inciting them to fight [over her]. She appealed the sentence but the Supreme Court finally upheld the sentence yesterday. (Sharq state-run Daily, Asre Iran state-run website – Nov. 6, 2011) Mashhad security forces use degrading punishment to publicly humiliate men and women http://isna.ir/ISNA/NewsView.aspx?ID=News-1912980 (Images from sate-run ISNA News Agency showing the implementation of the so-called Plan to Improve Social Security) (ISNA state-run News Agency – Dec. 18, 2011)

Female protester lashed 50 times for „participating in illegal gathering‟ Shamim Zeinol-Abedin was summoned to the Sentence Implementation Unit to be flogged 50 times based on her sentence. According to reports, this young woman was detained for a while in 2009 in Evin Prison and was summoned to go to the Sentence Implementation Unit in Tehran on the dawn of February 7 for her lashing sentence to be carried out. She was interrogated this week once again in the Third Base of the Tehran Security Police based on her charges which include „disrupting public order and participating in an illegal protest‟. Notably, she did not have a history of political activism. (Nedaye Sabze Azadi – Feb. 7, 2012)

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Arbitrary arrests

Arbitrary arrests

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Political arrests
30 male and female protesters violently arrested in Tehran‟s Palestine Street The presence of the people in Palestine Street led to violent confrontations by security forces and the arrest of about 30 men and women. According to our reporter who was on the scene, security forces forced 10 young men who they had detained to lie down on the ground. The agents pulled their shirts over their heads and beat them. Security forces kept male and female detainees in vans and even beat them inside these black vans. The violence used by security forces in these arrests was very unfortunate. A young woman was violently pulled on the ground to the van. Her cries were very heartbreaking for the people on the scene. (Committee of Human Rights Reporters – Mar. 1, 2011) Iran arrests dozens of women in Women‟s Day protests in Tehran A large number of women were arrested in various Tehran regions during the International Women‟s Day (street protests). They were taken to unknown detention centers. According to reports, at about 6 pm in Tehran, a large number of women were arrested by security forces between the Eskandari and Navab streets in Tehran. The women were insulted and treated violently. They were taken to SSF minibuses and vans and were then taken to unknown locations. At about 5 pm in Roudaki Street in Tehran, a bus full of detained women was taken to an unknown location. In this street, security forces guided protesters to side streets under the excuse that the streets were closed and they arrested them. In Valiasr Square, a large number of people were arrested in groups. This measure was carried out in many regions in Tehran. (Committee of Human Rights Reporters – Mar. 8, 2011) Iran arrests and interrogators wife of slain political prisoner According to reports, the family of political prisoner Mohsen Dokmeh Chi, who passed away after being denied the minimum medical attention for his cancer, has been banned from holding any kind of memorial service for him and have even been banned from residing in their home for one week. The Dokmeh Chi family buried their loved one in section 301 in the Behesht Zahra Cemetery yesterday but has been banned from holding a service. Mrs. Dokmeh Chi was arrested after returning from the funeral and was interrogated for hours in the Gish Security Police station. She was told not to hold any memorial services for her husband. Security forces have also told this family that they are not allowed to reside in their home for one week and have to leave their home. This measure by security forces comes from fear that people would gather in their home to express their condolences. Notably, there was to be a memorial service on the third day of the slaying of this political prisoner in the Mosque in Sohrevardi Street but it has been stressed by security forces that such a service is banned. This family has been forced to promise not to attempt to hold any ceremony. (Center to Defend Families of those Slain and Detained in Iran – Mar. 31, 2011) Figures on condition of jailed female political prisoners in Iran According to reports, from the more than 200 female political activists and civil rights activists who were arrested in the past 2 years in Iran, 80 women are still in prison on political charges. In 1389 (Persian year starting from March 2010 to March 2011) security forces arrested at least 50 female political activists, civil rights activists or women of minority faiths. Most of the detainees were human rights and women‟s rights activists. Thirteen of these prisoners were temporarily released on a bail which adds up to more than 2.5 billion tomans (close to 2.5 million dollars) and are waiting for their court sentence or the implementation of their prison sentence. Seven human rights and women‟s rights activists, three journalists, five student activists, five political activists, 17

women who follow minority religions who are mostly Baha‟is and one Kurd prisoner are some of those arrested in 1389. The prison sentences of 10 of those arrested in 1389 has so far been issued and these women have been sentenced to 46 years of prison all together. Female political prisoners who were arrested before 1389 were sentenced to 83 years of prison all together and nine of them have to serve their prison terms in exile (in a prison outside of their hometown). (Radio Zamaneh – Apr. 4, 2011) Iran arrests 9 PMOI supporters in planned raid in Tehran On Sunday May 1, at about 6:30 am, agents of the Intelligence Agency raided at least six homes in various areas in Tehran and arrested nine people. All the members of two families were among the detained Tehran residents. A number of those arrested were former political prisoners in the 80‟s. The names of these detainees are as follows: Naser Sodagari, his wife, Tahereh Sodagari and their son Puyan Sodagari. Naser and his wife were also political prisoners in the 80‟s and were arrested in 2007 for participating in the 19 th anniversary of the 1988 massacre of political prisoners and were detained for several months in cellblock 209 in Evin Prison where they were subjected to mental and physical torture. They were temporarily released after some time after paying heavy bails. Aria Haderi (wife of political prisoner Mashallah Haeri) and her daughter Negar Haeri. They were arrested during the 2009 protests along with Mashallah Haeri and were released after a few months after paying a heavy bail. Mr. Haeri is still detained in Gohardasht Prison in Karaj. Hossein Haj Aqayi, son of executed political prisoner Mohammad-Ali Haj Aqayi whose death sentence was recently carried out. Sediqeh Moradi, 50 years old, who is was jailed in the 80‟s. Mohammad Azimi, a former political prisoner in the 80‟s and husband of recently released political prisoner Fatemeh Ziayi. Mrs. Ziayi was released after serving her years long prison term. Dr. Hani Yazerlu, former political prisoner in the 80‟s. His wife Nazila Dashti and his son Hamed Yazerlu are currently in prison. His other son Hood Yazerlu was released from prison last night after finishing his years long prison term. (Human Rights and Democracy Activists in Iran – May 5, 2011) Al-Jazeera says missing journalist held in Iran Al-Jazeera journalist Dorothy Parvez, missing since she arrived in Syria late in April is being held in Tehran, the Dohabased television channel said on Wednesday. „We have now received information that she is being held in Tehran. We are calling for information from the Iranian authorities, access to Dorothy and for her immediate release,' said an Al-Jazeera spokesman in the statement. „We have had no contact with Dorothy since she left Doha on April 29 and we are deeply concerned for her welfare,' said the news channel. Parvez's family also urged Dorothy's release. 'We appeal once again for Dorothy to be released immediately and returned to us,' her family said. Parvez, who holds American, Canadian and Iranian passports, joined Al-Jazeera's English service in 2010. (AFP - May 11, 2011) Iran arrests mother of executed brothers in Isfahan after their funeral The mother of Mohammad and Abdollah Fathi (who were hanged a few days ago by the Iranian regime) and the person filming the funeral procession and a number of other mourners were arrested. According to reports from Shahin Shahr, a large crowd participated in the funeral of two executed brothers Abdollah and Mohammad Fathi who were hanged yesterday in the Isfahan Central Prison… Mohammad and Abdollah‟s mother was summoned (by security forces) after the ceremony. She was reportedly summoned to answer a few questions. There is still no news on those who were arrested. (International Campaign against Execution – May 18, 2011)

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No news on condition of families of PMOI residents three weeks after arrest According to reports, three weeks after the arrest of a number of people (PMOI family members and supporters) on May 1 and their transfer to solitary cells in cellblock 209 in Evin Prison, there are no reports about their condition. After the violent and simultaneous raid of five homes in various areas in Tehran by agents of the Ministry of Intelligence, eight people were arrested. In one case, all the members of one family were detained. Despite the fact that they were arrested 25 days ago, there is still no news on their condition. The ban on visits and telephone calls can only mean that they are being subjected to long interrogation sessions and physical and mental torture. The eight people who were arrested are as follows: Dr. Hani Yazerlu, a well-known political activist and former political prisoner Naser Sodagari, his wife Tahereh Sodagari and their son Puya Sodagari Mrs. Aria Almasi, 45, who is a hospital employee and wife of political prisoner Mashallah Haeri and her daughter Negar Haeri Mrs. Sediqeh Moradi, 50, a former political prisoner Mr. Mohammad Azimi a former political prisoner and husband of Mrs. Fatemeh Ziayi who was recently released from prisoner after serving her prisoner term The families of May 1 detainees have approached various state institutions including the Tehran Prosecutor, looking for information on their loved ones, but they have not received any answers and the Tehran Prosecutor has refused to meet them and answer their questions. (Human Rights and Democracy Activists in Iran – May 25, 2011) Iran arrests more than 10 mourners in memorial ceremony for slain daughter of opposition figure Following a call by activists to hold a memorial service for Haleh Sahabi outside of the Hosseinieh Ershad [in Tehran], media sources have said that hours before the start of the service, security forces were stationed in the area and at least 10 people who intended to gather and light candles for Haleh Sahabi were arrested… Eyewitnesses also said that security forces with cameras were stationed in all the streets leading the Hosseinieh Ershad, filming the events and people and that they had created an atmosphere of fear among the people. According to this report, 10-15 women intending to participate in the service who were mostly between the ages of 40 to 60 were also arrested. (Jaras website – Jun. 4, 2011) More than 3 artists arrested in past weeks in Iran According to reports from Iran Marzieh Vafamehr, who is the leading actress in the movie, „My Tehran, For Sale‟ and the wife of Naser Taqvani has been detained for more than two weeks but reasons behind her arrest have still not been officially announced. The family of this director and actress has preferred to stay silent in these two weeks regarding her arrest. Despite the fact that the definite reason for her arrest is still not clear, according to the Kalameh Website, it seems that she was arrested for her role in „My Tehran, For Sale‟, directed by Geranaz Moussavi which was played underground in Iran.

Pegah Ahangari

Maryam Majd and Mahnaz Mohammadi

According to Moussavi who is now living abroad, despite the fact that this movie was banned in Iran, it was made with a warrant from the Islamic Guidance Council in 2008… According to Kalameh, elements behind the making of this movie who live in Iran have been summoned many times [for interrogations] and currently a number of other people affiliated with this movie have been arrested with Marzieh and are currently in detention… There were reports of the arrest of other Iranian artists in the past few days. About 10 days ago, another actress and documentary maker, Pegah Ahangarani, who is a supporter of the reformist movement and was active in the election staff of Mir Hossein Moussavi during the presidential elections, was arrested in Iran. No news on why she was arrested and where she is detained has been published. Mahnaz Mohammadi, documentary maker and a women‟s rights activist was also arrested near the end of June by security forces in her home and the reason behind her arrest has still not been announced… In mid-June, Maryam Majd, a sports photographer who worked in the Iranian media was arrested one day before going to Germany and no official has confirmed or denied her arrest thus far. (Radio Farda Website – Jul. 18, 2011) Iran admits to arresting Iranian movie star http://www.asriran.com/fa/news/173277 The Tehran Prosecutor‟s Office confirmed the arrest of Pegah Ahangarani and said that investigations into this issue were ongoing. “Pegah Ahangarani was arrested last week and investigations into her case are ongoing”, an official in the Tehran Prosecutor‟s Office said in an interview with ISNA. [Islamic Students News Agency] This official said that further explanations would be given after the completion of investigations. According to reports, Pegah Ahangarani intended to go to Germany [before her arrest]. She is the daughter of Manijeh Hakim [actress] and Jamshid Ahangarani [Iranian director] the movie „Gentlemen are Banned from Entering‟ featuring Pegah Ahangarani is currently playing in movie theaters in Iran. (Asre Iran website – Jul. 18, 2011) Iran: Further information: Iranian rights activist and mother arrested Kouhyar Goudarzi, a member of the Committee for Human Rights Reporters (CHRR), was arrested on 31 July 2011 in Tehran, Iran, by plainclothes individuals believed to be from the Ministry of Intelligence. His mother, Parvin Mokhtareh, was arrested the next day. They are at risk of torture or other ill treatment. Kouhyar Goudarzi was arrested at the home of a friend, together with the host and a friend. Neighbours reported seeing the three men taken away by plainclothes individuals believed to be from the Ministry of Intelligence. Since his arrest, members of Kouhyar Goudarzi‟s family and his lawyer, Mina Jaffari, have inquired as to his whereabouts and have neither been given information on his whereabouts, nor confirmation of his arrest. Amnesty International fears he may be currently held in solitary confinement at Evin Prison in Tehran. In the early hours of 1 August, shortly after Kouhyar Goudarzi was arrested, his mother Parvin Mokhtareh was also arrested in Kerman, in southern Iran. During her arrest, Parvin Mokhtareh was reportedly told that her son had been arrested and sent to Evin Prison. Parvin Mokhtareh has been accused of “insulting the Leader”, “propaganda against the system”, and “acting against national security”, stemming from interviews she gave when her son was imprisoned in 2010 in relation to his peaceful human rights activities. A relative inquired about Kouhyar Goudarzi‟s whereabouts with the Prosecutor‟s office, but was told the Prosecutor‟s office did not have any information about his arrest. Kouhyar Goudarzi‟s family also went to Evin Prison in Tehran and was told he was not held there, despite unconfirmed reports stating Kouhyar Goudarzi may be held in section 240 of Evin Prison. Kouhyar Goubarzi‟s family has not had any contact with him since his arrest and he is believed to be held in conditions amounting to an enforced disappearance… ADditional Information

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Kouhyar Goudarzi was released from prison in December 2010 after serving a one year prison sentence for “spreading propaganda against the system” and other counts in breach of his rights to freedom of expression and association. An appeal was rejected in October 2010. The CHRR was founded in 2006 and campaigns against all kinds of human rights violations, including against women, children, prisoners, workers and others. It is banned by the Iranian authorities and its members have continued to face intense harassment and prosecution since the disputed presidential election in June 2009. On 9 January 2011, CHRR member, journalist and human rights activist Shiva Nazar Ahari, had a four-year prison sentence upheld on appeal. A further two-year prison sentence for “gathering and colluding with intent to harm state security” was overturned. She is currently at liberty awaiting a summons to start serving this final sentence. Several other CHRR members are also facing imprisonment or have fled the country for their own safety. Members of the CHRR have told Amnesty International that Saeed Ha‟eri has also received a two-year prison sentence, which was upheld by an appeal court but the details were not available at the time of writing. Shiva Nazar Ahari was arrested on 20 December 2009 along with, Kouhyar Goudarzi and Saeed Haeri. They were taken from a bus while on their way to the funeral of a senior cleric critical of the authorities, Grand Ayatollah Montazeri, which was due to take place the following day. Facing persecution in Iran, other CHRR members fled Iran and now reside outside the country. Navid Khanjani, a member of both the CHRR and the Association to Oppose Discrimination in Education (AODE), was sentenced to 12 years‟ imprisonment on 31 January 2011. He has appealed, but an appeal hearing date has not yet been set. If imprisoned, Amnesty International would consider him to be a prisoner of conscience, held solely in connection with his peaceful human rights activities. In July 2011, it was reported that plainclothes agents had been stationed outside of Navid Khanjani‟s home and he expressed fears for his safety at the time. Navid Khanjani was arrested in Esfahan, central Iran, on 2 March 2010. He faced an unfair trial on 20 December 2010 in Branch 26 of the Tehran Revolutionary Court. He was reportedly sentenced to 10 years‟ imprisonment in connection with his work with the AODE; and five for his work with the CHRR. An additional three years were said to have been handed down for “creating unease in the public mind”, and “propaganda against the system”. Navid Khanjani was eventually sentenced to 12 years imprisonment after the court reportedly applied „Islamic mercy.‟ (Amnesty International – Aug. 23, 2011) Iran arrests 3 journalists in Tehran in ongoing media crack down http://www.jahannews.com/vdceoe8wnjh87fi.b9bj.html Three journalists, Parastoo Dokohaki, Sahamoddin Borqani and Marzieh Rasouli, were arrested in Tehran. Sahamoddin Borqani who is the son of Ahmad Borqani, a former Tehran representative in the Majlis and the Assistant Head of the Media of Khatami‟s Guidance Minister was arrested on Tuesday January 17. Parastoo Dokohaki, journalist, blogger and researcher on women‟s issues was also arrested on January 15. (Aftab state-run website, Jahan News state-run website – Jan. 19, 2012)

Social arrests
Bassij forces arrest partygoers in Damavand On the night of the death of Fatemeh Zahra (granddaughter of the Prophet Mohammad), a number of girls and boys held a party and did not even listen to the notices of neighbors. A number of Bassij forces went to the house (where the party was being held) and warned the home owner but their notices were ignored. After this incident, Bassij forces arrested all the (partygoers) in the home with the coordination of the Damavand prosecutor and turned them over to relevant institutions. (State-run Ati News website, Iran Press News – May 7, 2011)

Security forces raid private parties in Mashhad, arrest dozens of men and women The State Security Forces and police agents of the Golestan Dam Base in the Khorasan Razavi Province arrested 17 men and 11 women in a mixed party who were partying with improper clothing. Police found alcoholic beverages and satellite equipment in the home. Notably, the Khorasan police have been able to arrest dozens in mixed parties. A while ago in a similar instance, the SSF arrested 13 men and 4 women with improper clothing in a party in the Tarqabeh- Shandiz area. Also this week, 16 men and women were arrested in a night party in the Tarqabeh Shandiz. (Ati News state-run website – May 17, 2011) Dozens of men and women arrested for socializing with the opposite sex in Mashhad tour Khorasan state-run daily – Dozens of people who had participated in a one day mixed tour were arrested along with the organizers of the tour in Mashhad. The tour, in which a number of men and women had participated in, was held in the region of the Kong Village in Mashhad. Regarding the arrest of the elements and organizers of the tour, the head of the Public Security Police of the Command Center of the Khorasan Razavi Security Forces said, “in light of the reports and the dissatisfaction of the villagers regarding the public displays of corruption in a number of tours, Moral Police agents carried out intelligence measures until they arrested dozens of people who were socializing [with the opposite sex] in a surprise attack after they had gathered evidence that the elements and organizers of one the tours had committed crimes”. (Khorasan state-run Daily – May 29, 2011) Iran closes down 21 gardens and villas that host mixed parties and celebrations; arrests more than 100 people The Damavand State Security Forces Commander announced that 21 halls and gardens that hosted mixed parties and did not follow Islamic laws were closed and sealed off. Colonel Qodsi said that in light of the warm season and the warm weather, many people like to hold their parties and celebrations in gardens and villas. “Damavand is known for its villas and many gardens and birthdays and weddings are held in these gardens”, he added. He said that mixed ceremonies [when both men and women are present in one area] where Islamic laws are not followed are considered crimes according to the constitution. “With coordination with judicial officials and the Assembly of the Affairs of Halls and Restaurants, halls and ballrooms that hold mixed parties will be shut and sealed off”. “More than 100 people who were in charge of these parties or those who participated in these kinds of ceremonies have been arrested and have been referred to the judiciary”. (ISNA state-run News Agency – Jun. 13, 2011) RGC forces attack and arrest dozens of men and women in private parties Fars state-run News Agency -The Commander of the Revolutionary Guards Corps in the town of Noor announced that two parties held in this town were [disrupted] and that elements behind the parties were arrested. “According to reports we received that mixed night parties were being held in a home in one of the coast townships in Noor and after investigations into the report, the necessary measures were taken to disrupt the celebrations”, Yusef Taleb Nejad said. RGC soldiers from the Baqiollah Base along with security forces entered the home the party was being held and were met with a number of half-naked [term used by regime officials meaning ordinary summer attire] women, girls and men who were drinking alcohol and dancing. These people who had all drank alcoholic beverages and were intoxicated… were arrested by agents and were all transferred to the Izadshahr Police Station. They will be detained there until the end of legal procedures and will then be referred to the judiciary. The RGC commander said that 15 men and women were arrested in the party. Regarding the second party he said that “according to reports from Hezbollah [referring to pro-government vigilantes] and on investigations by the Noor Intelligence Unit regarding a mixed party with loud music… in a village in the Chamestan region, the location of the party was identified after coordination with the judicial officials and 16 men and women were arrested. (Fars state-run News Agency – Jun. 14, 2011)

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Dozens of people arrested in Kermanshah in „moral‟ clampdown During the „improper veiling plan‟ which was carried out by State Security Forces in the past few weeks, dozens of people were arrested in Kermanshah. According to reports from Kermanshah, Counter Social Corruption forces in the SSF carried out this plan extensively and arrested dozens of citizens. Eyewitnesses said that these forces were stationed in groups along with a number of female police officers in the main regions and streets in Kermanshah. The anti-corruption police who travel in vans warned citizens they deemed as „improperly veiled‟ in regions such as Mosadeq, Nobahar, Ojaq Intersection and other places and made a number of arrests. (Human Rights Activists in Iran – Jun. 23, 2011) Iran arrests 12 young men and women in mixed party in Qazvin On the night of July 8, security forces entered a private mixed party in the Haft Sangan Township in Qazvin and arrested 12 young people. According to reports, these forces arrested seven boys and five girls and took them to the police station. Two of the girls were released that night after signing a pledge but the others were taken to a detention center. (Human Rights Activists in Iran – Jul. 13, 2011)
SSF arrest young poeple in mixed

Iran arrests 17 men and women in mixed party in Khorasan Razavi Province http://www.khorasannews.com/News.aspx?id=904943&type=1&year=1390&month=4&day=28&keyword=%D8%AF %D8%B3%D8%AA%DA%AF%D9%8A%D8%B1%D9%8A%20%D8%A2%D9%84%D8%A7%D8%AA%20%D9 %85%D9%88%D8%B3%D9%8A%D9%82%D9%8A%20%D8%B2%D9%86%D8%AF%D9%87%2017&exactKey word= Seventeen men and women who were participating in a mixed party in the town of Torqabeh in Khorasan Razavi were arrested. According to the Khorasan Razavi official Police website, at 3:30 am July 16, agents of the Torqabeh Command Center received information that a party was being held and immediately went into the scene after coordinating with the Judiciary. According to this report, agents arrested nine men and eight women who were not in their natural state [under the influence of alcohol}. A number of musical instruments and alcohol bottles were found on the scene. (Khorasan staterun Daily – Jul. 19, 2011) Iran arrests 21 men and women in mixed party http://www.khabaronline.ir/news-165420.aspx Agents of the Mashhad moral police arrested those who had participated in a mixed party. According to the Khorasan daily after a number of citizens announced their dissatisfaction over a night party that was being held in the Sajad Blvd. in Mashahd, agents of the Moral Security Police were dispatched to the scene with the coordination of judicial officials and in a police operation, arrested 14 women and 7 men who were dancing in a very indecent manner. The detainees were interrogated after being transferred to the police station and cases were filed against them. The suspects were referred to judicial officials. (Khabar Online state-run website, Khorasan Daily – Aug. 1, 2011) Women arrested for so-called „superstitious‟ beliefs http://www.mehrnews.com/fa/NewsDetail.aspx?NewsID=1397074 Security forces interrupted and closed a women‟s session in a township in northern Tehran who advertised superstitious beliefs among women. This woman held these kinds of meetings in which there was talk of summoning spirits and exorcism and other issues, for some time and neighbors had constantly filed complaints to the police in this regard.

When agents interrupted the meeting of this deceiving woman, a number of women in the session came to the streets claiming that the agents interrupted a Quran session. (Mehr sate-run News Agency – Sep. 1, 2011) Close to 800 people arrested in Kurdistan for so-called „immoral crimes‟ http://www.asriran.com/fa/news/180001 The Kurdistan Police arrested 769 people in different cases on charges of social offences. These include distributors of alcoholic drinks, street harassers, improperly veiled people, providers and distributors of equipment for receiving satellite channels, homeless women, providers and distributors of anti-cultural products, drug addicts and those who disrupt social security. (Mehr state-run News Agency, Asre Iran state-run website- Sep. 5, 2011) Iran arrests 16 men and women in mixed gender party http://www.khorasannews.com/mobile/News.aspx?id=1060892&type=1&year=1390&month=6&day=21 Ten men and six women were arrested in a mixed gender party in Mashhad. According to the website of the Khorasan Razavi Police Department, after receiving information about a party that was in progress, agents of the Najafi Police Station in Mashhad immediately took action and searched the location after coordinating with the judge. In the search, 10 men and six women were arrested with an indecent appearance and some alcoholic beverages were discovered and confiscated. The culprits were referred to the judge after criminal records were filed for them. (Khorasan News state-run website – Sep. 12, 2011) Security forces arrest 7 people in party On Sunday, September 18, seven Azari citizens were arrested in Salmas. They were all taken to an unknown location. Hadi, J and Mohammad, three Salmas residents along with another man and four women from Orumieh were arrested in a party in Salmas by security forces. According to eye witnesses, it was announced that they were arrested for a holding a party. Security forces entered the home without a warrant and arrested them. (Human Rights Activists in Iran – Sep. 26, 2011) Mashhad police arrest 19 men and women for going to party http://aftabnews.ir/vdcgzu9qzak9w74.rpra.html Agents of the Najafi Police Station in Mashhad arrested 19 men and women in a party... Police arrested 9 women and 10 men in an apartment building in the Pirouzi Boulevard in Mashhad after getting permits. Police investigations into this case are ongoing. (Khabar Online state-run website – Oct. 25, 2011) 70 designers arrested for putting „modeling‟ classes for girls http://www.asriran.com/fa/news/187205 The Daneshju News Agency said that 70 clothes designers were arrested in Tehran. This website said that a cultural expert who was not named made this remark. According to this expert, these people were arrested on charges of putting modeling classes for a number of girls. The date of these arrests and the identity of those arrested were not reported. According to the Etemad Daily, this is the first time that a media affiliated with the Bassij Forces has reported the arrest of a number of Tehran designers. (Asre Iran state-run website – Oct. 29, 2011) Police arrest 13 men and women for participating in mixed gender party http://aftabnews.ir/vdcf1cdyvw6dmya.igiw.html Security forces in the town of Torqabeh and Shandiz arrested 13 men and women in two parties. “After receiving information about a night party in a Villa in the Torqabeh-Shandiz intersection, security police entered the premises at 10 pm on Monday after getting permits and arrested three men and four women. The detainees were between 20 to 23 years old and were not related to each other”. “Two bottles of alcohol were found after the villa was searched and seven cellphones and two automobiles were confiscated from the suspects”, Colonel Erfani said. 39

In the past few days, security forces arrested six other men and women in another party in the Sarasiab Village in Shandiz. (Khorasan state-run daily, Aftab state-run website – Nov. 1, 2011) Security forces arrest and beat 31 girls and boys in b-day party in Tabriz Security forces arrested 31 girls and boys in a birthday party in a traditional coffee shop in Tabriz. According to reports, on Sunday October 30, security forces entered a coffee shop at 3 pm and arrested 16 girls and 15 boys after beating them. The detainees were initially taken to police station 13 in Tabriz and then to the Security Police Station. They were taken to the Security Police Station at 8 pm while blindfolded. These boys and girls were kept in the police station‟s yard in freezing cold temperatures before being beaten again. According to this report, their feet and legs became numb from the cold. They were finally released on bail after being filmed. (Human Rights Activists in Iran – Nov. 1, 2011) Security forces arrest 60 girls and boys in Shiraz party http://www.kayhannews.ir/900913/15.htm#other1509 Participants in a night party were arrested with the efforts of the Moral Security Police in the Fars Province. Security forces were informed that a number of young men and women were having a party in a garden in the north western region of Shiraz. After further investigations, they entered the garden and saw that drunk, half-naked [it is important to note that the Iranian regime calls anything other than the so-called Islamic clothing „half-naked‟] boys and girls were dancing with each other. Agents arrested 60 people and discovered alcoholic beverages in the garden. Notably, the detainees were transferred to prison on orders of the Shiraz Public and Revolutionary Court. (Kayhan state-run Daily- Dec. 4, 2011)

Prison conditions
Female political prisoner in poor condition, denied medical treatment Political prisoner Zahra Jabari who was arrested on September 18, 2009 during popular protests in Iran, is suffering from a heart problem and is in very poor physical health in Evin Prison but prison doctors and Evin Prison officials have denied her medical treatment. According to reports, she is suffering from a serious heart ailment and can barely walk because she is also suffering from rheumatism. After her arrest, she was detained in a solitary cell in Evin Prison for seven months. She was sentenced to four years of prison on charges of acting against national security by Judge Moqiseh and her sentence was upheld by a court of review. She was transferred to the Methadone Cellblock in Evin Prison on November 7, 2010 along with other female political prisoners in this prison. She has been denied the right to a furlough. (Committee of Human Rights Reporters – Mar. 2, 2011) Female political prisoner taken to hospital in very critical condition after being denied months of medical attention According to reports, political prisoner Zahra Jabari was taken to a hospital in Tehran in very critical condition. On Monday, March 21, this political prisoner‟s health became very critical and she went into a coma. According to eyewitnesses, when being transferred to the hospital, it seemed that her brain was not functioning and only her heart was beating. There are unconfirmed reports that this political prisoner might have suffered a brain death. Jabari has been suffering from serious heart problems and severe rheumatism for months but has been denied medical treatment on the orders of agents of the Intelligence Agency and Tehran Prosecutor Abbas Jafari Dolat Abadi. She was taken to the hospital some time before this after her health deteriorated but intelligence agents and the Tehran Prosecutor prevented her treatment and brought her back to prison.

One of the inhumane methods carried out on political prisoners on orders of Sadeq Larijani, the head of the Judiciary and the Ministry of Intelligence is denying them treatment and eventually torturing them to death in this way. (Human Right and Democracy Activists in Iran – Mar. 23, 2011) Female political prisoner still in coma in hospital According to reports, political prisoner Zahra Jabari is still in a coma and her condition has not changed since her transfer to the hospital. Her family has been denied visitation rights. This political prisoner went into a coma on March 21 after her health deteriorated in prison and was taken to a hospital in Tehran. Despite being in a coma, several agents stand guard in and outside of her room. These agents prevent her family from visiting her. Her family is not even informed of the reason she went into a coma and what her current condition is. (Human Rights and Democracy Activists in Iran – Mar. 25, 2011) Lawyer goes on hunger strike in prison in protest to violation of rights Political prisoner Maedeh Qaderi was taken to the infirmary in Vakil Abad Prison a few days ago after she went on a hunger strike. Qaderi who is a member of the Tehran Jurists Center, was arrested on March 3, 2011 by security forces and has been under interrogations in prison until now. She went on a hunger strike in protest the unaccountability of the judiciary on why she was arrested and being accused of unsubstantiated charges. She was also banned from seeing her family a few days ago and judicial officials announced again that she is still banned from getting visits. (Tahavole Sabz Website – Apr. 14, 2011) Lawyer Nasrin Sotoudeh Told She Must Give Interview in Order to Leave Prison Reza Khandan, husband of imprisoned Iranian lawyer and human rights activist Nasrin Sotoudeh, told the International Campaign for Human Rights in Iran that Sotoudeh is in very poor conditions in prison and is planning to go on another hunger strike. He told the Campaign that security forces clearly told his wife that so long as she does not confess, she is not allowed to leave the prison. Sotoudeh has repeatedly refused to give such confessions. Security officers have prevented Sotoudeh‟s transfer to Evin Prison‟s General Ward for the past eight months. “Ms. Sotoudeh told me during our…visit that due to her poor prison conditions, she is intending to start a hunger strike. I talked to her and convinced her not to do it. She said that if the situation persists until June, she would embark on a hunger strike again, and I really hope that this won‟t happen,” said Khandan about Sotoudeh‟s resumption of her hunger strike. “From the very first days of her arrest, she somehow communicated that she is under pressure for confessions, but I think it was near January and February when her interrogators told her very transparently and clearly that she would not be able to leave the prison until she has been „interviewed.‟ My wife also told them very clearly that she would not do it,” said Khandan about pressure on his wife to interview and confess to the charges against her. “But I don‟t know why they said that, because my wife would not give in under any amount of hardship. Even if they keep her in there for 100 years, she would not do it. Not only would she refuse to do it, she would not even consider the topic of an interview. She could have done a lot simpler things prior to her arrest to ensure that she would not be arrested,” Khandan continued. “They talked about this around the [Iranian] New Year again. When they realized they could not achieve results, they told my wife to forget it, that it wasn‟t serious, and that it was just to show her cooperation. Her response was still the same as she had given them before. But prisoners can‟t normally leave these things behind. Even an hour before her 41

release, they may still ask her to do it,” said Khandan about the new wave of pressure on his wife for a televised interview. “Really, if they keep her for two thousand years and put her under physical and psychological pressure, she would still not do it. I don‟t want to say that what my wife does is right; I just want to say that she does not have the mentality to do this. Maybe in the future, when there is again pressure on her to interview, but I am sure that her answer will be no. Confessions are meaningful only when an individual has committed a criminal act and then confesses. But they want her to admit to doing things she has not done and to talk about them. This is not called a confession,” said Khandan. Asked whether Nasrin Sotoudeh has been under physical abuse, Khandan said, “She has never told me anything about this. I believe the worst torture for her is not being able to see her children. When my wife was first arrested, one of her friends came to see us. She said that when she was single, she was arrested and sentenced to eight years in prison, but she didn‟t care back then at all. But when a few years ago, after she had two children, she was arrested for 20 days, she thought she was willing to give up the world for holding her children in her arms for a second. My wife has been waiting for such a moment for eight months. You can imagine what kind of psychological pressure this is. She has been unable to hold her children once without the presence of forces”. “During their seven or eight minute visits, the children have not once been able to see their mother without the presence of officers. I don‟t know what this is called. I won‟t call it torture or pressure; I will let others name it. Maybe a mother is willing to be beaten but to visit with her children in a relaxed environment, free of officers, where their pockets are not searched and their chocolate and hair barrettes are not confiscated. There is nothing more horrible than this for a mother,” concluded Khandan. (International Campaign for Human Rights in Iran – May 3, 2011) Father of female political prisoner speaks out about appalling conditions in Qarchak Prison A number of female political prisoners have been transferred to the Qarchak Prison in Varamin from Rajayi Shahr Prison in Karaj. Qarchak Prison has been nicknamed „the second Kahrizak‟ (because of its appalling conditions which resemble the Kahrizak Detention Center which was closed by Iranian authorities after a number of protesters were killed under torture). The father of political prisoner Shabnam Madadzadeh has said that (prison guards) have pulled out the finger nails of a number of female prisoners in this prison. Shabnam Madadzadeh, the assistant secretary of the Office for Consolidating Unity‟s Tehran Council who has been sentenced to five years of prison was transferred to the Qarchak Prison on May 3 with a number of other female political prisoners in Rajayi Shahr Prison. Before this transfer, there were reports that the female cellblock in Rajayi Shahr had been disbanded and that female prisoners were transferred to an unknown location. Shabnam‟s father said regarding his daughters transfer to this prison, “Last week when it was the lady‟s turn for visits, Shabnam‟s mother and sister went to see her in Gohardasht Prison (Rajayi Shahr). They were told that prisoners would leave the prison today. They took them to Qarchak Prison that same day”. “More than 200 prisoners have been detained in a number of silos in Qarchak. They have no water, electricity, bathing facilities or any other sanitary facilities. There are criminals and murders and political prisoners kept in one place. They are all kept in one storage room and they don‟t have baths or sanitation. They have nothing! They are only allowed to use the restroom once a day and have to wash their dishes there as well”, he added. “She called today (May 7) and said that, „dad they took us to Qarchak‟. She said that they had pulled out the finger nails (of prisoners). They give them one piece of bread a day and stand there with batons and tell them that they have to eat it because that‟s all there is to eat. They beat them for any reason. They even (pull out nails) and torture … they stand there with batons and when the prisoner says she is sick, they say „what does that mean‟? „Being sick means dying‟”. Shabnam‟s father also said that 10 other female political prisoners were transferred from Rajayi Shahr to Qarchak and made remarks on why prison officials were not giving any explanations about this issue. “No one talks. These prisoners were initially in Evin Prison. After their sentences were issued, they were sent to Rajayi Shahr. One month later, they said that they would be transferred. At one point, they said they would be taken to Qom or around Karaj but in the last day we realized they were taken to Qarchak. They have taken all the 200-300 prisoners there and have put them in a number of halls. Excuse my language but the halls are more like barns”. On Saturday May 7, female political prisoners who were transferred to Qarchak wrote a letter addressed to the people of Iran. They said that 14, 15 year old children were kept in this prison and wrote: “Qarchak Prison has seven warehouses. Each warehouse has dozens of beds in it even as more than 200 prisoners are kept in each warehouse.

There is no ventilation system and the sanitary conditions are appalling to the extent that many prisoners are suffering from serious respiratory problems because of the stench and gasses from the waste water”. These prisoners also pointed to the abuse and torture of prisoners and wrote: “The biggest favor prison officials do is to allow prisoners hot water to drink tea, but last week a pot of boiling water was thrown at one of the prisoners which led to the severe injuries of a number of prisoners. We ask ourselves where in the world does an argument over hot water lead to the pulling out of a prisoner‟s nails as punishment? Where in the world do they send a number of men armed with batons to a female cellblock to beat them? Where in the world are 14, 15 year old children kept in these conditions?” Political prisoners in Qarchak stressed in the end of their letter that if the current conditions continue, they would go on a hunger strike. (Radio Germany – May 7, 2011) Father of female political prisoner says daughter in poor condition in Qarchak Prison Shabnam Madadzadeh, the political secretary of the Student Association of the Teacher Training University in Tehran has been transferred to Qarchak Prison in Damavand with a large number of other female political prisoners who were detained in Rajayi Shahr Prison in Karaj. Shabnam was arrested on February 20, 2009 along with her brother Farzad. She was severely physically and mentally tortured during her detention to accept the Shabnam Madadzadeh and her father charge of „communicating and cooperating with the PMOI‟. On February 9, 2010, Shabnam and her brother were sentenced to five years of prison to be spent in Rajayi Shahr Prison in Karaj by the 28th branch of the Revolutionary Court headed by Judge Mohammad Moqiseh. They were charged with „enmity with God and acting against national security‟. Shabnam‟s poor mental condition and the many hardships her family has endured in less than one month led us have a friendly talk with Shabnam and Farzad‟s father… The hardships the daughter endures in Qarchak Prison is reflected in the father‟s voice. His loved one told her a few days ago over the phone that she would not come out of prison alive… Shabnam‟s father: “The condition of Shabnam and other prisoners transferred to Varamin with her is very poor. I talked to her today over the phone for one minute this morning. Her mental condition is not good. How could someone be in high spirits under such conditions… That place is a torture center. Their condition is very poor. They have no drinking water. The drinking water that they have is salty. They are only given one piece of bread for food. They have no prison store. They are kept in a warehouse… Her sister was able to see her for 8 minutes yesterday in prison and she also said that she was in a poor mental condition”. (Daneshju News – May 10, 2011) Transfer of female prisoners is against the law, says lawyer Following the transfer of several female prisoners to Gharchak Prison in Varamin, Iranian lawyer Mohammad Ali Dadkhah told the International Campaign for Human Rights in Iran that according to Iranian law, each prisoner must be transferred to the prison closest to his or her residence. “According to the law, each prisoner must be transferred to a prison closest to his residence. Even if he has committed a crime and has been arrested in a different city, the Prisons Organization can, based on a request by the prisoner to facilitate visits with his family, transfer him to the prison in his city of residence. On principle, the law stipulates that any action other than the sentence itself, which could lead to psychological and physical harm for the prisoner, should not take place,” Dadkhah, who represents several political prisoners, told the Campaign. 43

Two weeks ago, the women‟s ward inside Rajaee Shahr Prison in Karaj was dissolved and several prisoners were abruptly transferred to Gharchak Prison in Varamin, a prison which political prisoners say lacks basic facilities and is in dire shape in terms of its hygiene, space, and security. The prisoners in this prison have not been separated according to their crimes and political prisoners are kept alongside other prisoners. This transfer decision raises the question of whether after issuing a ruling and sentencing the suspects, the prison location may be changed. This is an especially significant question in light of the cases of several female prisoners transferred to Varamin, such as Shabnam Madadzadeh, whose final ruling and sentencing stated that she was to be imprisoned in Rajaee Shahr Prison. “Our law expressly states that no official authority and no government organization can change the court ruling or prevent its implementation. Therefore, as the law is explicit about this area, this action cannot be carried out. On principle, the purpose of imprisonment is to restrict some of the normal liberties and freedoms, not to harm or further abuse the prisoner. From a humane point of view, a prisoner is a human being who is being stripped of certain rights and liberties for a set period of time. Even so, he must have proper hygiene and nutrition and, according to what has been stipulated in the Prisons Organization of Iran‟s system, the prisoner should be able to have visitations with his family, lawyer, doctor, and under special circumstances, even his friends,” added Dadkhah. “Iran has unconditionally accepted the International Declaration of Human Rights and is committed to international civil, economic, and cultural covenants. Iran has also signed the 1969 Vienna Treaty, and Article 9 of Iran‟s Civil Law sanctions international laws. As we have signed the international human rights treaties, we are bound by international and national laws to observe the rights of prisoners. In current international penal laws, revenge, intimidation, or shaming a prisoner is not intended”. According to several reports, Varamin‟s Gharachak Prison is comprised of seven pre-fabricated structures each of which holds more than 200 prisoners. The ineffective air conditioning system causes the constant presence of sewer smells in the structures. There are only two bathrooms and two shower stalls for 200 inmates, which fails minimum prison standards. After the female prisoners of Rajaee Shahr Prison were transferred to this facility, the female political prisoners of Evin Prison were also planned for a transfer, but it appears that those plans have been canceled. (International Campaign for Human Rights in Iran – May 17, 2011) Female political prisoner in deteriorating condition in Qarchak Prison Kobra Banazadeh Amirkhizi who is detained in Qarchak Prison in Varamin along with other female political prisoners is suffering from new problems with her eyesight and eyes because of lack of medical treatment in prison. According to reports, specialist doctors have said that because she did not receive on-time treatment, she needs to receive long term treatment under the supervision of specialists. Notably, the medical examiner has given her a letter saying that she is unable to tolerate detention and this letter has been submitted to the prosecutor more than 5 months ago. The prosecutor has not answered the letter and they have refused to give her a medical leave from prison. This 56 year old political prisoner was sentenced to five years of prison by the 28 th branch of the Revolutionary Court in Tehran. (Tahavoleh Sabz website- May 19, 2011) Female political prisoners in poor health in Evin Prison, denied treatment Human rights sources have said that political prisoner Reihaneh Haj Ibrahim who is detained in the female cellblock in Evin Prison has been suffering from a nerve problem for a long time. There were also reports that another political prisoner, Motahareh Bahrami, also in Evin Prison, is suffering from various ailments and is in poor health because of a lack of treatment. According to reports, the lack of medical attention and treatment has caused severe feet aches for Reihaneh Haj Ibrahim and other prisoners have said that she is mostly unable to walk and receives help from her cellmates to do her day to day work.

Up to now, no serious measures have been taken to treat this political prisoner who was arrested after the elections in June 2010 and has been sentenced to 15 years of prison. Bahrami is also suffering from constant pain due to a lack of medical attention. Doctors have stressed that these political prisoners should receive treatment in hospitals outside of prison but agents of the Ministry of Intelligence have prevented this issue. Notably, because of the lack of medical attention in prison, many prisoners are suffering from sometimes critical illnesses which have become known as a form of „constant torture‟ among prisoners. (Center to Defend Families of those Slain and Detained in Iran – Jun. 15, 2011) Jailed human rights banned from seeing children in visit Evin Prison officials refused to allow political prisoner Nasrin Sotudeh to see her children in person during visitation hours on Sunday. Her husband Reza Khandan said that she last saw her children in person 11 days ago. He also said that this jailed lawyer has announced that if she is not allowed to see her children on a regular basis, she will refuse to have her visits from behind a glass partition in protest to this measure. (Taqir Baraye Barabari Website [Change for Equality] – Jul. 5, 2011) Female political prisoner denied medical treatment despite critical condition Political prisoner Farah Vazehan is in poor physical condition. She was taken to the hospital last Sunday after her condition deteriorated but was reportedly returned to prison because the head of the hospital refused to admit her due to a lack of beds. Farah Vazehan who is suffering from various ailments was arrested during the Ashura protests in December 2009 and was sentenced to death by the Revolutionary Court. Her sentence was annulled after an appeal and her case was referred to the 28 th branch of the Revolutionary Court headed by Judge Moqiseh where she was sentenced to 15 years of prison on charges of „enmity with God‟. This political prisoner who is suffering from heart ailments needs special treatment in [hospitals] outside of prison. Despite promises made to her family, she has been denied a medical leave. Farah Vazehan has to receive injected painkillers every other day in the prison infirmary but sometimes even these injections are not enough to ease her pain. (Human Rights Activists in Iran – Aug. 24, 2001)

Who Are Iran's Political Prisoners?
At least 28 of the regime's prisoners of conscience are journalists. By ROXANA SABERI Just after my release from a Tehran prison in May 2009, an Iranian prisoner wrote an open letter entitled, 'I wish I were a Roxana.' Haleh Rouhi, a follower of Iran's minority Baha'i faith, was serving a four-year sentence for antiregime propaganda, although she said she was simply 'teaching the alphabet and numbers' to underserved children. She was happy I was released but wondered how her case differed from mine and why she had to remain in prison. 'What kind of justice system condemned [Roxana] to such punishment,' Ms. Rouhi asked, 'and which justice freed her at such speed”? I asked myself the same question. Why was I released after 100 days, having appealed an eight-year prison sentence for a trumped-up charge of espionage? What is clear is that as a foreign citizen, I was fortunate to receive international support, while the plights of other innocent prisoners were less known outside Iran. Last month, two American men incarcerated in Iran on accusations of espionage and crossing the border illegallycharges they contested-were freed after being sentenced to eight years in prison. Their release is welcome news and cause for relief. Abdolfattah Soltani, a human rights lawyer, has been arrested three times in Iran. At the same time, ordinary Iranians are suffering mounting abuses and prolonged imprisonment for exercising their basic human rights, making Haleh Rouhi's question as valid today as it was two years ago. Officials from several 45

countries have called for the release of a handful of Iran's wrongfully imprisoned men and women, but this pressure is rarely consistent-and most of Iran's hundreds of prisoners of conscience have never gained the attention of foreign governments or mainstream news media. The international community needs to apply the same pressure on Tehran to release these prisoners as it has for high-profile Western citizens. At least 28 of Iran's prisoners of conscience are journalists, according to the media rights group Reporters Without Borders, which ranks Iran the third largest jail for journalists in the world after Eritrea and China. In addition, six Iranian filmmakers were recently arrested for allegedly cooperating with BBC Persian. (The station insists no one in Iran works for it). Well-known attorneys such as Nasrin Sotoudeh, who has been sentenced to six years in prison, also are locked up in Iran. Last month, Abdolfattah Soltani, who like Ms. Sotoudeh defended many political prisoners, was arrested for the third time. I first heard of his courage from my cellmates in Tehran's Evin Prison. I requested that he represent me, but the prosecutor threatened me against retaining 'a human rights lawyer‟. Mr. Soltani was arrested while he prepared to defend several Baha'is detained for providing higher education to other Baha'is barred from university in Iran because of their religion. He was also an attorney for my two Baha'i cellmates, Fariba Kamalabadi and Mahvash Sabet, who are each serving 20-year prison sentences for various unsubstantiated charges including espionage. Most recently, the headlines have focused on Youcef Naderkhani, a Christian convert from Islam who faces possible execution after refusing to renounce his faith. Many of Iran's prisoners of conscience have suffered torture-both physical and psychological. It is common for them to be held in solitary confinement for months, even years. They often lack adequate access to their families and attorneys and go through sham trials. Some are coerced to give false confessions and inform on their friends. If detainees are lucky, their captors offer them release on bail, but the amount is typically exorbitant, and prisoners who can post it tend to live in fear that they could be sent back to jail any day. At the same time, a rising number of executions has made Iran the world's largest executioner on a per capita basis. According to Amnesty International, in 2010, at least 23 Iranian prisoners convicted of politically motivated offenses were executed. The Iranian regime needs to address human rights violations instead of denying their existence. If Tehran has nothing to hide, it would permit the recently appointed United Nations special rapporteur on human rights to enter the country. Tehran should also grant access to several other U.N. special experts who have been blocked from visiting since 2005. U.N. officials-particularly Secretary-General Ban Ki-Moon and High Commissioner for Human Rights Navi Pillay-plus member states and other individuals must place constant pressure on Tehran just as they have in cases such as mine. This will bring attention and justice to the real heroes, the everyday Iranians in prison for pursuing universal human rights and demanding respect for human dignity. International pressure might not always result in their freedom, but at least they will know they are not alone and can gain courage to carry on. And it can help Iranian authorities realize that the many faces of their justice system will only continue to isolate the Islamic Republic among the family of nations. Ms. Saberi, an Iranian-American journalist detained in Iran's Evin Prison in 2009, is the author of 'Between Two Worlds: My Life and Captivity in Iran‟. (WSJ – Oct. 7, 2011)

Tortured by Solitude
By SARAH SHOURD Oakland, Calif. AT 5:15 p.m. I found myself pacing compulsively back and forth across my 10-foot-by-14-foot cell in Iran‟s Evin prison, muttering reassurances to myself and kneading my nervous hands together into one fat fist. “Don‟t worry,” I told myself, “this is probably your last day alone, they can‟t just let you go crazy in here”. It was 2009 and the beginning of winter. I had been in prison in Iran - along with my fiancé, Shane Bauer, and our friend Josh Fattal - since the summer, when we were arrested and charged with espionage after hiking somewhere near the country‟s unmarked border with Iraqi Kurdistan. For the last three months, I had been in solitary confinement 24 hours a day. Only after going on a hunger strike for five days was I allowed to visit Shane and Josh for a few minutes at a time, all of us blindfolded in a padded interrogation room. The day before, one of my interrogators had told me that

we would now be allowed daily half-hour visits in an open-air cell. As the hour for our visit approached, I began pacing my room frantically, terrified that the promise had just been a ploy and that the guards wouldn‟t be coming. By 6:15, I was sweating and tears were streaming down my face. It‟s impossible to exaggerate how much the company of another human being means when you‟ve been cut off from the world and stripped of your rights and freedom. After two months with next to no human contact, my mind began to slip. Some days, I heard phantom footsteps coming down the hall. I spent large portions of my days crouched down on all fours by a small slit in the door, listening. In the periphery of my vision, I began to see flashing lights, only to jerk my head around to find that nothing was there. More than once, I beat at the walls until my knuckles bled and cried myself into a state of exhaustion. At one point, I heard someone screaming, and it wasn‟t until I felt the hands of one of the friendlier guards on my face, trying to revive me, that I realized the screams were my own. Of the 14 and a half months, or 9,840 hours, I was held as a political hostage at Evin prison in Tehran, I spent 9,495 of them in solitary confinement. When I was released just over a year ago, I was shocked to find out that the United Nations Convention Against Torture , one of the few conventions the United States has ratified, does not mention solitary confinement. I learned that there are untold numbers of prisoners around the world in solitary, including an estimated 20,000 to 25,000 in the United States. According to the United Nations‟ special rapporteur on torture, Juan Méndez, the practice appears to be “growing and diversifying in its use and severity”... You don‟t have to beat someone to inflict pain and suffering; the psychological torture of prolonged solitary confinement leaves no marks, but its effects are severe and long-lasting. Fortunately, the guards did come that winter day. Once I began to have short daily visits with Shane and Josh, my mental health improved, but only marginally. At that point I was sunk so deep inside myself that there were days when I was brought out to visit them and couldn‟t communicate or even look them in the eyes. After prison, I was diagnosed with post-traumatic stress disorder. I still pace and wring my hands when I am nervous; I still have nightmares and trouble sleeping. I stopped going to a certain exercise class because the texture of the ceiling reminded me of the ceiling in my cell. Though what the government of Iran did to us was sickening and flagrantly unjust, I consider us lucky. We never felt forgotten; we knew that our families, friends and supporters would not give up fighting for us. And since I was released last year, and Shane and Josh were freed in September, we have gotten more sympathy than most wrongfully detained prisoners receive in a lifetime. It‟s wonderful to begin my life again, and every day I feel more free, but I can‟t help thinking about the thousands of others who are alone right now. I believe the excessive use of solitary confinement constitutes cruel and unusual punishment - that it is torture. The United Nations should proscribe this inhumane practice, and the United States should take the lead role in its eradication. Sarah Shourd is a writer who was imprisoned in Iran from July 2009 to September 2010. (The New York Times – Nov. 5, 2011) Jailed political prisoners denied medical leaves are in critical condition Political prisoner Kobra Amirkhizi who is detained in the women‟s cellblock in Evin Prison and Hossein Ronaqi Maleki were transferred to the hospital because of their critical condition in prison... Mrs. Kobra Banazadeh was also taken to the Labafi Nejad Hospital for an eye surgery and was once again transferred back to prison after the surgery. Keeping this political prisoner in the unsanitary atmosphere of prison after her eye surgery can pose a danger to her health including an eye infection but relevant officials have not paid any attention to this issue. (Human Rights Activists in Iran – Dec. 4, 2011)

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Prison sentence
Female human rights activist jailed to serve prison term Human rights activist and blogger Laleh Hassan Pour who was sentenced to five years of prison was summoned to prison to serve her sentence. According to reports, her one year prison term and four year suspended prison term which was issued by Judge Pir Abbasi was upheld by a court of review. This human rights activist was charged with „being a member of the Human Rights Activists in Iran and being active in the Human Rights Activists in Iran News Agency‟, assembling and conspiring‟, „propagating against the government‟, „insulting sanctities‟, and „insulting the president‟. (Human Rights Activists in Iran – Apr. 10, 2011) Iran sentences female journalist to 6 years of prison Nazanin Khosravani, a reformist journalist was sentenced to six years of prison. Her lawyer Farideh Gheirat announced this and said, “My client‟s sentence was issued by the 26 th branch of the Tehran Revolutionary Court on the charge of assembling and gathering to commit crime against national security and propagating against the government”. “This sentence was announced in the court office to me on Saturday April 16 and I will file for an appeal in the 20 day moratorium”, she added. (Kalameh Website – Apr. 18, 2011) Iran sentences female human rights activists to heavy prison terms On Saturday April 9, two supporters of the Mothers‟ of Laleh Park, Zhila Karamzadeh Makvandi and Leila Seifollahi were summoned to the 28th branch of the Revolutionary Court and Mohammad Moqiseh who was a member of the „Death Commission‟ responsible for the massacre of political prisoners in 1988 sentenced them to four years of prison. (Human Rights and Democracy Activists in Iran – May 11, 2011) Women‟s rights activist sentenced to jail and 7 year ban on leaving Iran Women‟s rights activist Fereseteh Shirazi was sentenced to two years of prison and a seven year ban on leaving the country in court. This women‟s rights activist was charged with „instigating public opinion by publishing lies‟ and „insulting officials by writing in her personal weblog‟ (the Ms. Shirazi weblog). She was denied the right to a lawyer in court. Shirazi was jailed from September 3 and is in Amol Prison in unsuitable conditions to the extent that until now, she was not able to call or see her family. (Saham News website – Oct. 28, 2011) Iran sentences 8 Kurd writers and poets to prison terms Eight cultural and literary activists in Kermanshah‟s Gilan Gharb were sentenced to 13 years of prison all together. These people were arrested by security forces this year and were released after two months of detention. According to this report, they were charged with „acting against national security‟ by supporting Kurdish opposition groups. Sajad Jahanfard, Ezzedin Heidari and Maziar Mohammadi were each sentenced to one year of prison, Naiem Najafi, Farhad Vakilinia, Jamal Khani and Maryam Amini were respectively sentenced to four, three, two and one years of suspended prison while Sina Bijanpour was cleared of the charges. The waves of the arrests of Kurd activists started from July 26, 2011. A number of people were arrested in their place of residence or work and the rest turned themselves in to the Kermanshah Intelligence Agency because of the pressure put on their family and friends. According to reports, Ezzedin Heidari has been hospitalized three times since his release because of the mental pressure he was subjected to during his detention. (Human Rights Activists in Iran – Nov. 16, 2011)

49

Freedoms

Basic freedom and rights abused

Mandatory veil Gender segregation Crack down on social freedoms

51

Family Members of Prisoners Beaten Outside Evin Prison A human rights activist told the Campaign that tens of families of prisoners who went to Evin Prison in the hopes of seeing their family members released were beaten and abused by prison staff and police officers. A human rights activist told the International Campaign for Human Rights in Iran that dozens of family members of political prisoners who had gone to Evin Prison hoping to receive bail or furlough orders for their kin, faced insults and in some cases beatings from prison officers. According to this eyewitness, though most families showed up to Evin Prison Court following instructions to post bail or introduce custodians [in lieu of bail], they were kept from entering Evin Court and court officials refused to accept their bail or custodians for prisoner release. The eyewitness identified those attacking families as police officers, soldiers stationed at the prison, and certain employees of Evin Prison Court, who routinely insult and abuse family members of political prisoners. “Most people gathered in front of Evin Prison are family members of those arrested on 14 and 20 February and 1 March whose relatives remain inside different wards of Evin Prison. These families went to Evin Prison hoping to see their relatives released on bail or in their custody,” the human rights activist told the Campaign. The human rights activist told the Campaign that officers and authorities insult prisoners and their families. “I witnessed one of the soldiers who came in the middle of the crowd and beat and dispersed the families,” he said. According to reports, during the three days of protest on 14 and 20 February and 1 March, more than 1,000 protesters were arrested, hundreds of whom remain inside different detention centers and Evin Prison. “The sister of one of the detainees told me: „My brother is only 17 years old. He was arrested along with a large of number of other under-18 protesters; they are all detained inside a correctional facility, and despite his bail ruling, they refuse to allow me to post his bail in order to release him.‟ The old mother of another detainee, an Azeri speaker who spoke Farsi with difficulty, told me that she is waiting for her son who is her only kin. She said her son is a laborer who was arrested on his way home from work on 1 March, and he has not been released since. She said that she has no one in Tehran and is unable to raise bail or introduce a custodian [for her son's release]. The father of another prisoner who was facing verbal abuse of officers kept smiling and shaking his head, saying that he would not retort, so that he could see his son released. Another family member who resisted the beating of a prison soldier, and pushed him aside, faced an officer who told him: „Even if the judge decides to release your prisoner [relative], I won‟t allow it.‟ People said that every day dozens of prisoner families gather here from early in the morning until late at night, under snow and rain, awaiting the roll call of prisoners who are released on bail,” said the human rights activist about various conversations he had with families of political prisoners in front of Evin Prison. Evin Prison Court (Shahid Moghaddas) is a part of the Revolutionary Court system which has eight investigative branches and is located inside the Evin Prison complex. Former Head of the Judiciary, Ayatollah Hashemi Shahroudi, ordered Evin Prison Court closed after due process requirements were continuously not observed and because the court prevented lawyers and families of political prisoners from attending sessions or from having access to case files. Following the post-election protests of 2009, which resulted in the arrests of thousands of journalists, political, student, women‟s rights, human rights and labor activists, and regular protesting citizens, Evin Prison Court was re-opened on orders from the new Head of the Juridiciary, Sadegh Amoli Larijani. Currently, all judicial cases pertaining to political prisoners in Tehran are handled in this Court. Aside from being located inside Evin Prison Complex, many individuals who have been put on trial there or whose cases were reviewed inside this court, have reported that the entire court is under the intense influence of security organizations. This influence is so marked, that security interrogators and forces exert complete control over political cases. They even determine sentences prior to the trial and judge‟s verdict, and inform the suspects of their sentences beforehand. Before being sentenced to 11 years in prison by a lower court, prominent human rights lawyer Nasrin Sotoudeh told the Campaign that her interrogators and security forces told her that she would not receive a sentence shorter than 10 years. Other political prisoners have also testified to the influence of security organizations that eliminates the possibility of any fair trial based on international standards. (International Campaign for Human Rights in Iran – Mar. 17, 2011) Security forces attack mourners in funeral service for political prisoner and father of Ashraf resident On Wednesday March 30, a large number of people came to the Behesht Zahra Cemetery in Tehran to participate in the funeral and burial service of political prisoner Mohsen Dokmeh Chi. This ceremony started a few hours ago and

was finishing at 3 pm when security forces attacked the participants and intended to arrest one of the organizers of the service. The mourners countered their attack and prevented the arrest. The clashes between security forces, numbering more than 100, and the mourners are still in progress. The mourners are resisting their attacks and refuse to let the security forces make arrests. From the beginning of the service, these security forces disrupted the ceremony and even used profane insults to address the female mourners. There is a possibility that security forces will use force to arrest a large number of people. (Human Rights and Democracy Activists in Iran – Mar. 30, 2011) Deceased Political Prisoner‟s Wife Will Not Pursue Cause of Death In Order to Avoid Threats Judge Salavati who presides over Branch 15 of the Revolutionary Court in Tehran There has still been no official announcement made of political prisoner Hossein Domekhchi‟s cause of death, twelve days after his body was transferred to the Medical Examiner‟s Office. Domekhchi‟s wife, Maryam Alangi, told the International Campaign for Human Rights in Iran that she has no plans for pursuing the matter further. “No authority or organization has officially replied about [the reasons for] my husband‟s death,” said Alangi. “If something caused my husband‟s death, he is buried now and nothing can be proven. I will not pursue the matter, either. What is it I am supposed to pursue, anyway? What else is left [to pursue]? My questions will only get myself and my only son into trouble, adding a problem to my existing problems. My new inquiry would mean a threat to my and my son‟s life,” she continued. Mohsen Domekhchi died while in the hospital on the night of 28 March. He was suffering from pancreatic cancer. Though his physicians said months ago that he needed special treatment and chemotherapy, he was only transferred to a hospital during the last week of his life. According to his cellmates and his wife, during the last months of his life he was no longer able to sit in his bed and in his final days could only be sustained through intravenous feeding. Domekhchi was arrested during in September 2009 and sentenced to 10 years in prison by Judge Salavati in Branch 15 of the Revolutionary Court. He was to serve his sentence at Rajaee Shahr Prison on charges of “supporting the Mojahedin-e Khalgh Organization” and “financial support of families of political prisoners”. Maryam Alangi saw her husband at the hospital for the last time a few hours before his death. “He wasn‟t feeling well. I stayed with him for half an hour and took care of some of his personal needs. He was in a lot of pain, as usual, and because he couldn‟t eat, he was being fed intravenously. But his condition wasn‟t such that he might have died quickly. This is why I was shocked when I heard the news,” she said. “Nobody, the soldiers nor the doctor, told me what happened to my husband and how he died. I still don‟t know what happened. Maybe I‟m not supposed to know anything. When I was under pressure for wanting to hold a funeral for my husband, they threatened me not to hold a memorial service. I was detained for several hours. They even said they would get detention orders for me. I decided not to do anything, in order to preserve the life of my young son and myself, and let it go”, Alangi added. (International Campaign for Human Rights in Iran – Apr. 11, 2011) Judge forces wife of political prisoner to divorce husband According to reports, political prisoner Mostafa Eskandari who was arrested after the election protests in 2009 and is kept in a special cellblock in Gohardasht Prison in Karaj has been sentenced to a heavy prison term by Judge Pir Abbasi on charges of acting against national security, instigating public opinion and giving interviews to foreign media. This judge has put pressure on Eskandari‟s wife, who was also in prison, and has threatened her that if she does not divorce her husband, she would also be sentenced to prison. After constant pressures and physical and mental torture, his wife was finally forced to divorce Mr. Eskandari. According to this report, Judge Pir Abbasi has cleared his wife of all charges after 13 months of detention. (Center to Defend Families of those Slain and Detained in Iran – Apr. 7, 2011) Families of political prisoners abused by security forces in weekly prison visits Families of political prisoners detained in cellblock 350 speak of heighted security measures in their visits with their loved ones in prison. 53

On Monday during these visits, security agents were present in the visiting hall and listened to the conversation between political prisoners and their families. Since prisoners are only allowed to see their families for 20 minutes every week, many families write the subjects of their conversation from before to better use their time and remember what they want to say. But this week, security agents were cautious of this issue and took away some of these notes and examined them. In some cases, they even used profane language and insulted the families. The security agents reportedly carried out these measures in reaction to a statement that was published by political prisoners in this cellblock. It has also been months since the telephones in cellblock 350 have been cut off in fear that prisoners would leak news from inside of prison. (Kalameh Website – Apr. 27, 2011) Student Activist and His Family Harassed and Threatened for a Full Year Before Arrest A friend and other sources close to Ashkan Zahabian, a banned student and human rights activist who was arrested after appearing at the Intelligence Office of Sari on 3 May 2011, explained to the International Campaign for Human Rights in Iran the extent to which Zahabian‟s family was harassed and targeted by security forces within the past year. The sources described how mistreatment of the family, threats to confiscate Zahabian‟s bail for his temporary release, and finally death threats against Zahabian, created serious health issues for his parents. Zahabian‟s mother was transferred to a hospital and his father‟s heart condition worsened. Pressure placed on the families of human rights activists by security forces is not uncommon and is used in order to arrest individuals. However, the extent of the pressure put on Zahabian and the repeated threats to his family leave no doubt that security forces used systematic psychological pressure on his family to arrest him. According to sources, Zahabian‟s parents were even put under house arrest for several hours at times. “Since 7 December 2010, intelligence forces continually visited Ashkan‟s home. In March, they went to their home with an arrest warrant and said that they have a mobile warrant and they can arrest him wherever they spot him. He had a sixmonth prison sentence. Ashkan did not stay at his home during this time. During one of the visits to his home, 12 security personnel, including the Head of the Babol Intelligence Office, showed up inside house,” a source said. “The forces confiscated his personal belongings, computer, and books. They detained his parents inside the house for several hours and told them that they were not allowed to leave the house until Ashkan returned. They then threatened that they would obtain „shoot-to-kill‟ orders for him and would take him to a location where nobody could reach him, etc. Due to these comings and goings, Ashkan‟s mother‟s health deteriorated to the point of being transferred to the hospital. His father‟s heart condition worsened, too,” a source added. On 3 April 2011, intelligence forces went to Zahabian‟s home and threatened to confiscate the home, the deed to which had been posted for his release from prison. The intelligence forces said that they would auction the house. In the case of his 16 June 2009 arrest, Zahabian was sentenced to six months in prison on charges of “disrupting order,” “inciting people to demonstrate,” and “organizing the protest inside Mazandaran University.” He was arrested for the second time on 5 November 2009 on charges of “acting against national security through forming the Islamic Associations organization in Northern Iran.” According to a source, if Zahabian was summoned to commence his prison term, he shouldn‟t have been transferred to the Intelligence Office but to prison. Ashkan Zahabian was a student campaigner at the campaign headquarters of Mehdi Karroubi in the city of Babol. During post-election arrests, Zahabian was severely beaten by security forces and in one instance was unconscious for three days. He was imprisoned for a total of 8 weeks. Background: In 2008, Ashkan Zahabian was suspended for one academic term because of his student activism. Only four days after the disputed election of 2009, he was arrested by the Ministry of Intelligence. Plainclothes forces known as Ansar-e Hezbollah severely beat him during the arrest. During Student‟s Day protests on 4 November 2009, he was arrested for the second time. A Revolutionary Court in Babol sentenced him to six months in prison in his absence. In February 2009, while still suspended, he was banned from continuing his education based on an Intelligence Ministry decision,

and was expelled from university just one term shy of graduating. (International Campaign for Human Rights in Iran – May 4, 2011) Increased Pressure by Security Organizations on Followers and Family of Ayatollah Boroujerdi A source close to Ayatollah Boroujerdi told the International Campaign for Human Rights in Iran that since March, security forces affiliated with the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps (IRGC) have intensified pressure on followers of Ayatollah Boroujerdi in different regions of the country. According to the source, during Iranian New Year holidays in late March, forces stormed the home of Samaneh Khodadi, broke the entrance door to her building and apartment, and performed a body search on her. The source also told the Campaign that in order to insult Ayatollah Boroujerdi in prison, his beard has been shaved and his visits have been limited to five minutes. Ayatollah Boroujerdi‟s sister, Sa‟adat Boroujerdi, was also attacked by plainclothes forces, who broke her leg. His brother, Seyed Mohsen Boroujerdi, has been under house arrest and visits by his close kin are prevented. The paternal home of the Boroujerdi family has been sealed since March as well. A Boroujerdi follower, Asghar Eskandari, was recently transferred to the Intelligence Office in Isfahan where he was brutally beaten and threatened. Another follower in the city of Ghoochan, Akram Aghaei, has been repeatedly threatened and summoned by the city‟s IRGC forces. (International Campaign for Human Rights in Iran – May 10, 2011) Iran to deal with „immoral‟ kindergartens that teach dancing http://www.farsnews.com/newstext.php?nn=9005150710 The Secretary General of the Tehran Welfare Organization said that they would deal firmly with kindergartens that provided immoral educational programs. “In the past four months, reports were gathered including on the teaching of immoral dance classes in kindergartens”, he said. “Information has been gathered in this regard and kindergartens that break the law will be dealt with according to the rules and regulations”, Ali-Mohammad Qaderi said. (Fars state-run News Agency – Aug. 7, 2011)
(Note: What the Iranian regime calls ‘immoral’ dance lessons are actually ordinary dances that small children learn all over the world.)

Iran to close un-Islamic kindergartens http://www.asriran.com/fa/news/177040 The head of the Welfare Organization stressed that kindergartens that teach unreligious and immoral lessons will be severely dealt with and said, “The licenses of kindergartens that put on dancing lessons will be revoked”. Ahmad Esfandiari stressed that the issue of chastity in kindergartens is one of the important issues that one has to pay attention to from the roots. “Immoral education in centers of education for children greatly hurts the society”… “The Welfare Organization is looking to put religious classes in kindergartens and it has reached [certain] conclusions with university professors and [religious] scholars”, he added. (Asre Iran state-run website – Aug. 14, 2011) Former president‟s daughter charged with talking to anti-regime website http://www.khabaronline.ir/news-167633.aspx The lawyer of Faezeh Hashemi [daughter of former president Rafsanjani] announced that a trial was held in the Revolutionary Court to look into his client‟s case and that she was charged with giving an interview to the Rooz Online website. “My client‟s case was [seen to] after the Tehran Prosecutor pressed charges against her for spreading propaganda against the government”, Gholmali Riahi said. (Khabar Online state-run website – Aug. 13, 2011)

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Mandatory veil
Traffic police to deal with „improper veiling‟ The head of the State Security Forces asked traffic police to be more severe in dealing with „immoral conduct, improper veiling and other issues‟. “Offenders think that the traffic police will not deal with immoral conduct, but agents of the traffic police have to be sensitive regarding these offenses and be stringent”, Ahmadi Moqadami said. (Shahrzad News – Mar. 11, 2011) Tehran police vows to deal with „improperly veiled‟ motorists SSF official Hossein Rahimi said, “According to the orders of the SSF commander, the Tehran Traffic Police will identify and impound automobiles whose passengers are improperly veiled or carry out un-Islamic deeds”. “According to the law, the automobiles of these people will be impounded and put in a (police) parking”. (Mehr staterun News Agency – Apr. 19, 2011) Top Iranian cleric calls for violence to counter „improper veiling‟ In a meeting with theologian students, Ayatollah Seyed Ahmad Khatami stressed that the issue of the Hijab has turned into a problem and cultural calamity in today‟s society and said, “We cannot say anymore that there is a lack of work being done in the country on cultural issues especially regarding the Hijab and it should be said that there is actually nothing being done in the society to solve these kinds of problems”. “None of the officials are thinking about finding a solution for this problem and it seems that improper veiling cannot be stopped in the country with cultural work and I think that pure blood has to be spilled for this problem to be uprooted…”, Khatami, who is a member of the Expediency Council added. He also stressed in the end of his meeting that one can no longer solve this issue with the gentle approach and so-called cultural activities. (Asre Iran state-run website – Apr. 24, 2011) SSF commander promises to counter „improper veiling‟ in Iran Ahmadi Moqadam, the commander of the State Security Forces stressed that the SSF would deal with improper veiling with preventive and guidance measures. Regarding those who walk dogs in public places he said, “If the law applies, those who have dogs with them in sidewalks or streets will be dealt with”. “The police will act firmly to create security in recreational centers and will deal with those who disrupt public order”, he said because of the heavy presence of people in these centers in the spring season… “The SSF will deal with improper veiling, those who hold night parties and corruptive gangs”, he added. (IRNA staterun news agency – May 4, 2011) Young nurse commits suicide after being fired from hospital for „improper veiling‟ According to a state-run daily, a young nurse in the Khomeini Hospital in Tehran who was fired because of improper veiling committed suicide with a pesticide tablet. The dismissal of this nurse from the Khomeini Hospital in Tehran and her futile attempts to go back to work led to her suicide. She was reportedly fired because she did not observe the Islamic dress code and was improperly veiled. Hospital officials threatened our reporter when asked about the incident and the reason the nurse was dismissed. (Pars Daily News – May 6, 2011) 70 thousand moral police out in full force to control „improper veiling‟ After a number of clerics criticized the state of the hijab in the society, the head of the Moral Security Police announced the Security Moral Plan with the presence of 70,000 police on the streets. “The Moral Security Plan has never been stopped and the police carry out their duties in this regard but in light of the start of warm season, the presence of the police and Moral Security Patrols will be heavier than before”, Ahmad Rouzbehani said in remarks that were carried by the state-run Fars News Agency...

“Guidance Patrols will no longer be active and instead patrols known as the Moral Security Police will continue their work”, he added. “In light of the start of the warm season and the large numbers of vacations and trips and the increase of popular requests on the grounds of (Islamic) veiling and moral security, the presence of the police in parks, jungles, river banks, streets and other locations will increase and we will carry out the Moral Security Plan like before”. “The police will deal with satellite dishes which have been installed in balconies and rooftops in clear view and the offenders will be introduced to the judicial system if this offense is repeated”, he said. This state security force officials also said, “On the issue of veiling, the police will increase their activities and warnings and those who intentionally appear in public dressed like models will face the legal and forceful actions of the police”. “In some automobiles, female drivers take off their scarves and the police will impound the vehicle and will deal with the wrongdoers and that person will be handed over to the judicial system”. Rouzbehani also claimed that “not following the Islamic dress code is like violating civil rights and the issue of using satellite channels, which has caused problems for the country, is in itself a violation of civil rights”. The head of the Moral Security Police also stipulated that the police will “counter the attack of western culture and corruption with full force”. (Daneshju News, state-run Fars News Agency – May 9, 2011) Ardabil official says universities should be strict with „improper veiling‟ The Secretary General of the Ardabil Women and Family Affairs Department said, “Universities and higher education institutions in the province of Ardabil should not have a tolerant stance towards the issue of the students‟ hijab and chastity”. “In light of the passing of the Regulations (for the Hijab and Islamic clothing) in the ninth government and the Council of the Cultural Commission and in light of the bidding of the leader regarding the issue of the Hijab and chastity, the work in this field needs stimulus”, Khadijeh Jafari Asl said. (Fars state-run News Agency – May 18, 2011) SSF will deal with „improperly veiled tourists‟ in ongoing suppressive measure Khabar Online state-run website -The Tehran Chief of Police, Hossein Sajedi Nia said that the plan to counter improper veiling will continue for the whole year… “Men who wear inappropriate shirts or use special necklaces will also be arrested along with improperly veiled women”, he said… “Those who wear short pants, short and tight coats, thin and narrow shawls [to cover the hair] and those who resemble models will be dealt with and the plan to counter those who are improperly veiled also includes tourists. We have announced this issue to travel agencies and have told them to inform tourists about our laws. We have never said that improper clothes are only limited to women. We also have improperly dressed and attired men. But the number of improperly dressed men is much lower than women and therefore, dealing with improperly veiled men is our second priority”, the Tehran Police Chief added. (Khabar Online state-run website – Jun. 6, 2011) Iran dictators at work; young people arrested for dress and even walking dogs In a news conference on Tuesday, Ahmad-Reza Radan announced the start of the plan to deal with improper veiling and noise pollution. The Assistant Commander of the State Security Forces said, “Women and men wearing tight clothes, hair revealing scarves, short coats, repulsive clothes and men who bear the logos of pervasive or devil worshipping groups are all the hallmarks of improper clothing and they will be dealt with. Also all clothes production centers, whether they have a permit or are underground, have been identified and have been warned about producing [improper] clothing. From June 15, if they produce or distribute [clothes] the Public Places Department will deal with them”. Radan also noted that special police on motorcycles, traffic police and SSF police will be stationed in highways and boulevards and said, “Car drivers that do not follow the [dress code] will be dealt with and their cars will be impounded for one week”. “The improperly veiled people will be handed over to the Moral Security Police and after receiving guidance and council, their [names] will be registered in the SSF Intelligence Bank and they will have a record”. He also said that from June 15, people who have dogs in their cars or walk their dogs in the streets and parks will be dealt with. (Mehr state-run News Agency – Jun. 7, 2011) 57

Necklace ban for men as Tehran‟s „moral police‟ enforce dress code Saeed Kamali Dehghan http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2011/jun/14/necklace-ban-men-tehran-police?INTCMP=SRCH Iranian men have been banned from wearing necklaces in the latest crackdown by the Islamic regime on 'un-Islamic' clothing and haircuts. Thousands of special forces have been deployed in Tehran‟s streets, participating in the regime‟s 'moral security plan' in which loose-fitting headscarves, tight overcoats and shortened trousers that expose skin will not be tolerated for women, while men are warned against glamorous hairstyles and wearing a necklace. The new plan comes shortly after the Iranian parliament proposed a bill to criminalise dog ownership, on the grounds that it 'poses a cultural problem, a blind imitation of the vulgar culture of the west.‟ The Irna state news agency said the trend was aimed at combating 'the western cultural invasion' with help from more than 70,000 trained forces, known as 'moral police', who are sent out to the streets in the capital and other cities. With the summer heat sweeping across the country, many people, especially the young, push the boundaries and run the risk of being fined, or even arrested, for wearing 'bad hijab' clothing. Women in particular are under more pressure because of the restriction on them to cover themselves from head to toe. Men are allowed to wear short-sleeved shirts, but not shorts. „The enforcement of the moral security plan was requested by the nation and it will be continued until people`s concerns are properly addressed,‟ said Ahmadreza Radan, the deputy commander of the Iranian police. Iran`s moral police usually function under a body whose head is appointed directly by the supreme leader, Ayatollah Ali Khamenei. In a live television programme last year, president Mahmoud Ahmadinejad said that he did not approve of the crackdown. Speaking by phone, a Tehran resident, who asked to remain anonymous, said: 'It`s not only about clamping down on clothing, but they are spreading panic and fear by sending out this much of police into the streets under the name of this plan, to control the society. It`s unbelievable to see a regime that is not only concerned about its own survival but it goes into your personal life and interferes in that‟. Under Islamic customs, dogs are deemed to be 'unclean'. Iranians, in general, avoid keeping them at home, but still a minority, especially in north Tehran`s upper-class districts, enjoy keeping pets. Last year Ayatollah Makarem Shirazi, a prominent hardline cleric, issued a fatwa against keeping dogs and said the trend must stop. Last summer authorities in Tehran also released a list of approved hairstyles in an attempt to offer Islamic substitutes to 'decadent' western cuts, such as the ponytail and the mullet. (The Guardian – Jun. 14, 2011) Tehran Traffic Police Chief calls on traffic police to stop „improperly veiled‟ motorists Dealing with „improperly veiled‟ people is not only limited to streets and allies and traffic police also have the duty to deal with improperly veiled motorists or car passengers. The head of the Greater Tehran District Traffic Police said that dealing with improperly veiled people in cars has been one of the duties of Traffic Police in the past and will be carried out more strictly this year. He also stressed that the police would not invade the personal space of citizens but said that automobiles are not considered personal space. “Traffic Police have a right to deal with those who are improperly veiled”, he said. Traffic Police will stop cars with improperly veiled passengers and will give them a notice titled, “Social Offender Automobile Announcement”. On the back of this piece of paper it says that if the person does not go to the Department to See to Automobile Affairs 15 days after he/she received the notice, his/her car will be impounded. (Khabar Online – Jun. 26, 2011) Iran cracks down on „improper veiling‟ in so-called „anti-vice‟ plan http://isna.ir/ISNA/NewsView.aspx?ID=News-1799132 The Commander of the Tehran State Security Forces said that the „Intensifying Moral Security‟ Plan was decisively carried out in the main shopping centers and stores. In the continuing plan of „Intensifying Moral Security‟, police agents dealt with those who were anti-chaste in one of the largest shopping centers in the capital [Tehran].

According to reports, this plan which started on June 15 this year in the various regions of the capital including squares, highways and the metro was implemented in the main shopping centers from yesterday. Agents of the Tehran Moral Police were dispatched to various sectors of the largest shops in west Tehran on Saturday evening and dealt with those who were anti-vise in addition to giving them verbal notices and guidance. In the implementation of this plan in highways, motorcycle patrols also dealt and gave notices to improperly veiled passengers and motorists. (ISNA state-run News Agency – Jul. 3, 2011) Top cleric compares „improperly veiled‟ women to animals http://www.mehrnews.com/fa/newsdetail.aspx?NewsID=1352766 The temporary head of Friday‟s Prayers in Tehran said that the philosophy of the hijab [modest covering for women or the veil] is not a personal matter and is considered a social matter. “Improper veiling or a lack of the veil is a violation of the rights of the people and the holy system of the Islamic Republic cannot sit silently in the face of the violation of people‟s rights”, he said… Ayatollah Seyed Ahmad Khatami said, “Chastity is one of the human characteristics of a human being. In the world of animals, there is no such thing as the hijab. Those who invade its barriers and disregard it have in reality lost their [human nature] and are no different from animals”. (Mehr state-run News Agency – Jul. 6, 2011) Greater Tehran District SSF Commander says 70 retailers of indecent clothing were shut down http://www.isna.ir/ISNA/NewsView.aspx?ID=News-1802539&Lang=P The commander of the State Security Forces in the Greater Tehran District said that 70 retailers that sold indecent clothing were sealed off and shut down during an operation on Thursday by the police in the capital. “In the ongoing implementation of the Intensifying Moral Security Plan, Tehran Police sealed off 70 importers and producers of unconventional and indecent clothing in Jomhouri Street”, Hossein Sajedi Nia said adding that the police is trying to deal with the root of improper clothing. “A large number of smuggled men and women‟s attire with special and indecent logos were confiscated from these centers”, he said. (ISNA state-run News Agency – Jul. 8, 2011) Girls forced to wear „chador‟ in Bushehr‟s schools http://www.bona.ir/showcontent.aspx?cHdT8Z2+nwI= The head of the Bushehr Educational Department said that the plan to carry out the Islamic covering and chador (head to toe covering for women) will be carried out from September 23 in the new academic year in 39 specific junior high and high schools in this province. He said that this plan would be implemented in all schools in the Bushehr province. “Students can enroll for the new school year from June 22 and since the Moral Charter was announced to schools, the students‟ parents have to sign a pledge, otherwise they will not be able to enroll [their children]”. (Bona state-run media- Jul. 13, 2011)

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Religious academic says „improperly veiled‟ women should be treated like criminals http://www.irna.ir/NewsShow.aspx?NID=30481812 A seminary and university scholar said, “The Judiciary should define improper veiling as a crime which has a specific penalty”. “In this case, it will be respected like law and will penetrate into the society”. “Until improper veiling is considered a crime by the Judiciary, measures taken by the State Security Forces will be temporary and ineffective”, she said in a meeting called „The Hijab and Chastity‟ held in the Islamic Republic News Agency [IRNA]. “In addition to cultural and educational measures, the Judiciary should deal with this issue like an enforced law”. “We are required to protect the Islamic society and the appearance of the society has to obligate all people to follow the Hijab [Islamic dress code] and chastity”, this university scholar said. She stressed that “dealing legally and like criminals with those who are improperly veiled will lead to purity in the society”. “The Judiciary should sanction this plan and the media should also lend assistance so that improperly veiled people who do not follow Islamic norms will be humiliated in the society so as to leave their unlawful actions behind”. “In the first stage, we are tasked with preserving the sanctum of the society and preserving this appearance, even by force, is completely acceptable”, she added. (IRNA state-run News Agency – Jul. 18, 2011) SSF cracks down on freedoms in Mazandaran http://www.isna.ir/ISNA/NewsView.aspx?ID=News-1817151 The head of the Public Intelligence and Security Police in the province of Mazandaran said that 2,543 food stores were inspected in this year‟s overseeing plans in this province. “In this plan, in addition to giving warnings, a number of those improperly dressed were arrested and handed over to judicial officials”. “The aims of the police in carrying out this plan to oversee the maintenance of values and Islamic norms in food shops is to deal with the public displays of corruption, and rounding up [seizing] anti-cultural clothes and products and indecent images and symbols”, Colonel Ismail Nouri said. He cited the breaking of social norms in traditional restaurants and coffee shops and said, “269 shops were closed in this regard”. He asked citizens and travellers to call the Urgent Police Center at 110 if they see any kinds of insecurity, norm breaking or eating in public [in the month Ramadan]. (ISNA state-run News Agency – Aug. 1, 2011) Chief of police says „improperly veiled‟ women will be arrested without warning http://www.jahannews.com/vdccxxqsi2bq408.ala2.html The head of Khorasan Razavi Public Security Police said, “With the Moral and Social Security Intensification Plan, all troublemakers in Mashhad were arrested and referred to Judicial sources”… “The aim of police measures in this plan is seizing satellite equipment that is in public view and currently all public police patrols in the province are tasked with gathering equipment that is out in the open”, he said regarding the issue of gathering satellite equipment in another section of his interview. “Starting from today, August 9, a Security Intelligence Commission on dealing with those who have satellite equipment will be formed and those who do not pay attention to police warnings to gather up their satellite equipment will be referred to judicial sources”, the head of the Khorasan Razavi Public Security Police said. Regarding the issue of improper veiling he also said that “one of the main issues in the implementation of the Moral and Social Security Intensification Plan is dealing with those who are improperly veiled in the society but we announce here that the police will not give any more warning to people in this regard because the timeframe for warnings has ended and from now on those who are improperly veiled will be arrested and referred to judicial sources”. (Khorasan state-run Daily, Jahan News state-run website – Aug. 9, 2011) Tehran prosecutor presses charges against state-run daily for criticizing chador http://www.farsnews.com/newstext.php?nn=9005221358 The Tehran Prosecutor has pressed charges against the head of the „Iran‟ Daily for hurting public chastity and morality.

According to the Revolutionary Court website the [statement] for the charges pressed by the Tehran Prosecutor reads, “In the August edition of a supplement to the Iran Daily titled „Khatoun 1‟ an article was included about the hijab and the beliefs of Iranian Muslim women which attacked the chador, hijab and chastity and encouraged the [forbidden] and published content on the grounds of Islamic covering that hurts public chastity and morality”. This statement says that [these charges] have been announced to the Culture and Media Court for consideration. (Fars state-run News Agency – Aug. 13, 2011) Head of Assembly of Experts calls for more pressure on Iranian women http://www.khabaronline.ir/news-169871.aspx The head of the Assembly of Experts said that in addition to cultural issues, the society has to be controlled to counter improper veiling. “People cannot walk in any way they like on the streets. When they are asked why they are walking [with this] indecent [appearance] on the street, they say, „because I want to‟. Well, I would like to slap you in the face, but I cannot”, Ayatollah Mahdavi Kani said in a program aired on the first network on the Sima [state-run TV]. “We can not only advise someone who is contaminating Tehran‟s water with a bacteria not to do this. If someone is contaminating the water, what can be done? You say that we should advise [him\her] against doing that? Advising someone will not bear any results. The water will become polluted and it will be bad for the people”, this influential cleric said. (Khabar Online state-run website – Aug. 26, 2011) Cleric demands government crackdown on so-called „improper veiling‟ http://www.khabaronline.ir/news-172785.aspx Ayatollah Safi Golpaygani said, “Everyone should know that the display of improper veiling is breaking the holy sanctum of Sharia and normalizing sins and also sets a bad example. It is considered the distribution of corruption and the government should deal with it”. This Shiite cleric also stressed on the necessity of prohibiting vice, promoting virtue and said, “Unfortunately [actions] against Sharia and vice have become prevalent in the society of Muslims and have led to moral corruption and perversion. In these sensitive conditions, everyone should follow Sharia law and every one should prohibit vice and promote virtue so that gradually virtue does not turn into vice and vice will not be called virtue”… “Also the mixing of unrelated men and women especially in offices and centers of science are corruptions that lead to a decline in science. Prohibiting vice is the duty of all Muslims and everyone should start from their family and those around them”. Ayatollah Golpaygani also believes that officials who have the power and ability have to carry out their duty and prevent vice. (Khabar Online state-run website – Sep. 12, 2011) 15 female students banned from mid-term registration at university for not participating in mandatory „chastity‟ session After Hossein Saleh Nejad, the former head of the Science and Industrial University Bassij Department was appointed as the head of the School of Architecture at this university, a wave of insulting treatments of students started at this university. In his latest measure, this university official, who has close ties to security forces, banned 15 female students, who had not participated in the mandatory Chastity and Veil Session, from mid-term registration at the university. In last week‟s mandatory session which was held for female students, Saleh Zadeh threatened students and told them that if they do not follow the Hijab and chastity rules, they will be dealt with. He said that that meant that they had to „cover their whole body except for their faces and that they had to cover their hands all the way to their wrists. He also said that un-academic mixing [socializing] of [girls and boys] in the university was banned. In this session, he announced that male and female students should not call each other by their „first names‟ and „be noisy while talking and laughing‟. (Daneshju News website – Oct. 17, 2011)

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Iran shuts down 405 shops for selling „unconventional apparel‟ http://isna.ir/ISNA/NewsView.aspx?ID=News-1882014 The head of the Greater Tehran Police said that 405 clothes shops that sold unconventional clothing with the emblems of corrupt groups were shut down. Hossein Sajedi Nia said that the plan to deal with shops that sell unconventional clothing with indecent images and shops that sell the emblems of corrupt groups (Satanist) was carried out. (ISNA state-run News Agency – Oct. 31, 2011) Iran arrests English instructors for „improper veiling‟ According to reports from Mashhad, last week security forces raided a number of English Institutes in Mashhad and arrested the English instructors after terrorizing the students and causing disorder in the classes. They were arrested under the pretext of having „improper veiling‟. According to this report, security forces seized the automobiles outside of the institution and forced the students out of the classes. Notably, these measures have been carried out in a number of institutions in the Sajad Blvd. in Mashhad. (Daneshju News website – Nov. 7, 2011) Iran to scrap foreign clothes from shops http://www.asriran.com/fa/news/188851 The Working Secretary of the Apparel and Fashion Organizing Group said that foreign apparel would be removed from the clothing production line. “The main duty of this year‟s {Fashion and Clothing] Show is to update the Iranian-Islamic culture among producers‟ production line”, Esa Keshavarz said. “This working group is under the watchful eye of the Guidance Council and the show is [also] under the direct supervision of the Minister of Guidance”, he added. “After the inauguration of the new internal production line, foreign productions will be removed from the clothes and fashion line”, he added. (Asre Iran state-run website – Nov. 9, 2011) Isfahan cleric says regime should „pick up the stick‟ to impose mandatory veil http://www.aftabnews.ir/vdcgxz9qyak9tw4.rpra.html The head of the Isfahan Friday Prayers said, “The issue of the veil has gone beyond giving notices and to counter improper veiling they have to pick up the stick and use force”... “Dealing decisively and with force is necessary for the law and to carry out the divine laws”, Seyed Yusef Tabatabayi Nejad added. “Some officials think that to deal with the issue of improper veiling, [we] have to advance people‟s culture but they have to accept that in some cases, one should be decisive and now is the time to raise the stick against improper veiling”. “If someone does something [so-called immoral act] in public, it has to be stopped because the licentious actions of some people will harm others”, the head of the Isfahan Friday Prayers said... “In the old times, prohibiting vice and promoting virtue was carried out by a person with a whip”, he added. (Mehr state-run News Agency – Nov. 30, 2011) State run TV‟s women‟s advisor defends mandatory veil calling it a „divine right‟ The Women‟s advisor of the Iranian state-run Television said in a ceremony regarding „the veil and chastity‟ that the „consent‟ of men and women on not using the veil is unimportant. She said that „wearing the veil‟ had nothing to do with men and women and that it was a „divine right‟. Parvin Salihi rejected that wearing the veil was a personal issue and stressed that „wearing the veil is a divine right which has nothing to do with a woman who says she will overlook her right [to wear the veil] or a man who says that he is contented with his wife not wearing the veil”. (Daneshju News website – Nov. 23, 2011)

SSF commander says agents will deal with women sporting „unconventional clothing and boots‟ http://www.farsnews.com/newstext.php?nn=13900923001052 The head of the State Security Forces Moral Police said, “The police will deal with those who wear boots and appear [on the street] with unconventional clothes”. “Wearing boots has never been banned and many women who wear boots have proper veiling and therefore wearing boots with certain clothes has been banned and after giving out [verbal] notices, the police with deal with this issue”, Ahmad Rouzbehani said noting the start of the winter season... “The veil and chastity and everything else are for men and women and there is no difference between them. Some of the clothes men wear are also [improper] and we have arrested people because of their clothing”, he added. (Fars state-run News Agency – Dec. 14, 2011) Clerics encourages animosity towards so-called „improperly veiled‟ women http://news.police.ir/NCMS/FullStory/?Id=218229 Ayatollah Javadi Amoli said that if someone was not wearing the veil [or was not properly covered] she will [change her appearance] if other women look at her with hate and resentment and that this „glare‟ was obligatory. “It is not true that if someone is indifferent towards those who do not have proper covering, it would not be considered a sin for her/him; but actually the sin will be considered for both of them”, he added. (Resalat state-run daily, Official website of the Iranian Police– Dec. 19, 2011) Iran to establish „Islamic‟ dress for professional women http://www.mehrnews.com/fa/NewsDetail.aspx?NewsID=1515276 The Secretary of the Women and Family Affairs Office of the Ministry of Interior said that the initial phase of the Plan for the Fashion and Dress of Working Women in Tehran had been carried out. “In this plan, we are not looking to coordinate or make uniforms for working women”, she said. “In the designing of the clothes of the working women, our stress is on it being compatible with the work in question and Islamic laws”, Zahra Abbasi added. “[Only] colors and designs will be considered that are compatible with [Islamic teachings related to women] and surely hot colors that are not suitable for the workplace will not be used”, she stressed. “Women‟s covering and dress in the workplace has to provide for the security of the workplace and instead of being flashy it should shed light on the moral character of women”, Abbasi said. (Mehr state-run News Agency – Jan. 23, 2012) Head of Airport Police says „improperly veiled women‟ will be banned from travel http://www.asriran.com/fa/news/202675 The head of the Airport Police said that the police would “give guidance to those who do not follow the Islamic dress code”. “Until the person does not reform their dress, they will not be allowed to travel”, he said. He said that the police would deal with men who wear tight clothing or clothes with western [style] symbols. (ISNA state-run News Agency, Asre Iran state-run website – Feb. 24, 2012) Islamic republic hold so-called fashion show for working women enforcing mandatory veil http://www.asriran.com/fa/news/202215 Working women should dress like this (images) (Asre Iran state-run website, ISNA state-run News Agency – Feb. 21, 2012) 63

Gender Segregation
Security forces enforce sexual segregation in Mazandaran University In the ongoing limitations imposed on Mazandaran University students, a part of the „sexual segregation‟ plan which officials have spoken of for a long time was carried out in this university. According to reports, on Sunday May 1, a group of plainclothes agents which had not been seen in this university before carried out the segregation along with Bassij forces. They confiscated the student ID cards of a number of male and female students. A student who had talked with these forces for some time said, “A few of my classmates and I were sitting in the university when suddenly a number of plainclothes agents came towards us and confiscated some of the students‟ ID cards. They said they had been sent by the State Security Forces and that they were acting under the coordination of the University Protection Department”. “They did not answer my questions regarding their intent. This also happened to my other friends in other sections of the university and they still have not returned our student cards”, this student added. This student said that they only told them that they had to go to the office of the head of the Protection Department in the Central Organization to receive their cards.

According to this report, students have been interrogated for hours for various reasons in this room in the past by the head of the Protection Department and sometimes by security forces. (Daneshju News – May 2, 2011) Iran Minister of Higher Education: Freedom is for animals, not humans Kamran Daneshju, the Minister of Science (higher education) said on Saturday, “If cultural issues are not considered in universities, such a university will not reach its purpose”. “The presence of girls and boys in universities is an opportunity, but students should not be allowed to mix together”, he added. According to Daneshju, the dignity of humans is not in absolute freedom, but is in what one must and must not do and if this is taken away, it will reach the absolute freedom that animals have. “If universities do not move in the right path, they will present scientists to the society but anti-Islamic scientists are definitely not needed in the society and we are looking for guided and Islamic science”, he added. (IRNA state-run News Agency – May 22, 2011) Iran bans female students from master‟s degree courses in Science and Industry University In the continuing policies of the Iranian government and the implementation of the „gender rationing‟ plan, the Assessment Organization with the aid of the Ministry of Science (Ministry of Higher Education) has omitted female students in some courses in the acceptance units of universities including the Science and Industry University in Tehran… According to this report, the Science and Industry University has omitted girls from all the master‟s degree day courses in all academic fields. (Daneshju News – May 27, 2011) Iran closes down five ceremonial halls for hosting mixed parties in Gorgan The Manager of the Public Places Supervision Department said that five halls that hosted mixed parties in Gorgan were shut down and sealed off. “These units were closed down in line with the plan to for the advancement of moral security and dealing firmly with offending [stores] and halls”, Hossein-Ali Tajari said. “During this operation a number of offenders and those who had participated in the party who had anti-Islamic and unsuitable appearances were arrested”, he added. The Manager of the Public Places Supervision Department said that those who were arrested were referred to the judiciary. (Mehr state-run News Agency – Jul. 6, 2011) Iran starts sexual segregation in universities The sexual segregation plan that has been planned by the government and has obligated universities to carry it out is being openly carried out in Alameh University in a humiliating way. Despite Ahmadinejad‟s orders to stop the implementation of the sexual segregation plan, in this plan, girls and boys will go to university on different days and the name of university professors have been put in black and grey lists to limit their communications with students of the opposite sex. According to this report, the head of Alameh University, Sadroddin Shariati, who is close to Ahmandinejad and Mashayi, has provided three lists of university professors in a confidential order to the heads of the Departments in this university. These lists include a white, grey and black list with the aim of humiliating a number of male prominent professors who have criticized the management of the university. Their names have been placed in the black list and they have been banned from teaching in girls‟ classes. In the special method carried out in this university to sexually segregate students, sexual segregation is not carried out by separating the rows and chairs of girls and boys but rather an even and odd day has been implemented in the class schedules. Even days are allocated to girls while odd days are for boys and the academic plan for next year has also been adjusted based on this new plan. (Kalameh Website – Jul. 13, 2011) 65

Cleric strikes out against mixed gender Ramadan dinners Seyed Ahmad Alamol-Hoda the Mashhad Friday Prayer Imam said, “In more private sessions, parties are held as Eftari‟s [feast in which Muslims break their fast after sunset in the month of Ramadan] and in the end these Eftari‟s are turned into mixed gender circles of [men and women not related by blood or marriage]. Young women come to these parties wearing cosmetics and Eftari‟s are turned into forbidden mixed gender sessions of [men and women not related by blood or marriage] when they greet their cousins… And these are the special sins of the month of Ramadan”. Parts of Alamnol-Hoda‟s sermon: “Staying up at nights in the month of Ramadan is for meditating and litany and not for playing football on sidewalks and alleys and depriving people of rest and security. The fact that youngsters cannot exercise in the day time because of the fasting and therefore exercise at night is no problem and is a right [thing to do] but not so that from the beginning of the night until the morning the only pastime of a man and woman is going to the gym and the fact that they spend all their time exercising”. (ISNA state-run News Agency – Aug. 5, 2011) Iranian regime carries out discriminatory policies in line with gender segregation in universities The initial results of the 2011 nationwide [university acceptance] exams were announced while widespread gender discriminatory policies in accepting girls were carried out… According to reports, while the figures showed that 68 percent of those who were allowed to choose a major were girls and 32 percent were boys, the amount allocated to boys in many universities in the country is notably higher. In addition to this, in close to 40 universities in the country… in many of the courses only male or female volunteers have been accepted which is in line with gender segregation of the students and more limitations subjected on volunteers who want to choose their courses. (Daneshju News – Aug. 17, 2011) Security forces arrest young people for organizing „mixed gender‟ outing http://www.isna.ir/ISNA/NewsView.aspx?ID=News-1830570 The head of the Khuzestan Public Intelligence and Security Police said that a number of people who had set up a network under the name of „the Ahwaz Tourism Group‟ in the internet and intended to deceive young people were arrested. “After getting reports about a network on the internet which was set up by a person named Damon under the name of „the Ahwaz Tourism Group‟, agents of the Public Intelligence and Security Police investigated this issue”, Colonel Ali Hatami said. “This internet criminal who texted 1,500 young people and teenagers with the message, „Let‟s have a good day‟, was identified by the police and after coordination with the judiciary, he was arrested along with three of his accomplices in a surprise [attack]”. “One of the agencies who had been active in holding a mixed gender camp with these people was identified and shut down”, he added. (ISNA state-run News Agency – Aug. 20, 2011) Iranian regime bans mixed gender kindergarten classes http://www.isna.ir/ISNA/NewsView.aspx?ID=News-1831294 According to executive orders, kindergartens should be active at most 3.5 hours a day and 5 days a week… According to this order, „the integrations of boys and girls in kindergarten classes is banned and only in centers in which the numbers of children have not reached the needed numbers [to be active], this will be permitted with a warrant from the regional Education Department in their region”. (ISNA state-run News Agency – Aug. 21, 2011) Iran arrests 182 people for eating in public and 28 others for „improper clothing‟ http://www.khabaronline.ir/news-169433.aspx The Commander of the Lorestan State Security Forces said, “With the efforts and cautiousness of Prohibiting Vice and Promoting Virtue Agents, 182 people who were eating in Ramadan were arrested in the province”. “In the implementation of the plan to provide order and security, carry out special controlling measures in the month of Ramadan and dealing with those who eat in public, agents arrested 182 people on the 20 th and 21st of Ramadan in addition to giving verbal warnings to 1,476 people”, Kazem Alizadeh said. “Intelligence and security agents warned and guided 712 people on the grounds of countering improper veiling and from these people, 28 were referred to judicial sources”.

The head of the Lorestan State Security Forces also announced that from the beginning of Ramadan, in line maintaining the sanctity of this month, 9,487 people received verbal notices while 785 people were referred to judicial sources. “Three thousand two hundred and forty eight inspections were carried out from food shops which led to the shutting down of 161 shops [who were probably selling food in the daytime] and criminal records were made for 57 shop owners who were referred to judicial sources”, Alizadeh added. (Fars state-run News Agency, Khabar Online state-run website – Aug. 24, 2011) Gender segregation in Alameh Tabatabayi University http://www.khabaronline.ir/news-171460.aspx Ninety percent of the classes in the postgraduate level in the Social Sciences and Communications departments in the Alameh Tabatabayi University have been sexually segregated. Students who went to the university to choose their courses were given two separate lists for women and men. These students expressed concern over this segregation and said that the segregation was implemented in special courses of programming in the Social Sciences and Communications Departments. Among the 51 courses in the social programming fields and Social Sciences Communication and Intelligence Technology Observations, 46 courses are segregated and only 5 courses are held with both male and female students. (Khabar Online state-run website – Sep. 5, 2011) Iran orders gender segregation for office employees in northern city http://www.asriran.com/fa/news/180158 The Noshahr mayor has announced gender segregation for female and male employees in all of this town‟s offices. In a letter numbered 531762 addressed to all managers of executive systems in this city, Mayor Mohammad Ali Qomi requested gender segregation for all male and female employees in this town‟s offices. (Asre Iran state-run website – Sep. 5, 2011) Minister of higher education defends „Islamizing‟ universities http://javanonline.ir/vdceo78eejh8nni.b9bj.html According to reports, Science Minister [Minister of Higher Education] Kamran Daneshjo said, “Regarding Islamizing universities, while recognizing that concentrating on the content of Islamic lessons are the main aim, we are looking to carry out the laws of the High Cultural Revolution Council regarding chastity and the Hijab and in line with this, male and female students should not mix which means they have to follow chastity and the hijab in their behavior which should not resemble the West”, he said. According to the Science Minister, the High Cultural Revolution Council announced an act in 1987 which stipulates that girls and boys have to sit in two separate rows in classes… “An amendment to this act stipulates that if there are no credential and educational problems, the classes of girls and boys should be held separately and this act has even mentioned the separation of camps for girls and boys”, Daneshju said. (Javan Online – Sep. 17, 2011) No one has right to disagree with university gender segregation: cleric http://isna.ir/ISNA/NewsView.aspx?ID=News-1887113 Ayatollah Safi Golpaygani said that those who write articles in their newspapers against Islamic traditions and the Islamic Revolution which is against the orders of God are not right. “Some disagree with gender segregation in universities, which is something we stress on. No one has a right to disagree with Islamic traditions and orders”. “Gender segregation is one of the orders of God and is an Islamic tradition which has to be implemented”, he added. (ISNA state-run News Agency – Nov. 8, 2011)

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Iran shuts down more than 85 traditional restaurants because of the „unconventional presence of girls and boys‟ http://www.mehrnews.com/FA/NewsDetail.aspx?NewsID=1483456 The Commander of the Karaj State Security Forces, Abdolreza Kheir Kahan said that the police are decisive in carrying out the plan to organize traditional restaurants in Karaj. “In general the name „Sofreh Khaneh‟ [traditional restaurant] and the activity of a place under this name is banned in the province and the State Security Forces will try its best to turn these places into the old tea houses and prevent women from coming inside”, he said. “In the current atmosphere of traditional restaurants, we see the unconventional presence of girls and boys together with is inconsistent with Islamic values and the current laws in the society and the SSF is looking to seriously deal with this issue”. The Karaj SSF Commander said that more than 85 traditional restaurants were shut down in the province. “More than 165 traditional restaurants received written notices and if they do not change the state of their restaurant and do not carry out the law, they will be shut down”. (Mehr state-run News Agency – Dec. 14, 2011)

Crack down on social freedoms
Tehran dictators clamp down on Tehran residents Tehran Chief of Police Hossein Sajedi Nia said, “In the moral security plan, store owners who put up improper clothing in their windows or sell these clothing will be dealt with”. “Men‟s ateliers and barber shops are also under the monitoring of police and necessary measures will be taken to deal with transgressors”, he added… The Tehran chief of police also said that the moral security plan would be carried out in parks and recreational centers. “This plan will soon be carried out in parks, recreational centers, and the main roads and streets and the Mountain Police will deal with transgressors. The police will try to initially give warnings but some of those who break the norms will be seriously dealt with”, he added. He also cited the ban on men working in stores that sell women‟s attire and accessories and stressed that “police will warn the [transgressors] and will then close down these shops”… Sajedi Nia said that dealing with improperly veiled [women and men] and those who break social norms is also one of the duties of the Rahvar Police. “The Rahvar who are a part of the police force can get involved with issues concerning moral security, dog walking and other such issues and can deal with force with norm-breakers”. The Tehran Chief of Police also stressed that „citizens must know that in some cases, the police can if necessary search purses and bags or ask for ID‟s”. (Mehr state-run News Agency – Jun. 22, 2011) Iran cracks down on girls and boys in Tehran parks http://www.asriran.com/fa/news/175152 The Chief of the Tehran Police said that girls and boys that carried out abnormal measures that were against Islamic norms and disrupted the peace of the society were seriously dealt with. “A number of these people were arrested in the evening”, he said. “Unfortunately, a number of young girls and boys were carrying out measures incompatible with Islamic norms in one of Tehran‟s gardens and police agents of the capital went to the area immediately after becoming informed and arrested all the offenders and those who

were breaking the norms and handed them over to judicial authorities”, Sajedi Nia said. “The Tehran Police will deal firmly with those who disrupt peace and social security and those who break the norms”, he concluded. (Mehr state-run News Agency – Jul. 31, 2011) Iranian officials call for crack down on public water fights http://www.asriran.com/fa/news/175298 Mosa Ghazanfar Abadi, a member of the Executive Board of the Religious Majles Representatives stressed that there was “no doubt that the promotion of the phenomenon of water fights and water throwing between young people was planned by some to distance the youth from Islamic values and the culture of the Islamic Republic”. “A young person who has gotten involved in these games might not be aware of anything but when we get into the source of these things we realized that these are plans to keep young people from the Islamic, chastity and hijab culture and religious values”. Hossein Ibrahimi, the head of the Judging Board of the Fundamentalist Fraction of the Majles stressed on dealing firmly with the offenders and said, “The State Security Forces and the Judiciary have the duty to legally deal with this issue and punish the norm breakers”. “Of course, cultural institutions also have to prevent the prevalence of corruption”, he said. The Bojnourd representative said that the mixed gender water fights of girls and boys was an important matter. “This issue has to be looked into and has to be wiped out of the society as a demonstration of corruption”, he added. This MP stressed on the duty of the SSF and Judiciary and said that he had seen the indecent pictures of this issue in websites.

Water fight in Tehran's Ab and Atash Park

“A force has to be stationed in parks to deal with such matters in addition to preventing improper veiling and they should not neglect this issue”, he said. “The duty of the Judiciary is to deal with the elements of this issue and punish them”, Ibrahimi stressed. (Asre Iran state-run website – Aug. 1, 2011) 69

Iran police cracks down on „water fights‟ http://www.asriran.com/fa/news/175604 A number of other offenders were arrested regarding the issue of organizing Facebook water fights in Tehran. According to reports, these people were to gather on August 6 in the Melat Park and Ab and Atash Park in Tehran to hold [a water fight] and they were arrested by the police. These people who used the internet for their programs were identified and arrested by the police‟s professional measures. (Asre Iran state-run website – Aug. 3, 2011)

Iran brings „water fighter‟ to confess on TV http://aftabnews.ir/vdccesqse2bq148.ala2.html The news segment of the 20:30 [program] of the Sima [Iranian state TV] showed a number of the girls and boys who were arrested during the water fight episode in the Ab and Atash Park. They were shown facing a wall and their faces could not be seen. These people made short statements such the fact that they made their plans in Facebook to come to this park and talked about these issues. The head of the Moral Security Police, Rouzbehani, also said in an interview with the Seda and Sima reporter that these people were norm breakers and that with the coordination of the Judiciary they were severely dealt with! (Aftab state-run website – Aug. 3, 2011) Iranian youths arrested for public water pistol fight in Tehran http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2011/aug/04/water-fight-pistols-iran-arrests?INTCMP=SRCH Saeed Kamali Dehghan In the 40C heat of an Iranian summer, what better way to have fun and stay cool than a water fight with friends? In the Islamic republic, however, things are a bit more complicated. For one group of boys and girls, their game turned serious when they were arrested for taking part in a water pistol fight in a park in the capital, Tehran. Last Friday hundreds of enthusiasts used plastic pistols and empty bottles to play in the ironically named Garden of Water and Fire for hours and, to the surprise of many, without police interference. But the event - organised on Facebook - prompted criticism from conservatives when pictures of it emerged online days later. Iran`s state television broadcast a programme on Wednesday showing some of the arrested participants with their backs to the camera, confessing to have played with water and using plastic pistols. „We had been invited on internet to come and play with water,' one girl said. A boy added: 'It was very intimate; it was much more intimate than it should have been‟. The head of Tehran`s morality police, Ahmad Roozbehani said: 'A mixed-gender event took place on Friday ... They had been asked to bring water pistol toys, which most of them had in hand ... they acted against social norms‟. Speaking to the semi-official Mehr news agency, Hossein Sajedinia, the city`s police chief confirmed the arrests, blaming the participants for behaving 'abnormally' and disobeying Islamic principles. Iranian MPs also condemned the water fight, spreading the debate nationwide. Hossein Ibrahimi, a conservative MP, said such events would spread 'corruption' and were 'shameful.‟ The Guardian has learned that some of those held have not been released, including a university student.

The arrests of the organisers and participants of the event came after conservative websites urged the regime to identify those behind the water pistol fight. Organised on a Facebook page called „Tehran`s water pistol fight', the event attracted more than 14،000 people and prompted pages promoting similar events in other cities such as Isfahan and Karaj. Potking Azarmehr, a London-based Iranian blogger who has written a post in response to the arrests, said: 'There are two issues here which have troubled the regime: people having fun and people organising a gathering through the social media. Both are perceived as a threat by the regime‟. Golnaz Esfandiari, who has a blog on the Radio Free Europe website, Persian Letters, writes in a recent post: 'There were also gatherings for paintball, kite flying, and blowing bubbles. All the events are said to have been organised through Facebook. It`s not clear why the water fight has caused more sensitivity than the previous events‟. Officials have also recently banned swimming in the sea during the Islamic fasting month of Ramadan. Men and women not related by blood or marriage in Iran are not allowed to touch or have relationships outside social norms. However, many youths continue to push the boundaries, despite a crackdown that has targeted prohibited certain hairstyles and clothing. (Guardian – Aug. 4, 2011) Iran arrests 17 girls and boys in Bandar Abbas water fight http://www.isna.ir/ISNA/NewsView.aspx?ID=News-1821729&Lang=P The Deputy Commander of the Hormozgan State Security Forces said that 17 people were arrested over the issue of a water throwing festival in the Bandar Abbas Coast by the police. “After a call for participation in a water throwing festival which was given via Facebook and other dissident media on the eve of the month of Ramadan last week, this call was also published in Hormozgan”, Colonel Abbas Khodadadzadeh. “On Friday morning we were informed that a group of girls and boys who did not have a suitable hijab were on the beach of Bandar Abbas and after going into the water had started [a water fight] and a number of others had started throwing water with water guns and even with water bottles”. “Khodadadzadeh stressed that these people were given warnings and said, “The number of participants were less than 40 people and the police arrested about 17 of them who were between 19 to 20 years old and transferred them to the Moral Security Police [station]”. (ISNA state-run News Agency – Aug. 6, 2011) Criminal records to be filed for 12 young water fighters in Hormozgan http://www.isna.ir/ISNA/NewsView.aspx?ID=News-1822034 The head of the Hormozgan Judiciary confirmed the arrest of 17 people during a water fight in a coastal park in Bandar Abbas and announced that all the detainees were released. “A number of girls and boys were throwing water on each other on Friday August 5 in one of the coastal parks in the town of Bandar Abbas and 17 of them were arrested after State Security Forces came to the scene”, Ali Alia said… He said that the 12 [remaining] detainees were released on bail and added that “the offenders were charged with committing a forbidden act in public and insulting agents who were on duty and after investigations, criminal records will be filed for them with the specification of the judge”. (ISNA state-run News Agency – Aug. 7, 2011) Iran once again attacks „water fighters‟ in Tehran http://www.farsnews.com/newstext.php?nn=13900611000555 According to reports, a few days ago, a number of Facebook pages published calls for holding water fight festivals in the Ab and Atash Park in Tehran. After this call, young water fighters disrupted public order in this park from 1 to 4 pm on Friday and carried out immoral acts. According to the Fars reporter who was in the Ab and Atash Park, a number of young people gathered in the park around 1 pm and had water fights by breaking the sanctities in some parts of the park. The norm breakings of these youth who were low in number were met with the quick response of police. The warning of the police was respectable and calm but the bad conduct of some of the norm breakers forced police agents to [arrest] a number of the youth who did not listen to the verbal warnings of the police and they were taken away with police cars to relevant [security institutions]. (Fars state-run News Agency – Sep. 2, 2011) 71

SSF official says police will not tolerate water fights http://www.mehrnews.com/fa/NewsDetail.aspx?NewsID=1398039 The Deputy Commander of the State Security Forces said that a number of norm breakers were arrested in the Ab and Atash Park [in Tehran]. “Behind the issue of water fights are other goals and a number of young people have become the tool for reaching that goal”, he said. “They have to know that these invitations [to participate in water fights] will not lead to good but are rather invitations for evil”. “What is important for the police is that [people] stay in the framework of the law and respect the values and norms. I announced once before that water fights and norm breakings are banned and wherever [a person] acts outside of this law, the police will not tolerate it”, Ahmad-Reza Radan said… “The police will deal with these people. Also those who hold water fights with intentions will be introduced to judicial sources”, he added. (Mehr state-run News Agency – Sep. 4, 2011) Water gun fight in a park? Iran sees dark designs http://www.apexchange.com/GetContent.aspx?id=78ddaabf82ac4afea9b56b9d43ddc4d7&links=IRAN,USABL,WK3 7Y2011,W36Y2011&fid=eb2b4faf0e3b481a83b4ad5dde629261&Token=&media=Text&slug=BC-ML--IranWaterFights&format=nitf&site=1 Iran is trying to put down a new wave of civil disobedience - flash mobs of young people who break into boisterous fights with water guns in public parks. A group of water fighters was arrested over the weekend,and a top judiciary official warned Monday that 'counterrevolutionaries' were behind them. Police swooped in to arrest a number of people who had gathered on Friday in a Tehran park to hold a water fight, the acting commander of Iran`s police Gen. Ahmad Radan said, quoted in newspapers on Monday. Radan said the group had been planning the water fight through the Internet and had 'intended to break customs‟. He vowed police would act to prevent future attempts and that participants on trial. Throughout the summer, Iranian police have been cracking down. In the first incident, in July, hundreds of young men and women held a water fight in Tehran`s popular Water and Fire Park, spraying each other with water guns and splattering bottles of water on one another. Police detained dozens of those involved. Since then, police have arrested dozens more involved in similar water fights in parks in major cities around the country. Hard-liners see the water fights as unseemly and immoral, breaking taboos against men and women simply mixing, much less dousing each other with water and playing in the streets. But authorities see a darker hand as well, worrying that the gatherings could weaken adherence among young people to Iran`s cleric-led Islamic rule or even build into outright protests against Iran`s the regime. Iran`s leadership has been very wary of any gathering, whatever their nature, since the massive protests against the 2009 re-election of President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad. The anti-regime uprisings that spread around the Arab world this year only add to the leadership`s worries of any sign of 'people power‟. On Monday, the spokesman of the judiciary, Gholam Hossein Mohseni Ejehi, accused unnamed foreign hands of organizing the water gun campaign. 'This is not simply a game with water. This act is being guided from abroad,‟ he said. Some of those detained Friday have admitted 'they were deceived,and some said they came out based on a call from a counterrevolutionary,' he said, quoted in the conservative news web site Tabnak. State TV has aired statements by some arrested in previous water fight crackdowns,admitting they were motivated by 'foreign invitations‟. Some confessed they were given water guns to use. Most detainees were released afterward. Many of the water fights are organized through calls on Facebook, which is banned in Iran though Iranian frequently access it through proxies. Most of the Facebook pages are not expressly political - but they express the sort of secular youth culture of Iranians unhappy with the country`s Islamic rule. Friday`s water fight had been planned to be held in Tehran`s Water and Fire Park, named for its numerous fountains and light shows.

Iran frequently accuses the United States and Iranian opposition groups in exile of fomenting opposition activity on its soil… Cracking down on water-gun games reflects the leadership`s wariness of any sign of anti-regime sentiment. (AP – Sep. 5, 2011) Head of Moral Security Police promises crack down on „systematic parties‟ http://isna.ir/ISNA/NewsView.aspx?ID=News-1866292 The head of the State Security Forces‟ Moral Security Police, Ahmad Rouzbehani, on Monday announced the statistics for the measures taken [by the Moral Police] in the first six months of the [Persian] year and said, “The statistics for the discovery of gangs that import alcoholic beverages and sellers of alcohol has increased by 26 percent”… Rouzbehani said that some parties were held systematically and added that the “police will definitely deal with these parties which are registered on the internet where people have to pay a fee to be granted entrance into these mixed gender parties”. (ISNA state-run News Agency – Oct. 10, 2011)

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Minorities

Suppression of religious and ethnic minorities

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Iran arrests four Baha‟is in Semnan Four Baha‟i residents of Semnan identified as Zohreh Tabiyanian [f], Elham Motearefi[f], Taraneh Ehsani[f], and Puya Tabiyanian were arrested by intelligence agents. According to reports, at 7 am today, Semnan Intelligence agents went to the home of Ms. Zohreh Nik Ayin (Tabiyanian), Elham Rozbehi (Motearefi), Tareneh Ehsani and Puya Tabiyanian and after showing them a copy of a search warrant which did not even resemble a real search warrant, entered the home. These forces arrested all four of them after searching the home and confiscating some of their belongings. (Human Rights Activists in Iran – Mar. 12, 2011) Christian Pastors and Churchgoers Sentenced to Death and Imprisonment Religious Practices and Proselytizing Treated as Criminal Acts From left: Pastor Abdolreza AliHaghnejad, Zainab Bahremend, and Pastor Behrouz Sadegh-Khanjani Iranian authorities should end the judicial persecution of members of the evangelical protestant Church of Iran and other churches, the International Campaign for Human Rights in Iran said today. Specifically, the Campaign appeals to Iran‟s Judiciary to overturn criminal sentences of church members including a death sentence for Pastor Youcef Nadarkhani and prison term for Pastor Behrouz Sadegh-Khanjani. “Iranian authorities must stop targeting religious groups and practices they find threatening, acts which violate international and Iranian law,” said Aaron Rhodes, a spokesperson for the Campaign. “It is deeply hypocritical to criticize European countries for discriminatory policies against Muslims while the Iranian government throws Christians and members of other minority religions into prison and sentences some to death,” Rhodes added. During the 16th special session of the United Nations Human Rights Council, in April 2011, the Iranian government criticized the EU and US for discrimination against religious minorities. On 12 April 2011, Iran‟s Minister of Culture and Islamic Guidance Mohammad Hosseini said, “We expect European countries to guarantee the individual and social freedoms of Muslims,” according to the state-controlled PressTV. Throughout 2010 and 2011, dozens of members of the nationwide protestant group, the Church of Iran, have been criminally prosecuted and punished merely for their religious beliefs and practices. On 1 May 2011, the Revolutionary Court in the northern city of Bandar Anzali tried eleven church members, including Pastor Abdolreza Ali-Haghnejad, and Zainab Bahremend, the 62-year-old grandmother of two other defendants, on charges of “acting against national security.” The Court is scheduled to issue its verdict on 11 May. Authorities have also charged church members in Bandar Anzali with consumption of alcohol and inappropriate hejab (Islamic headscarf). These charges are reportedly based on their participation in church services in private homes, where some attendees drink wine as part of ritual communion, and women do not observe hejab. Christianity is a recognized religion under the Iranian Constitution and despite some discrimination, the Islamic Republic has afforded Iran‟s historic and ethnic Orthodox Christian communities with a modicum of space to practice their faith. However, Protestant leaders have told the Campaign that, especially within the last six years, the Iranian government has increasingly targeted Protestant groups. Protestant groups in Iran are comprised primarily of converts and often engage in proselytizing. Moreover, Iranian courts and officials have begun to view these groups in political terms, trying Protestant believers and leaders in Revolutionary Courts, which are reserved for political and national security offenses.

On 5 April 2011, the First Branch of the Revolutionary Court in the southern city of Shiraz sentenced Pastor Behrouz Sadegh-Khanjani of the Church of Iran, and five other church members, Parviz Khalaj, Amin Afshar Manesh, Mehdi Forutan, Mohammad Baliad, and Nazli Makarian, with a year in prison for “propaganda against the regime.” Authorities, however, acquitted the Christians on the count of “acting against national security.” Sadegh-Khanjani and his fellow Church members have appealed the court‟s decision. Firouz Sadegh-Khanjani, brother of Behrouz and member of the Church of Iran‟s National Council, told the Campaign, “So now [authorities] are elevating being Christian to a political crime. Basically they are saying if you‟re Christian, then you must be against the regime. This might sound laughable but this is the view they are moving forward with.” Firouz Sadegh-Khanjani told the Campaign that his church attempted to avoid being seen by authorities as a clandestine political organization. “For ten years our church has been reporting to the Ministry of Intelligence, letting them know about all our activities. So we are not an underground organization. My brother doesn‟t even travel from one city to another without letting them know first,” he said. Authorities also dropped the apostasy charges against Behrouz Sadegh-Khanjani and five other Church members. However, all six Christians still face a charge of “insulting Islamic sanctities” (i.e. blasphemy) in Shiraz‟s Criminal Court. Mohammad Taravatrooy, lawyer for the Christians, told the Campaign, “Neither they, nor I as their lawyer, accept such charges, because they did not commit any actions which could be construed as insulting the sanctities, or could appear as propaganda…. I think that the state mostly intends to use such cases to serve as means to prevent religious proselytizing.” On 22 September 2010, the 11th Circuit Criminal Court of Appeals for the northern province of Gilan upheld the death sentence and conviction of pastor Youcef Nadarkhani for apostasy. Apostasy, the act of renouncing one‟s religion, is not a crime under Iran’s Islamic Penal Code. Instead, the presiding judge in Nadarkhani‟s case rested his opinion on texts by Iranian religious scholars. Mohammad Ali Dadkhah, Nadarkhani „s lawyer, explained to the Campaign that there is neither mention of apostasy as a crime in Iran laws, nor any consensus about apostasy in Islamic jurisprudence. “Many clerics such as Ayatollah Ardabili are skeptical in relation to apostasy being considered a crime.” Dadkhah, who is facing charges of having been a founder of the Defenders of Human Rights Center himself, added that, “Regardless… Iran is bound by international norms and accepts the basic principles of human rights law. Article 27 of the Vienna Convention expressly states that no government can, because of its domestic laws, ignore international treaties. So after careful evaluation we conclude that the death sentence of this person or other persons in such a situation is not allowable.” Article 18 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, to which Iran is a party, guarantees a person‟s “freedom to have or to adopt a religion or belief of his choice … to manifest his religion or belief in worship, observance, practice and teaching.” Article 18 also requires that, “No one shall be subject to coercion which would impair his freedom to have or to adopt a religion or belief of his choice.” “The Iranian government knows full and well that its international obligations prohibit religious discrimination, and mandates the protection of freedom of religion and conscience,” said Rhodes. “The Judiciary should overturn these recent prison sentences and death sentences and stop persecuting Protestants and all other religious minorities.” (International Campaign for Human Rights in Iran – May 4, 2011) Iran raids homes and arrests dozens of Baha‟is in Iran in new crack down Security forces and intelligence agents entered the homes of a large number of the heads of the Baha‟i Free Science University (BIHE) and arrested a large number of them. These arrests are ongoing and according to informed sources, reports of the arrest of 12 people have been confirmed so far. The names of the detainees are as follows: Vahid Mokhtari, Mahmoud Badavam, Ramin Zibayi, Amir Houshang Amir Tabar, Foad Moqadam, 77

Shahin Negari [f], Soheil Qanbari, Kamran Mortezayi, Afrouz Farmanbardari, Mehran Behmardi, Amanallah Mostaqim. The arrest of Navid Assadi has still not been confirmed. The homes of Rohollah Haq Projeh, Hassan Momtaz, Sina Rahimi and Enisa Rahimi, Houshang Meisaqian, Shahnaz Samiei [f], Mr. Taleie and Tolo‟ Golkar [f], were also searched. The arrests and house searches were carried out in Tehran, Isfahan, Shiraz, Zahedan and other cities. Notably, 12 bags full of books and personal items were confiscated from the home of Amanallah Mostaqim in Shiraz. The detainees were the heads of the Free Science University affiliated with the Baha‟i society in Iran which was founded in reaction to the violation of the right to education of Baha‟is in Iran. (Committee of Human Rights Reporters in Iran – May 22, 2011) Baha‟i student expelled from university because of religion Another Mazandaran University student was expelled from this university because of her religion. Delara Darabi, who was in her eight semester of physics in Mazandaran University and had no political or disciplinary cases in the university in the past 4 years was summoned by the university‟s Disciplinary Committee and was prevented from going to class. A person close to this student who lives in Sari said, “Delara had written in all the university forms in the past four years that she followed the Baha‟i faith but some time ago after she was questioned by university heads and she announced that she was a Baha‟i, she was told that she could not go to class for now”. “She was constantly summoned after that by the Mazandaran University Protection Department and was finally expelled from university”. According to this report, this week the final order for her expulsion was issued but her family did not receive a written order about the university‟s decision despite constantly following this case. (Committee of Human Rights Reporters in Iran – May 24, 2011) Two students expelled from university for following Baha‟i faith Nora Sahrangi [f], a Baha‟i resident of Bandar Abbas in southern Iran who studied accounting in the Qeshm University was denied the right to take the final exam and was expelled from this university for being a Baha‟i. Another student in this university, Ava Tavakoli [f], who studied anesthesiology at Qeshm University was told by the university that she cannot register for the next semester and has been expelled. Notably, Baha‟is in Iran have been denied the right to higher education since the Islamic Revolution. (Human Rights Activists in Iran – Jun. 28, 2011) Iran sentences 5 Christians to prison terms The Revolutionary Court sentenced five Christians in Shiraz to a total of five years of prison. They were identified as Parviz Khalaj, Behrouz Sadeq Khanjani, Mohammad Biliad, Nazli Makarian [f] and Mehdi Foroutan. According to this report, Parviz Khalaj, Behrouz Sadeq Khanjani, Mohammad Biliad and Nazli Makarian who received finalized sentences have been summoned by the Revolutionary Court‟s Sentence Implementation Unit. Notably, Mehdi Foroutan has been detained in the drug addict‟s cellblock in the Pirbanou Prison in Shiraz since two months ago. These Christians have each been sentenced to one year of prison. (Human Rights Activists in Iran – Dec. 15, 2011) Iran sentences Christian women to 2 years of prison Christian convert Leila Mohammadi, who was arrested by security forces in her workplace, was sentenced to two years of prison by the Revolutionary Court... Ms. Mohammadi was tried on January 18 by the Revolutionary Court where she was charged with „cooperating with elements linked to foreign groups, anti-Islamic propaganda, establishing groups and deceiving people under the guise of a home church, insulting sanctities and acting against national security‟. The court cleared her of the charge of „cooperating with elements linked to foreign groups‟ because she was unaware [of their supposed links to foreign

groups]. Based on this, this Christian convert was sentenced to two years of prison and the sentence was announced to her. (Human Rights Activists in Iran – Jan. 30, 2012)

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Discrimination

Discrimination against women

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Only 13 percent of women work in Iran According to the state-run ILNA news agency, Fatemeh Moqimi, the head of the Women‟s Merchandising Enterprise of Iran said, “According to statistics of the Global Economical Convention, Iran is in 116 th place in terms of the economic activities of women”. She stressed that according to the Labor Organization, “13 percent of Iranian women were in the work force currently”. (Human Rights Activists in Iran – Mar. 6, 2011) Bassij father kills 16 year old daughter for 30 min. delay A 16-year old girl was killed in one of the villages in Zarin Shahr in Iran because of her father‟s intolerance. Her only crime was that she came home 30 minutes late and her father suspected her of having a sexual relationship with their neighbor‟s son. The father, Hossein Izad Panah, is an active member of the Bassij [paramilitary forces] and has robbed the peace of his neighborhood because of his reactionary beliefs and ways. On the night of the incident, the innocent girl is delayed in her friend‟s home for 30 minutes while preparing a research report for school. She is met with her father‟s rage upon her return and is killed after being beaten and sustaining multiple head injuries. (Zanan-e Iran website – Jun. 4, 2011) Firdousi Univ. students protest rape and beating of female student in univ. campus under strict suppressive measures in university Following the rape and beating of a female Firdousi University student in this university, hundreds of students gathered and chanted slogans voicing their protest over this incident demanding an answer from university officials and the resignation of relevant officials. According to reports, on the night of June 5, a female student was raped after being beaten inside the university campus… Most protesters have pointed their fingers at the Protection Department [charged with implementing the strict laws of the Islamic Republic of Iran in universities] for this tragedy and have said that in light of the strict measures implemented by the Protection Department against students including the hidden security cameras all over the university campus, how is it possible that no preparation has been carried out to prevent such an incident in the university. Notably, the Firdousi University Protection Department is more sensitive on the relationship between the opposite sexes than any other university [in Iran] and uses security cameras to monitor students and the students‟ protest gatherings. Groups of students who were looking to get more information about the attack and intended to meet the victim‟s friends and eye witnesses realized that this student‟s friends were sent off to their own towns [by university or security officials]. Notably, none of the student representatives sent to the hospital to visit the beaten student were allowed to see her and they were asked to make the attack seem like a simple robbery. (Daneshju News – Jun. 6, 2011) Top cleric bans women from watching wrestling and swimming on TV Seyed Ahmad Khatami, a member of Iran‟s Assembly of Experts who is also a pro-government cleric said in his latest remarks that women have no right to watch swimming or wrestling competitions which is broadcasted from Iranian state-run television. “I want to stress that it is forbidden for women to look on to men [that are not related to them]. Women have no right to watch the wrestling that is shown on TV. This is an affirmation of the Fatwas of the clerics. They have no right to watch swimming that is put on TV. If women watch male swimmers, this is forbidden. Supreme clerics have stipulated this”, he said. “Do not say, well why are these things shown on TV? Not everyone is supposed to watch everything on TV. When wrestling is put on [TV}, a lady who is watching should not look”, he added. (Daneshju News – Jun. 30, 2011)

Tehran Chief of Police: women banned from coffee shops from July 11 http://www.aftabir.com/news/view/2011/jul/04/c4_1309780783.php/%D9%88%D8%B1%D9%88%D8%AF%D8%B2%D9%86%D8%A7%D9%86-%D8%A8%D9%87-%D9%82%D9%87%D9%88%D9%87%D8%AE%D8%A7%D9%86%D9%87-%D9%87%D8%A7%DB%8C%D8%AF%D8%A7%D8%B1%D8%A7%DB%8C-%D9%82%D9%84%DB%8C%D8%A7%D9%86%D8%A7%D8%B2-%DB%B2%DB%B0 The Chief of Police of the Greater Tehran District said, “Women will be banned from entering tea shops and coffee shops from July 11 and offenders will be dealt with according to the law”. “After requests from citizens and families, women will be banned from entering tea shops [coffee shops] that offer water pipes from July 11 in line with the plan to deal with social irregularities and according to article 27 of the law”, Hossein Sajedi Nia said. “This is applied to forty percent of tea shops in northern Tehran which [also sell traditional food]”, he stressed. (Aftab state-run website – Jul. 4, 2011) Iran closes down coffee shops that have not banned women from entering http://www.aftabnews.ir/vglee78zxjh8xp2..9jjbibrw.html In line with the Moral Security Plan and with the coordination of judicial sources, as of July 11, women were banned from entering coffee or tea shops that offer their customers water pipes. Yesterday a number of coffee shops that served water pipes to women were shut down and sealed off. This plan will soon be carried out for Sofre Khaneh‟s [traditional restaurants that serve water pipes]. (Jul. 12, 2011) Female architect students banned from getting working permits http://www.ayandenews.com/news/33223/ Khorasan Daily wrote: Some students claim that according to a law passed by the Housing Ministry, from now on technology engineering architecture and applied architecture graduates have no right to design [building] plans. In light of the fact that supervision permits are only given to male graduates, girls are deprived of permits and are studying [architecture] for no apparent reason! (Ayandeh state-run website, Khorasan state-run Daily – Jul. 21, 2011) Temporary marriage legal in Iran http://www.mehrnews.com/fa/NewsDetail.aspx?NewsID=1369192 A member of the Legal and Judicial Commission in the Majlis said that article 23 of the Family Support Bill regarding remarriage was removed by this commission… “With the removal of this article, the Family Support Bill will soon be put in the Majlis‟s schedule but article 22 regarding temporary marriage is still included in the bill”, Nayereh Akhavan said. (Mehr state-run News Agency – Jul. 27, 2011) Cleric encourages youth into early marriage to keep them from following „western fashions‟ http://www.isna.ir/ISNA/NewsView.aspx?ID=News-1818560 A Marriage and Family Advisor said that the state of the society today is difficult for a young person. “Currently various pressures are put on a young person in the society and sometimes they subconsciously use abnormal fashions to protest the status quo”… “Creating suitable grounds to fill in the pastime of young people is a necessary but insufficient method and acts like a sedative for a sick person and creating grounds for a timely and easy marriage has to be invested on”, [cleric] Hojatel Islam Val Moslemin Ali Karimi said. (ISNA state-run News Agency – Aug. 6, 2011)

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Iranian women only allowed passport with husbands‟ permission http://www.isna.ir/ISNA/NewsView.aspx?ID=News-1821822 Mahmoud Sadeqi, the head of the State Security Forces Immigration and Passport Police said that those who have their passports with them can also get an individual passport. “Ladies who intend to get an individual passport have to have a letter from their husbands along with them”. “There is no need for the permission of one‟s husband for a [family] passport because the person can only go on a trip with her husband with this kind of a passport”, he added. (ISNA state-run News Agency – Aug. 7, 2011) Iran Prosecutor says women‟s workforce reason for high rape rate http://www.isna.ir/ISNA/NewsView.aspx?ID=News-1823757 The Alborz Public and Revolutionary Prosecutor cited the elements behind crime and said, “One of the important elements of crime is the high rate of transportation in the highways of the province which is frequented the most by young people and crime rate increases because of wrongfully placing trust in private transportation systems”. “On the other hand, attracting female employees leads them [the women] to move about in the deserted hours in the city which leads to an increase of crime such as raped and kidnappings”, he added. (ISNA state-run News Agency – Aug. 10, 2011) State-run media encourage degrading practice of legal prostitution [temporary marriage] http://www.khabaronline.ir/news-170709.aspx A researcher said that if temporary marriage is carried out right and logically for young single people, we will witness s decrease of street abuse and social calamities… “In light of the encouragement of young singles [men] and women who have the condition for temporary marriage, the increase of the number of legal temporary marriages is heartening”, Majid Abrahi said. “Because the more this divine tradition spreads, the less we [will witness] corruption and prostitution”, he added. “Temporary marriage has been prescribed as a moral and legitimate solution for the sexual management of single people and married men who have problems in their marriage”, he added… He said that instead of criticizing and attacking this divine method and saying immoral things about it, we have to think about putting sexual instinct into order and putting temporary marriage in a framework in the society. (Khabar Online state-run website – Aug. 31, 2011) 428 registered child marriages during five months in northern province http://www.mehrnews.com/fa/NewsDetail.aspx?NewsID=1400062 The head of the Golestan Province Registrations said, “In the first five months of the current [Persian] year, 11,198 marriages were registered, 14 of which were by boys under 15 while 414 cases were that of girls under the age of 14, two of which were under 10 years old”. (Mehr state-run News Agency – Sep. 5, 2011) Iran shuts down diving club because of female instructor http://www.jahannews.com/vdcaamn6049nay1.k5k4.html A diving club was shut down in Kish by the Kish Security Police Public Places Supervision Management because the club was not following Islamic laws in placing a female instructor for men. After reports and intelligence regarding the offences of a diving club in Kish Island, the Kish Security Police Public Places Supervision Management looked into the issue. While visiting the club, agents witnessed offences and saw that a female instructor was used to teach men. These agents gave notices to the hotel management and shut down the diving club. (Jahan News state-run website – Sep. 9, 2011) Child marriages on the rise in Mashhad http://www.khabaronline.ir/news-172485.aspx Ibrahim Zadeh, the head of the Rashtkhar Judiciary said that everyday 2 to 3 adolescence warrants [warrants which authorize that a child has reached puberty for marriage] are issued by the Judiciary. He said that most of the warrants are issued for villagers especially in more deprived areas. This is while the Judiciary does not have the ability to

investigate and see what becomes of these girls, the condition under which they are married and to whom they are married… The head of the Chenaran Judiciary who seems to have also witnessed an increase of this phenomenon [child marriages] warned officials in this regard and said, “These days, early marriages for girls have become widespread which causes certain damages”. “Most of these marriages are for 11-13 year old girls who are married to boys over 20 and because they start their life with a lack of information and with wrong methods, it leads to a divorce”… A judge who presides over a family court [court that sees to divorces and child custody etc.] who asked not to be named confirmed the increase of these kinds of marriages and said that this part of the [story] of those who get adolescent warrants for their daughters is the good part and that the bad part of the story is where small girls are unofficially married off to older men and the father of the girl receives money in exchange and in a way sells his daughter. “The widespread use of narcotics and addiction especially in rural areas and the increase of fathers who do not have the ability to provide for their families because of addiction has led to the existence of such a phenomenon”, he stressed. A child activist also said that currently according to existing statistics, there are 900,000 children who are married in the country. (Qods state-run daily, Khabar Online state-run website- Sep. 11, 2011) [Note: according to the constitution of the Islamic Republic, girls reach the age of puberty at 9 which authorizes their marriage at this age] Iran bans women from house ownership http://www.asriran.com/fa/news/181286 A woman cannot own a house from the Mehr Housing Company and her husband‟s name has to be registered on the house ownership papers. This is while married women were able to request to become the owner of the Mehr Housing [more than single women in the past]. In the past few weeks, many female applicants have been able to register to receive Mehr Housing but they have been faced with new reports that they have to register their homes in their husband‟s names… According to reports from the Pardis Construction Company, a large number of female applicants who had gone through many hardships to save money and transfer it to the Housing bank account, complained about this issue and even expressed their dissatisfaction to the CEO of the Mehr Housing and Pardis Construction Company. (ILNA staterun News Agency, Asre Iran state-run website – Sep. 14, 2011) Head of Iran‟s Environmentalist Organization says women should stay at home http://www.khabaronline.ir/news-173191.aspx Fatemeh Vaez Javadi, the head of the Environmental Organization of the ninth government believes that „God has exempted women from the three great responsibilities of being a breadwinner, Jihad [participating in war] and judging”. “But now, 33 years after the revolution, with the presence of women in various sectors of the society, we are witnessing many abnormalities in the family”, Javadi added. “Our women have to go back to their roots but I really don‟t know how this has to happen”, she said. “In my opinion, the two sectors of family and school have to be paid special attention to, something that has not happened in these years”. (Khabar Online state-run website – Sep. 14, 2011) 20 kinds of spousal abuse in Iran http://www.jahannews.com/vdcdf90fxyt0jj6.2a2y.html A sociologist said that spousal abuse is a kind of psychological illness that sociologists have divided into four categories. “Spousal abuse is a prevalent problem and sociologists have cited four kinds which include physical, sexual, psychological and economical violence. This abuses the spouse and causes disturbances in the warm family atmosphere, but in Iran 20 kinds of spousal abuse take place”, Aman Qarayi said. (Jahan News state-run website – Sep. 18, 2011)

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Khuzestan official says 40 percent of female university graduates unemployed in province The Secretary of Women and Family Affairs in the Khuzestan Provincial Office said, “40 percent of educated women in the province are unemployed”. According to reports, Maryam Heidarian said, “Forty percent of female university graduates in Khuzestan are unemployed”. (Fars state-run News Agency – Sep. 19, 2011) 3 children forced into marriage in Western Azarbaijan http://www.jahannews.com/vdcb9wb8zrhbw8p.uiur.html The head of the Western Azarbaijan Registry Department said that three marriages of girls under 10 years old were registered from the beginning of the [Persian] year [which started in March 25]... Mohammad Javan said the age average for 13 divorces registered for women in the current year were 10-14 years of age. (Sirvan state-run Weekly, Human Rights Activists in Iran, Jahan News state-run website – Sep. 26, 2011) Iran punishes sister killer with 4 years of prison!! http://www.khabaronline.ir/detail/178287 A man who threw his sister off a cliff for becoming suspicious of her was sentenced to four years of prison. [In court] Ayouz detailed the incident in his defense and said, “I had become suspicious of my sister from some time ago. Her behavior was shameful and I could not tolerate this condition. Samira was not willing to change her ways and therefore I reached the conclusion that I had no other solution but to kill her”. “On the day of the incident I got my sister to board my car with an excuse and took her outside of town. When we neared a cliff, I stopped and Samira who had realized I intend to harm her tried to resist me by yelling and screaming but I forced her out of the car and threw her off the cliff”. “I went down the cliff to make sure she was dead. I then burned the body with gas to make sure it was unidentifiable, of course my other brother helped me”, he added. The judges sentenced Ayouz to four years of prison for intentional murder and sentenced the other suspect [his brother] to 21 months of prison. The case was referred to the Supreme Court and was upheld. (Khabar Online staterun website, Sharq state-run daily – Oct. 15, 2011) Cleric calls women greedy on national TV for preventing husbands from having second wives http://www.asriran.com/fa/news/187157 Hojatel Islam Val Moslemin Mohsen Qera‟ati criticized women for preventing their husbands from marrying for a second time in this week‟s „Lessons from the Quran‟ show on Channel One [State-run TV]. “About 20 years ago, the Tehran Prosecutor told me that there were 500,000 young widows in Tehran. Right now, there are maybe about one million [young widows]”, Qera‟ati said. “If a man is physically and financially capable and has two cars, two houses, two cellphones and can provide two of everything [he is allowed to marry for the second time] but when it comes [to a second marriage], the wife says, “No! There is only one God, [and there should be] only one wife!” What does this mean? Does it mean that who cares about those one million young widows? Who cares if they commit sins? This is a woman‟s greed. It is women‟s greed which leads to the existence of one million widows”. (Asre Iran state-run website – Oct. 29, 2011) Women‟s affairs official says bicycle riding for women is against Islamic principles http://www.farsnews.com/newstext.php?nn=13900808000364 The assistant head of the Center for Women‟s Affairs said, “Some municipality officials are talking about designing special women‟s bicycles but one has to take note that women riding bicycles in city streets is against the principles and values of Islam and that tight unsuitable clothing of female cyclers encourages improper veiling in the society”. (Fars state-run News Agency – Oct. 30, 2011) Iran bans skiing for women without legal chaperons http://www.jahannews.com/vdchiknzv23nwkd.tft2.html Women have been banned from entering skiing ramps alone. This is a new order from State Security Forces which even includes women over 18.

In this rule, all women need to have a „guardian‟ and are banned from entering ski grounds. With the start of the skiing season, security forces stationed in ski grounds around Tehran banned women from entering. According to reports, a SSF agent in one of the ski grounds in northern Tehran said that the police have given all Ski grounds a directive which bans women from entering these grounds without their husbands. According to this order, girls who are under 18 are not allowed to enter ski grounds without their mother and father and women above 18 are only allowed to come with their legal guardian. Married women are only permitted inside the ski ramps with their husbands. (Nedaye Sabze Azadi website, Jahan News state-run Website – Nov. 9, 2011) Women banned from working as secretaries in Bushehr offices http://www.asriran.com/fa/news/191680 The Bushehr Governor cited the ban on the use of female secretaries for [company] managers and said, “The plan for gender segregation for office employees in Bushehr will be carried out”... “Promoting virtue and prohibiting vice is a public duty and because everyone does not carry out this duty well enough, this issue has become obsolete in the society”. “Many of the displays of improper veiling in the society have become prevalent in the society because of weaknesses in the management therefore we need a strong will to solve the problem of veiling”, he stressed. “We will deal with companies and offices that have not cooperated with the Staff to Awaken the Promotion of Virtue and Prohibition of Vice”, Jahanbakhsh said. (Fars state-run News Agency – Dec. 1, 2011) Qom women‟s affairs cleric says equal education for girls and boys will lead to change in their sexual identity http://www.mehrnews.com/fa/NewsDetail.aspx?NewsID=1474772 The head of the Women‟s Observation and Research affiliated with the Central Management of the Sister‟s Religious Seminaries said, “The existence of an equal educational system for girls and boys will lead to a change in their sexual identity”. Hojatel Islam Mohammad-Reza Zibayi Nejad pointed to some of the reasons for weakness in having forbidden sexual relationships and said, “One of the reasons is a change that occurs in people‟s sexual identity”. He said that this was because of a change in how people see men and women and added, “The western educational system and also our educational system do not segregate on the issue of gender”... He said that the aim of the West in carrying out this educational system is to remove the sexual differences between men and men. “The result of this issue is that we bring up bold girls and sensitive boys”... “For example, epic poems have to be used in the boys‟ educational books”, he added. (Mehr state-run News Agency – Dec. 2, 2011) Spousal abuse on the rise in Iran http://www.asriran.com/fa/news/192337 The head of the Socially Harmed Affairs Office of the Welfare Organization said that from the 215,000 calls to the social emergency line, the highest figures were for spousal abuse with 8,000 calls and child abuse with 7,000 calls. The most important and prevalent kinds of spousal abuse carried out by men against women are physical violence such as damaging home appliances and beating the woman, psychological and verbal violence such as insulting the women‟s personality, appearance or physical condition, expressing hate towards her family and also social violence such as banning her from work or education, banning her from communicating with her family even through telephone calls, financial violence like depriving her of allowance or money and finally sexual harassment and abuse by use of force and subjecting her to prostitution [to get money for drugs]. (Asre Iran state-run website – Dec. 8, 2011)

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Iranian women banned from labor market http://www.ilna.ir/newsText.aspx?ID=225254 A social expert and Tehran University professor, Dr. Mohammad Hossein Farjad, cited the increase of the unemployment rate among Iranian women in an interview with ILNA [state-run news agency] and said, “Despite the fact that the level of Iranian women‟s education has remarkably increased in comparison to past years, currently we see that the state of Iran‟s labor market is not appropriate for women as compared to men”. “Currently the economic and social growth is one of the main elements behind women‟s presence in social activities” he said adding that 50 percent of the global work force were women. (ILNA state-run News Agency – Dec. 11, 2011) Spousal abuse on the rise in Hamedan The head of the Hamedan Medical Examiner‟s Office announced that in the first eight months of the [Persian] year, there was a 7.12 percent increase of spousal abuse in the province. “Until November, 1,900 cases of spousal abuse were recorded in the Hamdan Medical Examiner‟s Office”, Ali Ehsan Saleh said... He pointed to the fact that in Iran most couples tolerate the abuse and harassment due to shame and added, “There is no exact figures on the amount of spousal abuse but according to statistics from those who came to the Medical Examiner‟s Office in the past year, 1,375 cases of spousal abuse were recorded in this province”. (ISNA state-run News Agency – Dec. 20, 2011) 5 girls under 10 years of age married in southern Iranian province http://isna.ir/ISNA/NewsView.aspx?ID=News-1916579 The head of the General Department for Registration of Documents said that five girls under 10 year of age were married in the Province of Hormozgan. “Five instances of the marriages of girls who were under 10 years of age occurred in the province. Three of them occurred in the town of Minab, one in the Bandar Langeh and one instance occurred in the town of Bandar Abbas”, Reza Gholampour said. (ISNA state-run News Agency – Dec. 24, 2011) Iranian women banned from kick boxing in Iran According to new orders, from now on women are banned from participating in all kinds of sport competitions that are held in rings including kick boxing and Muay Thai and federations who cover these sports have to pay close attention to this issue. Marzieh Akbar Abadi, the Women‟s Sports Assistant in the Ministry of Sports confirmed this report and said, “From sports held in rings, only kick boxing and Muay Thai are active in Iran and based on research into this matter, women are banned from participating in these two sports”. “In light of the violence in these sports, the danger it poses for the health of women who are to become future mothers, also the way the competitions are held, the kind of audience it has and the programs that are held before and after the competitions and in general the culture of these kinds of sports and the fact that it is inconsistent with Islamic culture and our Iranian culture, this decision was taken”, she said regarding the reason behind the ban. (Mehr state-run News Agency – Dec. 29, 2011) Suicide rate turns into social crisis in Ilam; women commit most suicides http://isna.ir/ISNA/NewsView.aspx?ID=News-1887688 The head of the Ilam Welfare Organization warned that suicide had turned into a social crisis in Ilam adding that it was “very alarming”. “In light of the fact that we do not have exact figures on the numbers of suicides, investigations show that in certain months, four people died in one week due to suicide in the province”, Sadeq Rostami said. He said that most of the suicides are carried out by women...

“In some towns especially in Eivan, the suicide rate has exceeded the point of crisis and compared to other towns, it does not have a good condition”, he added saying that suicide age had gone below 30. The head of the Welfare Organization said that one of the reasons behind the high suicide rate in women was divorce and ensuing problems from divorce. (ISNA state-run News Agency – Jan. 1, 2012) More than 800,000 children married in Iran http://www.jahannews.com/vdcdnf0x5yt0z56.2a2y.html The latest statistics on the marriage of Iranian children shows that under-aged girls are married more than under-aged boys. [According to statistics] 24,506 married girls under the age of 14 and 5,519 boys married between the ages of 10 to 14, shows that more girls marry older men... There are 848,000 married children between the ages of 10 to 18 in Iran... The number of child mothers which is 6.5 percent more than child fathers shows that 85 percent of married girls between 10 to 18 years of age have become the wives of men over 18 and only 15 percent of these children have married boys their own age... [According to these statistics], 25,000 of the 848,000 married children became divorced when they were under 18 and about 12,000 of them have lost their spouses... According to the law, girls can marry at 13 while boys can marry at 15 and the law has opened a way for the early marriage of girls based on her special physical characteristics [which means that if she goes through puberty at an earlier age, she can marry]. (Jahan News state-run website – Jan. 3, 2012) 20 percent of the homeless in Tehran are women http://www.farsnews.com/newstext.php?nn=13901020000279 Reza Jagiri, the Social Deputy of the Welfare and Social Participation Organization stressed that carton sleepers [homeless people who sleep in carton boxes on the streets] will be gathered from the city. “An average of 100 carton sleepers are rounded up from the city everyday”, he said. “Fifteen to 20 percent of the homeless [in Tehran] are women”, he said adding that most of the homeless were male. (Fars state-run News Agency – Jan. 11, 2012) Top cleric says housekeeping is most important work for women http://isna.ir/ISNA/NewsView.aspx?ID=News-1949593 Ayatollah Safi Golpaygani said in a meeting with a group of women who were participating in the Hijab and Chastity Congress of held by Iran‟s Red Crescent stressed that changing the Islamic culture of housekeeping was one of the most dangerous deviations and said, “No service is greater than and more valuable for women than housekeeping”. “I have constantly told some sisters [women] that my cloak has no value in the face of their chador. The fact that you cover yourself with the chador and come out into the society is like Jihad [fighting for God]”, he said… “The other important issue is that they want to change the Islamic culture regarding women. The pure culture of Islam for women is housekeeping, which is what some consider as unemployment”. “Be aware that no work is more important for women than housekeeping”, he stressed. (ISNA state-run News Agency – Feb. 14, 2012) Majlis says women should stay at home http://isna.ir/ISNA/NewsView.aspx?ID=News-1948636 The Research Center of the Majlis examined the policies of the Islamic Republic of Iran regarding the employment of women and the reverence of housekeeping in a lengthy report… According to reports, the Cultural Observations Office of this center said in its report, “What has to be encouraged and supported by the government and lawmakers is providing job opportunities for [women] who are the heads of their families [i.e. single parents]. In other words, the employment of women in cases when they are the heads of families has to be encouraged but not employment for all women”. 89

“According to Islamic teachings, the priority of an Islamic government is the issue of housekeeping for women… therefore what has to be encouraged in an Islamic government is housekeeping”. (ISNA state-run News Agency – Feb. 13, 2012) Top cleric says women can‟t be judges because they lack resolve!!!! http://aftabnews.ir/vdcezp8zxjh8ewi.b9bj.html In answer to why women could not become judges [according to the laws of the Islamic Republic] Hojatol Islam val Moslemin Qeraati said, “God has created women for the upbringing of [children] and upbringing needs great kindness, compassion and love which has been entrusted to women. These feelings and love are dangerous for judgment because the judge deals with criminals who try to get away from the verdict by crying, moaning, lying, threatening and enticing and with the lack of resolve and firmness, the delicate and vulnerable feelings of women will lead to [injustice] with a tear or threat [from the criminal]”. (Aftab state-run website – Feb. 18, 2012)

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Appendices
List of executed women - March 2011 to Feb. 2012 List of arbitrary killings of women – March 2011 to Feb. 2012 List of political arrests and female political prisoners

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